Organized History of Forensics
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Organized History of Forensics

Course Number: FRNSC 201, Fall 2008

College/University: Penn State

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Organized History of Forensics Ballistics 1835 Henry Goddard, one of Scotland Yard's original Bow Street Runners, first used bullet comparison to catch a murderer. His comparison was based on a visible flaw in the bullet that was traced back to a mold. 1889 Alexandre Lacassagne, professor of forensic medicine at the University of Lyons, France, was the first to try to individualize bullets to a gun barrel. His...

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History Organized of Forensics Ballistics 1835 Henry Goddard, one of Scotland Yard's original Bow Street Runners, first used bullet comparison to catch a murderer. His comparison was based on a visible flaw in the bullet that was traced back to a mold. 1889 Alexandre Lacassagne, professor of forensic medicine at the University of Lyons, France, was the first to try to individualize bullets to a gun barrel. His comparisons at the time were based simply on the number of lands and grooves. 1898 Paul Jesrich, a forensic chemist working in Berlin, Germany, took photomicrographs of two bullets to compare, and subsequently individualize, the minutiae. 1913 Victor Balthazard, professor of forensic medicine at the Sorbonne, published the first article on individualizing bullet markings. (1920s) Calvin Goddard, with Charles Waite, Phillip O. Gravelle, and John H Fisher, perfected the comparison microscope for use in bullet comparison. 1926 The case of Sacco and Vanzetti, which took place in Bridgewater, Massachusetts, was responsible for popularizing the use of the comparison microscope for bullet comparison. Calvin Goddard's conclusions were upheld when the evidence was reexamined in 1961. 1974 The detection of gunshot residue (GSR) using scanning electron microscopy with electron dispersive X-rays (SEMEDX) technology was developed by J. E. Wessel, P. F. Jones, Q. Y. Kwan, R. S. Nesbitt and E. J. Rattin at Aerospace Corporation. 1991 Walsh Automation Inc., in Montreal, launched development of an automated imaging system called the Integrated Ballistics Identification System, or IBIS, for comparison of the marks left on fired bullets, cartridge cases, and shell casings. The ability to compare fired bullets was subsequently added. This system was subsequently developed for the U.S. market in collaboration with the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms (ATF). 1992 The FBI contracted with Mnemonic Systems to developed Drugfire, an automated imaging system to compare marks 1999 A Memorandum of Understanding is signed between the FBI and ATF, allowing the use of the National Integrated Ballistics Network (NIBIN), to facilitate exchange of firearms data between Drugfire and IBIS. Forensic Photography 1854 An English physician, Maddox, developed dry plate photography, eclipsing M. Daguerre's wet plate on tin method. This made practical the photographing of inmates for prison records. 1864 Odelbrecht first advocated the use of photography for the identification of criminals and the documentation of evidence and crime scenes. 1898 Paul Jesrich, a forensic chemist working in Berlin, Germany, took photomicrographs of two bullets to compare, and subsequently individualize, the minutiae. 1902 Professor R.A. Reiss, professor at the University of Lausanne, Switzerland, and a pupil of Bertillon, set up one of the first academic curricula in forensic science. His forensic photography department grew into Lausanne Institute of Police Science. Formation Of Specialized Police Forces, FBI, Criminal Offices 1810 Eugne Franois Vidocq, in return for a suspension of arrest and a jail sentence, made a deal with the police to establish the first detective force, the Sret of Paris. 1902 Professor R.A. Reiss, professor at the University of Lausanne, Switzerland, and a pupil of Bertillon, set up one of the first academic curricula in forensic science. His forensic photography department grew into Lausanne Institute of Police Science. 1905 American President Theodore Roosevelt established Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). 1910 Edmund Locard, successor to Lacassagne as professor of forensic medicine at the University of Lyons, France, established the first police crime laboratory. 1915 International Association for Criminal Identification, (to become The International Association of Identification (IAI), was organized in Oakland, California. 1924 August Vollmer, as chief of police in Los Angeles, California, implemented the first U.S. police crime laboratory. 1929 Calvin Goddard's work on the St. Valentine's day massacre led to the founding of the Scientific Crime Detection Laboratory on the campus of Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois. 1932 The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) crime laboratory was created. 1937 Paul Kirk assumed leadership of the criminology program at the University of California at Berkeley. In 1945, he formalized a major in technical criminology. 1950 August Vollmer, chief of police of Berkeley, California, established the school of criminology at the University of California at Berkeley. Paul Kirk presided over the major of criminalistics within the school. 1991 Walsh Automation Inc., in Montreal, launched development of an automated imaging system called the Integrated Ballistics Identification System, or IBIS, for comparison of the marks left on fired bullets, cartridge cases, and shell casings. This system was subsequently developed for the U.S. market in collaboration with the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms (ATF). Fingerprints/Voiceprints and Identification of Individuals by body type 700s Chinese used fingerprints to establish identity of documents and clay sculpture, but without any formal classification system. (1000) Quintilian, an attorney in the Roman courts, showed that bloody palm prints were meant to frame a blind man of his mother's murder. (1800s) Thomas Bewick, an English naturalist, used engravings of his own fingerprints to identify books he published. 1823 John Evangelist Purkinji, a professor of anatomy at the University of Breslau, Czechoslovakia, publishedthe first paper on the nature of fingerprints and suggested a classification system based on nine major types. However, he failed to recognize their individualizing potential. 1856 Sir William Herschel, a British officer working for the Indian Civil service, began to use thumbprints on documents both as a substitute for written signatures for illiterates and to verify document signatures. 1880 Henry Faulds, a Scottish physician working in Tokyo, published a paper in the journal Nature suggesting that fingerprints at the scene of a crime could identify the offender. In one of the first recorded uses of fingerprints to solve a crime, Faulds used fingerprints to eliminate an innocent suspect and indicate a perpetrator in a Tokyo burglary. 1883 Alphonse Bertillon, a French police employee, identified the Habitual Criminal based on his invention of anthropometry. 1892 Juan Vucetich, an Argentinean police researcher, developed the fingerprint classification system that would come to be used in Latin America. After Vucetich implicated a mother in the murder of her own children using her bloody fingerprints, Argentina was the first country to replace anthropometry with fingerprints. 1894 Alfred Dreyfus of France was convicted of treason based on a mistaken handwriting identification by Bertillon. 1896 Sir Edward Richard Henry developed the print classification system that would come to be used in Europe and North America. He published Classification and Uses of Finger Prints. 1901 Sir Edward Richard Henry was appointed head of Scotland Yard and forced the adoption of fingerprint identification to replace anthropometry. 1901 Henry P. DeForrest pioneered the first systematic use of fingerprints in the United States by the New York Civil Service Commission. 1903 At Leavenworth Federal Penitentiary, Kansas, Will West, a new inmate, was initially confused with a resident convict William West using anthropometry. They were later (1905) found to be easily differentiated by their fingerprints. 1918 Edmond Locard stated that 12 matching points could suffice for a fingerprint ID. 1941 Murray Hill of Bell Labs initiated the study voiceprint ID. The technique was refined by L.G. Kersta. (1977) The FBI introduced the beginnings of its Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) with the first computerized scans of fingerprints. 1999 The FBI upgraded its computerized fingerprint database and implemented the Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System (IAFIS), allowing paperless submission, storage, and search capabilities directly to the national database maintained at the FBI. Documents 1609 The first treatise on systematic document examination was published by Franois Demelle of France 1910 Albert S. Osborne, an American and arguably the most influential document examiner, published Questioned Documents. 1975 The Federal Rules of Evidence, originally promulgated by the U.S. Supreme Court, were enacted as a congressional statute. They are based on the relevancy standard in which scientific evidence that is deemed more prejudicial than probative may not be admitted. 1992 In response to concerns about the practice of forensic DNA analysis and interpretation of the results, the National Research Council Committee on Forensic DNA (NRC I) published DNA Technology in Forensic Science. Medical Examination/ Medical Cause of Death 1248 A Chinese book, Hsi Duan Yu (the washing away of wrongs), contains a description of how to distinguish drowning from strangulation. This was the first recorded application of medical knowledge to the solution of crime. In 1877 Massachusetts adopted a statewide system requiring that the coroner's office be replaced by an Office of the Medical Examiner, to be headed by a physician. A number of other states also adopted this requirement. In 1915 New York City established a comprehensive program in which the medical examiner was specifically authorized to investigate all deaths resulting from criminal violence, accidents, or suicides, and those that occurred suddenly to people who appeared to be in good health. Encarta 1993-2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. 1988 Lewellen, McCurdy, and Horton, and Asselin, Leslie, and McKinley both publish milestone papers introducing a novel procedure for the analysis of drugs in whole blood by homogeneous enzyme immunoassay (EMIT). Serology/ Blood Typing/ Proteins/ Immunoassays and Body Fluids 1813 Mathiew Orfila, a Spaniard who became professor of medicinal/forensic chemistry at University of Paris, published Traite des Poisons Tires des Regnes Mineral, Vegetal et Animal, ou Toxicologie General l. Orfila is considered the father of modern toxicology. He also made significant contributions to the development of tests for the presence of blood in a forensic context and is credited as the first to attempt the use of a microscope in the assessment of blood and semen stains. 1831 Leuchs first noted amylase activity in human saliva. 1839 H. Bayard published the first reliable procedures for the microscopic detection of sperm. He also noted the different microscopic characteristics of various different substrate fabrics. 1853 Ludwig Teichmann, in Krakow, Poland, developed the first microscopic crystal test for hemoglobin using hemincrystals. 1862 The Dutch scientist J. (Izaak) Van Deen developed a presumptive test for blood using guaiac, a West Indian shrub. 1863 The German scientist Schnbein first discovered the ability of hemoglobin to oxidize hydrogen peroxide making it foam. This resulted in first presumptive test for blood. 1900 Karl Landsteiner first discovered human blood groups and was awarded the Nobel prize for his work in 1930. Max Richter adapted the technique to type stains. This is one of the first instances of performing validation experiments specifically to adapt a method for forensic science. Landsteiner's continued work on the detection of blood, its species, and its type formed the basis of practically all subsequent work. 1915 Leone Lattes, professor at the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Turin Italy, developed the first antibody test for ABO blood groups. He first used the test in casework to resolve a marital dispute. He published L'Individualit del sangue nella biologia, nella clinica, nella medicina, legale, the first book dealing not only with clinical issues, but heritability, paternity, and typing of dried stains. 1923 Vittorio Siracusa, working at the Institute of Legal Medicine of the R. University of Messina, Italy, developed the absorbtion-elution test for ABO blood typing of stains. Along with his mentor, Lattes also performed significant work on the absorbtion-inhibition technique. 1925, another blood-related discovery important to criminal investigation was made. Around 80 percent of the human population were found to be "secretors, which means that the specific types of antigens, proteins, antibodies, and enzyme characteristic of their blood can be found in other bodily fluids and tissues. http://inventors.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http://home.earthlink.net/%7Ethekeither/Forensic/forsone.ht m 1927 Landsteiner and Levine first detected the M, N, and P blood factors leading to development of the MNSs and P typing systems. 1928 Meller was the first medico-legal investigator to suggest the identification of salivary amlyase as a presumptive test for salivary stains. 1929 K. I. Yosida, a Japanese scientist, conducted the first comprehensive investigation establishing the existence of serological isoantibodies in body fluids other than blood. 1931 Franz Josef Holzer, an Austrian scientist, working at the Institute for Forensic Medicine of the University of Innsbruck, developed the absorbtion-inhibition ABO typing technique that became the basis of that commonly used in forensic laboratories. It was based on the prior work of Siracusa and Lattes. 1937 Walter Specht, at the University Institute for Legal Medicine and Scientific Criminalistics in Jena, Germany, developed the chemiluminescent reagent luminol as a presumptive test for blood. 1938 M. Polonovski and M. Jayle first identified haptoglobin. 1940 Landsteiner and A.S. Wiener first described Rh blood groups. 1945 Frank Lundquist, working at the Legal Medicine Unit at the University of Copenhagen, developed the acid phosphatase test for semen. 1946 Mourant first described the Lewis blood group system. 1946 R.R. Race first described the Kell blood group system 1950 M. Cutbush, and colleagues first described the Duffy blood group system. 1951 F. H. Allen and colleagues first described the Kidd blood grouping system. 1958 A. S. Weiner and colleagues introduced the use of H-lectin to determine positively O blood type. 1960s Maurice Muller, a Swiss scientist, adapted the Ouchterlony antibody-antigen diffusion test for precipiten testing to determine species. 1976 Zoro and Hadley in the United Kingdom first evaluated GC-MS for forensic purposes. 1978 Brian Wraxall and Mark Stolorow developed the multisystem method for testing the PGM, ESD, and GLO isoenzyme systems simultaneously. They also developed methods for typing blood serum proteins such as haptoglobin and Gc. 1988 Lewellen, McCurdy, and Horton, and Asselin, Leslie, and McKinley both publish milestone papers introducing a novel procedure for the analysis of drugs in whole blood by homogeneous enzyme immunoassay (EMIT). DNA / RFLP/ PCR Analysis 1984 (Sir) Alec Jeffreys developed the first DNA profiling test. It involved detection of a multilocus RFLP pattern. He published his findings in Nature in 1985. 1986 In the first use of DNA to solve a crime, Jeffreys used DNA profiling to identify Colin Pitchfork as the murderer of two young girls in the English Midlands. Significantly, in the course of the investigation, DNA was first used to exonerate an innocent suspect. 1983 The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was first conceived by Kerry Mullis, while he was working at Cetus Corporation. The paper first on the technique was not published until 1985. 1986 The human genetics group at Cetus Corporation, led by Henry Erlich, developed the PCR technique for a number of clinical and forensic applications. This resulted in development of the first commercial PCR typing kit specifically for forensic use, HLA DQ (DQA1), about 2 years later. 1986 In People v. Pestinikas, Edward Blake first used PCR-based DNA testing (HLA DQ ) , to confirm different autopsy samples to be from the same person. The evidence was accepted by a civil court. This was also the first use of any kind of DNA testing in the United States 1987 DNA profiling was introduced for the first time in a U.S. criminal court. Based on RFLP analysis performed by Lifecodes, Tommy Lee Andrews was convicted of a series of sexual assaults in Orlando, Florida. 1987 New York v. Castro was the first case in which the admissibility of DNA was seriously challenged. It set in motion a string of events that culminated in a call for certification, accreditation, standardization, and quality control guidelines for both DNA laboratories and the general forensic community. 1990 K. Kasai and colleagues published the first paper suggesting the D1S80 locus (pMCT118) for forensic DNA analysis. D1S80 was subsequently developed by Cetus (subsequently Roche Molecular Systems) corporation as a commercially available forensic DNA typing system. (1994) Roche Molecular Systems (formerly Cetus) released a set of five additional DNA markers (polymarker) to add to the HLA-DQA1 forensic DNA typing system. 1996 In response to continued concerns about the statistical interpretation of forensic DNA evidence, a second National Research Council Committee on Forensic DNA (NRC II) was convened and published The Evaluation of ForensicDNA Evidence. 1996 In Tennessee v. Ware, mitochondrial DNA typing was admitted for the first time in a U.S. court. 1998 An FBI DNA database, NIDIS, enabling interstate cooperation in linking crimes, was put into practice. February 2001, the publicly funded Human Genome Project and the private company Celera jointly announced that they had mapped the bulk of the human genome. These maps show that there are only about 30,000 genes many fewer than the 100,000 expected. The completed map, announced in April 2003, covers 99 per cent of the genecontaining regions of the genome. http://www.science.org.au/nova/006/006key.htm Trace Evidence / Matching of Physical Evidence (hair, glass, soil, paint) 1784 In Lancaster, England, John Toms was convicted of murder on the basis of the torn edge of wad of newspaper in a pistol matching a remaining piece in his pocket. This was one of the first documented uses of physical matching. 1879 Rudolph Virchow, a German pathologist, was one of the first to both study hair and recognize its limitations. 1891 Hans Gross, examining magistrate and professor of criminal law at the University of Graz, Austria, published Criminal Investigation, the first comprehensive description of uses of physical evidence in solving crime. Gross is also sometimes credited with coining the word criminalistics. 1910 Victor Balthazard, professor of forensic medicine at the Sorbonne, with Marcelle Lambert, published the first comprehensive hair study, Le poil de l'homme et des animaux. In one of the first cases involving hairs, Rosella Rousseau was convinced to confess to murder of Germaine Bichon. Balthazard also used photographic enlargements of bullets and cartridge cases to determining weapon type and was among the first to attempt to individualize a bullet to a weapon. 1916 Albert Schneider of Berkeley, California first used a vacuum apparatus to collect trace evidence. 1904 Locard published L'enquete criminelle et les methodes scientifique, in which appears a passage that may have given rise to the forensic precept that Every contact leaves a trace. 1950 Max Frei-Sulzer, founder of the first Swiss criminalistics laboratory, developed the tape lift method of collecting trace evidence. Palynology: A 1969 murder investigation in Sweden used the presence of pollen in the dirt found on the body to show that she had been killed in a spot other than where she was found. In an Austrian case, mud on a murderer's boots linked him to a crime scene, and he confessed. One detective even found pollen in the grease of a killer's gun, and another found pollen in the ink of a document that demonstrated that it was a forgery. http://www.crimelibrary.com/criminal_mind/forensics/trace/6.html?sect=21 Forensic Botany/ Entomology 1851 Jean Servais Stas, a chemistry professor from Brussels, Belgium, was the first successfully to identify vegetable poisons in body tissue. 1920s Georg Popp pioneered the use of botanical identification in forensic work. Cheese skippers sometimes lay their eggs on human remains. The larvae can be helpful to forensic entomologists and police because they develop at constant rates, thus their size and stage of development provide clues to the time and conditions of death. 1993-2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Toxicology 1813 Mathiew Orfila, a Spaniard who became professor of medicinal/forensic chemistry at University of Paris, published Traite des Poisons Tires des Regnes Mineral, Vegetal et Animal, ou Toxicologie General l. Orfila is considered the father of modern toxicology. He also made significant contributions to the development of tests for the presence of blood in a forensic context and is credited as the first to attempt the use of a microscope in the assessment of blood and semen stains. 1836 James Marsh, an Scottish chemist, was the first to use toxicology (arsenic detection) in a jury trial. 1851 Jean Servais Stas, a chemistry professor from Brussels, Belgium, was the first successfully to identify vegetable poisons in body tissue. 1940 Vincent Hnizda, a chemist with the Ethyl Corporation, was probably the first to analyze ignitable fluid. He used a vacuum distillation apparatus. 1988 Lewellen, McCurdy, and Horton, and Asselin, Leslie, and McKinley both publish milestone papers introducing a novel procedure for the analysis of drugs in whole blood by homogeneous enzyme immunoassay (EMIT). Journals and Textbooks 1877 Thomas Taylor, microscopist to U.S. Department of Agriculture suggested that markings of the palms of the hands and the tips of the fingers could be used for identification in criminal cases. Although reported in the American Journal of Microscopy and Popular Science and Scientific American, the idea was apparently never pursued from this source. 1880 Henry Faulds, a Scottish physician working in Tokyo, published a paper in the journal Nature suggesting that fingerprints at the scene of a crime could identify the offender. In one of the first recorded uses of fingerprints to solve a crime, Faulds used fingerprints to eliminate an innocent suspect and indicate a perpetrator in a Tokyo burglary. 1891 Hans Gross, examining magistrate and professor of criminal law at the University of Graz, Austria, published Criminal Investigation, the first comprehensive description of uses of physical evidence in solving crime. Gross is also sometimes credited with coining the word criminalistics. 1892 (Sir) Francis Galton published Fingerprints, the first comprehensive book on the nature of fingerprints and their use in solving crime. 1896 Sir Edward Richard Henry developed the print classification system that would come to be used in Europe and North America. He published Classification and Uses of Finger Prints. 1910 Victor Balthazard, professor of forensic medicine at the Sorbonne, with Marcelle Lambert, published the first comprehensive hair study, Le poil de l'homme et des animaux. In one of the first cases involving hairs, Rosella Rousseau was convinced to confess to murder of Germaine Bichon. Balthazard also used photographic enlargements of bullets and cartridge cases to determining weapon type and was among the first to attempt to individualize a bullet to a weapon. 1904 Locard published L'enquete criminelle et les methodes scientifique, in which appears a passage that may have given rise to the forensic precept that Every contact leaves a trace. 1920s Luke May, one of the first American criminalists, pioneered striation analysis in tool mark comparison, including an attempt at statistical validation. In 1930 he published The identification of knives, tools and instruments, a positive science, in The American Journal of Police Science.. 1930 American Journal of Police Science was founded and published by staff of Goddard's Scientific Crime Detection Laboratory in Chicago. In 1932, it was absorbed by Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, becoming the Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology and police science. 1937 Holzer published the first paper addressing the usefulness of secretor status for forensic applications. 1950 The American Academy of Forensic Science (AAFS) was formed in Chicago, Illinois. The group also began publication of the Journal of Forensic Science (JFS). 1953 Kirk published Crime Investigation, one of the first comprehensive criminalistics and crime investigation texts that encompassed theory in addition to practice. 1971 Culliford published The Examination and Typing of Bloodstains in the Crime Laboratory, generally accepted as responsible for disseminating reliable protocols for the typing of polymorphic protein and enzyme markers to the United States and worldwide. 1984 (Sir) Alec Jeffreys developed the first DNA profiling test. It involved detection of a multilocus RFLP pattern. He published his findings in Nature in 1985. 1988 Lewellen, McCurdy, and Horton, and Asselin, Leslie, and McKinley both publish milestone papers introducing a novel procedure for the analysis of drugs in whole blood by homogeneous enzyme immunoassay (EMIT). 1990 K. Kasai and colleagues published the first paper suggesting the D1S80 locus (pMCT118) for forensic DNA analysis. D1S80 was subsequently developed by Cetus (subsequently Roche Molecular Systems) corporation as a commercially available forensic DNA typing system. 1996 In response to continued concerns about the statistical interpretation of forensic DNA evidence, a second National Research Council Committee on Forensic DNA (NRC II) was convened and published The Evaluation of ForensicDNA Evidence Legal Proceedings 1836 James Marsh, an Scottish chemist, was the first to use toxicology (arsenic detection) in a jury trial. 1923 In Frye v. United States, polygraph test results were ruled inadmissible. The federal ruling introduced the concept of general acceptance and stated that polygraph testing did not meet that criterion. 1926 The case of Sacco and Vanzetti, which took place in Bridgewater, Massachusetts, was responsible for popularizing the use of the comparison microscope for bullet comparison. Calvin Goddard's conclusions were upheld when the evidence was reexamined in 1961. 1975 The Federal Rules of Evidence, originally promulgated by the U.S. Supreme Court, were enacted as a congressional statute. They are based on the relevancy standard in which scientific evidence that is deemed more prejudicial than probative may not be admitted. 1986 In People v. Pestinikas, Edward Blake first used PCR-based DNA testing (HLA DQ ) , to confirm different autopsy samples to be from the same person. The evidence was accepted by a civil court. This was also the first use of any kind of DNA testing in the United States 1987 DNA profiling was introduced for the first time in a U.S. criminal court. Based on RFLP analysis performed by Lifecodes, Tommy Lee Andrews was convicted of a series of sexual assaults in Orlando, Florida. 1987 New York v. Castro was the first case in which the admissibility of DNA was seriously challenged. It set in motion a string of events that culminated in a call for certification, accreditation, standardization, and quality control guidelines for both DNA laboratories and the general forensic community. 1993 In Daubert et al. v. Merrell Dow, a U.S. federal court relaxed the Frye standard for admission of scientific evidence and conferred on the judge a gatekeeping role. The ruling cited Karl Popper's views that scientific theories are falsifiable as a criterion for whether something is scientific knowledge and should be admissible. 1996 In Tennessee v. Ware, mitochondrial DNA typing was admitted for the first time in a U.S. court. Polygraph In 1876 Marey devised a polygraph instrument that recorded pulse rate and heartbeat simultaneously 1993-2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. 1921 John Larson and Leonard Keeler designed the portable polygraph. 1923 In Frye v. United States, polygraph test results were ruled inadmissible. The federal ruling introduced the concept of general acceptance and stated that polygraph testing did not meet that criterion. A polygraph is actually many instruments combined to record changes in blood pressure, pulse, and respiration. The electrical conductivity of the skin's surface can also be measured--increased sweat-gland activity reduces the skin's ability to carry electrical current. The Reid polygraph, devised in 1945 by the American criminologist John Edward Reid, also records muscular movement. 1993-2003 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Tool Marks 1920s Luke May, one of the first American criminalists, pioneered striation analysis in tool mark comparison, including an attempt at statistical validation. In 1930 he published The identification of knives, tools and instruments, a positive science, in The American Journal of Police Science. Tools/ Methods of Analysis Used in Forensic Science 1810 The first recorded use of question document analysis occurred in Germany. A chemical test for a particular ink dyewas applied to a document known as the Konigin Hanschritt. 1828 William Nichol invented the polarizing light microscope. 1862 The Dutch scientist J. (Izaak) Van Deen developed a presumptive test for blood using guaiac, a West Indian shrub. 1863 The German scientist Schnbein first discovered the ability of hemoglobin to oxidize hydrogen peroxide making it foam. This resulted in first presumptive test for blood. 1894 Alfred Dreyfus of France was convicted of treason based on a mistaken handwriting identification by Bertillon. 1903 At Leavenworth Federal Penitentiary, Kansas, Will West, a new inmate, was initially confused with a resident convict William West using anthropometry. They were later (1905) found to be easily differentiated by their fingerprints. 1927 Landsteiner and Levine first detected the M, N, and P blood factors leading to development of the MNSs and P typing systems. 1928 Meller was the first medico-legal investigator to suggest the identification of salivary amlyase as a presumptive test for salivary stains. 1935 Frits Zernike, a Dutch physicist, invented the first interference contrast microscope, a phase contrast microscope, and an achievement for which he won the Nobel Prize in 1953. 1937 Holzer published the first paper addressing the usefulness of secretor status for forensic applications. 1954 R. F. Borkenstein, captain of the Indiana State Police, invented the Breathalyzer for field sobriety testing. 1966 Brian J. Culliford and Brian Wraxall developed the immunoelectrophoretic technique for haptoglobin typing in bloodstains. 1988 Lewellen, McCurdy, and Horton, and Asselin, Leslie, and McKinley both publish milestone papers introducing a novel procedure for the analysis of drugs in whole blood by homogeneous enzyme immunoassay (EMIT).

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January 22, 2007 Constitutional Law Amendments and Bill of Rights are actually the Law of the Constitution. The Bill of Rights was to restrict the right of the federal government, to keep it in check. The founding fathers were all just involved in tr
Humboldt State University - BA - 210
January 23, 2007 Freedoms Political donations are a form of free speech as defined by the 1 st amendment. Corporations are treated as people in some ways but not in others. They also have the right to put an insert into bills or fliers. Commercial sp
Humboldt State University - BA - 210
January 24, 2007 Due Process and Equal Protection Found in two places, 5th amendment, no man should be deprived of blah blah blah without due process of law. It is also stated in the 14th amendment to prevent the state from depriving people of due pr
University of Texas - SOC - 325K
Exam 3 Criminology Notes Nov 7How crime is prioritizedSeriousness of crime Time elapsed since crime was committed Two way crime is solved 1) Suspect identified by victim or witness at time of initial report 2) Police arrive to catch suspect at or
University of Texas - SOC - 366
Deviance Exam 3 Notes 11-9 Alcohol -alcohol in cross-cultural perspective -does alcohol automatically reduce inhibitions or are the inhibitions learned? -reichel-dolmatoffs' description of aritama youth (see slide)both-are bio consequences of alc
University of Texas - SOC - 366
STUDY GUIDE - SOC. 366, THIRD EXAM The following questions will guide you to the kinds of lecture and reading materials that will be covered in the exam. 1. What is the disease conception of alcoholism and why do many sociologists consider it to be l
University of Texas - HED - 343
-Chapter 1-Epidemic-the occurrence in a community or region of cases of an illness (or an outbreak) clearly in excessive of expectancy. Pandemic- an epidemic on a worldwide scale during a pandemic, large numbers of persons may be affected and a disea
University of Texas - HED - 343
-Person/Place/Time-Person Ch.- age, sex, race, marital status, social class, behaviors, ed. level. Place geographic residence, workplace, climate and environment factors, urban/rural diffs.; where people come together to interact. Time variances ov
University of Texas - HED - 343
Ecological studies: aggregate studies; pop or group are unit of analysis; geographic boundaries. Correlate prevalence of spec exp factors in pops with occurance. Q o D-used to generate hypotheses; rarely used to test hyp; only measured on crude level
University of Texas - CMS - 344K
Exam 1 Study Guide Lying and Deception, CMS 344K -The Nature of Lies (Knapp Ch 1 and lecture material)-Who lies? How often do people lie? - Everyone lies. Often. - College students = 2 per day average; community = 1 per day avg. - College students 9
University of Texas - CMS - 344K
Lying and Deception Exam 3 Study Guide Chapter 11 Characteristics of Public Lies: 1. Target Audience o Invoke abstract national/cultural ideas that appeal to every audience. o Lobbyists hired to persuade politicians on own interests. o If too much o
University of Texas - EDP - 363
Human Sexuality Exam 3 ReviewSex, Drugs, and Rock & Roll Aphrodisiacs: drug/agent that is sex arousing or increases sex desire. Provide: 1. expectancy effect 2. reduced inhibitions 3. burst of nutrition/energy 4. blood flow. o Ex = Spanish fly (cru
University of Texas - SOC - 366
October 3, 2006 STUDY GUIDE - SOC. 366, FIRST EXAM 1. What are the different ways of defining deviance? 6 ways-Absolutist, Reference to Harm, Statistical, Criminal, Reactive, Normative. Why is the normative approach the best way for defining deviance
Baylor - BIO - 4306
Chapter 6: Understanding Function within a Genome Molecular Genetics Lecture OutlinesStudying transcriptome changes: Fig. 6.1: SAGE (serial analysis of gene expression). You could just clone all the cDNAs from a transcriptome and then sequence them
Baylor - BIO - 4306
Chapter 12: All About RNA Molecular Genetics Lecture OutlineFig. 12.2: The typical transcription elongation diagram. We'll see how the situation is bit more complicated than a "big blue oval". Points to remember here: transcription bubble is small (
Baylor - BIO - 4306
Chapter 7: Genome AnatomiesMolecular Genetics Lecture OutlinesChromosome structure: There is so much DNA in a human cell that it would measure 5 cm long if you stretched it all out. How is it packaged so that it fits into the cell? The first part
Baylor - BIO - 4306
Chapter 8: Prokaryotic and Organellar Genomes Bio 4306 Lecture OutlinesProkaryotic Genomes: The E. coli genome is a circular ds DNA. It really isn't a chromosome like our chromosomes, but is found in a structure called a nucleoid. Some prokaryotic g
Baylor - BIO - 4306
Chapter 9: Viruses & Mobile Elements Molecular Genetics Lecture OutlinesViral Genomes: Fig. 9.1: Bacteriophage particles (virions) are usually just a piece of DNA or RNA surrounded by protective proteins. The protein coat (capsid) protects against n
Baylor - BIO - 4306
Chapter 10: Accessing Genomes Molecular Genetics Lecture OutlineTech Note 10.1: Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). Make a cell line transgenic for a target protein fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP). The cells fluoresce all ove
Belmont - ART - ART
Sikander artistic practice takes a long time Arabic Appreciates the beauty of the written word. Veil on top of headdress.not underestimating what is behind the veil. Spiritual practices Discipline, then self-expression Discipline affects her painti
Belmont - ART - ART
A Formalist's Portrayal of Physics and Kinetics The work Two Lines Oblique Gyratory II sculpture, designed, built, and engineered by George Rickey. It is currently being displayed on the lawn of the Frist Center for the Visual Arts as a sculpture tha
Belmont - ART - ART
Elements of a Formal Critique of Art Description what do you see? Analysis what idea does this work of art represent? Use vocabulary of elements of art to understand how the work of art is composed Interpretation develop your thesis what is the m
Belmont - ART - ART
Art Identifications will only be taken from images from power point IDs require artist name, date, and culture you will also be asked to note a single formal quality of the image Fill-in-the-blank will be drawn from key course vocabulary from chapte
Belmont - ART - ART
I liked how the author explained how the author explained some of the ways that art and color affect the body's neurological system and related intellect to surroundings. He explained how the brain rewards sensory certain types of sensory input becau
Cornell - AEM - 3230
AEM 323 Managerial Accounting Project #1- Financial Statement Analysis Spring 2008Introduction "You, and a group of your co-workers, have recently been hired as finance analyst interns for an investment company. The company is interested in acquirin
Cornell - AEM - 3230
AEM 323 - Spring Term 2008 Final 4/16/2008AEM 323Managerial AccountingSpring Term 2008General Information: Staff Instructor: Administrative Assistant: Administrative TA: TAs: Jack Little, CPA Pam Staub Ericka Iachello Erin Casey Gill Casten Ali
Cornell - COMM - 2010
COMMUNICATION 201: Fall 2007COURSE OBJECTIVES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. To strengthen the individual's skills and techniques in the preparation and delivery of oral presentations. To obtain self-confidence and poise in the presence of others through the presen
Cornell - COMM - 2010
COMM 201 COURSE SCHEDULE (May vary slightly) FALL 2007 Week 8/23-8/24 8/27-8/31 Day 1 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 10/1-10/5 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 10/29-11/2 1 2 3 Topic Course Introduction Introductory Speeches Lecture: Communication Theory & Mod
Cornell - COMM - 2010
Wednesday, February 8COMM 201, Section 43Choosing and Developing a TopicFirst things first: Getting your topic started!1. Generate many ideas the more you have to choose from, the closer you are to choosing 2. Criteria for selecting your topic
Cornell - COMM - 2010
Comm 201 Notes from Lectures (Revised September 8, 2004)Toni RussoThe following information should be useful in structuring all your speeches. I call this lecture: The Cookbook Ingredients for Giving a Good Speech. Aristotle defines ALL COMMUNICA
Cornell - AEM - 2400
AEM 240Fall 2007MARKETINGCourse Information Instructor: Edward W. McLaughlin ewm3@cornell.edu Office: 111 Warren Hall Phone: 255-3169Course Administrator: Vicki Parker vrp5@cornell.edu TAs: Amy Gordon Miles Toben Dan Weisman Matt Davis Janice
N. Kentucky - ENGLISH - 463
Bryan Thompson Appalachian Lit Final Exam Essay December 12, 2007 My ExperienceI came into this semester without a clue in the world as to what it may hold . It was to be my first semester as an English major and my first semester ever carrying a h
Cornell - AEM - 3230
Tips For Success in AEM 221Financial Accounting is not a difficult class, compared to other classes you will take at Cornell University. It can be, however, very time consuming to master. Mastering accounting is like learning another language, you h
Cornell - AEM - 2400
AEM 221 - Fall Term 2007 Draft as of 4/16/20081Financial AccountingFall Term 2007General Information: Staff Instructor: Administrative Assistant: Head TA: Administrative TA: TAs: Jack Little, CPA Pam Staub Katie Fitzgerald Stephanie Leventhal E
UCSB - CLASS - 40
The Epic of Gilgamesh (Sandars Penguin edition)Important Peoples, Dates, and Places Mesopotamia (essentially = modern Iraq): means area between the rivers, i.e., Tigris and Euphrates Rivers Sumerians (c.3400-2000 B.C.) in southern Iraq ziggurat, cun
SFASU - PSY - 153
MaslowBiography Born on April 1st, 1908 in Brooklyn, New York His parents were uneducated Jewish immigrants and they had seven children, Maslow was the oldest As a child Maslow lonely, he read books in his spare time After grade school Maslow attend
BC - HS - 500
Democracy Wall The Democracy Wall () was a long brick wall just to the west of the Forbidden City which became the focal point for Chinese citizens to voice their desire for democratic freedoms. Following two decades of suppression during the rule of
BC - HS - 500
Emperor Puyi By Patrick Campbell Emperor Puyi was the last emperor of China. Puyi was born on February 7, 1906 during the waning years of the Qing Dynasty. Chosen by Dowager Empress Cixi while on her deathbed, Puyi ascended the throne in December 190
BC - FA - 500
Patrick Campbell Frank Lloyd Wright 2/20/08The Glass HouseDesigned by Philip Johnson New Canaan, CT (1949) Over fifty years ago, the "Harvard Five", a group of modern architects, descended upon a small town in Connecticut to build houses for thems
BC - HS - 500
Patrick Campbell History of NYC 9/30/07Urban Freedoms and DangersAs Present in Antebellum New York City The antebellum period of United States history was a time of great societal change as immigrants started pouring into American cities. While mo