RNR test 2 notes
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RNR test 2 notes

Course Number: RNR 1001, Spring 2008

College/University: LSU

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RNR Study Guide Exam 2 Forests Forest Controversies Forest Values Open and Closed forests Hardwoods and Softwoods Hardwood: a species of tree, such as oak, hickory, and maple that has relatively hard wood, in contrast to the soft woods of the conifers such as spruce and pine. DECIDUOUS Softwood: a species of tree such as spruce, pine, and fir that has softer wood than hardwood trees such as oak and hickory....

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Study RNR Guide Exam 2 Forests Forest Controversies Forest Values Open and Closed forests Hardwoods and Softwoods Hardwood: a species of tree, such as oak, hickory, and maple that has relatively hard wood, in contrast to the soft woods of the conifers such as spruce and pine. DECIDUOUS Softwood: a species of tree such as spruce, pine, and fir that has softer wood than hardwood trees such as oak and hickory. CONIFERS Stand Forest Succession Climax Community The stable terminal stage of an ecological succession. Secondary Forests Old-Growth Forests Snags Factors that determine tree survival and distribution Shade-tolerant and shade-intolerant species Seed dispersal and germination Pattern and rate of growth Tolerance of soil type Size/age at maturity Resistance to fire--surface fires and crown fires Surface Fires: cool, low level fire Burns undergrowth and litter Removes competing plants which is positive for the tree Releases nutrients into the soil Kill Fungi, which are bad for the tree Improves wildlife forage Prescribed burning is an important forest management too--makes forest much more healthy Crown Fires: extremely destructive Burn entire forests More common in fire--suppressed areas Litter accumulation Forest, wildlife, erosion impacts Fire = Negative Impact? Used to be considered negative. After research fire is considered to be a key role in forest ecology. -Thick, Fire-resistant bark -Rapid regeneration after fire -Some trees include fire in their life history--need fire to reproduce -Fire climax trees: Giant sequoia, Longleaf pine--need fire to reproduce Diseases and parasites Parasite fungi = most destructive Viruses, Bacteria, Nematodes, Mistletoe Most destructive on tree farms Exotics problematic (chestnut blight, Dutch Elm) Insects Bark Beetles of pine and fir trees Wood borers Larval insects: defoliators--eating the leaves Sucking insects, like aphids Pollution, SPMS, Ozone Industrial urban areas in MDCs Acid rain, ozone, and SPM: dust, soot, asbestos, heavy metals Leaf and bark damage, increased susceptibility to pathogens World Forest Forest cover 34% of world's terrestrial biomes Forestland decreasing in approx. 55% of countries, increasing about 32% 0.22% loss of forest area/year during 1990's Deciduous needleleaf- baldcypress= lowest Deciduous broadleaf= 2nd lowest Evergreen needleleaf= 3rd lowest Evergreen broadleaf= highest Firewood shortages 50% of annual harvest is used for heating and cooking By 2000, 3 billion people in 77 LDCs with firewood shortages Burden on poor and women(bc women go out and get wood) Burn manure and crop waste Economic impacts of fuel changes--wood burning stoves =economic loss Fuel wood consumption: South America and North Africa increase- they could switch to charcoal Increasing World Forest Yields LDCs must plant more trees Increase efficiency, switch to other fuels Agroforestry--advantages Silvoarable: trees and crops Silvopastoral: trees on grasslands Control runoff and erosion, loss of water, organic matter, nutrients Soil biological activity- 20% crown cover, legumes increase nitrogen inputs, nutrient input from deep roots, leaf fall. Soil structure from organic matter and roots More efficient use of solar energy Reduced insect pests and diseases ( use birds) 5% of the area, 50% of the biodiversity eg. Song birds Microclimate control--shade for livestock Fuel wood important Diverse economy from various farm outputs Paper waste Hastened softwood forest destruction 6 fold increase in paper use since 1950 300 kg 1 67,500 sheets of office paper per person in industrial countries Energy consumption and pollution Product over packaging--advertising Recycling 30-55% of the energy for new paper Reduces air pollution by 95% Conserves water and landfill space Problems: development of programs; <20% of office waste is recycled; tax subsidies and incentives for new paper; emphasis on white paper--chlorine pollution from cleaning recycled paper; fluctuating prices and lack demand Why not require federal and state agencies to use recycled paper--2% each year used by federal government. U.S. forests The U.S. leads the world in wood product consumption 95% are produced internally One of the largest importers Pressure on Canadian and Asian forests Domestic consumption is expected to double between 1980 and 2030 How can this increase in demand be met? Recycling, Particle board 1/3 of the lower 48 states is forestland About 67% classified commercial From 1600 to 1920, U.S. lost about 45% of its original forested area 58% of commercial forestland owned by small private landowners, 20-40 acres 14% forest companies 28% owned by government 1.25 million acres public land Multiple Use and Sustained Yield Act of 1960 Public forests managed according to Multiple Use and Sustained Yield Act of 1960 Multiple Use: timber harvesting, outdoor recreation, livestock grazing, watershed protection, fisheries and wildlife habitat. Conflicts between uses are common Public forest controversies Some people want to cut it, others want to save it and use it for hiking and camping. Timber Production in Public Forests Industry side: highly valuable old growth timber; profit; non harvest is a waste of resources; non harvest reduces forest productivity; Public lands = reserved for public good; timber cutting does not destroy the forest Sustainable Forest Management 10 conservation objectives Forest Conservation Terrestrial Wildlife Populations Ecosystem Biodiversity Watershed function--riparian and stream systems. Forest Management, which includes silviculture (science of growing trees) and economic, political, legal, and ethical considerations that affect how we harvest and regenerate forests. Sustainable forestry is a difficult business o Pulpwood, rough timber--12-30 yrs. o High quality timber--75-100 yrs. o Quality furniture, musical instruments--150-1000 yrs. o Annual return from small forests may be low and highly periodic Cut old-growth forests--and replant--harvest again in 20-30 yrs. Riparian Systems Most forestland in small plots owned by private landowners Private forests often managed to produce an economic return. May be planted, grown, harvested, and regenerated as plantations, but 20-40 acre plots often result in little management. Some private forest landowners now manage their forests to produce wildlife benefits, eg. Deer as a source of revenue through hunting leases. Even-aged management Harvest, replanting, harvest Same age trees Fast production of lower quality lumber Maximum economic return ASAP Produce shade-intolerant species Tree harvested by: Shelterwood cutting: Uses rotational selective cutting designed to leave a seed source and protective cover for forest regeneration. seed-tree cutting: Trees are left during cutting to seed the next generation. Clearcutting: all trees are removed from a given patch or block of forest. This is the method of choice when harvesting a stand composed of a single species in which all trees are of the same age. 2/3 of the annual timber harvest in U.S. in clear-cutting. Most cost effective and efficient, least desirable aesthetically Edge: complex effects on wildlife. Fragmentation Uneven-aged management Trees in a stand of many age classes Natural regeneration Emphasis on biodiversity Long-rotation production of high quality, high-value, shade-tolerant trees Much more amenable to multiple use Increased cost, lower economic return and timber yield Trees harvested by selective cutting Reduces crowding, encourages growth Maintains uneven age stand makeup Low erosion problems Suitable only for valuable trees Selective Cutting: procedure in which only certain trees are cut from a forest. Contrast to clearcutting. Inventory You need to know what you have Species, Age-classes (core samples), other vegetation, logging road locations-- IMPORTANT, harvesting methods (skid traits, etc), Remote sensing important, estimation of tree height, species composition, and harvest volume. Forest Management Plan Develop goals, primary and secondary uses Ecological constraints (Good soil/Bad soil?) What, when, where, how, how much to cut? Preparation for cutting Cruising timber Mark boundaries of the cut Mark trees to be cut, to be left uncut Mark harvesting restrictions in riparian areas (right near a stream) Obtain data for harvesting contract Harvest Regeneration Site preparation Planting Natural seeding Genetic improvement Inter-harvest management Site preparation (how to prepare to re-grow a forest) Thinning Herbicides/Pesticides BMPs: Best Management Practices Guidelines SMZ: Leaving trees on side of stream Stream crossings and culverts Contour roads to reduce erosion Turnouts, water bars to reduce sediment in streams Seeding and Mulching of slopes Don't build roads straight up and down. Chemical controls Equipment maintenance Fire line construction Tropical forest values/Tropical forest loss Concept of stewardship taking care of the planet World bank and international Monetary Fund Projects No regulation of multi-national corporations: they don't care about anything, just care about making money Put up a bridge/ whatever to help people, no thinking of animals. Rangeland Grasslands that are used to graze livestock 20% of the world's land surface 25% in LDCs from cleared forests and abandoned cropland 40% used to graze livestock 80% of beef and mutton annual production Extremely important in grain-poor nations From 1950-2001: World Population : 25 to 6.1 billion Cattle: 720 million to 1.53 billion Sheep and goats: 1.04 to 1.75 billion Degraded rangeland: 680 million worldwide and increasing. A lot in Africa and other poor countries. 10 billion domesticated animals worldwide 30% are ruminants of the world's domesticated ruminants feed on rangelands, the rest on feedlots. 200 million people graze livestock on rangeland 85% in Africa and Asia U.S. Rangeland: <5% of the world's population, 9% of the worlds cattle livestock graze > 33% of North America More that U.S. croplands planted with livestock feed. Side note: Live stock production uses 50% of the water consumed annually in the U.S. - 1 pound of feedlot fattened beef=5 lbs. of grain and 280 gallons of water - 1000lb cow= 280,000 gallons of water Rangeland Minimal use land with out irrigation Renewable resource that can provide many materials Vegetation collectively known as forage. Forage Dominated By: Forbs, Sedges, Rushes, Grasses Forbs- broad leaved flowering plants Sedges-perennial herb with triangular stems Rushes- grass-like herbs with round stems Grasses- annual / perennial. Eg. Purple needlegrass, little bluestem, switchgrass, Indian grass. Most grasses are perennial. Forbs often annual/ maybe biennial. Deep, Fibrous root systems Highly tolerant of low moisture conditions. Highly tolerant of fire Range land Grasses Grasses grow from the base of the plant The lower part of the plant is known as the METABOLIC RESERVE. Consumption of the METABOLIC RESERVE can destroy rangeland. Rangeland survival, therefore, is a function of grazing pressure, which consists of grazing and trampling and is a function of : Type of animal, number of animals, and grazing time. Decreasers: highly palatable, decline in abundance with grazing pressure Increasers: Increaser I: moderately palatable, secondary forage, slight increase or stable levels under moderate grazing; at higher grazing levels, the also decline Increaser II: increase in abundance as range declines to fair conditions; unpalatable Invaders: non palatable Invader I- grazed as last resort Invader II- unpalatable Abundant on overgrazed and under-grazed range e.g., Mesquite, prickly pear cactus Rangeland Grazers African antelopes are nibblers Small mouths, remove a few leaves from a plant Population control through herd-size breeding inhibition Typically do not overgraze rangelands Migration important Many grazers are defoliators Remove entire plants or branches Populations regulated by predation, parasitism, starvation- overgrazing Population movement, predations key to rangeland health Browsers defoliate grassland trees and other woody plants Particularly detrimental to woody plants during droughts Giraffes, Elephants, etc. Disturbance Periodic disturbance is a natural part of grassland ecosystems Drought and fire maintain vegetation diversity However, human disturbance + natural disturbance may result in rangeland damage o Hunting o Development o Agriculture o Exotic species o Overgrazing and under-grazing Grazing Each grassland has a carrying capacity The carrying capacity for livestock is the maximum amount of grazing that can be supported without degrading the rangeland The carrying capacity varies with season, range condition, climate, past grazing, soil type, type of grazers, and grazing duration Grazing is usually quantified as an animal unit month, and the stocking rate can be expressed as acre/AUM Carrying capacity is closely tied to rangeland condition Range Condition (4 categories) and variables used to assess % Native % Forage production potential % Desirable plants Humus (organic matter) Erosion Acre/AUM U.S. RangeLand Resources Prior to European settlement, the American prairie had a diverse rangeland community. Competition, predation, migration, and selective grazing served to minimize rangeland degradation As livestock grazing increased on the prairie, native herbivores declined Completion of the railroad across America in 1869 increased grazing tremendously 1870-1890: cattle -5 million to 27 million, Sheep- to 20 million As livestock populations increased on the prairie, native herbivores declined, many precipitously. Tragedy of the Commons No one claimed ownership of the land in the West U.S. Range Resources By 1900, most tall-grass prairie degraded. 1905, U.S. Forest Service created some rangeland in NF improved. 1934 Taylor Green Act o Grazing Service: rangeland assessment o 84% of rangeland in fair to poor condition o 81% fair to poor in 1966 1949- about 1 billion acres grazed in the U.S. 1976- Federal Land Policy and Management Act: all federal land not in Forests or Parks managed by the of Bureau Land Management. 1992- about 801 million acres, 589 million grassland/ rangeland, 67 million cropland/used for grazing, 145 million grazed forestland. About 30% of the U.S. is rangeland, mostly short-grass prairie. Few restrictions on private rangeland, pesticides and waste, public grazing requires a permit. As of 2003, 7,500 grazing permits by USFS, 18,000 by the BLM--about 2% of U.S. Ranchers Essentially lifetime permits with automatic renewal every 10 years. Controversy--how much should BLM grazing fees be? Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Grazing Fees 1986- BLM USFS study : federal grazing value was $6.35/AUM Grazing fees on private rangeland are $ 4.50-5.18/ AUM This amounts to a federal subsidy of about $500 million per year for these ranchers. When all management cost are considered, the subsidy increases to $2billion per year-$69,000 per rancher--rancher welfare. The federal government collects $1 for every $10 it spends on rangeland management. Why do this for 2% of U.S. ranchers, 4% of U.S. cattle? Raise grazing fees? Rangeland management -Animal Science -Agronomy -Hydrology -Grazing impacts -Invasive species -Wildlife science -Politics -Economics -Soil Science Rangeland management usually involves: Grazing pressure and grazing rotation. ALSO: -Suppression of undesirable vegetation. -Encouraging forage growth -Fertilization and reseeding of degraded range. -Wild herbivore control -Livestock predator control -Alternative livestock research Successful grazing systems have fallow periods. Allow plants to seed Maintain forage diversity Obtain more uniform range use Restore forage vigor Prevent invasion by shrubs and woody vegetation Increased livestock production 2 methods--continuous and rotational grazing systems Continuous grazing--season long or year long Easy, little livestock manipulation, minimal manpower and fencing. However, livestock in continuous grazing systems: o Overgraze flat areas o Concentrate on decreasers o Alter forage composition o Promote increasers and invaders o Degrade riparian system Riparian zones are usually overlooked in assessments of range condition, although these zones are critical for: Stream temperature control Storage and release of water during dry periods Reduced flooding Food, cover, and nesting habitat for 65-75% of rangeland wildlife Successful grazing systems need off-stream watering sites. Rotational grazing--involve livestock among area Need more manpower and fencing costs. Intensive RG involves a number of grazing cells, high numbers of cattle grazed, small areas, limited amounts of time Deferred rotation grazing alternates early season grazing among the different cells. o Moving livestock is the most important component of deferred-rotation grazing. o Sheep are more destructive than cattle. o Location of watering holes and salt licks can protect rangeland. However, in some LDC's watering holes drilled to improved livestock production have had the opposite effect. Vegetation Management Seeding In addition to managing grazing intensity : seeding degraded range o Expensive o Results can be temporary o Some species produce good results in certain habitats Fire Improve forage Reduce, liter/ improve growth Improve wildlife habitat Reduce labor costs associated with vegetation management Reduce predation/ increase predator visibility Herbicides Selective herbicides generally used Aerial spraying most common Generally benign to the environment Biological Control Exotic invaders often controlled with exotic herbivores Ex. The moth cactoblastics cactorum was introduced into Australia in 1925 to control prickly pear cactus--control was achieved by 1930 Mechanical Control Tractor with front end blades Disks, mowers Chaining and cabling Rolling cutter Dependent on slope and soil type, subject to erosion Replanting needed Predators Control programs controversial In 1963, federal ADC poisoning programs used compound 1080 to kill 90,000 coyotes, 300 mountain lions, > 73,000 other carnivores 1972 report recommended cessation of all poisoning programs--Nixon signed Pressure by range ranchers caused the Reagan administration to approve compound 1080 for stock collars; in 1987, 16, 726 coyotes were poisoned. Wild game ranching Bison, antelope, grants gazelle, cape buffalo More diversified diet, reduced overgrazing Reduced water needs Resistant to diseases Wetlands function Improves water quality Wetlands trap sediments, reducing turbidity and building terrestrial system-helps build land Many pollutants, particularly organic pollutants, are degraded in wetlands from bacterial action Some constructed wetlands have been used to further purify secondary-treated sewage, removing nutrients, metals, microbes, and viruses One study pumped 1.3 million gallon/day onto a built wetland; removed 70% of the ammonia 99% of the nitrogen, and 95% of phosphorous Waterfowl production 60-70% of N.A. ducks nest and breed in the prairie pothole region-many ponds filled for farmland 2.5 million mallard and all wood ducks winter in flooded southern bottomland hardwood swamps 60% of western ducks and geese over winter in CA's central vally-95% wetland loss High density flocks subject to avian cholera, botulism, predation Foraging in cropland-pesticides, heavy metal from irrigation Wetland loss critical to long-term waterfowl production Habitat for furbearers and alligators In Louisiana, furbearer harvests valued at $ 700,000 annually Wild alligator harvest valued at $5.8 million annually Captive alligator farms ($7 million annually) still dependent on wild production of eggs Many noncommercial mammals also inhabit wetlands At least 1/3 of the threatened and endangered animals in the US live in wetlands- a coincidence? Wetlands are habitat for non-commercial wildlife Coastal spawning and nursery areas About 65% of commercially important marine finfishes and shellfishes depend on coastal marshes for spawning and nursery habitat Noncommercial biodiversity Alteration of marsh habitat from weir construction to reduce saltwater intrusion has reduced ingress of larva and juvenile organisms Diversion Projects: Caernarvon Freshwater Diversion Sediment Diversion Channel, MR mouth Davis Pond Freshwater Diversion Many more being planned Shoreline stabilization Reduction in erosion due to stabilization of soil and reduction in wave energy Important as spawning and nursery habitat and cover for fishes Also traps sediment and can reduce excess nutrient concentrations Drainage=decreased water Eutrophication Siltation= increased nutrients Flood control leading to reduced spring siltation=decreased nutrients Flooding, Impeding natural drainage=increased water Fire suppression, flood control, and water level stabilization=decreased disturbance Continuing wetland losses What constitutes a wetland; how long does it need to inundated? If landowners cannot convert wetlands without losing federal benefits, is this not a taking of the land without compensation, as in eminent domain? Responsibilities of private landowner to protect public resources If compensation is to be offered to protect wetlands on private property, who will pay, and how much is it worth? Transitional ecosystems between terrestrial and aquatic systems. -water table is usually at or near the surface, often standing water. Wetlands: defined by the Fish & Wildlife Service in 1979: 1. At least periodically, the vegetation is predominately hydrophytes--able to grow in water or saturated soil deficient in oxygen concentration. 2. The substrate is predominately hydric soil--saturated, flooded, or ponded long enough during the growing season to become anaerobic. 3. The substrate is saturated non soil (sand). 7 categories of Wetlands Coastal wetlands Tidal Salt Marshes Often dominated by Spartina sp. Grass in intertidal zone. In more northern latitudes, tidal changes average 3 in; flooding and dewatering, must be adapted to extreme changes in temperature and salinity. Tidal Freshwater Marshes Usually no salinity, but water level fluctuations from tidal damning. Often dominated by plants like pickerelweed and arrowhead. Mangrove Wetlands Replace tidal salt marshes in tropical and subtropical climates Texas, Louisiana, and Florida in the U.S. Dominated by Rhizophora (red) and Aridennia (black) mangroves Mangrove roots important for substrate stability Inland Wetlands Freshwater Marshes Thoroughout the U.S. Shallow, dominated by emergent vegetation like cattails. Huge losses to agriculture Northern Peatlands Peat deposits in Northern biomes Partial decomposition of plant material, highly leached, acidic, nutrient deficient. Thick peat layers in old lake basins. Southern Deepwater Swamps Standing water for most of the year Dominated by Taxodium distichum and Nyssa aquatica Often tied to large river systems eg. Atchafalaya Basin Typically nutrient rich and productive Riparian Wetlands Flooded bottomlands along streams Often characterized by oaks, magnolia, and willow, depending on soil moisture Typically nutrient rich and productive, particulary for amphibians and reptiles, may be important for stream fishes. Wetlands in the U.S. Colonial America- 221 million acres in lower 48 states; 171 million in Alaska Between 1780 and 1980, Alaska lost <1%, but lower states lost about 50%--now about 104 million acres This loss amounts to over 60 acres per hour over 200 years, 4 times the size of OHIO Annual losses established to be 300,000 to 450,000 acres in the mid 1900s declined to about 60,000 acres by 1997--some loss counteracted by restoration. U.S. wetland loss 1996-1997 Rural Development--21% Silviculture--23% Agriculture--26% Urban Development--30% Wetland Functions Store and regulate streamflow Wetlands reduce the severity and frequency of flooding--now estimated at 3-4 billion in annual losses. Increased infiltration of water to recharge aquifers. Riparian wetlands reduce bank erosion, stream bed scouring Loss of Riparian wetlands has changed the way rivers and streams functions. Many riparian wetlands have been destroyed by levees. Without lateral movement during storms, downstream flooding becomes much worse. Hydric Soils Hydrophytes Wetland functions, stormflow amelioration, groundwater recharge, waterfowl, coastal nurseries, recreation Weirs Impacts on wetland function Management authority-USACE, EPA, USFWS, NMFS USACE: wetland identification and delineation; permit authority for activities affecting navigable and non-navigable water resources; include dams, dredge and fill, etc. 404 permit EPA: corps guidelines for making permit decisions; power to veto corps permits; numerous wetland programs USFWS: Advises corps on permit impacts on fish and wildlife NMFS: advises corps on permit impacts on fish and wildlife in coastal and marine areas Management authority- Federal regulatory laws 1985: Food Security Act charged the NRCS with wetlands delineation and identification on agricultural lands, identification of wetlands and granting exemptions to the swampbuster provisions, which made farmers ineligible for crop insurance and other federal benefits if wetlands converted after 12/23/85 1989: North American Wetlands Conservation Act- protect and restore wetlands for migratory birds and other wildlife; partnerships between public agencies and other interests, including Mexico and Canada Management authority- landowner programs 1970: Water Bank Act- 10 yr. contracts, landowners receive annual payments and costshare money for approved wetlands practices, 614,000 acres, $ 30 million maximum annually. 1990: Wetlands Reserve Program (FSA amendments)- purchase of 10 yr. cost share restoration, 30 yr. wetland easements, or permanent easements by the federal government for previously cropped land, 2, 275,000 acres, $ 267 million in 2005 1996: Wildlife Habitat incentives program ( Farm bill)- 5-10yr agreements, cost share assistance for farmers who develop wildlife habitat, including wetlands, 2.3 million acres $ 360 million from 2002-2007 1996: Environmental Quality Incentives Programs (Farm bill)- 5 to 10 yr. contracts up to 75% funding for conservation practices 50% of which must be applied to livestock--related conservation, to protect soil and water resources, 51.5 million acres, $1.1 billion since 1999 Eminent Domain Dredging Creates open-water areas in dense marsh Create wave breaks and SAV habitat Create deeper areas in marsh ponds for aquatic habitat diversity Create islands for water fowl reproduction and terrestrial habitat diversity Irrigating Plant diversity dependent on hydrology; ability to raise water levels important for manipulating plants that: o Thrive in water o Germinate on land but then live in water o Removing those that live on land and die when submerged--nutrients Wetland managers can thus control vegetation diversity by raising water levels, particulary to thin over vegetated areas and increase open water. Raising water levels may be important during periods of low rainfall to maintain wetland size. Drawdown Aerate waterlogged soil and increase nutrient availability Encourage germination of emergent plants like cattails and bull rushes. Permit colonization by terrestrial plants that take up nutrients, and return them to aquatic plants as they decompose after flooding Timing and duration is critical in determining what plants will grow Stimulate (muskrat, ducks) or reduce (carp) wildlife reproduction Other Management Activites: Grazing Fire Mowing Increase Trapping Spraying herbicides/pesticides Other Management Options: Do Nothing as long as hydrology remains unaltered Leasing or selling wetlands to conservation organizations such as the Nature conservancy or private hunting club; donation of wetlands to the NC or the National Audubon Society (taxes) State tax incentive programs (Minnesota) excellent way to promote wetland conservation, as benefits accrue to society. Society should pay. One important protection for wetlands is the Endangered species Act of 1973- designation of critical habitat when species are listed( remember the # of endangered organisms in U.S. that are Wetland species)

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Exercise 3.1 The Human Skeleton1. Short Answer a) Raised, round areas just above the eye orbits are the: Supraorbital b) c) d) e)torus The suture that joins the two parietal bones is the: Saggital suture The skull articulates with the vertebral col
Navarro College - MATH - 1314
Navarro College - MATH - 1314
North Texas - MATH - 1680
North Texas - MATH - 1680
Navarro College - MATH - 1314
North Texas - MATH - 1680
Navarro College - MATH - 1314
North Texas - MATH - 1680
North Texas - MATH - 1680
North Texas - ACCT - 2020
North Texas - ACCT - 2020
North Texas - MATH - 1680
North Texas - MATH - 1680
North Texas - MATH - 1680
North Texas - MATH - 1680
North Texas - PSCI - 1450
Sovereignty fundamental governmental authority Federalism division of sovereignty between at least two different levels of government Dillon's rule legal doctrine that local governments are mere creatures of the state Unitary government system un
North Texas - MATH - 1680
North Texas - MATH - 1680
North Texas - MATH - 1680
North Texas - PSCI - 1450
North Texas - ACCT - 2020
North Texas - ACCT - 2020
North Texas - ACCT - 2020
Navarro College - MATH - 1314
Navarro College - MATH - 1314
Navarro College - MATH - 1314