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3 Topic Modernization Institutions, Modernization, Institutions Capacity, and Legitimacy Modernization Theory The importance of institutionalization L iti Legitimacy and capacity of institutions d it f i tit ti Political parties and political development 1 Modernization Theory Assumptions: All countries follow the same general development path Western society is the pinnacle of development Countries must transition from traditional to modern values and institutions It is a straightforward and linear process 2 Traditional versus Modern Values Traditional Modern Identification limited to familial Identification with society as a or ethnic group whole Support of leadership based on familial, ethnic, or regional affiliation Loyalty to tribal, ethnic, or regional leaders Limited recognition of the need for or the ability to change Support of leadership based on merit Loyalty to the larger political unit of the state Awareness of one's ability to affect change in the political system 3 Modern Political Institutions Separate and specialized institutions Merit-based and highly skilled bureaucracy Effective political parties And, according to Olson, an independent judiciary is vital 4 Political Development and Political Decay Early modernization theory was too simplistic and optimistic The process of political development is reversible P liti l decay is a real possibility in developing states Political d i l ibilit i d l i t t The process is not necessarily linear 5 Political Institutions and Political Development Political Institutionalization = Political Development There are four measures of the degree of institutionalization: Adaptability vs. Rigidity C Complexity vs. Simplicity l it Si li it Autonomy vs. Subordination Coherence vs. Disunity 6 Adaptability vs. Rigidity Higher adaptability = higher institutionalization Three main measures of adaptability: Chronological Age G Generational Age ti l A Functional Age 7 Complexity vs. Simplicity Higher complexity = higher institutionalization How to measure: Subunits P Purposes 8 Autonomy vs. Subordination Higher autonomy = higher institutionalization Autonomy: Independence I t Interests t 9 Coherence vs. Disunity Higher coherence = higher institutionalization Coherence: Functional boundaries P Purpose and procedures d d 10 The Ratio Political participation = Level of (in)stability Level of institutionalization Huntington H ti t argues that the ratio is important: th t th ti i i t t Relatively even at 1:1 or 3:3 is good Relatively uneven at 3:1 is BAD 11 Huntington's Prescription If rapid social mobilization destabilizes institutions what can be done? Increase complexity of the social structure Li it or reduce communications in society Limit d i ti i i t Minimize competition among political elite 12 Problem with RX What do you think are some of the problems with Huntington's prescription? 13 What is Political Capacity? Simply stated, it is the ability of the state to do its job, and involves the "creation of legitimate institutions within which conflict can be resolved." (Jackman 1993) resolved (Jackman, 14 Institutions and Capacity legitimacy of regime + level of institutionalization = political capacity 15 Institutional Age Chronological age Juridical D age bilit of the regime matters Durability f th i tt Generational age g Number of times power has changed hands Power moving from original leadership generation to the next generation of leaders 16 Modes of Authority Rational-legal Traditional Charismatic These modes of authority affect the generational age of regimes and thus how institutionalized they are likely to become 17 Succession Succession needs to be routine Predictable Stable Peaceful In other words, it needs to be institutionalized so a crisis doesn t occur when the ruler departs doesn't 18 Institutions and Legitimacy Institutions structure power relationships and participation within society As a result, institutions constrain the behavior of all parties Without legitimacy, institutions are ineffective at serving this function 19 Legitimacy Institutions are legitimate if citizens acknowledge the right of the institution to exercise authority over them and are thus predisposed to follow the rules they set Caveat: what is considered legitimate in one era may not be in another... 20 Power versus Force A key indicator of legitimacy is whether the state possesses power to gain compliance or relies on force to compel it If a state possesses power, it does not have to rely on force to maintain order For power to exist, the threat of force must be present exist BUT States that rely on force are showing that they are unable to persuade people to comply and thus that they lack power and legitimacy l ii 21 Two Measures of Legitimacy 1. The degree to which the regime can govern without resorting to violence. How repressive is the regime towards its populace and challengers for power? The degree to which challenges to the regime are processed through normal channels. What kinds of challenges are mounted against the political order? 2. 22 Parties and Political Development Political participation Legitimacy N ti l integration National i t ti Conflict management 23 Political Participation Four responses to increased demand for participation: Repression Mobilization Limited participation Full admission 24 Legitimacy Similar to arguments made by Huntington and Jackman Wide acceptance Participation enhances legitimacy and parties provide structure for participation Role in single party states 25 National Integration Two main components of national integration: The control the government has over its territory Whether the people are loyal to the state 26 Conflict Management Parties are a means of conflict management because they: A an organized means of aggregating public demands Are i d f ti bli d d Typically seek to address these demands within the available institutional structures Transform conflict from individuals and groups fighting directly to parties negotiating on their behalf 27 Parties and Political Socialization Weiner and LaPalombara argue that given the effect parties have on their environment, they are an instrument for political socialization Why? 28 The Caveat In the end, Weiner and LaPalombara voice the same concern as Huntington: If massive demands are made on the system before it has the capacity to handle them, it is at serious risk of failure. them failure Parties can help to funnel the demands and take some pressure off the state 29 ... 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