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PLACE NO TO DIE: THE POETICS OF ROADSIDE SACRED PLACES IN MEXICO VOLUME I A Dissertation Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in The Department of Geography and Anthropology by Daniel Raymond Weir B.A., San Diego State University, 1995 M.A., San Diego State University, 1997 May 2002 Copyright 2002 Daniel Raymond Weir All rights reserved ii To Those who wept, and to Mara, Virgen de Guadalupe, Madre de Dios, y Reina de Mxico. Petition granted, promise kept. Gracias! iii TABLE OF CONTENTS VOLUME I LIST OF TABLES..... vi LIST OF FIGURES... ix ABSTRACT CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION...... 1 1.1 Maneuvering Through the Text... 2 1.2 The Place of this Work.... 4 1.3 Scale, Scope, and Method.... 7 1.4 A Note on Human Geography... 10 CHAPTER 2. CONCEPTUAL CONTEXT: MOTION, EMOTION, AND METAPHOR ... 11 CHAPTER 3. NARRATIVE CONTEXT: A ROSE PETAL ON DADS CASKET 22 CHAPTER 4. TEXT: ARID, NORTHERN MEXICO.... 26 4.1 Baja California Norte. 27 4.2 Baja California Sur 32 4.3 Sonora 38 4.4. Sinaloa... 47 4.5 Nayarit.... 52 4.6 Chihuahua.. 53 4.7 Durango.. 59 4.8 Zacatecas 65 4.9 Coahuila. 70 4.10 Nuevo Len.. 73 4.11 Tamaulipas... 75 4.12 San Luis Potos 77 CHAPTER 5. CONCEPTUAL CONTEXT: MODERN LIFE, MEDIEVAL DEATH . 80 CHAPTER 6. NARRATIVE CONTEXT: JUST GET ME THROUGH THIS .. 94 CHAPTER 7. TEXT: TEMPERATE, CENTRAL MEXICO..... 99 7.1 Jalisco.... 99 7.2 Michoacn... 101 7.3 Aguascalientes 106 7.4 Guanajuato.. 108 7.5 Quertaro 110 7.6 Mxico 114 7.7 Morelos... 115 7.8 Hidalgo.... 117 7.9 Tlaxcala... 118 7.10 Puebla 120 iv CHAPTER 8. CONCEPTUAL CONTEXT: (MESTIZO CULTURE)x ... 127 CHAPTER 9. NARRATIVE CONTEXT: MY SON DIED HERE ON NAVIDAD . 148 CHAPTER 10. TEXT: TROPICAL, SOUTHERN MEXICO...... 10.1 Colima... 10.2 Guerrero 10.3 Oaxaca... 10.4 Chiapas.. 10.5 Veracruz.... 10.6 Tabasco. 10.7 Campeche.. 10.8 Qunitana Roo.... 10.9 Yucatn. CHAPTER 11. SYMBOLIC/POETIC ATTRIBUTES OF THE TEXT... 11.1 Site and Situation of Artifacts... 11.2 The Physical Attributes of Artifacts..... 11.3 Objects Associated with Roadside Artifacts. CHAPTER 12. CONCLUSION: MESTIZO CULTURE, PLACE, POETICS..... 12.1 Mestizo Culture: The Poetics of Place, in Particular..... 12.2 Mestizo Culture: The Poetics of Place, in General.... 12.3 Mestizo Place. 12.4 Mestizo Poetics.. 12.5 A Final Note on Experiential Knowledge and Epistemic Humility.. 153 154 156 160 171 184 188 190 192 195 198 198 201 205 212 212 221 223 225 227 REFERENCES... 228 VOLUME II APPENDIX A: NORTHERN MEXICO DATA TABLES.... 249 APPENDIX B: CENTRAL MEXICO DATA TABLES.... 381 APPENDIX C: SOUTHERN MEXICO DATA TABLES..... 437 VITA... 506 v LIST OF TABLES 10.01.... 154 A4.1 Baja California Norte. 250 A4.2 Baja California Sur. 258 A4.3 Sonora 266 A4.4 Sinaloa.... 297 A4.5 Nayarit.... 313 A4.6 Chihuahua...... 319 A4.7 Durango.. 330 A4.8 Zacatecas 340 A4.9 Coahuila. 355 A4.10 Nuevo Len.. 362 A4.11 Tamaulipas... 366 A4.12 San Luis Potos..... 376 B7.1 Jalisco. 382 B7.2 Michoacn.. 388 B7.3 Aguascalientes.... 398 B7.4 Guanajuato..... 400 B7.5 Quertaro.... 404 B7.6 Mxico.... 410 B7.7 Morelos... 414 B7.8 Hidalgo... 419 B7.9 Tlaxcala.. 423 B7.10 Puebla... 427 C10.1 Colima.. 438 C10.2 Guerrero... 441 vi C10.3 Oaxaca.. 450 C10.4 Chiapas..... 465 C10.5 Veracruz... 478 C10.6 Tabasco. 496 C10.7 Campeche. 500 C10.8 Qunitana Roo..503 C10.9 Yucatn..... 505 vii LIST OF FIGURES 1.1: Sixteenth century wayside nichos in Mexico...... 1 1.2: Map of survey transects, including transect numbers.. 4 1.3: Distribution of roadside sites, and site clusters, discussed in this text.... 9 4.01: State Location Map of Mexico.... 26 4.1.1: Map of Baja California (Norte), survey routes and places..... 28 4.1.2: Nichos showing regional style and change over time. 28 4.1.3: BN84, multiple crosses... 30 4.1.4: Special roadside crosses... 30 4.2.1: Map of Baja California Sur, survey routes and places.... 32 4.2.2: Nicho-Shrines as enduring sacred places and artistic expression... 33 4.2.3: Religious and secular monuments.. 35 4.2.4: Site BS83, a grandiose memorial in a remote location... 36 4.2.5: Two views of BS107, a cross and 14 broken pillars... 37 4.2.6: Two views of BS108, an elaborate nicho complex 37 4.3.1: Map of Sonora, survey routes and places... 39 4.3.2: A cross/monument 13 and 15 years after the mans death. 40 4.3.3: Sites with poems of word and action.. 41 4.3.4: Site SN508, where a mother, her six children, and others died in a bus wreck.. 43 4.3.5: Shrine to the popular saint Juan Soldado..... 45 4.3.6: Shrines to Jsus Malverde, a Mexican Robin Hood.... 46 4.3.7: SN627, a shrine complex at a miraculous spring..... 47 4.4.1: Map of Sinaloa, survey routes and places... 48 4.4.2: Examples of diverse crosses in Sinaloa.. 49 4.4.3: Three Sinaloan nichos..... 50 viii 4.4.4: A religious shrine and two views of a death shrine in Sinaloa... 51 4.5.1: Map of Nayarit, survey routes and places... 52 4.5.2: A cross in memory of a 31-year-old woman.. 53 4.6.1: Map of Chihuahua, survey routes and places. 54 4.6.2: CH322, a true grotto... 54 4.6.3: Various expressive, or poetic, attributes of nichos. 56 4.7.1: Map of Durango, survey routes and places. 59 4.7.2: Death memorials that create an unruly reality. 60 4.7.3: Roadside crosses, examples of variation, materials and scale.... 61 4.7.4: A variety of nichos in Durango... 63 4.8.1: Map of Zacatecas, survey routes and places... 65 4.8.2: Memorials commemorating multiple deaths.. 65 4.8.3: Cross/monuments featuring four joined arcs.. 67 4.8.4: Handmade nichos.... 67 4.8.5: Sacred Heart monuments.... 68 4.8.6: ZT51, a grandiose cross.. 69 4.8.7: ZT278, nicho moved for roadwork. 69 4.9.1: Map of Coahuila, survey routes and places.... 70 4.9.2: SiteCL53 and the surrounding landscape... 71 4.9.3: Multiple death cross 71 4.9.4: CL17, nicho with 12 crosses... 71 4.9.5: CL184, finely crafted wood cross... 71 4.9.6: Two views of site CL200, motor head nicho.. 72 4.10.1: Map of Nuevo Len, survey routes and places. 73 4.10.2: Four metal crosses 74 4.10.3: Six granito crosses 74 ix 4.10.4: Site NL32, 3 crosses and an angel.... 74 4.11.1: Map of Tamaulipas, survey routes and places.. 75 4.11.2: TM44, gender segregated crosses. 76 4.11.3: TM94, a broken pillar... 76 4.11.4: Site TM96. 76 4.11.5: Double-decker shrine with color symbolism.... 76 4.12.1: Map of San Luis Potos, survey routes and places... 77 4.12.2: SL101, a truck driver monument.. 78 4.12.3: Panoramic and close-up views of bus driver nichos at site SL14..... 78 4.12.4: Site SL17, memorial to a Green Angel..... 79 7.1.1: Map of Jalisco, survey routes and places.. 100 7.1.2: Nicho with visitation pebbles... 100 7.2.1: Map of Michoacn, survey routes and places 102 7.2.2: Site MC27, a nicho on a cliff overlooking the Pacific Ocean.. 104 7.2.3: MC218, 4 crosses with wreaths.... 105 7.2.4: MC18, shrine with 2 wreaths 105 7.3.1: Map of Aguascalientes, survey routes and places.... 106 7.3.2: Crucifix on a wedge with 2 urns, enclosed within a wrought iron fence.. 107 7.4.1: Map of Guanajuato, survey routes and places.. 108 7.4.2: Sacred Heart death monument.. 109 7.4.3: Angel monument.... 109 7.5.1: Map of Quertaro, survey routes and places. 110 7.5.2: Site QT103, a remote Marian shrine in the mountains of eastern Quertero... 111 7.5.3: Site QT147; nicho complex featuring a wooden nicho in a tree... 112 7.5.4: QT108, nicho with a tree.. 112 7.5.5: QT162, nicho under construction..... 112 x 7.5.6: QT163, wooden cross in the eastern Sierra Gorda region.... 113 7.6.1: Map of Mxico, survey routes and places.... 114 7.6.2: Sites MX41 and MX42, metal crosses with roofs above the inscription plates... 115 7.6.3: Site MX49, nicho with a sun-shade.. 115 7.7.1: Map of Morelos, survey routes and places... 116 7.7.2: Site MR 10; 23 crosses and 4 nichos arrayed about a large eucalyptus tree.... 117 7.7.3: Site MR10 within hours of the September 2, 1996 accident... 117 7.8.1: Map of Hidalgo, survey routes and places.... 118 7.9.1: Map of Tlaxcala, survey routes and places... 119 7.9.2: Site TX03; 10 crosses of various designs and materials... 119 7.10.1: Map of Puebla, survey routes and places.... 121 7.10.2: Site PB73, nicho/shrine to the Virgin of Guadalupe at a PEMEX station.. 121 7.10.3: PB89, nicho with steeples... 122 7.10.4: PB94: brick, flat-roof nicho.... 122 7.10.5: PB82, nicho with a deck..... 123 7.10.6: PB40, tiled nicho. 123 7.10.7: PB50, granito nicho and fancy cross.. 123 7.10.8: PB44, nicho with urn.. 123 7.10.9: PB51, double urn nicho.. 124 7.10.10: PB39, hybrid nicho... 124 7.10.11: PB267, nicho constructed as nine crosses.... 126 8.1: Cosmic theme of mural in Chicano Park in San Diego, CA.... 128 8.2: Pilgrims afoot, with semi-truck overhead.... 147 10.1.1: Map of Colima, survey routes and places... 155 10.1.2: Cross with retaining walls and wreath on a dangerous curve..... 155 10.2.1: Map of Guerrero, survey routes and places.... 156 xi 10.2.2: Site GR250, roadside cross at a guardrail abutment... 157 10.2.3: Site GR134, nicho near a curve.. 157 10.2.4: GR99, backwards nicho... 157 10.2.5: Site GR136, nicho with windbreaks... 159 10.2.6: GR239, well protected nicho.. 159 10.2.7: Site GR133, pre-fabricated nicho... 159 10.2.8: GR155, a puzzling cross..... 159 10.3.1: Map of Oaxaca, survey routes and places... 161 10.3.2: Site OX249, 2 crosses among granite boulders.. 162 10.3.3: OX02, weathered wooden cross. 162 10.3.4: OX07, the oldest known cross 162 10.3.5: OX179, memory of a trucker.. 162 10.3.6: OX244, memory of a professor.. 162 10.3.7: OX25, young doctor nicho... 164 10.3.8: OX22, nicho with beer bottle.. 164 10.3.9: OX272, metal pole nicho 164 10.3.10: OX86, nicho with a fine wooden cross. 164 10.3.11: Various representations of multiple death events on the roadside landscape... 165 10.3.12: Two views of a dangerous curve.. 167 10.3.13: Dangerous and ironic places; a) by a railroad track, b) by a monument vender... 168 10.3.14: Roadside memorial nichos with flowers or planted flowering shrubs.. 168 10.3.15: A sampling of the various shapes of homemade nichos in Oaxaca.. 170 10.3.16: OX242, a rustic nicho/shrine to the Virgin of Juquilla..... 170 10.4.1: Map of Chiapas, survey routes and places.. 172 10.4.2: Colorful nichos....... 172 10.4.3: Nichos of Chiapas in shades of blue... 174 xii 10.4.4: Nichos in Chiapas, shades of pink.. 175 10.4.5: White nichos in Chiapas. 176 10.4.6: Roadside memorials in a landscape of clouds.... 177 10.4.7: Sharing the roadway with non-motorists and animals 178 10.4.8: The road as a travel hazard..... 179 10.4.9: a) Nicho near an arroyo seco and, b) nicho moved to a new roadside... 180 10.4.10: Apparently old nichos 180 10.4.11: Nichos in the foreground, life/death in the background... 181 10.4.12: Unique roadside memorials.. 182 10.4.13: Three treatments of multiple death sites... 183 10.4.14: Exterior (a) and interior (b) of CP166, a Guadalupe shrine.. 184 10.5.1: Map of Veracruz, survey routes and places.... 185 10.5.2: Three nichos, one hidden in tall grass. 186 10.5.3: Crosses attached to stakes... 186 10.5.4: Artifacts situated in a way that speaks.... 187 10.5.5: Star nicho with Guadalupe statues.. 188 10.5.6: Boy hanging out at a shrine.. 188 10.6.1: Map of Tabasco, survey routes and places. 189 10.6.2: TB 65, a nicho in tall grass with an ornate cross.... 189 10.6.3: TB45 and TB51, nichos finished with glazed tiles..... 190 10.7.1: Map of Campeche, survey routes and places.. 191 10.7.2: CM52, a metal cross near the Bay of Campeche.... 191 10.7.3: Site CM22, four crosses, two small nichos and bougainvilleas...... 192 10.7.4: Crosses and shelter for four men, two who were professors.. 192 10.8.1: Map of Quintana Roo, survey routes and places.... 193 10.8.2: Site QR09, a side-by-side, double nicho..... 194 xiii 10.8.3: Site QR01, identical nichos finished with glazed tiles. 194 10.8.4: Site QR05, unusually shaped nicho along the Belize border.. 195 10.9.1: Map of Yucatn, survey routes and places. 195 10.9.2: Broken pillar monument..... 196 10.9.3: Nicho with soccer field deck... 196 11.2.1: Cross of the Codex Fejrvry-Mayer.. 202 12.1: Site SN387, an example of an ofrenda at a small nicho.... 216 12.2: Eclectic aspects of Site BS108... 220 xiv ABSTRACT Roadside death memorials are a response to the sudden, tragic death of a loved one; and are appearing with increasing regularity in developed and developing countries across the globe. In Mexico, however, wayside memorials and shrines of religiosity are a centuries-old tradition. This work, an effort to understand why the exact location of a persons death is so important that a sacred place must be created where no place is intended, is basic and exploratory research. A multi-method, and cross-disciplinary case study, based upon the authors fieldwork in Mexico, produces massive data and constitutes a robust explanatory triangulation. A geographic survey identifies 9102 artifacts at 6891 locations and answers the question: what is where? An ethnographic method, applied to place as the physical manifestation of culture, minutely describes individual artifacts at 14% of the sites. Together these methods produce an interpretation, or reading, of the landscape as text at the state, regional, and national scales as well as for individual artifacts and sites. The same concept of multi-scalar investigation is applied to the context in which this landscape appears. Context is addressed along two fronts: the conceptual or theoretical context, and the narrative context of the authors field experience. The former is divided into three topics: religion and the conceptualization of death, emotions as a force, and culture as a dynamic mixture of specific cultures. The minute details of conceptual context, personal experience, and empirical description form a tapestry of hybrid culture and place. These, uniquely Latin American, Mestizo Places signify multiple and simultaneous concepts of be-ing in the world, exist within different realities at different analytic scales, and resist, selectively accept, and modify modernity. xv CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION Driving in North America one is increasingly confronted with the sight of a cross or some other memorial in the median or on the side of the road. We understand, almost automatically without even needing to think about it, that this is a place where somebody died. We also intuit that this cross marks a spot that is sacred, or at least special in some vague way, to the person or persons who put it there. Why is this place special or sacred? What makes it different from a hospital room or other places where death occurs much more frequently? This research is motivated by a desire to understand why these places exist and what they can reveal to us about ourselves. In seeking answers to these questions this research takes place in Mexico where, what is otherwise a relatively recent phenomenon in Anglo-America (Haney, Leimer, et al. 1997), roadside memorials have a long history (see Figure 1.1, from Flores Marini 1966) that has Figure 1.1: Sixteenth-century wayside nichos in Mexico. fascinated the observant for some time (Steinbeck 1951, 68-71). Mexico, as a case study, fulfilled multiple requirements: first, prior experience of traveling and doing fieldwork in Mexico indicated that a large and relatively concentrated dataset could be obtained there; and second, the notion of landscape as text, a means of communicating in a silent manner, seemed especially appropriate in the colorful and expressive landscapes of Mexico. Drawing upon the social and human sciences that concern themselves with texts, it became clear that the context of a text is of great significance (e.g. Basso 1984; Clifford and Marcus 1986; Cosgrove and Daniels 1988; Barnes and Duncan 1992). And lastly, Mexicos long engagement with wayside memorials (see 1 e.g.: De Len 1963, 417; Hendricks 1998, 36; for seventeenth and eighteenth-century references to wayside crosses in Mexico) and consistency of religiosity over time and within one particular denomination, provides a context with a certain degree of clarity. The case study of Mexico stands alone, there is only one Mexico; yet it may also be used as a model or heuristic in understanding what is now a global phenomenon (see, e.g. Rajkovic 1988; Kstlin 1992; Smith 1999). In this sense, this study lies within a global context, which it seeks to clarify through analysis of the specific case of Mexico. Simultaneously, each place within Mexico is unique; indeed there are many Mexicos (Simpson 1966), and each lies within its context. Each roadside memorial likewise has the context of its situation, usually between the pavement of a divided highway or between the pavement and the private property fence of a twolane road. These layers of contextuality are imbedded within the text of this work, sometimes overtly- sometimes not; and are enveloped in a cocoon of poetics that seeks to mimic the reality of roadside death memorials. 1.1: Maneuvering Through the Text This is a strategic text, one that has multiple targets or goals and seeks to achieve them through the use of words, as signifiers, as units and as parts of a whole. Changes in style and topic, the sequence and tone of the text, are intended to convey, or reproduce various aspects of this topic. The purpose of the text is to complicate rather than simplify; to blur rather than clarify. If it achieves these objectives then, I believe, it reflects the real world in which death complicates and blurs ones thinking, and leads to the taking and making of place where no place is intended. This text is a window, a telescope, a magnifying glass and a mirror. Chapters 2, 5, and 8 address the intellectual or conceptual context of roadside sacred places via emotion, medieval Christianity, and hybridity. Chapters 3, 6, and 9 are short narratives of and about the authors experience in and around this research project. Chapters 4, 7, and 10 present the data about which the whole work revolves. The CD-ROM contains over 250 blackand-white and color images that correspond to maps and photographic images that are referred to 2 and presented in miniature in both versions of the text. In the PDF version these are hot-linked (i.e. mouse-clink the text image to access the full image), in the print version one must have a computer nearby and access the image through an intuitive directory. This may seem a nuisance to readers more accustomed to traditional dissertations, but it is worth the effort. These three sets of three chapters are held together by this introductory chapter and Chapters 11 and 12: Chapter 11, due to the massive nature of the data, summarizes the poetics of the landscape as text presented in Chapters 4, 7, and 10; and Chapter 12 concludes the study by pulling together the various strands from the text and conceptual and narrative contexts. Although it is obvious that the same author wrote each of the four sets of chapters, I have attempted to vary my voice to reflect different degrees of intimacy between you and I: in the textual or empirical chapters, with few lapses, the tone is more scientific or formal; in the narrative chapters the voice is familiar, as if we are enjoying a coffee or drink together; the contextual and enveloping chapters occupy the middle ground and are more social scientific. Each grouping has a perspective: the text chapters may be thought of as a view through a window, or at times a microscope, to encourage the reader to see what I have seen; the narrative context chapters are a mirror, offering the reader an opportunity to look into the experience of the participating observer; and the conceptual context and surrounding chapters are a telescope, an attempt to position oneself so as to view the scene from afar. As a whole, the work is a triangulation of viewpoints (see Stake 1998, 96-7) that seeks to place both you and I in a position to connect with the other as an individual human being (see Planalp 1999, 216 for a description of the four levels of communicative connection, i.e.: contagion, empathy, sympathy, and understanding), gain a sense of Mexican-ness, or a feel for how the world works when one crosses the border from here-to-there, and ultimately, to draw upon these knowledges in reintegrating into our academic culture, an understanding of the cultural landscape of Mexicos roadside sacred places that does no violence to it, does not impose upon it an alien episteme, or 3 communal presupposition about knowledge and its nature and limits (Foucault 1970), that judges or understands it from within its own system of knowing, while writing it from our own. 1.2: The Place of this Work This work is placed at the junction of several strands of research and theory in geography and cognate disciplines. J.B. Jackson, the doyen of American landscape studies, stated that the future of the vernacular landscape lay not in the places where we live, but in the auto-vernacular landscape. (Jackson 1997, 152) He pointed out that a shift had taken place from the agrovernacular (152) to a landscape devoted to mobility, reminiscent of medieval and nomadic cultures with habits of sharing or borrowing public spaces. (152) This work describes and analyzes exactly the sort of folk landscape that Jackson referred to. I build upon several well-established traditions in geography. The basis of this work is the geographic survey method of fieldwork (Sauer 1924). Delimited by the network of roads in Mexico, the survey is organized along linear transects that effectively cover an entire nation (see Figure 1.2). This extensive method is balanced with intensive observation of individual sites that are selected based upon the viability of close Figure 1.2: Map of survey transects, including transect numbers. observation. This selection method is neither random, in a statistical sense, nor idiosyncratic; it is a pragmatic matter involving the safety of the researcher and other users of the roadway or its nearby environs. As a regional study, I carry forward the Berkeley-LSU school of geographys long engagement with Mexico (e.g. Sauer 1941; West 1993) and Latin America (e.g. Davidson and 4 Parsons 1980; Mathewson 1984; Richardson 1986). The fundamentals of cultural geography in this tradition are: a historical orientation; a focus on the role of human agency in environmental change, on material culture, and on rural areas; links with anthropology; an individual perspective; and fieldwork (Johnston 1991, 91). My work lies firmly within this tradition on all counts, and follows the guidance that: The geographers ultimate purpose is to understand cultural landscapes. (Kniffen 1976, 52) The effects of culture upon the landscape reaches deeply into the history of geography (Marsh 1865) and is a consistent topic within human and cultural geography (see e.g. Sauer 1925; Thomas 1956; Glacken 1967; Meinig 1979; Norton 1989) over time and theoretical perspectives, or schools (see also; Cosgrove 1984; Jackson 1989; Duncan and Ley 1993; Barnes and Gregory 1997). This work draws upon and extends this tradition, and combines the traditional with the more theoretical, abstract or symbolic approach(es) in seeking a relevant and robust understanding of why culture (i.e. the actions of individual human agents) changes a landscape. In this regard I follow the trait, referred to above, that cultural geography is linked to anthropology. More specifically, it is linked to cultural anthropology, which is nearly synonymous with ethnography; the cultural anthropologists written account of a culture. Paralleling this, I refer to my method as the ethnography of place; if anthropologists produce ethnographies (and practice ethnographic methodology) by studying the people in a particular culture, then it is reasonable for a geographer, studying the places within a cultural landscape, to be practicing an ethnographic methodology of places. This methodology is pointed out because of the advances made in anthropology in the past 75 years in regard to the study of culture(s). Geertzs Thick Description (1973), which describes a semiotic concept of culture and an interpretive approach to it (29), is one such advance. Culture becomes a text with multiple layers of context. Its analysis is intrinsically incomplete [and] the more deeply it goes the less complete it is. (29) My work is attentive to several strands of this literary approach toward ethnography (e.g. Turner 1974; Clifford and 5 Marcus 1986), and maintains that just as culture is contested, temporal and emergent (Clifford 1986, 19); the same is true of place. Within the field of cultural geography, this work lies in the sub-field, or specialty, of geography and religion. This particular sub-field has its modern roots in French geography (Deffontaines 1948) and also carries the Berkeley imprint (Kong 1990). Several major works of general (Sopher 1981; Park 1994) and specific (e.g. Birks 1978; Nolan and Nolan 1989; Stoddard and Morinis 1997; Stump 2000) importance have helped define the field. The sustained efforts of numerous scholars (see: Fickeler 1962; Bttner 1980; Sopher 1981; Levine 1986; Stump 1986; Kong 1990; Cooper 1992; and Raivo 1997, for reviews of the field over time) have advanced a field, which nevertheless ... remains peripheral to modern academic geography. (Park 1994, 1) Within this periphery, substantial work has been done on landscapes of religion and death. Many of these focus on landscapes (e.g. Isaac 1959-60; Jordan 1976; Jackson 1978; Curtis 1980; Weightman 1993), or sacred places (e.g. Tuan 1978; Jackson and Henrie 1983; Manzo 1983; Yeoh 1991; Kong 1993; Phelps 1998). Those which focus on death are usually concerned with cemeteries (e.g. Pattison 1955; Young 1960; Jackson 1967; Jeane 1969; Hardwick, et al 1971; Francaviglia 1971; Howett 1977; Stilgoe 1978; Jordan 1982; Pawson 1991;Yeoh and Hui 1995), although roadside death memorials and sacred places have also received some attention from geographers. Laatsch and Calkins (1986), for example, identified and mapped 24 roadside chapels in Wisconsins Door Peninsula region. Ethnographic evidence chronicles how and why the chapels were built, and by whom; detailed drawings and photographs further refine the type of structures they observed. Hartig and Dunn (1998), working in Australia, identify, describe, and analyze 39 roadside death memorials in the predominately working-class Newcastle region. A majority (76%) of these were memorializing the traffic-related death of young men, and the feminist interpretation of the authors seems logical, on the scale of their study. Henzels (1991) case study in northeastern Mexico (Chihuahua, Durango, Coahuila, Nuevo Lon, and Tamaulipas) greatly 6 enlarged the scale of roadside memorial studies. She identified 316 roadside memorials along a 1500 mile route, and closely inspected 73 of them along a 200 mile section of the route; giving her a multi-scalar point of view on the project. Her in-depth classification of materials used to construct the memorials, and categorization of related features and artifacts serve as models for further studies in this area. My fieldwork overlaps 450 miles of Henzels, and this text expands upon and further refines her classification of memorials. Scholars from other disciplines have addressed roadside death memorials ranging from Austria (Kstlin 1992) to Australia (Smith 1999). Most of the literature, however, is centered in the United States and, as Haney, Leimer, et al. (1997) point out, dates from around 1990 (e.g. West 1988; Barrara 1991; Kozak 1991; Kozak and Lopez 1991; Vidaurri 1991; West 1991; Griffith 1992; Drury 1994; Griffith 1995; Walter 1996; Monger 1997; Kolinski 1998; Everett 2000; Reid and Reid 2001). Of notable exception is Rajkovic (1988), who reports that roadside memorials to traffic accident victims began to appear along the former Yugoslavia roadside in the 1960s. The author identifies five forms of memorial (wreaths, crosses, slabs, monuments, and pyramids and/or fountains), who erects the memorials (family, friends, co-workers, and employers), and relates the custom to medieval tradition in the region regarding sudden, tragic deaths. Rajkovic also treats roadside memorials as a symbolic communication on two levels (inherited, Christian symbols and poetic metaphor symbols), a method left untried by other scholars, up to this point. My contribution to this literature builds upon its overall strength, refines and expands upon the more successful methods, and minimizes generalization errors due to small-scaled perspective. 1.3: Scale, Scope, and Method As case studies, all previous works on this topic have suffered from a lack of multiple perspectives, i.e. they are small-scaled or of an unknown scale. My study addresses this problem by working at a range of scales from the micro- to the macro-scale, or nationwide perspective. 7 The smallest unit of investigation is the individual artifact; many of them, especially crosses, occupy only a square foot of the Earths surface. Each artifact occurs at a site, the next larger unit, which may include other artifacts, plants, debris from the fatal accident, and a multitude of natural and humanly constructed objects that pre-date the occurrence of the memorial or religious artifact(s). Sites are aggregated into the 31 political subdivisions (i.e. states) of Mexico. As in the United States, these units are quite variable in size: Tlaxcala, the smallest state, corresponds roughly to Rhode Island or Delaware, Chihuahua, the largest, is about the size of Wyoming. What this scale lacks in areal equity is compensated for with empirical accuracy, the intersection of a highway and a state boundary is always noted in my fieldwork and, on a map, is always a specific point (i.e. the intersection of two lines). States are then aggregated into regions based upon three predominate types of landscape one would see in Mexico, i.e. arid, temperate, and tropical. As with the state level, the different size of the regions is compensated for by their similarity of climate, vegetation, and the resulting roadside landscape. The final perspective is the national scale. Mexico, the 13th largest country in the world, by area, the 11th by population; is an extremely large-scale case study. The land is tumultuous. Mexico is more mountainous than Montana and rises far higher than Colorado. Though it is only a quarter the size of the continental U.S., the country is made up of so much crumpled land that it seems as if you could iron it out flat and wrap it around Asia. (Parfit 1996, 16) By enlarging the scale of the study, one may generalize about larger-scale perspectives and any theorizing (or speculation) beyond the largest scale has an increased validity. Henzel (1991) provides a model of integrating intensive study into an extensive survey. She selected a micro study area, representing 13% of the total area surveyed, for detailed description. My study refines and expands upon that method by intensively describing 936 of 6891 sites (or 14%) on a more-or-less random basis. The result is more thoroughly integrated intensive/extensive study where the thickly described sites are representative of the total population, rather than a spatially distinct area. All of the 6891 sites appear in the tables that 8 supplement each state section, and 203 of them are described textually, and with 226 images, in Chapters 4, 7, and 10. Figure 1.3 (below) visually displays the sites discussed in the text; each cross represents a site or a cluster of very close sites. Figure 1.3: Distribution of roadside sites, and site clusters, discussed in this text. My interpretation of roadside sacred places is similar to Rajkovics (1988) who views them as a symbolic interaction or communicative effort. Whereas Rajkovic limits the scope of interpretation to the interaction of the specific memorial to an individual passing motorist, I expand this into an intra-cultural dialog engaging in the self-reflective examination of its core values. In order to access this dialog, one must first attempt to gain a feel for the context in which the text appears. One cannot simply pretend to be Mexican, but others can relate to the universal experience of emotions (Chapter 2), the deep history of Christianity in Mexico (Chapter 5), and the theoretical context of how culture moves or changes over time (Chapter 8). This multi-method approach constitutes a synergistic triangulation (Huberman and Miles 1998, 199) or crystallization (Richardson 1998, 357-9). The empirical survey views what is where on the Mexican roadside on a mile-by-mile basis. The ethnography of place(s) reports the minute details of sites and artifacts attempting, inch-by-inch, to tease meaning out of form. And the poetics, or interpretation, of place relates the expressive attributes of these places to their cultural context. The result offers a view of why this type of landscape exists and what Mexican culture is about at this particular moment in time. 9 1.4: A Note on Human Geography Long before this dissertation had any sort of organization, any defining structure, plan of action, or even a title; I was thinking and talking about it. In one of my early conversations about roadside memorials and death on the highway a non-academic friend responded to some of my thoughts by saying: Gee, thats no place to die. The text of this dissertation, and even the title, is (in my small way) a tribute to that naive, straightforward, and commonsensical observation. In many ways this work is written to every literate person who is interested enough to read it. An overly long education and academic credentials are not required to access these pages; it is written for everyone because it is about everyone. The fact that the topic is wayside sacred places in Mexico should not be a deterrent; there are everyones everywhere who have to face up to the reality of the death of a loved one. Each of us, sooner or later, feels the pain of grief and does something that is culturally appropriate in regard to it. Death is the great equalizer of our existence; human beings are simply not being human (or totally honest with themselves) if they are unafraid of death. It is a mystery to us, a change that we are unable to imagine because we have no other persons experience to use as a reference point. The dead do not write books or essays on what it was like to die. It is a pioneering experience for everyone who does it. The pages of this dissertation reveal me as a human being who just happens to do geography; human geography and cultural geography. I am a human, human geographer and I extend to the subjects of this work the dignity that I believe every human being is entitled. This is not about quaint, cute, or rustic folklore; it is about real people experiencing real pain and working it out the way it has always been done in Mexico. Many of them are very poor; some are illiterate; all are human, just like you and I. Their lives are not vain gesticulations (Paz 1985, 54); where and how they die matters, and the dirty, grimy side of a road, in the middle of nowhere, is no place to die. 10 CHAPTER 2: CONCEPTUAL CONTEXT: MOTION, EMOTION AND METAPHOR Throughout this text, the concepts of motion, emotion and metaphor are consistent subtexts; viewed askance or pointed to directly, these concepts are intricate and integral threads to the weaving of this text. Emotion moves through the text as well. Loved ones of those who are memorialized alongside the Mexican highways emote, their feelings inscribed in stone for all to see. The researcher himself emotes in chapters devoted to viewing the viewer. This chapter, centered on emotion, explores the several nexuses of motion, emotion, and metaphor. Roadside memorials are a response to grief by bereaved people. But what is this emotional state that we refer to as grief? Charmaz (1980) states that grief is simply the subjective, emotional response to death of the significant other (280); and that the emotions that constitute grief are, among others, the feeling of loss, suffering due to shock, disbelief, numbness, anger, despair, guilt, and disorganization. (218) As if this list of emotional states were not enough to deal with, fear seems also to be a major component of the complex of emotions referred to as grief. Diamond (1996) refers to the complicated and intricate linkagebetween fear and anger. Where it is almost impossible to locate one of these emotions in an instance of human behavior without finding the other lurking in the background. (34) From a sociological perspective, Durkheim (1995) saw emotions as the key component in rituals, especially death rituals, which integrate the individual into the social order. Charmaz (1980), saw the fear in grief as a fear that the prior sense of well-being or state of affairs will not be regained (282). This experience of loss is related to personal identityif to lose the other means a set of shared understandings about the world, a way of life, and a valued identity, then depression and fear may be extreme. Then the death reflects not only the death of the other but, in a very real sense, death of the self. (282, emphasis in original) In anthropology Malinowski (1954) saw the fear of death as the ultimate and most powerful source of tension in religious rituals, which he viewed as cathartic of the fears and anxieties of daily life. More recent work by psychiatrists and psychologists (e.g. Jacobs 1992; 11 Pressman, Lyons, et al. 1992; and Jacobs and Capps 1997) agrees with Malinowskis thesis and shows an inverse relationship between religious participation and the fear of death. It seems, however, that not all cultures are free to express (or admit) fear; in these cultures fearis a fundamental factor in the genesis of anger, rage, and violence. (Diamond 1996, 34) This is best illustrated in Rosaldos (1984) study of grief and rage among headhunters in the Philippines. Initially the ethnographer was unable to comprehend the turning of grief into rage, the playingout of rage in headhunting, and the agonizing dilemma of having that cultural practice blocked by the modernization efforts of Evangelical missionaries. He was tragically repositioned to the subject when his wife lost her footing and fell to her death some 20m down a sheer precipice into the swollen river below. Immediately on finding her body I became enraged. How could she abandon me? How could she have been so stupid as to fall? I tried to cry. I sobbed, but rage blocked the tears. (183) Like his subjects, the anthropologist came from a culture where fear is less acceptable than anger; and he continued to feel anger, unexpectedly, for at least 15 months after the event. Not entirely dissimilar to my own, Rosaldos experience of grief in the field, and later in his working environment took him to a more profound level of understanding. Yet his new perspective was more important than just a personal experience (at least for other academics), because he was also repositioned in respect to his wifes work (see Rosaldo, M.Z. 1980; 1984), and that of other anthropologists (see .e.g Geertz 1959; Metcalf and Huntington 1991), in respect to emotions. There are two particular points of interest highlighted by Rosaldos account: first, that the experience of anger or rage in relation to the death of a loved one, may in fact be the fear of fear. Unable to experience and express fear due to cultural bias and/or social taboos, fear comes out sideways and is experienced as anger. The second point is his use of the metaphor of force in regard to emotions. He notes that Clifford Geertz defined emotional force as a pattern that is thoroughly internalized in the personalities of the individual, and Rosaldo differed in 12 stressing the concept of the positioned subject rather than the processes of internalization (1984, 194). This metaphor hints at a biological/cultural divide in Western thinking about emotions. One school of thought on emotions starts from the body, another from the mind (Leavett 1996). This dichotomy pits emotion against reason and can be traced from Plato (in Phaedrus) to Descartes, and from Kant to the Logical Positivists. (Barbalet 1998, 30) Emotion, in this perspective, is understood to arise not from the mind but from the body. It is regarded as a compelling force, which leads persons away from the decisions they make, the reasons they have, the choices they take, and is responsible for disrupting the calculations they perform. (34) This bifurcated thinking is further muddled when the mind is interpreted as the brain, leading the neurobiologist LeDoux to conclude that brain states and bodily responses are the fundamental facts of an emotion, and the conscious feelings are the frills that have added icing to the emotional cake. (1996, 302 cited in Kvecses 2000, xi) But linking emotions to any part of the body (brain included) sets up a generalization about different types of bodies, e.g. male/female, that arrives at a set of very mistaken ideas about who thinks well and who is prey to emotions. Freudian thinking (centering emotion in the mind) arrived at a hydraulic theory of emotions that exert pressure against the countervailing force of rational, controlled ego mechanisms.in psychodynamic terms, affect [emotions and moods] can thus be thought of as having an invasive, dynamic quality that can potentially influence and invade a wide variety of cognitive processes and behaviors unless adequate psychological effort and resources are employed to control it. (Forgas 2000, 7) Recent research suggests that the affect/cognition (emotion/reason) relationship is fundamentally an interactive one. (389) Thus the reality, as with much either/or thinking, may actually lie in the middle. Interestingly enough, both approaches result in a metaphorical understanding of emotion as force. The root of this metaphor is our nave, or folk, understanding of the world, the passivity of emotional experience is regarded as the critical feature of emotions. The word passion, 13 originally meant suffering, a kind of passive experience, hence emotions are viewed as happening to us. This is reflected in the metaphor: THE PASSIVITY OF EMOTIONAL EXPERIENCE IS THE PHYSICAL EFFECT OF NATURAL/PHYSICAL FORCES. More generally again, any kind of passive experience is understood in terms of this metaphor. Thus the more general metaphor would be something like this: PASSIVE EXPERIENCES ARE THE PHYSICAL EFFECTS OF FORCES (Kvecses 2000, 42). The metaphor itself is extremely powerful, as it has influenced generations of scholarly work attempting to unravel the mysteries of emotions. Kvecses, a linguist, examines four expert theories of emotion: emotions are bodily disturbances, emotions are a force or drive with organizational and functional properties, emotions are subjective physical sensations, and emotions are remnants of biological evolution. By comparing their metaphors to the most common folk metaphors, he deduces that many expert theories are extensions of folk understandings, i.e. our abstract conceptions of emotion(s) arise from basic human experience through the mediation of metaphors (2000, 114-138). The experience of an emotion moves us, not only metaphorically, but in many cases physically; when an action responds to this force. Religions and belief systems have, until the twentieth-century at least (see e.g. Schumaker 1992, 66; Symington 1994), provided a framework for the expression of an individuals grief. One does what has always been done within ones religious and cultural context. But the prescribed actions usually go beyond the single actor, extending outwards to the community. Klingman (1988), for example, shows how, in the case of untimely death, a communitys grief in Transylvania, is made bearable through a symbolic wedding of the (unmarried) dead. Levy (1984) demonstrates that emotion mobilizes culture, extending the effect of emotions beyond kinship and communal groups by using motion as the metaphor for change. Planalp (1999) and Lupton (1998) focus on the individual in modern/postmodern society and explore how the self is constituted through discourse, communication, and interaction with others; this approach posits a continually moving self that is made and re-made as one experiences and expresses emotions throughout ones lifetime. 14 Mestrovc (1997), on the other hand, contends that emotion in contemporary western society, particularly the United States, has ceased to move us. In a complex adaptation of Benedicts (1934) Dionysian, emotionally expressive, and Apollonian or emotionally repressive; Mestrovc shows how emotion has become increasingly separated from action; how emotions have become problematic, synthetic, and, in effect quasi-emotions. Compassion fatigue, the separation of emotion from action, has resulted in death becoming a brute fact where Human death is all too often treated as if it were the death of an animal. (129) He goes on to state that: Death has always been an affront to human consciousness, on the individual as well as the collective levels and that traditional societies respond to death on an emotional level of innocence. Simply put, the innocent soul cannot let death have the last word. In his view, the rituals of traditional societies were simple, spontaneous, natural, un-rationalized, celebrations of life winning out over death. He counter-poses this with postemotional societies where death trumps life. These various studies on and about emotion(s), which expose but the tip of an iceberg of literature on the topic, offer limited help to the geographer in understanding an emotional landscape. As Kemper (2000) puts it: In primacy of interest, disciplinary seemliness, and volume of empirical work, psychologists own the topic of emotions. Yet, given the scope, span, and ramifications of emotion phenomena, many other disciplines are also legitimately concerned with affective life. Physiologists link emotions to anatomical structures and processes; anthropologists tie emotions to particular cultural logics and practices; historians trace emotions of today to emotions of the past; ethologists seek what is phylogenetically given as well as distinctively human in emotions; and sociologists examine how emotions are triggered, interpreted, and expressed by virtue of human membership in groups.(45) A common thread throughout most of these studies is the perspective that social processes and social relations are the independent variables, i.e. they cause or produce emotions and/or how they are expressed. If the emotions are 15 the dependent variables then, both commonsensically and metaphorically (Kvecses 2000), they are not a force which acts upon but are acted upon by a force. Emotion, as a factor in large-scale social and cultural change, has mainly been studied in regards to the deleterious consequences of excessive pathological emotions (e.g., Scheff and Retzinger 1991; Scheff, 1994); with few comprehensive studies aiding our understanding nonviolent, or even prescriptive emotions and their relation to social/cultural change. Theorizing emotion as an independent variable that acts upon culture and society has a short history. Scheff (1990; 1997) sought the middle ground through an adaptation of structuration theory that combined Goffmans (1974) frame analysis with Mills (1959) sociological imagination. The result is a theoretical approach to the emotions that switches from micro- to macro-scale analysis utilizing interpretation of performed action. His theory, which he calls part/whole analysis, is somewhat weakened by the reduction of all emotions to the master emotions (1994, 39-56) of pride and shame. Barbalet (1998) seems to be the lone voice saying that, emotions are basic to social action and to an understanding of social structures and processes. (170) He points out that rationality is not a component of social structure so much as a quality of social agency and that the bases or social foundations of rationality include a range of particular emotions. (2) Rather than focusing on pathological forms, he treats emotions such as resentment, vengefulness, shame, and fear in the same light as confidence; i.e. as forces in normal or functioning social processes. For example, the emotion, mood, or feeling of confidence is an important feature of social process. The business community, a subset of society, is required to engage in planning. It is limited in its ability to take rational action in this action because the information for rational assessment is unavailable, it can only unfold in the future. Business planning and investment, therefore operates under conditions of limited rationality that is supplemented by intuition, or confidence. If government is sending a message to this subset of society that reflects acceptance and recognition (for example, by bailing out various businesses that are failing), then investment 16 is enhanced and the business community is confident. On the other hand if government is proposing stricter regulations on businesses, then fear replaces confidence and investment will be lowered and forward planning will have more modest goals. These emotions are aggregated products of many individuals, which then act as a discrete force in society. (Kemper 2000, 55) Barbalet describes the process of a narrowing in the wider society, of what is referred to by the term emotion, and to limitations in or atrophy of experiences of emotion by members of present-day Western societies. (171) This operates through a double process: a shrinking of the phenomenal world to the self, and self-experience as the defining force of what constitutes emotions. (172) Where in earlier stages of the development of the national market economy the emergent self is conceived of as being not only independent but rational, both the proprietor of its own capacities and an able manager of its own interests. With regard to these matters today, the individuating processes have now clearly reached post-classic proportions. The individual experience of self as an independent being continues, but no longer so clearly as a center of consciousness. The possibility of the self exerting an influence on market and state administrative processes to which it is subject are so remote as to lead to a reconceptualization of the self. An experience of self as center of consciousness gives way to an experience of self as a center of emotional feeling. This arises in the experiential shift from a sense of control of or meaningful participation in external market and politico-administrative processes to a sense of having no such control or meaningful participation.When opportunities meaningfully to influence economic, political, and other processes are low, then persons are likely to experience themselves as centers of emotion. (173-4) Individuals, as centers of emotion, are placed in a double bind; the occasion for emotion is elevated (due to ones powerlessness) or at least remains the same, yet the social and cultural structures that exist in contemporary society limit the expression of emotional experiences. These constraints on the cultural expression or permissibility of emotion not only limit emotional experiences, but also the scope of rationality. The radical break between them deforms not just emotion but also reason. (182-3) 17 Referring back to the metaphor of force, then; emotions (which arise within the individual self just as thoughts do), lacking vehicles of expression, follow the laws of physics like any other energized force. For example, using Albertson and Simons (1964) principle of hydraulic jump; a body of downward flowing water, when constricted on three sides (one of which is the direction of flow), jumps. We can see this when a river is channeled to a dam, the water level rises and the energy inherent in the water seeks out the slightest fissure as a means to expend its energy. If emotion were truly a force, then one would expect that constricted emotions would follow a similar pattern; seeking out fissures in the social structure to find their point of escape or expression. Needless to say, the psychological and sociological literature is overabundant with examples of pathologies in contemporary society that are easily traced to emotions gone awry. To many, the hallmarks of American culture are, for example, such twisted elements as: the breakup of the nuclear family, chemical dependency, crime, violence, and sexually transmitted diseases; the list could be extended almost indefinitely. In Mexico the building of roadside death memorials is the effect of a highly emotional state, brought on by the sudden, unexpected, and tragic death of a loved one; which spurs action that is both praxis and poiesis, in the Aristotelian sense (see; Goizueta 1995, 82-86). The goal of memorial building, at least on or near the conscious level, lies in the doing of the act itself; there is no consciously sought external reward, it is its own the reward. At the same time, these actions re-produce and reaffirm certain deeply held cultural beliefs about the nature of life and death. Being itself is simultaneously celebrated and mourned, and the result is a transformation of the cultural landscape. Praxis, action that is its own reward, happens at the level of the individual; poiesis, action with an end external to itself, occurs on the level of the culture or society. The dynamic quality of culture, the idea that it is either changing or not, is inherently linked to a metaphoric conceptualization of change. Dodgshon (1998) used this metaphor to 18 good effect by referring to the lack of societal change as inertia. Although we may experience change, it is still an abstract concept. The metaphors we use to visualize it are: Change is motion, Change is a force which causes (prevents) motion, or Change is the result of a force which caused/prevented motion. One need not search deeply into our linguistic expression of change to verify this obvious, yet subtle twist of the mind. America is moving to the political left/right/center. Mexico is changing from an agrarian to and industrial society. The winds of change etc., demonstrate a metaphoric layer which underlies our understanding and conceptualization of that which is signified by change. Cultural change or lack of change is conceptualized, in both the expert or academic and the popular imagination, as a type of dynamic motion or static inertia. Cultural change results in a mestizo-ized or hybrid culture (see Chapter 8), i.e. culture does not simply move from one position or set of beliefs, to another. Culture takes on new aspects and retains the old; individual people must still, somehow, make sense of the world in which they live. The proven and familiar provide us with a zone of comfort and security, a buffer against the new, which brings the discomfort and insecurity of change. Cultural change is a motion that seeks to constantly correct itself through contrary action. These actions or motions, if one is to carry the metaphor borrowed from physics through to its logical conclusion, must result from the action of some force upon culture. The key to these complex cultural actions is emotion. In the case of roadside memorials emotion is the force that causes cultural movement or change. The individual is the agent of change, the death of a loved one is the cause of extremes of emotion that impel the individual to action, and roadside memorials are the immediate result. The overall, long term, and large scale result is cultural change away from the new (modernity, global culture, globalization). At the level of the individual, the force is compelling and irresistible; it is the right thing to do it is how we do things or our custom. At the level of society, the combined force of individuals 19 aggregated emotions results in the inertia metaphor; culture, inexorably moving toward the new comes under stress, and seeks to move back, or conserve tradition. But culture is only the context within which the individual acts; it tells us what the appropriate actions were in the past, but does not always explain how one is to deal with a new situation. Each new day, in thousands of villages and hamlets, the concept of our culture is reinterpreted and re-invented to become pertinent to present events. Some days, in some places, the acting individuals do exactly, or almost exactly, what has always been done in the past. During the fieldwork for this project I put the question of why do people memorialize these places of death? to scores of people in almost every state; the reply because it is our custom was like a drumbeat from the same steady hand. Yet, as anyone who is familiar with Mexico will attest, there are drastic differences in culture in the many Mexicos (Simpson 1966). This amazing consistency indicates that a saturation of ideas exists in Mexico concerning death, religion, and the appropriate action in cases of sudden, unexpected, tragic fatality. There is, in other words, cultural unity in Mexico in regard to this particular cultural landscape. To say that the landscape depicted in these pages is the result of motion sounds superficial and simplistic, on the surface of it. Motion, literally, is the causal agent that brought about the change (i.e. a persons death), which in turn led to a permanent change on the cultural landscape. Motion is a common denominator in all aspects, or layers, of this study; the movement of people and their vehicles along a highway, the temporal movement of a people from the 15th to the twenty-first century, the movement of the dead from an earthly existence to an other-earthly existence (see Chapters 5 and 8), the movement of the bereaved from home to the place where their loved one passed, and the movement of a geographer in search of a way to make some sense of a complex cultural landscape. Motion is a changing of position. When one moves, their perspective of the surrounding landscape changes from moment-to-moment. This change of ones spatial positioning is a reality, not just a metaphor. In modern, high-speed travel reality takes on a fictional feel. One sits, 20 immobile, while the surrounding world appears to move; the result is a landscape that changes, seemingly of its own accord. Little or no effort is required of the passenger in an automobile, train, or bus. We are not bodily engaged in our own motion; we are propelled as objects within an object. This objectification of the moving traveler seems to make the landscape less real; it becomes a moving picture. The creation of places on the sides of modern roads, reclaims the real by creating a landscape, impregnated with the emotions of real people, funneled through their religious practice, and symbolically in opposition to the road itself. The metaphor of this chapter is: MOTION EMOTION = FORCE (WITHIN INDIVIDUALS) ACTION CHANGE = MOTION, CULTURE/RELIGON and the metaphor(s) retain this circularity within and between the text, performance, and conceptual fields. 21 CHAPTER 3: NARRATIVE CONTEXT: A ROSE PETAL ON DADS CASKET Spring of 1999 was my semester of death. Heathers seminar on the archaeology of death kept my nose into books and articles related to the historical archaeologists perspective on death and, in auditing Miles anthropology of religion course, I was exploring deaths relationship to the religious urge in humanity. These interests spurred a further quest into thanatology and a wide variety of psychological, sociological, and historical readings. My intellect was totally immersed in a kaleidoscopic array of morbidity. Beneath it all there was also a sense of apprehension, a feeling of not wanting the phone to ring. That feeling began to take shape just after Christmas when, in the middle of a Lake Erie blizzard, Cindy and I went up north. We used it as an excuse for me to meet her kin (my, relatively, new in-laws), and spent a good deal of time with them in northwestern Pennsylvania. But the real reason for the trip was to visit Dad in the nursing home in Akron. It went well, sort of. He hadnt shown any signs of knowing even my stepmother, his wife of forty-some-odd years, but he knew me the moment I walked into the room. We kept that to ourselves when we made the rounds of my family. Seeing your father/husband struck down by a stroke was bad enough, having him look at you like a stranger must have been unbearable. We held hands and I retold some of the old Dad and Dan stories that hed forgotten, a lot of those remember the time you did such-and-such stories. I told him I wished Id been a better son. We laughed a bit and cried a bit, together, and then said goodbye. Back in Baton Rouge I carried a tension around with me. Not my normal, almost fanatical, intensity that mostly gets funneled into working and playing; this was tension laced with a fear that I dared not think about. The phone call came on Thursday, March18, 1999. We left the next morning. The drive north was a blur. I told myself I was preparing myself mentally; what I was really doing was emotionally distancing myself from what was about to happen. Dad had always wanted our multiple marriage family, a collection of halves and steps, to be an Ozzie and 22 Harriet type family, but it wasnt. My family was/is beyond dysfunctional; but Dad, mostly through strength of will, kept it together through our teen years. Soon after high school we each left. This would be the first time since then that we were all in the same town at the same time, let alone the same room. I dreaded the thought. So I focused on honoring my father. Welcome to Ohio in March: freezing rain, cold, gray, sunless skies, and a drab and dingy pall hanging above the leafless trees. Funeral weather. It was the antithesis of our January visit when the landscape was white, clean, crisp; a winter wonderland of Currier and Ives stature. The driving winds of March combined with the rain to produce a chill that seemed to go right to the core of my being. Cindy and I were the first to arrive so we spent Saturday seeing the sights. Driving and walking through the icy slush I showed her my school, church, grandparents houses, our house, the football field, shopping center, Town Square, and the old factories where nobody works anymore. Mt. Vernon is a town whose time has come and gone. All thats left is the colonial architecture (and imitations of it) that harkens back to where folks came from; theres no sign of where they went. The rest of the family started arriving that evening. We were informed that wed all be having breakfast together the next morning, Cindy and I went out for the evening. I ran into some old childhood friends, swapped stories, got caught up on the typical small town news; a lot of what ever happened to type stuff. It must have bored her stiff, but it was a pleasant enough diversion for me. Breakfast was more of a chore than a meal. It seemed to underscore all of the reasons why we never got together as a family; lots of mind games and the whole gamut of emotional states associated with grief. I was sympathetic, gentle, and laughed on cue when stories were told. After we finished eating I left as soon as seemed acceptable with my older brother Richard, to find an ancestor at an old cemetery out in the country. 23 That evening we engaged in one of our cultures more barbaric customs, the funeral home reception. The dead persons corpse is pumped full of fluids, made up, dressed up and laid out to simulate a sleeper who forgot to put on his pajamas. All of the dead persons friends, family, and associates come together, file past the casket, and then exchange small talk and pleasantries. They all comment on how good he looks. The dead, in fact, do not look at all well. I couldnt stand the sight. The emaciated body was of a old man whod been wracked with pain and stroke. His dead body was but a shadow of the man I had chosen to remember as my father. I kept him locked in his mid-forties; with that Scots-Irish head full of black hair, hands calloused from hard work, his large-framed body (a whole head taller than me) moving with the deliberateness of a strong man. But I did what I had to do; I looked and tried to find my father in that corpse. Then I chatted with people I didnt know or barely remembered. That part was a little more civilized. Later, the Masons did their ceremony. I didnt understand a bit of it, but it was very nice and Im glad they came. They were mostly the old farts; the ones whod really been lodge brothers to Dad, so I knew it meant something to them. The evening seemed to drag on forever. The funeral was the next morning. The drizzling rain and snow had stopped by Monday morning. I was ready, nevertheless, to be on my way south; Id had enough of both the physical and psychological climate. Having decided to skip the post-funeral luncheon, my wife and I packed our bags before dressing for the funeral. The funeral home part was much shorter, if not sweeter. The casket was closed revealing a finely crafted oak lid with a carving of the Masonic symbol. Atop it was a beautiful spray of two dozen red roses. If there was a time during this three-day experience that was an emotional peak, this was it. As for myself, I shed a tear. One. The whole weekend had been about other peoples emotional states, mine were still under controlmostly. The cemetery was on a knoll a few miles out of town; it is one of the new, non-descript cemeteries without headstones or monuments. Being a high point, it was exposed to the chilling wind that kicked up shortly after we arrived. The hole in the ground was neatly disguised with 24 green Astroturf carpeting; a slight gap exposed the concrete crypt that would hold the beautiful casket afterwards. The minister, a total stranger to the family, said some nice things and then gave each of us a rose from the casket before he removed them. This seemed to be the time for final goodbyes and each of my siblings and spouses stepped up to the casket for a moment of silence and then retired to the vehicles. I lingered until all were gone but myself. Words, even the silent sub-vocalized type, seemed inadequate to express the feelings that lay deep within me. I did not speak; I acted as if by command. Somewhere, on the fringes of my consciousness, was the story of the Neanderthals who laid out one of their own in a bed of flowers at Shanidar cave (Constable 1973); I tore a petal off my rose and, reaching into the Astroturfs gap, dropped it into the vault. As I walked to the waiting cars to make my farewells, I thought: Maybe someday, far off in the future when twentieth-century humans are a curiosity, someone will excavate this spot and find a tiny clue that says We loved. There was a lot of work awaiting me in Baton Rouge and I was eager to get back to it. Finishing up the semester, with all of the exams and papers, kept me going full throttle. Preparing my pickup truck for a summer in Mexico filled in all of my free time for the next six weeks. Without realizing it at the time, my emotions had gone underground on that windy knoll in Ohio; I simply did not have time for them. Then I left, and started doing the fieldwork for this project. This is one of several contexts of this research. 25 CHAPTER 4: TEXT: ARID, NORTHERN MEXICO The Sonoran and Chihuahuan Deserts dominate Northern Mexico, which is predominately arid or semi-arid (Tamayo 1953, 96). The northern states correlate to Tamayos north (Zona Norte) and northwestern (Zona Pacfico Norte) agricultural zones (241). Although the effects of climate and agriculture on this study are not intuitively obvious; they do relate to the performance of the fieldwork and, perhaps, the quality and/or quantity of data recorded. Roadside vegetation is generally sparse in the north; therefore, it is easy to see roadside memorials as one proceeds along a route or transect. Agriculture is generally an extensive land use in the north, any particular square foot of land has minimal value; which, in turn, results in the 20 meter right-of-way adjoining the highways being a reality, rather than a theory or technicality. Where the right-of-way exists it is possible, and/or much less hazardous, to pull over for a closer look at a site. These factors are significant in any quantitative analysis of my data and would, at least partially, explain why the least densely populated region has the highest density of roadside memorials. The twelve states included in this region are: Baja California Norte, Baja California Sur, Sonora, Sinaloa, Nayarit, Chihuahua, Durango, Zacatecas, Coahuila, Nuevo Len, Tamaulipas, and San Luis Potos (see Figure 4.01, state locations map). Figure 4.01: State Location Map of Mexico. The twelve states that comprise Northern Mexico are the 61.94% of the total area of Mexico where 27.83% of the population live. In this study; 49.94% of the miles surveyed, 52.63% of the artifacts recorded and 49.25% of that are thickly described are in this region. 26 The region corresponds, roughly, to Crowley and Griffins European-Mestizo North, characterized by settlement forms, house types, and economic activities that are a direct reflection of Spanish culture (1989, 355). The notion of a distinct norteo culture is persistent in both academic writing (e.g. Bantjes 1998, 6-21) and the popular imagination. I recall a particular conversation (on 5/20/99) in Fresnillo, Zacatecas where the gentleman (Julio Santoyo Escamilla) stated rather emphatically that northerners are real men who have to work hard to make a living in a cruel environment; unlike southerners who lay around in their hammocks all day waiting for food to drop out of a tree. Although Julio was quite sincere in his statements about the vitality of northerners, the irony of his birthplace (Oaxaca), appearance (dressed in a suit and tie), and the title on his business card (Branch Manager of a language school) was not wasted. If Julios statements are any indication, this version of regional stereotyping is quite impassioned and would seem to have a deeper source. Perhaps, following Crowley and Griffin, the real distinction is European-mestizo versus Indian-mestizo and; what appears to be regional pride, is really ethnic pride (or prejudice). 4.1: Baja California Norte Baja California (also referred to as Baja California Norte) is the northern-most of the two states into which Mexicos Baja California peninsula is divided. The peninsula, connected to the Mexican mainland by a narrow strip across the delta of the Colorado River; is a long, narrow, mountainous, finger of land featuring distinctive endemic desert plants, like the boogum and elephant trees. Most of the states population is concentrated in the cities clustered near the U.S. border, which results in vast areas of unpopulated desert. Roadside sacred places were surveyed in Baja California Norte along two transects joined at Tecate (see Figure 4.1.1), a border town locally famous for its brewery and a Pamplona-style, bull run. An east-west transect (P4), along Route 2; begins at the Sonora-Baja California state line, halfway across the Ro Colorado bridge, and terminates at the junction of routes 2 and 3. The long north-south transect begins at the 2-3 junction at Tecate; proceeds south to 3s junction with 27 Bajas main road, Route 1, just north of Ensenada; and ends at the state line of Baja California Sur, just north of Guerrero Negro. 325 artifacts were identified at 248 locations along the 577 mile route in December, 1999; there were 249 crosses, 65 nichos, 2 monuments, and 9 shrines. Figure 4.1.1: Map of Baja California (Norte), survey routes and places. Site number BN17 (Figure 4.1.2a), located on the north side of route 2 halfway between the state line and Mexicali, is a typical nicho in the northern style. It is homemade (i.e. constructed in situ rather than prefabricated and transported to the site) of gray painted concrete, with an arched roof behind the mission-style faade. There are three votive candles and a statue of the Virgin of Guadalupe inside the padlocked metal gate. Two aspects of this particular nicho are noteworthy: first, the fact that the adjacent field is plowed up to the foundation of the nicho indicates the high value of land in the fertile Mexicali Valley, and even corporate farms (which are typical of the region) are unwilling to destroy or damage a sacred place for the sake of increased profits. Secondly, this type of memorial creates both a public and a private sacred place. a) BN17 b) BN31 c) BN141 Figure 4.1.2: Nichos showing regional style and change over time. The major difference between nichos and shrines versus crosses and monuments is the creation of a sacred place with an inside in the former case, and with only an exterior in the latter. Not all nichos and shrines have doors or gates that are locked, but the structure has an inside and 28 the possibility of private space. The distinction between a nicho and a shrine is, arbitrarily, size; nichos can contain or accommodate things but not people, shrines are large enough for someone to go inside. BN31 and 141 (Figure 4.1.2b, c) are good examples of memorial growth or accretion as they are improved or added to over time. BN31 was at first a cross mounted into a concrete foundation block, at some later point in time; perhaps the anniversary of the mans death or the Day of the Dead, an open-faced brick nicho was built around the existing cross. The construction again features the distinctive norteo mission style, this time with the faade placed on the rear of the structure. The inscription on the cross explicitly confirms the main point about roadside memorials: March 20, 1987, Arturo Balderes Bueno[?] fell here at the age of 30, rest in peace (emphasis added; see Table A4.1 for the original Spanish inscription). BN141 is a more complex example of an evolving memorial. Based on the weathering of the materials, the sequence of growth was: first a cross, later a small, white, granito nicho was placed in front of the cross, and still later the large slump block nicho was built around them both. Granito is a type of concrete made with pressed granite flakes instead of sand or gravel, which is poured into a mold and polished after curing to achieve a marble-like appearance. The material is called granito by the craftspeople who make these monuments; and marmol or marmolito [marble or marble-like] by the public, indicating that this is the poor persons marble. From the beginning these people had a very different idea of how much effort is proper compared, for example, to site BN31 described above. The original cross, unlike the cross in BN31, was made specifically for this persons memorial by welding horseshoes to form a crossshape. A simple inscription (In memory of JSF, Nov.2, 1991) is welded onto a piece of sheet metal affixed to the cross. The small, pre-fabricated nicho has a black wrought iron gate, establishing the principle of a private space that is repeated on the larger (1m cubed) block nicho. The flowers in foil-covered coffee can on the left are fresh and the others are paper flowers, 29 possibly from the previous Day of the Dead. This site is in the Sierra de Juarez mountains, 30 miles south of Tecate, in the village of El Testerazo. Site BN84 (Figure 4.1.3) is 34 miles east of Tecate, down in a gully in mountainous terrain, on the north side of M2. The two crosses in the foreground are older than those farther back; one is rusted, the other bent and neither has any indication of recent visitation (the Days of the Dead were 6 weeks prior to this photo). The five crosses in the rear may memorialize deaths that occurred in the same accident, just as the two in front might. The point is that at least two accidents occurred at this exact location and both involved multiple deaths. This is a fatally, dangerous place. Figure 4.1.3: BN84, multiple crosses. a) BN134 b)BN236 Figure 4.1.4: Special roadside crosses Site number BN134 (Figure 4.1.4a) is an example of the placement of a memorial cross where a child died; in this case a 4 year-old girl. The inscription, Nia Andrea Valeria Len A., 03-Dic-94/17-jun-99, D.E.P. (descanzo en paz or rest in peace) is painted on a little girl pink cross in bright multi-colors and a small cherubs head is attached to the fancy filigrees between the cross members. The filigreeing includes at heart-shape atop the vertical member. Although I am no expert on the tastes of 4-5 year-old girls; I was told, and believe it to be true, that a little girl would like, and be attracted to, just this sort of cross. Site number BN236 (Figure 4.1.4b) at mile 404, 81 miles south of Lazaro Cardenas on the west side of route1, is both ornate and very special. There are several inscriptions: Randy Bratiskew, 1997 is stamped into a small, soft metal plate that is attached to the cross; the same name plus Jan 6, 1957/ Oct 13, 1997 and Cabo 1000 are welded into a large steel plate 30 mounted at the junction of the cross. There is a BMW motorcycle rim and tire, a votive candle with a Ducati sticker on it, and motorcycle parts laying amid a pile of rocks at the base of the cross. A racing number 57 is attached to the cross at the junction so that it sticks up at a 45o angle to the vertical member; affixed to it is a sticker from the San Francisco to lands end, Greg and Toms south of the border big board disorder tour, 1999, Mexico. This is interesting because, since this man died during the Cabo 1000 in 1997, his friends evidently return to this site to remember him. There is a Tecate beer can, a brunette Barbie doll, and a bunch of plastic flowers; all attached to the junction and sticking up on the 45o angle opposite the racing number and on the vertical. There are also matches, a battery pack and some Christmas-type lights; the batteries dont work anymore. What makes this site special is that Americans, whose friend died here, adapted to the local custom by memorializing the place of death. So, not only do Mexicans emigrate and take this custom north with them; but visiting tourists, this evidence suggests, are inclined to adapt to the custom here and possibly reinvent it later in their place of origin. One could probably extrapolate upon the poetics of this complex of artifacts without any further information, however the following notice was posted on the internet at http://www.teamobsolete.com/dayrev.html: TEAM OBSOLETE NEWS FLASH Date: November 3, 1997 Our good friend Randy Bradescu of San Rafael, CA was killed October 13, 1997 while racing in the Cabo 1000 road race in Baja, Mexico. Randy was an avid competitor, riding his 750 BMW Sportsman and a Ducati Twin. He also operated Fastrac Racing in San Rafael and was the former owner of BMW/Ducati of Marin. He served as Team Obsolete's Race Director at our Laguna Seca event in April. He is survived by his wife, Lynn Farrell-Bradescu; his parents, Melvin and Isabel; brothers Alan and Jack; and sister Karen. Sympathy letters can be sent to Lynn Farrell-Bradescu at 112 San Rafael Ave., San Rafael, CA 94901. A memorial has been set up in Randy's name with Big Brothers and Big Brothers of Marin. If you wish to make a contribution please send a check to 1306 3rd Street, San Rafael, CA 94901, 415-453-3800. We remember #57. The phonetically spelled surname on the cross indicates that Randys racing friends, rather than his family, erected this memorial. Baja racers are noted for their Mardi Gras-like, post race parties in Cabo San Lucas. The Tecate can, and Barbie doll (with breasts deliberately 31 exposed?), along with the motorcycle remains; represent things that Randys racing friends would associate with the aspect of his life that they know. The raised-style welded inscription, which is typical in Mexico, indicates that the materials for this memorial were purchased locally and the cross erected before his friends returned home from the race. Table A4.1 in Appendix A presents a condensed version of the data collected in Baja California Norte. 4.2: Baja California Sur The state of Baja California Sur, with 423,516 inhabitants, ranks 31st of Mexicos 31 states in population density and comprises the southern half of the Baja peninsula. The state was surveyed in one north-south transect along route1 from the state boundary with Baja California Norte to La Paz, and route19 from La Paz to lands end at Cabo San Lucas. The length of the transect was 752 miles; 155 crosses, 69 nichos, 2 monuments, and 26 shrines were documented at 208 sites (Figure 4.2.1). The following discussion focuses on examples of Baja California Surs concentration of unusual, anomalous, or difficult to define roadside sacred places. Figure 4.2.1: Map of Baja California Sur, survey routes and places. Interviews with scores of Mexican citizens throughout the country revealed two popular terms or classes of roadside sacred places: recuerdos and capillas or capillitas (memorials and shrines or little shrines). This categorization is based upon the function of the place and does not take into account its physical attributes. The scheme used in this work (cross, monument, nicho, shrine) accounts for the artifacts form, but leaves its function to an ethnography of place which attempts to discover the functional intent of the authors of the place. The roadside sacred places 32 described from Baja California Sur demonstrate the difficulties of bringing an intellectual orderliness to phenomena that are, occasionally, unruly on the observed landscape. Whether that order is the observers or the participants, the reality and the concept are not always synchronized with complete precision. These examples notwithstanding; most crosses, monuments, nichos, and shrines listed in Table A4.2 (Appendix A) are much more straightforwardly within a particular category. Figure 4.2.2 shows four examples of enduring and artistic roadside shrines. Site numbers BS22 and BS27 are both located on the west side of route 1 in the vicinity of San Ignacio, 100 miles south of the state line (see Table A4.2 for exact locations), in cleared roadside areas. The surrounding landscape is open (i.e. unfenced), desert range. Both are shrines of religiosity; having no reference to any person other than the religious images displayed. BS22 has images of the Virgin of Guadalupe inside both lower and upper, open niches. The green, white, and red color scheme of statues and prints featuring Guadalupe is very consistent throughout Mexico; and shrines which feature her as the central devotional image are easily recognized. This site is well kept and there are decorative plantings of oleander and cactus to either side of the shrine. a) BS22 b) BS27 c) BS28 d) BS141 Figure 4.2.2: Nicho-Shrines as enduring sacred places and artistic expression. The shrine at site number BS27, on the other hand, appears to be in a stage of decline. At some point in the past the shrine was damaged, possibly hit by a vehicle; showing that the construction material is brick overlaid with a layer of stucco. The Holy Family statue (Joseph, Mary, and Jesus) in the small niche is rare as a central image in Mexican shrines, although it is occasionally seen as a secondary image in larger shrines. The discoloration of the stucco, from 33 burning candles and wax deposits, indicates that this shrine and devotion to the Holy Family has some long-term status in the region. Although the shrine, and possibly commitment to its focal personalities, is in decline; the relatively new votive candle on the ledge and the sprig of artificial flowers show that somebody still stops here from time-to-time. Roadside sacred places are built and decorated to be esthetically pleasing, whether they memorialize a death or exhibit religious conviction; sites BS28 and BS141 are exemplary of the artistic effort to create a pleasing place. Both are shrines of religiosity and are mounted on a pole, a common custom in Baja California that is rare elsewhere in Mexico. BS28 is a fine piece of tin artisanship. The shrine niche is an A-frame construction with a crenulated fascia; all of hand cut and polished tin, mounted atop a 3-inch diameter steel pole set in concrete. Affixed to the pole below the niche, is a lead and stained glass, cylindrical, candle box. At the base of the concrete pedestal are imitation flowers in a glass vase. The central devotional figure is the Virgin of Guadalupe. Site number BS141 repeats the niche on a pole theme in a slightly different dimension and style. Here, the niche box is rather plain and made of welded steel sheet metal mounted on a 1-inch square pole. Inside the shrine is a statue of the Nio de Atocha, a popular devotional figure in northern Mexico. The art imitating nature concrete saguaro cactus, judging from the footings, was a later addition and has experienced some weathering. The left cactus arm at the base of the cross is completely gone, with only a piece of -inch reinforcing bar connecting the remnant of the cross to the main sculpture. The top of the middle arm is also weathered, mute testimony to the sandblasting effect of desert winds. Note also, in the nearby background, the presence of the private property fence line. Although there is no indication of a death at this site (i.e. an inscription), the custom of improving a roadside sacred place is more commonly associated with nichos than with shrines; leading one to speculate that this site may have originally been a death memorial. 34 These four shrines point out an anomaly in terminology that arises from the combination of their size and function. All would be termed nichos if there were evidence of a death being memorialized; lacking this, their function is assumed to be religious devotion and they are referred to as shrines regardless of size. Anomalies of this sort are pointed out to demonstrate the difficulty of establishing a typology in this research. a) BS124 b) BS127 Figure 4.2.3: Religious and secular monuments. Figure 4.2.3 shows another aspect of classifying roadside memorials. Both are memorials without an interior/exterior spatial dimension or any form of the Christian cross, and are therefore monuments. Site BS124, with an angel atop the column, signifies the death of a child at this place; and is in remembrance of a seven year-old boy. The inscription: His parents, uncles, grandparents dedicate this memorial (recuerdo) with eternal love names the artifact in accord with the interviews mentioned below. On the right side of the pedestal ledge are several pieces of concrete supporting a weathered piece of 1x4 board; this provides a bit of shelter from the wind of passing traffic, for a votive candle. Also on the second ledge is a pile of very small gravel, a custom that may substitute for the lighting of a candle. Site BS127 (Figure 4.2.3b) is unusual in not having any outward display of religious symbolism. The inscription tablet with a broken corner is a variation of the broken pillar type marker common in nineteenth-century cemeteries; the symbolism is rather straightforward, this persons life ended prematurely. The secular memorial is consistent with the letter of the law, as it existed in Mexico until shortly before the death date inscribed on the broken tablet. Mexicos 35 1917 constitution had four anti-Church articles that forbid, among other things, the public display of religious symbols; these articles were repealed in 1994. This artifact also presents the unusual case of a roofed structure that is not a nicho; without walls it has no interior, nor the possibility of private space, which is the defining quality of a nicho. The expense of constructing a roadside sacred place is substantial given the relative poverty of the people of Mexico. The sites discussed thus far reflect the effort of humble people to honor their dead or their saints. However, grandiosity is not out of the question for a nation experiencing rapid modernization, as the following sites demonstrate. Site BS83 (Figure 4.2.4) is a concrete cross and a semi-circular granito wall, with a metal votive box built-in, mounted on a marble tiled, concrete platform. The surrounding roadside has a layer of clean granite gravel. The design is modernistic, simple, and elegant; a striking contrast with the desert background. The nearest source of water (to mix the concrete) is Ciudad Insurgentes, 40 miles to the southwest. Memorializing this person required considerable planning, effort, and expense. Figure 4.2.5 shows two views of site BS107, a cross and 14 modernistic, broken pillars memorializing 14 people (11 men and 3 women) who fell in the agrarian struggle for water (see Table A4.2 in Appendix A for the original inscription) on April 27, 1974. The memorial was built and dedicated March 1993 by five nearby ejidos (a Federal land grant, agricultural co-operative) Figure 4.2.4: Site BS83, a grandiose memorial in a remote location. 36 Figure 4.2.5: Two views of BS107, a cross and 14 broken pillars. and the tenacity and commitment of these people in refusing to let the death of their compaeros go un-noticed, is even more astonishing than the physical structure they erected. Of further note: because the inscription specifically mentions the deaths were associated with the struggle for water, and the background features a high voltage electric line, these deaths could be associated with either a traffic accident or an accident associated with the construction of the, probably hydroelectric, power line. Site BS108 (Figure 4.2.6) is one of the most elaborate nicho in all of Mexico. The sacred space is a 30-foot square bounded by chain-link fencing and timber posts. The inner area is landscaped with eight trees, of various sizes, and numerous decorative plants; creating a pleasantly shaded oasis in a landscape of relentless sunshine. Figure 4.2.6: Two views of BS108, an elaborate nicho complex. The field notes are as follows: The nicho is about 3m square and features 2 side boxes, nichos of aluminum and glass. The main nicho, in the middle, is tiled with a gable roof; [it] is locked but I can see a photo of an elderly couple and behind it a print of [the Virgin of Guadalupe], to the right is a St. Jude statue; in front are statues of the Nio de Atocha, an angel, Virgin & Child, baby Jesus, praying hands, 37 and 6 floral bouquets. To either side of the door on the outside are 4 floral bouquets, and a [Virgin of Guadalupe] statue, atop the left box; a large Adonis statue [actually, it is Michelangelos David] with a skirt covering his nakedness and a statue of 2 children reading a book, both of these are about 4 feet tall. There are DODs [Day of the Dead wreaths] in the 8 trees that are part of the landscaping that makes the site distinctive. Behind the nicho complex is a crucifix and a large marble wall inscribed; Avendao. Carida Mama y Abuela on the left, and on the right; Carido Papa y Abuelito. On the left it reads; Rosa C. mar 1, 1915 - dic 8, 1992, on the right; Manuel B. jan 5, 1908 - dic 8, 1992, in the middle is a tombstone photo [i.e. a photograph that is reproduced and sealed just beneath the surface of the monument, a common practice in cemeteries in the past 20 years] of the two embracing. The inscription at the bottom of all this reads; Siempre vivieron en nuestros corozones, los recordemos con muchissimo carino; sus hijos y hijas, y todos los que caremos, Descansen en Paz. (They live forever in our hearts, we remember them with great affection; their sons, daughters, and all of their loved ones, Rest in Peace.) Down below that is what looks to be the original pink and blue metal crosses, with filigrees and center scrolls. It appears that this [site] may have grown by increments. The crosses have the same death information. There are also 2 metal and glass votive boxes on poles, one on either side, pink on the left, blue on the right. Quite impressive!! 4.3: Sonora Sonora has the distinction of being the most traveled state in this study (977 miles); a result of its size (the second largest state) and well-developed highways adjacent to the border (which Chihuahua, the largest state, lacks). Sonora was surveyed as part of three transects: the northwestern border transect (461 miles), the Pacific coastal transect (348 miles) originating at Santa Ana, Sonora, and the northern-most width-wise transect (168 miles) which terminates at Esperanza near Cd. Obregon (Figure 4.3.1). In all, 840 artifacts were recorded at 648 sites in Sonora; this the 10th highest density of artifacts, in the state with the fourth lowest population density. Like the states of the Baja peninsula, Sonora has vast tracts of uninhabited desert; the 38 majority of the population residing in the capital of Hermosillo and the fertile valleys along the Pacific coast. Figure 4.3.1: Map of Sonora, survey routes and places. The terrain covered in these surveys varied from coastal lowlands, to lava fields in the Altar Desert, to the majestic Sierra Madre Occidental just north of the famed Copper Canyon (Caon de Cobre). In general, the combination of driving conditions and terrain were favorable to stopping for in-depth viewing. This, along with two other factors, resulted in a high percentage of thick description in Sonora; these factors being: a) the first 50 miles of transect B4 (the northwestern border transect) was the first day of my fieldwork, when every artifact was a new experience that demanded a closer viewing and the tempo of the work was not yet established, and b) the following 411 miles of that same transect I am very familiar with, due to previous research; knowing the lay of the land is a significant advantage where a quick decision is required. In addition, the section from Agua Prieta to Sonoyta was surveyed in August 1997 as a preliminary study to this project, and again in December 1999; this is the only portion of roadway that affords us two views in time. This double viewing is quite informative at site SN402 (Figure 4.3.2a and b); a combination cross/monument in memory of Cristobal Canales, who died in 1984 at the age of 29. The memorial is sponsored by the sister and a friend of the deceased who state that Our home remains sad without your dear spirit, that gave us the nobleness of your soul and the goodness of your heart and express their hope that he rest[s] eternally in our heavenly Kingdom. 39 a) Site SN402 in 1997 b) SN402 in 1999 Figure 4.3.2: A cross/monument 13 and 15 years after the mans death. (see Table A4.3 for the Spanish inscription). These two images demonstrate the principle of memorial growth/improvement in action and within a definable time frame. The images are also taken from very near to the same spot (see the mountain in the background), which allows a comparison of the grounds adjacent to the memorial. The growth of grasses and shrubs in Figure 4.3.2b indicates that regular visitation and maintenance may have slacked off from 1997. The most striking change however, is the muraltype paintings on the cross and concrete pillar, which is painted on three sides. On the front, or the side facing the pavement, is the Virgin of Guadalupe; on one of the hidden sides is a painting of St. Francis; the other has a landscape with three crosses on a mountain, overlooking a village. All of the paintings are un-faded which, considering that the Christ and Guadalupe images face west into relentless sunshine, indicates that the work was relatively new in 1999; fifteen years after the mans death. The lack paint drippings indicate that the painting was done with great care, possibly by a professional muralist. There is a fresh votive candle at the foot of the cross. These qualities and attributes of the memorial: the physical structure, inscription, murals, votive candle, and the landscape within which they appear; constitute the poetics, or expressive attributes of the sacred place. Figure 4.3.3, below, features sites with similar poetics. At site SN466 there are four white metal crosses, with filigrees and center scrolls, on a two-tiered pedestal with an open book in front. There is a fresh bouquet of flowers behind the book and it is inscribed: Alla en el cielo donde sus almas moran, 40 recuerdan por sus esposas, hijos que sus aucencias lloran; Virginia, Jose, Raphael, Carlos descansan en paz, San Ignacio, Sonora The translation (Far away in heaven where your souls dwell, You are remembered by wives and children who weep at your absence; ....) loses a bit of the poetry but captures the sentiment. The use of rhyming words indicates awareness, on some level of consciousness, that this is an occasion to attempt a reach beyond ones ordinary, or everyday, use of language. The references to sadness (in the previous example), loss, and weeping may, perhaps, seem understated for one who is in the throes of the recent, sudden, and tragic death of a loved one. a) SN466 b) SN577 Figure 4.3.3: Sites with poems of word and action. c) SN398 Site SN577, from the road, appeared to be nothing more than a pile of rocks. It is located in the middle of the Altar Desert, a good 40 miles from any water, and people habitually mark turn-off points, meeting places, etc. in the desert with a pile of rocks. Upon closer inspection one sees that the rocks are arranged so as to create a small niche (behind the paint pail lid) and the word Borrego is painted on a flat rock above the opening. It is also evident that this nicho was made entirely from materials that were gathered from the nearby landscape excluding, perhaps, a 5 gallon paint pail which contained a small amount of light blue paint and an old paint brush. In addition to the word Borrego, the paint was used to print the letters INRI on a piece of inner tube (INRI means Iesus Nazarenus Rex Iudaeorum or Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews). The INRI is an integral part of Roman Catholic crucifixes. In this case, interpretation to the point of postulating the intention of the builder(s) is necessary before the artifact can be described as a sacred place. This could be a lot of things that are not sacred, but I believe this is a 41 nicho with a crucifix atop. Because there was scant chance of finding another piece of wood in this barren landscape, the builders and friends of the man they nicknamed Borrego used whatever was at hand to convey the message of sacredness. Building a nicho, in one of the hottest and most arid locations in North America, by finding and carrying rocks, fitting them together to form a solid structure with a niche opening, and crowning it with a symbolic crucifix, is a poem of action. Site SN398 is Sacred Heart statue on a concrete pedestal with nine votive candles in front. A marble slab (which is relatively rare at roadside memorials) is inscribed: Luis Enrique Garcia Arizmende, 22-jan-72/13-aug-97, hermosos recuerdos nos dejaste de tu breve paso por la vida; recuerdo de tus companeros QEPD (You left us with beautiful memories of your brief passage through life;). The builders (Gera, Tony, Enrique, Corecamos, Manuel, Sylvia, Cranky, Estaban, Alvira, Lola, Franco, Herico, and Miel) probably pooled their money, bought a statue and had a marble slab inscribed; then all thirteen of them went to the place where their buddy died, set them in concrete, and signed it within three weeks (the slab is dated 31/8/97) of Luis death! One of the things that this site might be expressing is that the deceased, if he was anything like his friends, was a nice person. Figure 4.3.4 presents site SN508, and its central memorial, as if one were approaching it from the road for a closer look. This site so extraordinary that, after discovering that my December 1999 photos did not turn out, I made a side trip from Los Angeles in May 2000 to obtain these images. In addition, I was able to talk to a local lady about this site during the final visit and my notes from that conversation are included in the description below. This site consists of three nichos and two crosses. The nicho to the right is a granito double nicho with a wedge inscription plate on a platform; it has a Transports del Pacifico Autobus emblem on it and is inscribed: Autobus 359. Recuerdo de tus companeros y familiares, Operador Sr. Demirio Vargas Castaneda, enero 22, 1950/enero 1, 1996 and Operador Sr. Alfredo Ibor Zatino, mar 21, 1967/ enero 1, 1996 The left nicho is of brick with a concrete top 42 and an inscription on top: Sr. Operador Francisco Martin Valezquez Gonzalez Behind these is a prefabricated clover cross with a large wreath and Christ figure, a faded red rose and a marble inscription plate below: Sr. Demitrio Vargas Castaneda, nacio 22 enero, 1950, fallacio 1 enero, 1996, recuerdo de su esposa, hijos, mama, hermanos, sobrinos, y de mas familiares. Next to the large monument is a black metal cross with a center nameplate and filigrees, inscribed: Jsus Antonio Melgar Ruiz a) SN508 b) mother and six children nicho c) mothers cross d) childrens crosses e) close-up childs cross Figure 4.3.4: Site SN508, where a mother, her six children, and others died in a bus wreck. The large nicho is made of marble tiles and has niches on either side, a cross in the middle with a Madonna and child and six crosses with angels; it is enscribed: Familia Ruiz Alvarez, 1 enero 1996, Rosa Esala Alvarez Romero, 7 feb 1965; Cristian M. Ruiz Alvarez, 11 anos; Yera G. Ruiz Alvarez, 10 anos; Jsus A. Ruiz Alvarez, 9 anos; Jorge de Ruiz Alvarez, 7 anos; Ana I. Ruiz Alvarez, 5 anos, Miguel A. Ruiz Alvarez, 4 anos. La voluntad de Dios se cumplio y ustedes viviaron por siempre en mi corazon hasta que decida a reunirnos. Su padre y esposo, J.M.R.N (The will of God was carried out and you will live forever in my heart until it is decided to reunite us. Your father and husband, J.M.R.N.) 43 As I turned and walked away from this site I could not help but wonder: How full is a mans life with a wife and six young children? What did his home sound like on a normal day? How empty is his life when all, but he, are gone in a single moment? Is his home still his home, even in the silent aloneness? To accept his loss as Gods will; is this what it means to be a true believer? Further field notes: On May 3, 2000 I spent the night in Lukeville and spoke to Ana, a Mexican-American lady who runs the motel, has an office between the post office and the store, and lives here on the border. She said this particular monument was put up at the expense of the bus company. Evidently when passengers ride the bus they buy a minimal amount of insurance. She says it isnt normal for people to have regular life insurance policies in Mexico. That monument is well known in the area; she doesnt know where the people are from, who they were or anything like that. Just happens to know the bus company put up the monument. I extended the conversation and asked her; Why do people do this? She said; Well, whenever somebody dies and its not expected, they always just mark the place where the soul left the body. I asked her; Is it because the soul might think its lost or still alive? She said; No, I dont think so. Nobody thinks about it that deep, its just our custom, its the way were brought up; and thats the way we do it. So she didnt give much credibility to that idea but, on other hand, it is not supported by people thinking it through and she didnt discount it. Its one of those we do it that way because we do it that way things. The action is the important part. Ana is a 50-something lady who seems to be a senior employee at Lukeville, probably a member of the owners family. She is definitely very in touch with everything that happens in Sonoyta and Lukeville, for her the border doesnt exist as a barrier. Some roadside sacred places are related to piety alone, rather than as a death memorial. The following are unique examples of roadside sacred places that are places of piety. Although I have seen statues and plaques dedicated to him at the pilgrimage center of Magdalena, Sonora; Site SN402 is the only shrine encountered during this fieldwork that is dedicated to Juan Soldado. 44 This story behind this popular saint is described in Griffith (1995) from an ethnographic account by the builder of this shrine. She relates: Juan Soldado is an alma (a soul), not a santo. He was a soldado razo, an army recruit, in Tijuana, Baja California. His capitn raped and killed an eight-year-old girl who had come to the garrison with food or laundry or something. The captain accused Juan and then applied la ley fuga on him. (la ley fuga, the law of flight, is a Mexican euphemism for shooting a prisoner while trying to escape.) Juan began appearing to the captain and to the captains novia, or sweetheart in their dreams. A chapel to Juan has been constructed in a cemetery in Tijuana. He also states that this lady asked [Juans] help in healing her sick daughter, and built the chapelafter her daughter was cured. (73) Juan Soldado is believed to have died on February 17, 1938 (Griffith 1992, 113) and is popular because of his status as a victim or underdog who, as an innocent, was unjustly accused and executed. He is considered to have power as an intercessor because of the parallel between his story and that of Christ. The logic seems to be that in heaven, as in contemporary Mexican society, people with similar backgrounds tend to help each other, if they have the means. a) Site SN402 b) Statue inside site SN402 Figure 4.3.5: Shrine to the popular saint Juan Soldado. Jsus Malverde, with no claim to innocence, enjoys the popular saint status because he is, nevertheless, considered to be a victim and underdog. He was hanged in 1909 in Culiacn as a result of his occupation, which also earned him the (unofficial) title of patron saint to contemporary thieves and smugglers (Griffith 1992, 111). Figure 4.3.6 shows four views of two shrines to Malverde. 45 a) Site SN520 b) Inside SN520 c) SN18 d) Inside SN18 Figure 4.3.6: Shrines to Jsus Malverde, a Mexican Robin Hood. The third of the three shrines dedicated to Malverde that were observed during this research, site SN628 lacks a good photo of the site. It is badly blurred, my hands were shaking a bit by the end of the conversation related in the following field notes: This is a brick nicho to Jsus Malverde with an arched roof, and a small altar with a bust of Malverde on it. A man who lives in the nearest house said that one of the neighbors put this up, its not because anyone died here, rather it is out of devotion to Malverde who the man referred to as a saint. He is a sort of Robin Hood who robbed from the rich to give to the poor. The man referred to the nicho builder as un seor, and described him as a Mafioso. And he said; I dont know if you should linger here very long, the people around here used to be Mafiosos and strangers make them nervous. There was no pretending that Malverde was not a criminal, rather it is his criminality that has elevated him to sainthood in the popular imagination. As an underdog/victim, Malverde fought poverty in a way that many are tempted to take; but, so the legend goes, he did so to the benefit of others as well as himself. Malverde is especially interesting because of his un-saintliness, a trait with which most people could identify. The previous sites are examples of how real people are placed, both in the popular imagination and upon the landscape as the focus of sacred places. Place itself can also be made sacred by the popular imagination, as site SN627 (Figure 4.3.7, below) demonstrates. This site, located 15 miles east of Esperanza on a country road, features a hot springs that has gained a reputation for healing. The main shrine is a double shrine dedicated to San Judas and 46 the Virgin of Guadalupe. To the left of it is an open shrine with a large ceramic of the Virgin of Guadalupe that is about 4 feet tall and hand painted; there is a small niche with another ceramic done in glitter paint and a pipe cross behind it. Attached to the cross are pieces of cloth, childrens socks, rosary beads, and a variety of other objects. In front of these is a pool fed by a hot spring that, according to a lady who was there with her children and her sisters kids, has healing powers. She said people who came here and were cured built the shrines. It was quite fun, the kids posed and hammed it up. I was there around 30 minutes (an unusually long time for a site) and throughout that time people kept arriving, going straight to the pools, to the shrines afterwards, and then leaving. Figure 4.3.7: SN627, a shrine complex at a miraculous spring. This section touches on but a few of over 600 sites and 800 artifacts in Sonora, which, could well be subjects of their own dissertation. The influence of Sonora on this research project is considerable. The fieldwork began and ended in Sonora, and in fact, the topic was incubated there as I drove back and forth to another project. But more importantly, the basic concepts and questions that carry through this text, first came to light here; a few of them are brought forth in the examples above, Table A4.3 in Appendix A locates and describes the others. 4.4: Sinaloa A long, narrow territory lying between the Pacific Ocean and spurs of the Sierra Madre Occidental, Sinaloa has low, hot, humid plains and numerous marshes. The varying elevation, many rivers, and fertile valleys contribute to the variety of crops grown, including sugarcane, 47 cotton, grains, tomatoes, rice and citrus fruits. Sinaloa has an area of 58,328 sq km (22,521 sq mi) and a population of 2,534,835 (2000). Figure 4.4.1: Map of Sinaloa, survey routes and places. Most of the survey of this state (394 miles) was along the Pacific coastal transect (L3); but the smaller section (59 miles), along transect W2, was by far the most interesting (see Figure 4.4.1). This road, route 40 from Durango City to Villa Unin, near Mazatlan; passes through the heart of the Sierra Madre Occidental and is renown throughout Mexico. Truckers, engaging in barroom bravado, tell tall tales about their trips over it and travel guides suggest particular caution when driving [this] potentially dangerous route; this advice given in the context that driving in Mexico is as exciting as swimming in shark-infested waters, and its much more dangerous (Chainani 1999, 36). Good judgment indicated that I take special precautions; so my wife vacationed by accompanying and assisting me in surveying of the road known as The Devils Backbone. In all, 694 artifacts were recorded at 531 sites in Sinaloa; 445 were crosses, 233 were nichos, 12 were shrines, and 4 were monuments. The following descriptions are a sampling of these artifacts and sites. Site SA111 (Figure 4.4.2), with the Sierra Madre in the background, is an old and weathered granito cross atop a concrete pedestal. A pile of bricks in front of the cross are arranged in a manner suggesting the intent to fashion a small niche. The face of the cross has an inscription that is indecipherable, and the arms of the cross have chunks missing; the pedestal and bricks are molded and mildewed. Yet, a small, relatively new, cross of woven straw is suspended by a string from the upright arm; indicating that this person is still remembered by someone. 48 a) SA111 b) SA310 c) SA118 Figure 4.4.2: Examples of diverse crosses in Sinaloa. d) SA127 The charred background at site SA310 shows the most popular method of clearing brush along roadsides in Mexico. The recently (12/19/99) burned area specifically avoided these four metal crosses and three of them have fresh votive candles at the base of the cross. From the inscription scrolls we can see that this is a family group and that they died together, on the same day. These crosses are made of square aluminum tubes whose ends are smashed and cut into spear-points; filigrees are made of aluminum strips that are curled on both ends and spot-welded onto adjacent arms of the cross. This type of cross is readily available for purchase at a variety of places, but vendors of such items are most easily found at shops and stands near cemeteries. SA118, 26 miles west of the Durango state line, is a particularly dangerous place. Three artifacts mark four deaths that occurred here in separate incidents in 1993, 95, and 96 (see Table A4.4). The artifact in the middle has rosary beads hanging from the upright arm, and the cross to the right has a crucified Christ attached, making it a crucifix; both define this as not only Christian, but as a Roman Catholic sacred place. Site SA127 was memorable because the highway pavement nearby to the artifact had muddy tracks made by a narrow wheel-based vehicle. Judging from the freshly broken trees above the rear of the cross retaining walls, and the fresh scars in the soil; some earth-moving equipment (probably a Bobcat-type machine) had been working on this site very recently. I arrived at the site on a Sunday morning so work was likely done here on Saturday or Friday evening. Whether this is when the actual memorial was erected or not is debatable; but whatever work was done, those doing it rewarded themselves copiously (see Table A4.4). 49 Although site SA241 does not specifically name the person being memorialized (the inscription gives only initials) but one can surmise from the symbolism that it was a girl or young woman. The nicho has winged cherubs attached to each of the roofs front corners, indicating a child, and the concrete of the nicho is painted pink for a girl (see also Figure 4.1.4a). This nicho displays an assortment of fresh and artificial flowers and shows indications that it is frequently maintained. Site SA32 on the other hand, is visited but not as regularly. The flowers are wilted and the interior is partially covered in water from recent rains; more frequent visitation tends to result in both structural and decorative maintenance. a) SA241 b) SA32 c) SA89 Figure 4.4.3: Three Sinaloan nichos. Site SA89 is a memorial complex consisting of a wooden spindle-cross, a black metal cross, and a concrete nicho with a cross atop; all in memory of the same man. The cross atop the nicho features a coat-of-arms, probably from a truck; a Virgin of Guadalupe statue, and 2 urns also sit atop the nicho. This seems to indicate several stages of a memorializing process that began soon after the man died here in 1995. Shrines are not emphasized in this work because they are usually not related to memorializing a persons death. They are however, the most visible of roadside artifacts due to their size. Site SA109 is offered as an example of the scale that shrines commonly achieve. Although the actual shrine part (top center) is unimposing, my wife (seated on the third step on the left) provides an idea of the entire structures size. Even more impressive, in my opinion, is that the whole shrine complex, was immaculately maintained; a condition requiring daily effort. 50 a) SA109 b) SA18, exterior. c) SA18, interior. Figure 4.4.4: A religious shrine and two views of a death shrine in Sinaloa. Site SA18 is a large (2x2.5x2.5m) turquoise shrine with a gabled-roof and two black metal crosses in front on the roof wings. It is enclosed by black wrought iron fence with turquoise posts and is landscaped with a variety of flowering shrubs. Inside is large print of Nuestra Seora de Guadalupe, fresh flowers, a photo of a young man, and above it another print. There is no name or date, just the man's photo. The following are my field notes from this site. Ok, I just finished having lunch just near that last site and as I was finishing up; a guy pulled up in his pickup truck with his three sons, got out at the site, cut some of the flowers off of the planted flowers outside of the shrine (but inside of the fence), and took the in to refresh the flowers inside. I went over and talked to him and as I pulled up I noticed he had California plates; the conversation took place in English. I asked him, why does this happen instead of just in the graveyard, I asked him in several different ways. I asked him does this happen when somebody is out working in the field and they fall, does somebody up a shrine out in the field? He said: Well, they can he didn't say they do, just that they can. So I asked him OK how about like my Dad died last February and he had been sick for quite some time, when something like that happens do you put up something in the place where he died? He said; No, of course, we can't do that in the hospital and we know that. This is an old custom and when people expect someone to die we just put them in the cemetery, and we honor them in the cemetery. But this is for when somebody dies and you don't expect it. You know it hurts much more, the pain is much more when somebody who is young dies. His name was Estaban and he is the cousin of the boy whose picture is in the nicho. [later that day] Further elaborating on the conversation with Esteban, he said: You know in 51 America you can leave home at the age of eighteen, but you can't do that here. You have responsibility to your parents because they brought you up; so you have that responsibility for your whole life. He said: Although the deceased was only his cousin, they were very close. He also said that he and his cousin had gone to California at about the same time and were the same age. His cousin was on his way home, after being away for several years, and got hit by a bus while crossing the road. I also asked if he needed permission to build such a fine shrine and he said they spoke with a relative who works for the municipio and were told that all they had to do was maintain it. He also said that permission wasnt needed for crosses and such, but that his family sought out advice as a courtesy. 4.5: Nayarit Nayarits 10,547 sq mi (27,317 sq km) is broken by spurs of the Sierra Madre Occidental, resulting in the wild and rugged terrain that is home to the Huichol Indians. The northeastern portion of the state has broad, tropical plains watered by the Santiago River. Volcanic soils, heavy rains, and altitude variations permit a variety of tropical and temperate agriculture such as grain, sugarcane, cotton, coffee, and tobacco production and cattle raising. Figure 4.5.1: Map of Nayarit, survey routes and places. A variety of roadways, amounting to 313 miles, were surveyed in Nayarit during June 1999 (Figure 4.5.1). Excepting 51 miles on the northern spur of transect W3 (a four-lane highway that had but one cross), the state was part of the Pacific coastal transect (L3). A total of 235 artifacts (186 crosses, 43 nichos, one shrine, and 5 monuments) were recorded at 183 locations. 52 Both religious and familial sentiments run deep in the death memorials described in this work. In many instances, symbols give expression to the religious aspect of the memorial, and inscribed words address the loss of a family member. Few memorials express both sentiments as simply and eloquently as site NT126. Located at the junction of routes 68 and 200 near Compostela, the site consists of five crosses mounted upon a 3-tiered pedestal. All have the date 11-8-90 (which usually means August 11, 1990) and the names of the people; three men and two women. The inscription on the pedestal reads: Parents: For an inheritance they left us the most beautiful treasure, the memory of their example and of their life on earth, and we know they are not dead, but have begun to live. Amen (see Table A4.5 for the original wording). Figure 4.5.2: A cross in memory of a 31-year-old woman. Site NT132 (Figure 4.5.2) upsets the idea that roadside death memorials are landscape statements of ..youth machismo (Hartig and Dunn 1998, 18). In Mexico, if my observation of fellow wayfarers is any indication, women are memorialized out of proportion to their participation as drivers and, perhaps even as travelers. This may be due in part to elements of ambiguity and ambivalence regarding the place of women in Mexican culture (see e.g. Martin 1990; Paz 1985, 65-88; Limn 1994); and/or particularly stressful emotional states resulting from the loss of a female family member. Table A4.5 in Appendix A details the sites and artifacts observed in the state of Nayarit. 4.6: Chihuahua Chihuahua is Mexico's largest state, it covers 244,938 sq km (94,571 sq mi), and the population is 3,047,867 (2000). The vast, cactus-and-greasewood desert basins, broken by 53 scattered barren ranges, cover the north and east portion of the state; in the west the Sierra Madre Occidental reaches 2,725 m (8,940 ft). The forbidding landscape of Chihuahuas borderland seems suited to little but a hideout for bandits; western movies delight in bad guys riding across the Ro Grande to escape justice, and the legendary exploits of Pancho Villa (a bandit by some accounts, revolutionary hero by others) were centered in northern Chihuahua. Figure 4.6.1: Map of Chihuahua, survey routes and places. At Nuevo Casas Grandes, in northwestern Chihuahua, the vast and important archaeological site of Paquim indicates that an advanced civilization once thrived here. Cattle raising and cotton cultivation on irrigated land are currently the major agricultural land uses. Eight hundred sixty-seven miles of Chihuahuan roads were surveyed along three transects; the L2, W1, and B4 (Figure 4.6.1). A previous study of roadside memorials in northern Mexico (Henzel 1991) is overlapped along the L2 transect in Chihuahua for ~200 miles. I sighted 442 artifacts at 328 locations; 364 were crosses, 64 were nichos, 13 were shrines and one was a monument. Although Chihuahua has an extremely high proportion of crosses (82% of the total number of artifacts versus the national average of 68%) the following descriptions focus on the poetic attributes of nichos and shrines. Figure 4.6.2: CH322, a true grotto. 54 Many words are used in different parts of Mexico to refer to memorials, and the four categories of memorials used in this work; Henzel (1991) used cruces, evidently because they are the dominant form in the corner of northern Mexico where she worked. Another term grutas (grottoes) is used in southern Texas (West 1991); yet grotto-like artifacts are rare along the roadside in Mexico. One notable exception is site CH322 (Figure 4.6.2). Located 27 miles west of Ojinaga this shrine draws ones attention with the brightly painted red, white and green stairs and railing that lead up from the roads gutter to a small cave. The color scheme of the outside announces that this is a shrine dedicated to the Virgin of Guadalupe. Judging from the soot deposits it experiences frequent and, in this photo, recent visitation. The poetics, or expressive attributes of a place, are not always as straightforward as the above example. Figure 4.6.3 below shows three nichos whose expressive attributes may mean different things to different people. Site CH100 is a complex of articles including a brick 0.75 x 1 x 0.5m tall nicho with a black concrete, gabled roof and centered blue cross with flowers attached. The interiors rear wall is in black tile and the center tile has an image of St. Carmen, Nuestra Senora del Carmen, a 7 x 12cm photo of a young male in a wood frame, a plastic toy Harley Davidson chopper, a 15cm tall St. Jude statue with the head missing, 2 bouquets of red silk roses, and a votive candle. Adjacent to the nicho is a blue wooden cross with a framed print of Jesus in the middle and flowers atop, and a black metal cross with a floral wreath inscribed; 15-10-95 Elco Jaime Parra Galavez 1963-1995. With no information to the contrary, I assume that these artifacts memorialize the same person and exemplify the process of memorial improvement over time. CH138 is one of only two memorials observed where the angel figure does not signify a child (see section 4.12). At first glance one would assume that the angel signifies a child but, upon closer inspection, the inscription (Sr. Oscar Armenta S. el 16 de Mayo 91 a la edad de 31 anos Q.R..Z. Angel Perverso V. 427 Angeles Latinos tus companeros te recuerdan- Figuermex) indicates that this memorial is for a trucker (Figuermex is a trucking company) and was built by 55 his co-workers (Your co-workers, the Latin Angels remember you,). In this instance the poetics seem aimed at insiders who understand who the Latin Angels are; the reference to the Wicked Angel (Angel Perverso) may refer to the angel of death or, possibly, the deceaseds nickname within a fraternal organization. In either case, the angel as a symbol of innocence and purity is turned on its head by the text of the inscription. a) CH100 b) CH138 c) CH97 d) CH152 e) CH92 f) CH195 Figure 4.6.3: Various expressive, or poetic, attributes of nichos. Site CH97 offers yet a different type of poetics. This site is an arch roofed granito nicho with a glass and wood door. Inside the nicho are 4 votive candles. The nicho is inside a 2m square wrought iron fence and is flanked by 2 white granito, 1m tall crosses. The south cross is inscribed; 22-6-78 Fallecio Luis Felipe Velezguez Garcia familia y amigos recuerdan. The north one is inscribed; Margarito Castillo M. 10-17-54 + 6-22-78 familia y amigos lo recuerdan y en una manana triste de los mas dulces dias la muerte la celosa por ver que me querias como a una margarita de amor te desajo (... family and friends remember him, And in a sad morning of the sweetest of days death, the jealous one, seeing that you loved me picked you like a daisy of love.) 56 A clever use of simile and metonymy substitutes margarita, a common noun meaning daisy, for the deceaseds proper name, Margarito, in a way that tenderly reflects back upon the deceased as a beloved person of ephemeral beauty. The text also personifies death as jealous of the love of others. Images of death, as the grim reaper, abound in religious bookstores and shops in Mexico; a byproduct of the iconodulic practice of Roman Catholicism. The poetics of the inscription, which appears punctuation-less on the base of the cross, is heightened by its presentation here as verse. This is, perhaps, an appropriate place to point out that translating from Spanish-toEnglish in this context is not a simple task. It is, more often than not, a dual task of simultaneously translating and interpreting; and the results are often liberal, rather than literal, readings of the intended message (Tambiah 1990, 121-7; Brady 1991 and many other anthropologists address translation problems; post-colonial writers, e.g. Coombes 2000, also engage translation from a slightly different perspective). There are several reasons for this, most have at their core that the spoken word (in Spanish) is being transferred into the written word. Often someone places the words on the memorial other than the bereaved; e.g. a stonecutter, welder, or other tradesperson. The result is often a text with misspelled and phonetically spelled words, which may lack punctuation, proper grammar, conjugation, and subject article agreement. This is not unusual where the spoken word is more important than the written and, where most people have a limited level of literacy. Both are expected in rural areas and among those who work with their hands. The burden of the observer, therefore, is to read empathetically and hope that translation plus sensitivity equals understanding, rather than mind reading. CH152 verbalizes a form of bargaining with the dead. The inscription states that: now that you are in heaven, we know that you will remember us as we do you (ahora que estas en el cielo sabemos que te acuerdar de nosotros como nosotros de ti). This implies that the nicho is part of a quid pro quo arrangement that is being sought by his former co-workers. Having helped get their fellow into heaven, it is only fair that he return the favor (from his privileged heavenly 57 location) when their time(s) come. Allowing that he is in heaven then, the statue of St. Jude is a bit incongruous. Jude is the patron of the desperate, or hopeless cases, of the downtrodden, those who are without a prayer. The symbolism of the statue seems to contradict the text. CH92 is a complex memorial with a metal cross, a small metal and glass nicho, and a large granito, open-faced nicho on a raised, concrete platform. This latter has a cross atop the arched roof, a crucifix inside, and an inscription plate and three urns in front of the niche. The inscription reads: Si el dolor y el sacrificio esuma oracion sin palabras estamos orando por tidesde que nos de jastes sin nos me quisistes hermanos y amigos no me olvides en nuestra oraciones. (If pain and sacrifice are high prayer without words, we are praying for you from the moment you left us. If you love me brothers and friends, then you will not forget me in our/your prayers.) Dedican esposa hijos padres hermanos y companeros. The latter part of the sentimental message (from sin nos me or If you love me) emphasizes the difficulties referred to above. This translation represents the best efforts of the author and three other bilingual scholars, two of whom are Mexican nationals, but could still be missing the intended message. The difficulty begins with sin (without), which has to be si (if), and gets worse. The sense, however, is similar to CH152 in that; the living are praying for the dead, and expect the dead to pray for them in return. It is particularly interesting that pain and sacrifice are equated to a superior form of prayer, or communication with the divine. The pain, one assumes, refers to the emotional pain of grief. From the artifacts on the site, we can see that this is another example of a memorial that advanced in stages over time. The final stage (the prefabricated nicho), depending upon the economic circumstances of the family, could have involved a substantial sacrifice for the widow and children of a 36-year-old man. Site CH195 returns to the non-verbal type of symbolism that began this section. The inscription on this prefabricated granito nicho is: Jsus Barcenes Vicencio 22 nov 1990 recuerdo de sus companeros (a remembrance of his buddies). The Chevrolet symbol says that Jsus was a Chevy man. My friend Joe was a Chevy man (see section 4.9). He would probably 58 chuckle and say that: Ford means Fix Or Repair Daily and you cant die in one because they wont go that fast. The brand of car one drives means a lot to some people; Jsus seems to have been one of them. 4.7: Durango Contiguous to Sinaloa, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Zacatecas, and Nayarit; Durangos area of 123,180 sq km (47,560 sq mi) extends from the western edge of Mexico's central plateau into the Sierra Madre Occidental. Its population of 1,445,922 (2000) engage in livestock ranching as the major economic activity on the semiarid plateau, and grow corn, cotton, wheat, tobacco, sugarcane, and vegetables in the irrigated Ro Nazas valley. I surveyed the state along two transects (Figure 4.7.1); the L2 route through the center of the country, and the W2 which passes from Piedras Negras on the Ro Grande to Villa Union on the Pacific Coast Highway. 338 sites were recorded in 554 miles and 463 artifacts were described, they were: 361 crosses, 93 nichos, and 9 shrines. Figure 4.7.1: Map of Durango, survey routes and places. Two of the threads running through the tapestry of these descriptive chapters are the ideas of transition and blurred boundaries. The classifications: cross, nicho, etc. attempt to bring order into a disorderly reality. Occasionally an artifact evolves, is added to, improved, or upgraded, from one of these artificial categories to another. Likewise, some defy being pigeonholed by exhibiting a form and/or function that are both one thing and another. Even though most artifacts fit a rubric; these are pointed out because they are exceptional, because the 59 human landscape has chaos and contradiction. Figure 4.7.2 highlights sites that are difficult for their reality to fit the authors intellectual structure. Site number DG09 was constructed as both a death memorial, evident in the inscription: En memoria de (In memory of); and as a shrine of religiosity, featuring the central figure of the Sacred Heart of Jesus. The inscription (see Table A4.7) names 15 people, and indicates that they died at this place while walking on a pilgrimage in honor of el Seor de los Guerreros (the Lord of the Warriors). The size and accessibility of the shrine, and the visibility of the central statue, make it an inviting place of respite and prayer that may be visited by any wayfarer. This death memorial, with its scale and the openness of a public place, assures that others will stop here to pray; perhaps adding a prayer for the pilgrims, long after the builders are dead and gone. a) DG09 b) DG257 Figure 4.7.2: Death memorials that create an unruly reality. Site DG257 appears to have evolved into its current state over time, and is similar to DG09 in the blurred boundary aspect because of its size. An adult person can partially enter, i.e. one may kneel just inside the gate, so this is nearly shrine-sized. The most remarkable aspect of this place is the explicit naming of itself as this sacred place (este sagrado lugar). The symbolism of these roadside places, observed behavior of people in regard to them, and responses of those directly questioned, all indicate that the artifacts discussed herein are sacred places. This, however, is the only artifact observed that specifically refers to itself as sacred. Most artifacts, as stated above, straightforwardly fit into one or another of my four form based classifications; this does not mean, however, that a cross is a cross is a cross. Each artifact 60 and each site has its own unique story and may be viewed comparatively as part of a larger scaled context. Figure 4.7.3 (below) shows seven sites that feature one or more crosses of various us sizes and materials. They are: a) a 25 foot tall marble tile cross on a 5x5x2 foot tall pedestal, with a 10 foot tall green wood cross is about 20 yards away in the background, b) a white concrete/granito cross, c) a white metal cross, d) a blue wooden cross, e) a blue pipe cross, f) 3 green metal crosses, and g) 4 white metal, and a lacquered wood cross, clustered on and near a rock that has a red cross painted on its surface. a) DG156 b) DG211 c) DG25 d) DG57 e) DG27 f) DG67 g) DG104 Figure 4.7.3: Roadside crosses, examples of variation, materials and scale. Site DG156, which names two clergymen and an attorney, seems to exude affluence; its size commands attention, and the marble tile finish is relatively expensive. Yet, one need not know the price of any particular material, size alone sets it apart. Compare the field number plaque at DG211 to the same plaque at DG156; this artifact is huge in comparison to all the other crosses in Figure 4.7.3, which are approximately the same size as DG211. In this case, when comparing an artifact to others in the state, size means affluence. At site DG67, with each artifact viewed in relation to others at the site, size has a different meaning. Here, apparently the two larger crosses signify adults and the smaller cross signifies a child. How one views an object 61 depends upon ones perspective, not only in the sense of where one is physically situated in the field, but also upon which of the descriptive/analytic scales is given intellectual preference at a given moment. Sites DG211, 25, 57, and 27 visualize the different materials used for crosses. DG211, a memorial for an engineer who died in this place, is a granito cross with a concrete slab in front for the inscription. DG25 is made of flat metal bars and painted white; the letters D.E.P. are placed at the ends of the arms, from top-to-left-to-right, the top scroll has I.N.R.I. painted in black and the centered scroll has the name of the man who died here. DG57 is made from two pieces of 1x3 lumber, fastened together with screws one atop the other (rather than half-lap joined, which results in the pieces being flush to each other), and painted blue. And site DG27 is a pipe cross, made of three pieces of pipe, ends cut at a bevel, and the two short pieces welded onto the longer to form a cross. The center scroll is spot welded onto the junction and conveniently hides unsightly sloppy welds or burrs that may have resulted from the first process. All of the crosses in Figure 4.7.3 have a concrete footing or base of some sort. Site DG104 emphasizes the reality of the fieldwork, where one must see and respond quickly and appropriately. The convergence of hazards; a sharp turn sign, a large boulder, and a railroad track, presents a scene that seems to shout Be careful! Five, or possibly six, people are memorialized here. The sixth, which is a red cross painted on the surface of the boulder, may have been a predecessor of one of the crosses; part of the process of memorial transition or improvement. Because there is no inscription to confirm this hypothesis, it is counted as a separate artifact. In addition to the variety of size and materials displayed by crosses; nichos also have a complex variety of shapes, and the potential, because of their capacity to shelter, to provide an ethnographically rich encounter with place. Figure 4.7.4, below, shows examples of the nichos encountered in Durango. 62 a) DG160 b) DG135 c) DG80 d) DG71 e) DG136 f) DG200 g) DG37 Figure 4.7.4: A variety of nichos in Durango. Site DG160 is a concrete (or stucco plastered) nicho with curved walls and a semi-domed roof; for lack of a better name, I refer to this shape as a beehive nicho. Its yellow metal frame and glass door is padlocked, and inside is a silver-colored pipe cross that is covered with artificial flowers that may have been the original memorial. There is a white cross atop the roof and the concrete is unpainted. DG135 is a freshly whitewashed, brick and stucco nicho with a St. Jude print, a bouquet of artificial flowers and a votive candle inside. Affixed to the top of the door opening is a piece of wood that is inscribed: favor de prender las veladoras recuerdo de Roberto (Please light candles in memory of Roberto). The inscription anticipates visitation by a stranger, perhaps drawn by the St. Jude print, and invites them to pray for the man being memorialized (see section 7.1 for a discussion of the relationship between lighting a candle and a prayer). This plainly stated request verbalizes what all other roadside memorials achieve with symbols: a) that this is a place for communication between earth-bound humans and heavenly personages (including the dead), and b) that the place is meant as a communication between those who created it and those who view it. 63 Sites DG80 and 71, both made of brick, have sharply contrasting degrees of doneness. Most artifacts in this study present an appearance of being built, perhaps in stages, and then decorated with removable objects such as flowers, bunting, etc. DG80 has never been finished and, when closely inspected for weathering and other signs of aging, seems to have been in this state for quite a while. DG71 gives an impression of being overly built and is quite a piece of work. It looks like a perfectly fine and sturdy gable roofed nicho on the bottom, perhaps too plain to suit the builders taste; so, as if in a late flash of inspiration, a platform with arches and a lead copula are added. DG136 and 200 are metal nichos, each of distinctly different design. DG136 is arch roofed with a cross centered atop, a broken glass and metal door, and no objects inside. Behind the nicho is a white metal cross with a welded inscription: 6-10-79 G.E.L. The arrangement of the nicho directly in front of the cross indicates that the former is an upgrade, or improvement upon, the latter; i.e. both artifacts memorialize the same person. DG200 memorializes three persons with three crosses inside the open-faced, gable-roofed nicho. The size of the crosses, as discussed above, indicates that one of the deceased was a child and all have visitation pebbles on the horizontal arms. From the perspective of the classification scheme by form (cross, nicho, etc.), this nicho may be viewed as a transition artifact. Clearly the additional structure serves as protection for the crosses and, functionally, is adjunct to the main objects of remembrance. In this case, because it is both one and the other (depending upon ones naming criteria) Mexicans practice of referring to all roadside death memorials as simply recuerdos seems sensible as compared to the scholars affinity toward either/or categorizing. The final artifact shown in Figure 4.7.4 is site DG37, a 2 x 1m concrete nicho with a white and blue, glass and metal door. It is situated on a dangerous curve and built into the face of the conglomerate rock. Inside is a Nino de Atocha statue, a Virgin of Guadalupe print, 2 floral baskets (1 fresh), and a funeral card that says Descanse en paz (Rest in peace) Sra. Susanna Dominguez vda de Aguirre 24- febrero-1995; there are 6 votive candles on the front ledge of the 64 nicho. While all seven of the nichos in Figure 4.7.4 required the on-site labor of grieving relatives and/or friends, this one speaks of a strenuous, sweaty, grimy, blistered hands pick and shovel type of work. Somebody expended a lot of physical energy to carve out the space for this nicho. Table A4.7 in Appendix A describes all of the sites and artifacts viewed in Durango. 4.8: Zacatecas Figure 4.8.1: Map of Zacatecas, survey routes and places. Zacatecas population of 1,351,207 inhabits 73,252 sq km (28,283 sq mi) of semiarid plains and mountains on the central plateau. The Sierra Madre Occidental dominates the western half, and a transverse spur (often over 10,000 ft/3,048 m high) of the same range, crossing the state from west to east, divides it. Rainfall is light and vegetation scanty. The absence of large rivers to support irrigation limits agriculture; cattle raising is a major activity and some crops are raised in southern and central regions. A 530 mile survey along two routes (the central lengthwise and third widthwise transects) recorded 562 artifacts at 399 sites, they were: 426 crosses, 123 nichos, 9 shrines, and 4 monuments (see Figure 4.8.1). Frequently in this study, the number of artifacts exceeds the number of sites or locations recorded; the following are examples (Figure 4.8.2) of multiple death sites in Zacatecas. a) ZT127, 13 crosses. b) ZT150, 10 crosses. c) ZT385, 3 nichos, and 4 crosses. Figure 4.8.2: Memorials commemorating multiple deaths. 65 Site ZT127 consists of thirteen crosses; seven black, five white, and one blue. Although all are made of metal there is no consistent style or attempt at an orderly arrangement. The implication is that, although all of these people died in the same accident, they are not necessarily related or closely associated. This would be the case where a bus or two (or more) vehicles are involved in a collision. At site ZT150, on the other hand, all ten crosses are wooden spindle-type crosses and they are arrayed, equally space, in a straight line. From left-to-right the first two are blue, and the other eight are white. Site ZT385 is quite diverse, consisting of: two brick nichos and an adobe nicho, all with crosses atop, a metal cross atop a concrete pedestal, two identical metal crosses set in concrete flush to the ground, and a large and unusual cross/monument that features a cross lying horizontally on a pedestal with a sloped rear wall and two urns at the head of the cross. In addition to these artifacts, there is another site with a single cross directly adjacent to them on the other side of the road. As a group, these sites represent thirty-one deaths (including the aforementioned cross) in, what appears to be, three events. Artifacts composed of four arcs joined at their apex (see Figure 4.8.3) were relatively rare, and usually marked the place where a clergyman died. Site ZT132 is one exception where the three crosses enclosed within the arcs represent a mother and her two children. Adjacent to them is a fourth, and much larger, metal cross set in a separate foundation. Site ZT158 consists of a small nicho and a cross, both memorializing women, and a large stylized cross beneath the arcs. All died on May 10, 1992, and the base of the cross/monument is inscribed Salvador Sanchez, sacerdote (priest). Although the joined arcs are the dominant shape of these artifacts, my decision to class them as crosses is based upon the rubric that crosses are absent on monuments (see section 4.2). In the case ZT132 this more accurately represents the number of people being memorialized, and this is, after all, a human geography. 66 a) ZT132 b) ZT158 Figure 4.8.3: Cross/monuments featuring four joined arcs. In my twenty years of traveling, living, working, and researching in Mexico I observed that when people need a thing that they cannot afford to buy, they make it. In these cases it is necessity (or desire) plus poverty, that is the mother of invention. Figure 4.8.4 shows three examples of handmade nichos that, in my opinion, are much more interesting and esthetically pleasing than their store-bought counterparts. Site ZT126 is a brown concrete nicho, monolithically mounted on a pedestal of nearly cubic dimensions of approximately two feet. A rusted, blue outline-type metal cross is mounted atop the rear, and the pedestal ledge and one side of the winged arch roof have pebbles on them. a) ZT126 b) ZT187 c) ZT149 Figure 4.8.4: Handmade nichos. ZT187 is a large, blue, two-tiered concrete pedestal with a tiny niche opening centered at the top of the base tier and a blue wooden cross mounted in a concavity at the top of the second tier. The cross-holding cavity has become eroded or broken and small rocks are jammed against the base of the cross to hold it erect. The cross is adorned with paper flowers that are weathered. This photo was taken in late May 1999 so the flowers were probably from the Days of the Dead seven months prior to the photo. 67 Site ZT149 is a white stucco, dome-shaped, nicho with a rusted pipe-cross atop. The cross has fancy filigrees between the arms and a tin scroll; the inscription has weathered to the point of unintelligibility. The weathering or deterioration of the threshold reveals the method of construction that is hidden behind an otherwise concrete exterior. The nicho is made of stone and mortar, then plastered with stucco; a wood form was used to make the niche opening straight and square. Excepting the cross and a few bags of cement, all of the materials were either found around the builders home or at the site. a) ZT135 b) ZT193 Figure 4.8.5: Sacred Heart monuments. The monument is the least frequently occurring form of roadside memorial, but one type, a statue of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, recurs more often than others (Figure 4.8.5). Site ZT135 is a Sacred Heart statue atop a concrete pedestal, a 3-tiered base and a column; the statue, column and base are made of granito and the monument stands approximately 15 feet tall. The column is inscribed: The youth Gustavo Valdez Rivera, 3-Ag-1957 24-Mayo-1980. He was a good son, active and polite, an exemplar and intelligent man; always struggling for the welfare of others. His parents and siblings dedicate this memorial to him. (Gustavo..fue un buen hijo activo y cumplido un hombre ejemplar e intelijente siempre lucho por el bienestar de los suyos). Another Sacred Heart monument is represented in Figure 4.5.5b, this one an eight foot tall column upon a two-tiered base is dedicated ..to the eternal remembrance (A su recuerdo eterno) of a mother and daughter who died at this location. Adjacent to it are two granito crosses, inscribed to the same people, and an older metal cross that appears to have been damaged. This corroborates the 68 evidence in section 4.3 that memorial sites are improved or renovated over time, sometimes with the addition of new and better artifacts. Figure 4.8.6: ZT51, a grandiose cross. Figure 4.8.7: ZT278, nicho moved for roadwork. Site ZT51 (Figure 4.8.6) is an example of a grandiose memorial cross. It is a large, 2 diameter, pipe-cross entwined with metal thorny vines from the lower vertical member to the horizontal members, and is mounted upon a large boulder. The boulder has four granito plaques inset with the death information and biblical verses, and the whole structure stands about fifteen feet tall. These are enclosed within a four-foot tall, wrought iron fence with a gate and a two-foot tall masonry base. Because the memorial appears to be professionally made, one might guess that this memorializes the place where a relatively wealthy person died. One final example from the survey of Zacatecas demonstrates the sacredness of these places, and the true believer nature of the religious sentiments expressed on artifacts throughout this study. Site ZT278 (Figure 4.8.7) is a small, blue concrete, box-nicho atop a 3-tiered pedestal; it is near the entrance to an elementary school on the outskirts of a small town (Luis Moya) three miles north of the Aguascalientes state line. This stretch of road is currently being graded in preparation for re-paving, and the nicho appears to have been moved to a location farther from the roadside and out of harms way from the daily movements of heavy equipment. Because this artifact is quite heavy, I assume it was moved by the heavy equipment operator(s) involved in the construction project, demonstrating their belief that this warrants the respect of a sacred place. Atop the nicho is a blue pipe cross with a center scroll inscribed: el nino Raul Valdez volo al cielo el 10-8-65 (The boy Raul Valdez flew to heaven on August 10, 1965). The color blue seems to symbolize an angel, in this case; and the reference to the child flying exemplifies the 69 idea of a vertically oriented reality (the following chapter discusses this in detail) that is a cornerstone of the Christian true believers cosmic orientation. Table A4.8, in Appendix A, details all of the sites and artifacts recorded in Zacatecas. 4.9: Coahuila Coahuila (2000 pop., 2,295,808) covers 149,982 sq km (57,908 sq mi) south of the northward bulge of the Ro Grande; most of this area is an arid plateau except in the east, where the Sierra Madre Oriental reaches 3,050 m (10,000 ft). This state is traditionally a stock-raising area, but there is irrigated farming, especially in the Laguna District, an inland basin south of the Bolsn de Mapim; where cotton, wheat, sorghum, maize, walnuts, figs, apples, pomegranates, and grapes are grown. The revolutionary leaders Francisco I. Madero and Venustiano Carranza were born in Coahuila. The state was surveyed along three transects (see Figure 4.9.1); the eastern U.S. border transect (B3), and the second and third most northerly transects across the width of Mexico (W2 and W3). 253 artifacts were recorded at 202 sites in 576 miles; there were 215 crosses, 23 nichos, 14 shrines and one monument. Figure 4.9.1: Map of Coahuila, survey routes and places. Figure 4.9.2 features a cross and the surrounding landscape, bringing both the site and situation (west, or leeward of the Sierra Madre Oriental) into the text. This granito Roman cross is inscribed: Sra. [Seora] Hortencia V. Rdz. [Rodriguez] de Acosta, 5-5-1920/7-7-1983 in memory of a 63-year-old woman who died at this lonely location three miles east of the Zacatecas state line. 70 Site CL185, Figure 4.9.3, is a 3-foot tall, blue metal cross with four smaller crosses welded onto the horizontal arms. One must assume, lacking an inscription, that this represents four deaths at this location. It would also be safe to guess that these four persons were members of the same family or closely associated in some other manner, and were all traveling in the same vehicle at the time they died. Figure 4.9.2: SiteCL53 and the surrounding landscape. Figure 4.9.3: Multiple death cross. Figure 4.9.4 repeats the theme of a single artifact representing multiple deaths. In this case a nicho with twelve metal crosses, in a candelabra-like arrangement marks the spot where the Valdez family died. An interesting aspect of this memorial is that the face of the rock behind the nicho was previously marked in chalk with crosses that are now fading away. This indicates that, in favorable settings, temporary memorials may be as simple as a chalk mark on a rock face. Figure 4.9.4: CL17, nicho with 12 crosses. Figure 4.9.5: CL184, finely crafted wood cross. Site CL184 is a nicely made wooden budded cross (Griffith 1966, 68) with a bouquet of artificial flowers attached. Being experienced in woodworking, I appreciate the fine detail of, not only the jigsaw and router work on the cross itself, but the small compass-point star on the vertical arm and the inscription (Norberto FC 69-91). The person who made this was a skilled artisan and took their time to do a good job. 71 Figure 4.9.6 is another example of a skilled tradespersons work, in this case a welder. This nicho is made of inch thick metal plate, an assortment of automobile internal engine parts, Plexiglas inserts, and is finished with high quality enamel paint. A photograph of the deceased is mounted beneath half of the padlocked, metal and Plexiglas double door and there is no inscription. Figure 4.9.6: Two views of site CL200, motor head nicho. Roadside memorials, in either their inscriptions or design characteristics, frequently refer to the occupation or lifestyle of the deceased (see e.g. Figures 10.7.4 and 10.9.3). In this case one cannot be sure which is being referenced, but it is evident that a great deal of time and effort was expended to make a nicho consisting of auto parts. Furthermore, these are not the sort of auto parts the average person would recognize; one must actually dismantle an automobile engine to see its cam shaft (the front corners), or valves (the cross and left side design). The nicho builder is referring to objects that were meaningful to the deceased; else why spend the time to find old engine parts, clean them well enough to be welded and painted, and then expend the creative energy to construct this piece of weld art? It seems reasonable to deduce that the young man in the photo was either a mechanic or a motor head, a person whose hobby is working on his car. Perhaps you know, or knew someone like this? I did, when I was in high school. He was always fiddling with his car, tearing it down and putting it back together again with some new and improved engine part that would make it go faster. He enjoyed his after school job at the gas station because he could work on his own car when there were no customers. Walking home from school I would always see Joe, usually tinkering with his motor. Buried waist deep under the hood of his 57 Chevy, bent across the front fender with legs dangling, he always emerged with a 72 smile- even when it was obvious that he did not want to be disturbed. He spoke about things like boring and stroking his engine and I would nod, pretending to comprehend the motor head lingo. His hands, no matter how much he scrubbed them, always had a hint of black in the creases. Maybe this young man was like my high school friend, or maybe not. In Appendix A, Table A4.9 gives a detailed accounting of the sites and artifacts I observed in Coahuila. 4.10: Nuevo Len Much of the northern Nuevo Len is arid cactus country, the state is traversed by the Sierra Madre Oriental and, to the east, high plains sweep down toward the lowlands of Tamaulipas and are crossed by several large rivers. The result of this diverse topography is a diversified agricultural base where the main crops are cotton, wheat, citrus fruits, and sugarcane. The economy is well balanced; oil refining, iron, steel, and textile production are the main industrial activities, and silver and gold are mined in Nuevo Len. The 3,826,240 inhabitants of the state enjoy one of the highest living standards in Mexico. Figure 4.10.1: Map of Nuevo Len, survey routes and places. Nuevo Len was surveyed along two transects that total 144 miles. The third width-wise transect (W3) passes from the Tamaulipas boundary, skirts the capital of Monterrey, and ends at the Coahuila state line, and; the third boundary transect (B3) passes Nuevo Lens 8 mile wide access to the international boundary. A total of 89 artifacts are recorded in Table A4.10, there are 68 crosses, 15 nichos, 5 shrines and one monument at 58 locations. Site NL23 (Figure 4.10.2) shows a multiple death site memorialized by 4 metal crosses on a single concrete foundation that has another cross inlaid in the cement. All four crosses have a 73 pile of pebbles laid around the base of the cross, and the front right cross has statues of the Virgin of Guadalupe and Juan Diego among the pebbles and white imitation roses attached to the upright member. The other three have imitation lilies attached to the upright cross member. Although there is no obvious familial relationship among these four people (two men, two women), the placement of this memorial is certainly a unified effort because the crosses are identical except for the inscriptions. Figure 4.10.3 is another multiple death site, number NL42; this one is memorialized with six granito crosses on a single pedestal. The relationship between these men is clearer than the previous site; they worked together (see Table A4.10) and the pedestal beneath the crosses bears the acronym of their employer. This frequently observed practice likely indicates a financial contribution on the part of the employer that may be an assumed job benefit, especially for truck and bus drivers. Figure 4.10.2: Four metal crosses. Figure 4.10.3: Six granito crosses. Figure 4.10.4: Site NL32, 3 crosses and an angel. Yet another multiple fatality is recorded at site number NL32 (Figure 4.10.4) where the names, except for one cross (see Table A4.10), indicate a family relationship. Without reading the inscriptions it is also clear that one of these people was a child, which is almost always the meaning of an angel. 74 4.11: Tamaulipas Tamaulipas, with a population of 2,747,114, covers an area of 30,734 sq mi (79,601 sq km). The central and western parts of the state are in the mountains of the Sierra Madre Oriental, the north and south are arable plains, particularly in the long panhandle beginning at Nuevo Laredo and following the Ro Grande opposite Texas to Matamoros, and the coast is low, sandy, and fringed with lagoons. Except in the elevated interior, the climate is hot and humid. The states greatest source of wealth is petroleum and its byproducts, but agriculture and cattle raising are also important. Tamaulipas is a leading national producer of sugarcane and cotton; cereals, coffee, tobacco, and corn are other major crops. The state was surveyed along four transects (see Figure 4.11.1): the eastern U.S. border transect (B3), the Gulf coastal transect (L1), and the 3rd and 4th widthwise transects (W3 & W4); the total length of the routes is 720 miles. 417 artifacts were observed at 316 sites, they were: 345 crosses, 58 nichos, 10 shrines, and 4 monuments. Figure 4.11.1: Map of Tamaulipas, survey routes and places. One of the more interesting sites in Tamaulipas is TM44 (Figure 4.11.2) which has 5 prefabricated (granito) crosses set in a concrete slab and surrounded by a gated chain link fence. The inscriptions indicate that 3 men and 2 unmarried women died in this place. The aspect of this site of interest is the spatial separation of the crosses for the young ladies (to the left of the gate) from those of their male companions (to the right). This site suggests that it is socially inappropriate for single women to not be spatially separate from the men. The faded propriety of formal promenade[s] of separate circles of unmarried girls and young men in the plaza 75 (Richardson 1982, 429) has been transferred to this remote death site. As if the surviving kin are stating to all who would listen; There was nothing inappropriate going on here. Figure 4.11.2: TM44, gender segregated crosses. Figure 4.11.3: TM94, a broken pillar. Both the symbolism and communicative intent are more straightforward at site TM94 (Figure 4.11.3). The broken pillar monument is common in graveyards as a symbol of a life broken off prematurely. The inscription is poetic and profoundly sentimental: The seeds that you sowed based upon love, honesty, and work are producing their marvelous fruit. I am proud of my children thanks to God and to you. We will always remember to you with affection, your wife and children. (see Table A4.11 for the original Spanish). Site TM96 is a unique cross that features a bas relief of Christ crowned in thorns at the junction (Figure 4.11.4). One pebble rests precariously upon the horizontal arm and there is no inscription; only the date Oct. 5, 1972 scrawled into the concrete pedestal indicates this artifacts duration. Figure 4.11.4: Site TM96. Figure 4.11.5: Double-decker shrine with color symbolism. Color symbolism is often baffling in regards to death memorials, but no site rivals TM133 in stating religious color symbolism (Figure 4.11.5). This is a double-decker shrine with a set of stairs leading to the upper level. The bottom shrine, painted in blue, white, and blue vertical 76 stripes is dedicated to the Virgin of San Juan de los Lagos, who is frequently referred to as the Norteo (Northern) Virgin. The upper shrine, dedicated to the Virgin of Guadalupe, is painted in green, white, and red. Both shrines contain prints of their sacred personage and unlit votive candles. Table A4.11, Appendix A, details all of the sites observed in Tamaulipas. 4.12: San Luis Potos Most of the state lies on the eastern tablelands of Mexicos central plateau. Except in the humid tropical Pnuco River valley in the extreme east, near the Gulf of Mexico, the climate is mild and dry. Generally level, with an average elevation of 6,000 ft (1,829 m), the plateau is broken by spurs of the Sierra Madre Oriental; it is largely desert in the north. Rainfall is generally light, and rivers are few; thus, despite fertile soil, agriculture and livestock raising is practiced mainly for subsistence. Large crops of sugarcane, however, are cultivated in the eastern lowlands. The state's area is 63,068 sq km (24,351 sq mi) and the population is 2,296,364. Figure 4.12.1: Map of San Luis Potos, survey routes and places. San Luis Potos is included along two survey routes (see Figure 4.12.1), the central longitudinal transect (L2), and the fourth widthwise transect (W4); which total 313 miles. 223 artifacts were observed at 167 locations, they were: 176 crosses, 41 nichos, 4 shrines and 2 monuments. Frequently during this fieldwork, I came across a memorial for a professional driver. The odds of a fatality among them is much higher than the ordinary traveler; they spend many more hours driving than other people. The road and driving conditions they encounter as just as dangerous to them as to others. The following are memorials to a variety of professional drivers. 77 Figure 4.12.2: SL101, a truck driver monument. Site SL101, shown in Figure 4.12.2, memorializes the driver of a tanker truck. A model of his rig, or one typical of the company, sits atop a column; the base of which is marked with the company logo on all four sides. This is mounted in the center of a larger granito base that has urns at the corners, this in turn sits upon a concrete slab. An older, and less professionally-made, model of his truck is suspended from the mounting bracket on the top of the column. Figure 4.12.3: Panoramic and close-up views of bus driver nichos at site SL14. Site SL14 consists of two nichos, both in memory of the same 70-year-old bus driver. The concrete box-type nicho features a photo of the companys bus on the side, has a cross on the top, and numerous visitation pebbles along the edges of the roof . The gabled nicho is prefabricated, made of granito, has a crucifix centered on the rear wall, a large pile of pebbles, and two empty flower containers on the front step. The mans nickname, Bunny (El Conejito), is inscribed on the front gable. The side is inscribed Los cuados which, in this context, means Buddies or workmates. One expects that bus drivers are much more careful than truck drivers, especially a mature fellow like Bunny, but all the caution in the world is sometimes not enough. 78 Figure 4.12.4: Site SL17, memorial to a Green Angel. If any professional drivers epitomize safety in Mexico it is those who drive the green, Department of Tourism trucks. Affectionately known as the Green Angels, they cruise along at a slow pace, fully equipped to perform almost any repair job, pull a stuck vehicle, or place survival bags in remote locations; all at no cost to the recipients of their help. Site SL17 is a monument to a Green Angel who died in this place. Table A4.12 in Appendix A lists and describes all artifacts and sites recorded in San Luis Potos. 79 CHAPTER 5: CONCEPTUAL CONTEXT: MODERN LIFE, MEDIEVAL DEATH The apparent incongruence of the modern and the medieval appears side-by-side in every village and hamlet in Mexico. One sees it in every urban area, and, when moving along the nations highways, it is there in the non-places between places. Chapter 8 will examine the concept of Mestizo Culture, the mixing of the modern and medieval cultures in Mexico, and how that developed. This chapter focuses more specifically on religion and its manifestations of medieval beliefs about reality, its geography or spatial and conceptual order; and death. Many of the concepts discussed here are not medieval, in a strict sense; they have been around as far back as the written record goes. But their flowering, widespread acceptance, and adoption by organized religion as doctrine, occurred in Europe in the Middle Ages, were passed along, intact, to indigenous Mexicans and kept alive by their heirs, Native American and mestizo alike. Mexican and Mexicanist scholars, with only rare dissention (e.g. Nolan and Nolan 1989, 99-102), accept medievalism as part of the taken-for-granted context of life in Mexico. No one has expounded upon this better than the historian Luis Weckmann in his magnum opus The Medieval Heritage of Mexico. His work describes the medieval origins of cultural practices from practically every aspect of life in contemporary Mexico. He states that: The medieval roots of Mexican culture the legacy that our country has received from the Middle Ages- principally from Spain- is still part of the Mexicans daily experience. Its peculiar features form so clear a picture that it is no exaggeration to say that in many ways we are more medieval than a good part of the West, and certainly more so than the Spaniards themselves. Ideas about religion, the cosmos, and life and death, are not set apart from the rest of life in Mexico; they are an integral part of a fundamentally medieval culture. when one is alone and it is night and so dark and still that one hears nothing and sees nothing but the thoughts which add and subtract the years, and the long row of those disagreeable facts which remorselessly indicate how far the hand of the clock has moved forward, and the 80 slow, irresistible approach of the wall of darkness which will eventually engulf everything I love, possess, wish for, hope for, and strive for, then all our profundities about life slink off to some undiscoverable hiding-place, and fear envelopes the sleepless one like a smothering blanket. (Jung 1999, 12) Of all things that move man, one of the principle ones is his terror of death. (Becker 1973, 11) The fear of death isa universal in the human condition. (Becker 1973, xvii) Humanitys effort to understand death goes as far back as the written record (Jackson 1997), to no avail. The two main currents of contemporary thought that explain death: annihilation theory, and transcendence theory, are diametrically opposed. The former gives Homo sapiens no special break; like all other species, when a human being dies it simply ceases to exist, I and all; there is life and then there is death. The latter posits a humanity that transcends their embodied nature through a duality of being; the body dies but the I, the self, the soul, or some other metaphysical element of the person, lives on; there is life, death, and afterlife. Annihilation theory is an implicit part of scientific and modern thinking. Annihilation, or denying the immortality of the soul, began to assert itself in the seventeenth-century (Choron 1963, 134); contemporaneous with the scientific revolution, and reaching a fuller elucidation and widespread acceptance among the intellectual elite through the Enlightenment (see chapter 8). Thomas Hobbes maintained that the soul is not immortal, Kant took that a step further stating that it can dwindle to nothingness by a gradual loss of its powers (139). Arthur Schopenhauer, the first modern philosopher to systematically and comprehensively investigate the problem of death, taking a step in the other direction, cannot accept the idea that all that lives and breathes simply disappears after a brief span of time. (163) But he does take it for granted that the certainty of death is terrifying, and that it is a product of reflective reasoning. The same reflective reasoning that introduces the knowledge of death, he holds, assists us toward a comforting, metaphysical point of view. And further deduces that all religious and philosophical systems are principally 81 directed to this end. (162) By 1830 Ludwig Feuerbach, a Young Hegelian (Scrunton, Singer, et al 1997, 204), portrayed death as annihilation, Nothingness, and nullity. Turning Hegels ideas on their head, he believed in the primacy of human reason, which creates the only authentic reality a person can know and the only selfhood one can use; thought is the result of a humanly created reality. Because God and metaphysical reality are thoughts, they are, therefore, merely projections of the human mind. (Choron 1963; LeVan Baumer 1978; Scrunton, Singer, et al 1997). The desire for something after death becomes a profound aberration because there is already before death all that one imagines one is able to attain after death. (Choron 1963, 188) Feuerbachs work was the first modern attempt to develop a psychology of religious belief, and had tremendous influence on Marx and Freud. Death, like all of life in the twentieth-century, became categorized and pigeon-holed; the problem of the nature of death belongs to biology and the problem of the fear of death to psychology and psychpathology (217). As Jung put it: Critical rationalism has apparently eliminated, along with many other mythic conceptions, the idea of life after death. This could only have happened because nowadays most people identify themselves almost exclusively with their consciousness, and imagine that they are only what they know about themselves. (Jung 1999, 137) Modernity; scientific rationality, the primacy of the individual, and the secularization of culture brought the understanding of death, it seems, back to around 2000BC, when the Alewife said to Gilgamesh: When the gods created mankind, for mankind they allotted death. Eternal life they kept to themselves. (Jackson 1997, xix) I say it seems because we are ignorant of the intellectual history that culminated in the Epic of Gilgamesh, we are unaware of the variations and intellectual steps that arrived humanity at the point where one persons anguishes over the finality of death- 4000 years ago. But we do know the history of the more recent ideas. Renaissance humanism moved the individual self to the center of the universe, the Reformation made that universe black-or-white-- one either goes to hell or heaven, science answered that the nature of humanity (because it must be either mortal or 82 immortal) is mortal, and the Enlightenment placed human intellect above all else. The result is a conception of death as a return to where one was prior to birth, i.e. no place, oblivion, Nothingness, nullity. This thinking, which de Unamuno says comes from clever-witted, affectively stupid persons (1954, 16) is based upon a materialistic and monistic system of reasoning. Everything that has reality is of a material nature and is either this thing or that thing; being both/and does not adhere to the reasoning of scientific materialism and no other system has validity, scientific method is the only reliable path to knowledge (Barbour 1997, 78). Therein lies the gulf between religion and science, the medieval and the modern. Transcendence theory, the idea that one transcends ones mortal nature and reality at death, is the basis of most of the religions and spiritual belief systems in the world. Christian dualism maintains, human nature, (in medieval thought,) is a union of mortal body and immortal soul (Barbour 1997, 9)(Parentheses added). The person transcends death through changing, via the soul, from one reality to another. For religious man, death does not put a final end to lifedeath is but another modality of human existence (Eliade 1959, 148); it is a liminal state, a midpoint of transition in a status sequence between two positions (Turner 1974, 237). The death to the profane world, followed by rebirth to the sacred world (Eliade 1959, 197) is the supreme case of a rupture of the planes (Eliade 1991, 49) in a vertical hierarchy of cosmic, horizontal realities. Death, in the religious and particularly the Christian view, is both a change in the status or modality of ones existence and a change of place. This movement, from here (Earth) to there, is a geography of motion with discrete destinations, distinct places, which became common knowledge and determined the religious practice of medieval Christians. The starting point, from the only perspective available to me (i.e. the human), of a cosmic geography is earthly life. Medieval scholars held that the earthly world was grossly material, dark and sinful. Here reigned change: growth and decay, birth and death. (McDannell and Lang 1988, 83) It is no arbitrary choice when Eliade consistently uses profane to describe earthly existence (see e.g. Eliade 1954, 1959, 1969, 1991). Earthly life is unholy, impure, defiled, vulgar, 83 debased, and debasing; it is a modality of existence one is meant to overcome through spiritual means. In the everyday life of the masses of medieval serfs, perhaps like the Mexican peon, this theological definition was/is much more than an abstract idea; it constitutes the very essence of the daily struggle for survival. Death becomes the opportunity to pass on to a better life; the best, and for many the only, hope they have of improving upon ones lot in life. The geography of the afterlife, up until the twelfth-century and for contemporary Protestant Christians, consists of two places: heaven and hell. The Christian idea of heaven derives from three sources: Classical Greece; the monotheistic tradition of Judaism, and; the Iranian prophet Zoroaster (ca. 1400 BCE) whose teachings were widely accepted in Persia and Babylon, and influenced the other two cultures through contact and/or conquest. Zoroastrianists believed in a three-tiered reality (heaven, earth, hell), bodily resurrection, and an eternal human soul that is either rewarded in heaven or punished in hell. This idea found expression in Judaism around 600 BCE as a syncretistic adaptation of a heaven exclusive to Yahweh, and Sheol the Jewish land of the dead. The Jews already believed that, since human beings lived between heaven and Sheol, they could expect to be influenced by both the upper and lower worlds (McDannell and Lang 1988, 3); it was a short step to revise existing ideas in the more attractive direction offered by the Babylonian religion. The Zoroastrian influence upon the polytheistic Greeks is less clear. Heaven and hell translated into the Elysian Fields and Tartarus (ruled by the god Hades, who later became identified as the place itself) and a third place, which bordered Tartarus, was introduced; the stony Asphodel Fields, over which ghosts endlessly wandered, but found nothing whatever to do except hunt the ghosts of deerif that amused them. (Graves 1960, 29) The Greeks altered the geography of the afterlife by extending the flat-Earth idea to the cosmos: Hades was reached by crossing the River Styx, Elysium, or the Isles of the Blessed, were on the banks of the river Oceanus; both at the edge (opposing edges, I assume) of the Earth. Although up-and-down 84 references were never completely lost; the Greeks and Romansemphasized the contrast between right and left in their spatial symbolism (Le Goff 1984, 3). Christianity quickly accorded pride of place to the opposition between high and low. Throughout the Middle Ages it was [this] that oriented the inner dialectic of Christian values whenever thought was translated into spatial terms. (Le Goff 1984, 3) The return to a vertical orientation was inevitable in a universalizing religion, as Tuan points out: High and low, the two poles of the vertical axis, are strongly charged words in most languages. (Tuan 1977, 37) Heaven soothed the Christian psyche: The assumption that God rewarded the goodeither on a renewed earth or in a blessed heavenhelped ease the individual and cultural alienation brought about by colonization, religious persecution, and existential anxieties. (McDannell and Lang 1988, 23) While a fiery hell threatened not only wailing and gnashing of teeth, but also carried the thinly veiled threat of annihilation (Fear him which is able to destroy both soul and body in Hell Matt. 10.28) (Turner 1995, 54) for those who engaged in a number of iniquities. Both heaven and hell acquired their own internal geographies with anywhere from two to ten levels or planes. As one might expect from the medieval culture, this could be based upon social status (or lack of it) or upon merit. These geographies were set in the popular imagination as much by popular theater as the preaching of the clergy (McDannell and Lang 1988). No individual, perhaps, was as influential in mapping the afterlife as Dante Alighieri, whose Divine Comedy allotted nine levels to both heaven (see McDannell and Lang 1988, 86) and hell (see Turner 1995, 136). Christianitys bi-polar afterlife seems to have worked well at first, but it was not long before a need for an expanded geography began to emerge. By 312 CE Christianity was officially sanctioned by the first Christian, Roman Emperor Constantine, who called all Christian bishops together to heal the division caused by the teachings of Arius (see Chapter 8, the Visgoths). His intentions backfired and at the Councils of Nicaea and Constantinople (381CE) the doctrine of Trinitarian monotheism was worked out as a 85 permanent aspect of the Christian creed. Constantine, in the end, [chose] an Arian bishop [to] baptize him as he lay dying (Roberts 1993, 229) so he was, according to dogma, a heretic! The absolute declaration of Christ as God set off a chain reaction that resulted in an expansion of the cosmic geography of Christianity. The reason God manifested as human, theologians worked out, was to atone for original sin, the story from the Hebrew scripture of the Garden of Eden where Adam and Eve ate the forbidden fruit of the tree of knowledge of good and evil. If Christs death made all who were baptized in His name free of original sin, then what of the (just) Patriarchs (i.e. those who pre-dated Christ) and the blameless who die before baptism? If God is just then there must be a place, neither heaven nor hell, for these exceptions. Thus the two limbos: limbo patriarchum and limbo infantum were born as an extension and elaboration upon the more-or-less neutral Asphodel Fields of the Greeks, a borderland (limbus is Latin for border) between heaven and hell that accounted for souls who deserved neither. Limbo patriarchum (also called the bosom of Abraham) was deemed to be emptied at the moment of Christs death, and limbo infantum continues until the final judgment day (Turner 1995). Having accounted for these exceptional cases, there was no stopping the geographical imagination until all contingencies were met. Purgatory (from the Latin purgatorium, a place for purging) entered into the geography of the hereafter at around the same time (ca. twelfth-century) as the two limbos. Most people are neither entirely evil nor completely blameless; we all make mistakes, and they are usually of a minor nature. Of very few can it be hoped that they have attained perfect holiness at death; and none but the perfectly holy are admitted to the vision of God. Of few, on the other hand, will they at least who love them admit the despairing thought that they are beyond the pale of grace and mercy, and condemned to eternal separation from God and from all who hope to be with God. (Toner 1908) The logic of a place of purgation was plain to everyman and theologians accommodated their ideas to the practicalities of life to ensure the continued vitality of their religion. 86 Le Goff credits Clement of Alexandria and Origen (both of the mid-third century) as being the founders of purgatory (1984) but it was not until Augustine (ca. 413) that the basis of the term was laid. These founders did not postulate a place separate from hell, but manipulated hell and the fate of the dead to account for practicalities. Their ideas were interpreted and reinterpreted across the breadth of the Christian world before purgatory was defined as a [discrete] place that is intermediary in two senses: topographically and judicially (171) by Bernard of Fontcaude in 1192. Like heaven and hell, purgatory acquired an internal geography, thanks mainly to Dante who accorded purgatory seven levels. Each level was higher than the previous and, accordingly, less populated by human souls who were also less severely punished; purgatory became an allegorical mountain that must be climbed. At each level souls were purged of one of the seven deadly sins, which are (in Dantes opinion), in the order of their seriousness: pride, envy, wrath, sloth, avarice, gluttony, and lust (Le Goff 1984). The completed geography of medieval Christian afterlife was: heaven, hell, purgatory, Limbus Infantium, and Limbus Patrum (Marshall 1999, 112). Although the exact location of the five places was often muddled in the popular imagination, it is clear that heaven is uppermost, hell is lowermost, and that purgatory is in between them. Dante placed purgatory above earth and included Limbo as an antechamber to hell below (Le Goff 1984). This spatialization of thought (3) about the afterlife and the cosmos relieved part of the deep anxiety about death that Casey calls place-panic (1993, ix), the fear of placelessness or being without place. The true accomplishment of the medieval scholars and poets was not, as Arendt (1958) held, that the immortality of individual human life had reversed the ancient [idea of humanity as] the most mortal thing (314). Even the ancients believed, or wanted to believe, in an afterlife; as Gilgameshs conversation with his dead friend Enkidu demonstrates (see Jackson 1997, 94-96 or Tablet XII, verses 110-50 for other translations). What medieval Christianity (and contemporary Catholicism) did was to make the afterlife real by creating specific places, allowing one to 87 visualize another world ruled by quite other laws (Jung 1999, 138) and to follow the tracks of life and live right into his death. (143) Protestant theologians of the sixteenth-century focused hostile attention upon purgatory that had the effect of despatialising the afterlife, of abstracting or even internalizing it, or moving decisively away from a concern with its geographical configuration and its vicinity to the physical world. (Marshall 1999, 129) Thus, modernity had a two-fold effect upon death: for Protestant Christians, the afterlife became an un-placed abstraction; for the enlightened, agnostic, and scientific, the oblivion of placelessness was accompanied by a cessation of ones individual existence. The role of purgatory in the Catholic conceptual schema was a making of, and elaboration upon, the geography of one specific place. At critical junctures the geographies of both heaven and hell were revised to match the macro-geography of the afterlife and the specific geography of purgatory. Purgatory became a near place; and both heaven and hell, over time, became places that were increasingly abstract and distant from the earthly lives of ordinary people. The immediate concern was entirely focused upon purgatory. Although the transition from an embodied, physical world to a disembodied, spiritual one is truly a move into a world ruled by different laws, there is a fundamental conceptual continuity. The ethical and moral code taught by the Church rules both worlds; right and wrong on Earth is the same as right and wrong in the afterlife. The sacramental rituals of the Church, and ancient and/or pre-Christian propensities toward the veneration of ancestors, are believed to significantly aid in a positive outcome of ones death and the placed experience of the hereafter. The continuity of the web of relationships, including family, friends, godparents, and coworkers throughout life and beyond death, that is typical in Latin America, is in reality, contemporary Catholic doctrine. How that continuity manifests in popular practice has, over the years, been the subject of much interest. The Days of the Dead, in particular, has drawn (the occasionally condescending) curiosity of academics, journalists, and writers of travel guides. 88 Most of the attention focuses on the particular Mexican (or other Latin American) interpretation, folklore, ambience, and syncretistic elements (see e.g. Kraig, 1999; Garciagodoy 1998; Cortez Ruiz, Oliver Vega, et al. 1996; Greenleigh 1991; Green 1972). Regardless of local variation in the actual practice, Catholic teaching regarding prayers for the dead is bound up inseparably with the doctrine of purgatory and the more general doctrine of the communion of the saints, which is an article of the Apostles Creed. (Toner 1908) The final elucidation of the doctrine of purgatory (Council of Trent 1564, session XXV) states that purgatory exists, and that the souls detained therein are helped by the suffrages of the faithful (Toner 1908). These suffrages include prayers, dedicated Masses, almsgiving and other acts of piety; these latter are usually manifestations of traditions that may precede conversion to Christianity, or have been syncretized into Christian practice. The communion of saints is the spiritual solidarity which binds together the faithful on earth, the souls in purgatory, and the saints in heaven (Sollier 1908). This implies a variety of inter-relationships that goes beyond Saints (with a capital S) who are recognized as holy persons by the Catholic Church. The participants in that solidarity are called saints by reason of their destination and of their partaking of the fruits of the Redemption. (Sollier 1908) This doctrine, like purgatory and prayers for the dead, reached its definitive state at Trent and is essentially medieval. Its importance in the context of this study is that, at some point in time, an ancestor may cease to be prayed for, and commence to be prayed to. The common interest of the group of people that constitutes the web of relations centered upon the deceased, is for every person in that web to achieve be-ing in heaven. There was also reasoning in medieval Christianity that saw benefit in supplications addressed to persons still in purgatory. A soul in purgatory can sin no longer, only pay for their earthly sins. Ones presence in purgatory already implies their salvation; they are not damned to eternal punishment, but to temporary purgation. even as we pray for one anotherthe souls in 89 purgatory, being beloved by God and confirmed in grace, have absolutely no impediment to prevent them from praying for us (Hannah 1911). Sweet is the consolation of the dying man, who, conscious of imperfection, believes that there are others to make intercession for him, when his own time for merit has expired; soothing to the afflicted survivors the thought that they possess powerful means of relieving their friend. (Hannah 1911) The communion of saints, and prayers for the dead are of great importance in determining where a dead person is geographically. Of greater importance, however, are the actions of the individual prior to death. The geography of the afterlife and the prayers, rituals, and pious acts of others in behalf of the dead are the structure that provides a continuity of community that transcends death. This structure, provided by the medieval Christian (or contemporary Catholic) Church, provides people with an understanding of the cosmos and the nature of death. But of equal importance is an explanation of life; in particular, religion (usually) provides a moral structure, a set of rules of behavior that make living together in society a secure and harmonious experience. The moral structure of the Christian/ culture may be viewed as a social necessity; but its purpose directly relates to the death of the individual. Catholic doctrine states that: ordinarily the only adequate preparation for death is a righteous life.[yet] no matter how carefully conformed to the law of God and the precepts of the Church one's life may have been, no Christian will want to enter eternity without some immediate forearming against the terrors of that last passage. (Delany 1908) The motivation for a moral and righteous life, and the rationale of medieval Christian rituals is focused entirely upon death. Baptism, Penance and Extreme Unction are the principle sacraments that supplement a good life; all serve to remove sin and purify the individuals soul in the quest for eternity in heaven. A cultural preoccupation with death is an attitude that strictly conforms to Christian doctrine and the cosmic geography of medieval Christianity. 90 Perhaps no culture, or group of cultures, is more identified and commented upon as being preoccupied with death than Spain and her former colonies. This preoccupation was a result of the tenacious grip the medieval held on Spains thought. As Spains most illustrious poet, Federico Garcia Lorca put it: In all countries death is the end. It arrives and the curtain falls. Not so in Spain. In Spain, on the contrary, the curtain only rises at that moment (cited in Bennassar 1979, 241-2). Within this cultural climate, death was further refined in the popular practice of Catholicism. The thought that one way of dying is good and another is bad is as glaringly obvious to the medieval Christian mind as it is absurd to the modern scientific. The concept developed piecemeal, alongside the idea of purgatory. Aries reports a twelfth-century sudden accidental death of a knight of the Round Table: King Arthur and all who were present in his court were so grieved by such a vile and ugly death that they seldom mentioned it. (1981, 10-11) Sudden deaths were considered ignominious, shameful, and dishonorable; it was above all the ill-fated dead who abounded [as ghosts]: those who had died violent deathstarnished soulsthe dead who were lacking final burial places, suicides, women who died in childbirth. (Schmitt 1998, 12) As the concept of a good death developed, its circumstances became the antithesis of the tragic death, but its performance was a practical response to purgatory and the fact that; Catholicism has never abandoned the belief that even the most wretched sinner can move God to forgive him through sincere repentance. (Mitchell 1990, 21) A good death could not come as a surprise, it must be anticipated, prepared for, and performed by the dying person in a penitential manner; with dignity and patience, dying gallantly, with elegance, aplomb, and grace. (164) The model for Spanish Catholics was primarily Christ who Bearing with strength upon the nail in His feet, stiffens to commend His Spirit to the Father. (164) Even less remote persons served as models: Emperor Charles V abdicated his throne in 1556 and retired to a monastery to contemplate his own death (Eire 1995, 3); the death of Teresa of Avila, a renown Carmelite nun, in 1582 became a model throughout the Catholic world, and; in 1598, the death of King Philip II, 91 an imitation of his fathers death (Charles V), became a lesson in death and the art of dying and a convenient vehicle for religious and monarchial propaganda. (258) Philip lay in excruciating pain for two months on his deathbed, suffering without complaint, displaying the faith, hope and charity proper to a Christian (Boyden 2000, 240), maintaining a steadfast faith and suffering with penitential resignation. Although a good death was considered the best possible indication of a good life, even scoundrels could be redeemed if they died properly. Don Rodrigo Caldern was sentenced to death in 1621, part of a purging of the old regime by the new King Philip IV. His life was thoroughly despicable and he was nearly unanimously hated throughout Spain. Yet he showed remarkable composure and gentle resignation (259) throughout the spectacle of his public execution and won the hearts of the populace (much to the new kings chagrin) and the poet, who wrote: Living, he seemed deserving of death, dying, he appeared worthy to liveIf his glories brought him to grief, His griefs restored him to Glory. (263) In addition to the attitudes and behavior of the dying person, which emulate those of Christ and the other role models, a structure of sacramental ritual completes the deathbed scenario of a good death. Mitchell (1990, 24) lists ten steps from an eighteenth-century guide that includes: Penance, Eucharist, and Extreme Unction, in addition to specific prayers and recitations. The ritual performance, as a whole, validates the really real geography of the afterlife and the nature and structure of cosmic reality. In [this] ritual, the world as lived and the world as imagined, fused under the agency of a single set of symbolic forms, turn out to be the same world (Geertz 1973, 112). The Franciscans, who were in the vanguard of the development of the doctrine of purgatory (Le Goff 1984), transferred these ritual practices, and the complex of ideas behind them, to their Amerindian converts. They, along with the Discalced Carmelites and several other orders of friars, ministered to the Spanish, Creole, mestizo, and native Catholics and promoted their ideas regarding death and the afterlife. Mexico [became] honestly loyal to the concepts of Hispanic Catholicism. (Fehrenbach 1995, 252) While the original teachings may fade into 92 obscurity or be reinterpreted with the passage of time (Dobyns 1991), the practices remain a vital part of contemporary culture. Even in Spain, which accepted modernity far in advance of Mexico, these ideas remain. Ctedra (1988), in an ethnography of a small community in northern Spain, shows how people categorize and respond to good, bad, and tragic deaths. Much of the medieval background has faded; yet the circumstances that define each category remain unchanged. Good deaths come at the end of a normal lifespan and are relatively painless. Bad deaths are the result of extended illness and much pain and suffering. Tragic deaths are caused by external agents or accidents (121). These latter in particular are problematic: Those who have died do not automatically join the world of the dead. For months they cannot resign themselves to leave the world of the living: they lurk around the houses in which they lived, shriek and make noise in the attic, intrude in the life of their family and that of their neighbors, and appear in the meadows, at the door of the house, and on the paths. (253) Clearly some ideas from medieval (and perhaps pre-Christian) times have survived in the everyday life of contemporary rural Spaniards. It is not surprising that these same ideas, or some practice that points to them, remains in Mexico; a culture that is certainly more medieval than Spain. 93 CHAPTER 6: NARRATIVE CONTEXT: JUST GET ME THROUGH THIS Getting my pickup truck ready for the fieldwork was more than just routine maintenance. I had altered the camper shell and bed for maximum storage, loading it full of food and cooking gear to save money. This added up to nearly 1000 pounds of extra weight. But, I thought, I would eat my way through that during the course of the summer. On top of that, I went to Arizona prior to starting and picked up a passenger. My step-sisters son is a free spirit sort who spends half the year as a cook for a traveling Renaissance Fair troupe, and the rest doing who knows what. In exchange for cooking and companionship, I had agreed to pay his share of the expenses. It seemed to be a good deal for us both; he wanted to go to Mexico, and I needed (or thought I needed) someone to take part of my workload. As things turned out, his value as a companion waxed and waned, and he never took my need for sustenance seriously. Meals never happened at the agreed upon times and he became manipulative and recalcitrant when reminded of his duties. His behavior became a source of frustration and anxiety; I didnt want or need a personnel problem. He became a burden rather than an asset; within three weeks the conditions of my work sorted him out. The fieldwork began in northwestern Sonora (see section 4.3) and was intended to make an uninterrupted transect through the center of Mexico, all the way down to Cuauhtmoc on the Guatemalan border. It didnt turn out quite so neatly. Mexico City is, in more ways than one, like a gigantic magnet; it draws in people from all over Mexico. The highway system reflects this magnetism; approaching the capital from the north, ones options become fewer and fewer as you are funneled into the city. Being caught-up in the fast pace of urban traffic, I made instant decisions and ended up heading out of the city to the east. By then all I wanted was the out part and the direction and plan became unimportant. I was headed toward Poza Rica and ended up going down the east coast. Along the way I made a point of stopping at major archaeological sites. Paquim, Tula, Teotihuacan, Monte Alban, Palenque, and several lesser know sites, were my windows to 94 Mexicos past cultural diversity. They were also a necessary diversion; all work and no play, not only makes Jack a dull boy, it provides a break it what quickly became a tense situation. The Text chapters of this work are interspersed with references to the road and driving conditions in Mexico. Euphemisms like pothole dodging and riding the ridges are used to simultaneously describe and minimize the dangers of driving in Mexico. These are easy to make light of from the lofty perch of ones office, but the experienced reality can be deadly. None of these are quite so intimidating as the phenomenon of dueling semis. I first encountered dueling semis in the wide-open spaces of the arid north, where ones options make it a little less life threatening. The scene goes something like this. While rounding a curve, or cresting a hill, you come out the other side and see two semi tractor-trailers coming toward you at full speed on the two-lane road. Its not a pretty sight. They both see you, you see them, and somebody needs to do something, very quickly, to avoid a bad accident. The problem is this: neither of them will ever do anything except continue towards you. The driver being passed wont slow down, and the driver who is in your lane wont, or cant go any faster; your move. You are caught in a cultural trap. Backing down is not an option for either of them, it would show a lack of cajones (balls). There would be no end to the chigaderas (fucking with jokes, or trash talk, that make light of anothers masculinity, see Limn 1994, 129) he would experience at the next truck stop, other drivers would hear and his respeto (respect) would be damaged. These are, of course, all very serious academic considerations of the fascinating dynamics of a culture steeped in machismo and marianismo, but the fact remains that something needs to happen NOW. Because my vehicle is the smallest, I would be the one most likely to die from a collision. So my usual reaction to these situations, in the north, was to 1) slow down to see if the passer was going to make it around the passee, before they got to me, and 2) pull off onto the side of the road if it didnt look like that was going to happen. No problem, just part of swimming with 95 the sharks. But that was only the case in the north; in central and southern Mexico, and in the mountains, there isnt always such a thing as the side of the road. What then? Well, then the situation becomes very tense and it doesnt help to close ones eyes and hope it goes away. It does help for me to hit the brakes faster and harder, maybe even shift into reverse, when Im stopped, and start backing up to give them more room. Usually by reacting quickly and appropriately it becomes apparent within a few seconds that its going to have a happy ending. The tension however, not only remains, it becomes cumulative; especially when these situations start coming more frequently and closer together. This was the case in Chiapas and southern Oaxaca during the third week of the fieldwork. On three successive working days there were five such incidents. The series started, first thing one morning, on a bridge just outside of Comitn. A bridge is the ultimate place where you have nowhere to go. I came to a screeching stop as soon as I saw the guy pull out to pass; he made it past me by a few feet. Later that day it happened again, this time on a narrow mountain road. Again, no place to go; a wall of solid granite to the left, clouds and a very long drop on the right (see Figures 7.5.5 and Figure 10.4.6). Fortunately these two were going slow enough that the danger dissipated almost as quickly as it appeared. The next morning a dueling semis situation quickly resolved itself followed by another later in the day. The second one was, in some ways, the straw that broke the camels back. I was in a stretch of rolling hills with a truck behind me; going up the hills I would pull away from him, going down he would be right up close to me. Sometimes he would get almost on my bumper, trying to get past me; but there was no opportunity, on-coming traffic was heavy and there were no openings for him to pass. This had been going on for about twenty minutes when I crested a hill and was presented with dueling semis. The two trucks had a long line of traffic behind them; obviously the lead truck had slowed the pace of traffic on those uphill stretches. I hit the brakes as soon as I saw them. It was obvious that they werent going to resolve things before they got to me, but there were only a few 96 inches of roadside, so I swerved as I braked to get as far to the right as I could. My right wheels dropped off the pavement before I realized that the road was six to eight inches higher than the ground. They were on me before I could even think to hit reverse. I thought I was going to die for sure but, in the last possible fraction of a second, the passing truck swerved to the left and missed me by inches. I knew the truck was probably still coming behind me so, as soon as my lane cleared, I hit the gas and jumped my truck back up onto the pavement. It fish-tailed a bit but I compensated and kept running it through the gears, to get back up to road speed, so I wouldnt get creamed from the rear. I couldnt take even a split second of concentration off what I was doing to look in the rearview mirror; it demanded all of my focus to get the pickup going straight down the road. I pulled over as soon as I came upon a roadside site that had enough room to park. My companion vomited and commented that I hadnt missed that bus by more than an inch or two. I didnt pursue to topic and never told him that I didnt see a bus (evidently it was the next vehicle behind the truck that was being passed). The cook cooked that night (a rare occasion), but got no personal satisfaction from the effort; he was unable to hold his meal down. The next morning he made it clear that he was no longer interested in being associated with my project, and by that afternoon choose to find his own way back to Arizona rather than accept a ride or another chance at his job. The next day seemed to be a good time for a day off, so I lazed around Juchitan, Oaxaca, re-arranged things in my truck, and had a good meal in a nice restaurant. Although the frustration of the personnel problem had solved itself, the tension of driving remained. That coupled with other more complex emotions, things like simultaneous sadness and anger, left me with a lingering anxiety that something else needed to be done into bring my affairs in balance. In this state of mind I continued on the following morning. Being alone and on the road was its own reward, and lifted my spirits considerably. I was beginning to think that all of the pressures that I felt were related to the cook when another dueling semis incident occurred. Like 97 the second and third incident in this series, it resolved itself almost as quickly as it appeared; but I knew then, that my emotional state was not centered on anything other than the fieldwork. A few miles down the road, as I was wondering what to do to change the situation, I came upon a large Marian roadside shrine and stopped to do my note taking and photographing. Without thinking about why I was doing it, I knelt down in front of the Virgin of Guadalupe statue and said to it: Virgencita, Im in a world of shit here and this is your turf. All I want to do is finish my work here in Mexico and go back home alive and unharmed. I promise if youll protect me and help me make it through this alive, Ill dedicate my dissertation to you. Although I havent practiced any religion since childhood, and have never prayed in the Mexican quid pro quo sense; I felt completely at ease during and after doing it. I was taking the culturally appropriate action. This was participation, as an ethnographer, at a basic level. The job I was doing was fraught with danger, I was in emotional turmoil because of it, and I needed protection. Guadalupe is the Queen of Mexico, and there she was standing in front of me. What is more natural than to ask the favor and protection of the most powerful person in the land? Any Mexican would do the same. I had seen dozens of truckers doing it. They had made me one of them. I wont pretend that I never had a close call with dueling semis again. They happened, but never again were they so close or concentrated. Perhaps that is because it was a Chiapas thing; I dont know, or care. She kept her end of the deal in Mexico and, Ill keep mine here. From the perspective of an office in the U.S.A., all of that Mexican Catholicism stuff may be just organized superstition, but its real in Mexico; and thats what mattered then and there. 98 CHAPTER 7: TEXT: TEMPERATE, CENTRAL MEXICO The ten states included in the central region are: Jalisco, Michoacn, Aguascalientes, Guanajuato, Quertaro, Mxico, Morelos, Hidalgo, Tlaxcala, and Puebla (See Figure 4.1). As with the north, the central region coincides with Tamayos (1953) agricultural zones, but is characterized by a more temperate climate and intensive agriculture. The central region is home to 45.3% of the population of Mexico in 14% of its total area. The region represents 16.6% of the total miles surveyed, 23.4% of the artifacts recorded, and 17.2% of those that are thickly described. Here, land use and population are more compacted and the terrain is more mountainous. The result is that the 20 meter right-of-way is rarely observed in practice. Where the land is flat enough for farming, that activity usually extends as near to the highways pavement as possible. Where it is too mountainous for farming, the roadside is often a vertical wall of rock on one side with air (and a long drop!) on the other. Higher population density also means more highway traffic; more fatal accidents; and the possibility, at any given time, of yet one more accident. 7.1: Jalisco A mostly mountainous state in west central Mexico, Jalisco is the sixth largest state (30,941 sq mi) and, with a population of 6.3 million (2000), is the third most populous state. The capital city; Guadalajara, known as the Pearl of the West, is Mexicos second largest city with a population of 3 million. Tourists and visitors, to any part of Mexico, appreciate Jalisco as the home of mariachi music but, from the perspective of the average Mexican dinner table, its status as the leading producer of maize and beans may well make it the most important state in Mexico. Jalisco is where the Sierra Madre Occidental has its southern terminus, the Transverse Volcanic Belt its western extreme, and the Sierra Madre del Sur its northern; the result is an interesting variety of landform, elevation, climate, and driving conditions. 99 Figure 7.1.1: Map of Jalisco, survey routes and places. The state was surveyed along two transects: the Pacific coastal transect (L3) runs from the Nayarit-Jalisco state line just north of Puerto Vallarta, to the Jalisco-Colima boundary just south of Cihuatln; the third widthwise transect (W3), which splits near Zacatecas, crosses Jalisco from east-to-west in two sections. The northern section begins at the Zacatecas-Jalisco boundary on route 54, skirts the northern suburbs of Guadalajara, and proceeds westward to Nayarit on route 15, a divided highway. The southern section of W5 crosses into Jalisco from Aguascalientes north of Lagos de Moreno on the 45, through San Juan de los Lagos on the 80, skirts Guadalajara to the south, and proceeds on route 54 (another divided highway) to the Colima boundary, about 30 miles south of Ciudad Guzman (Figure 7.1.1). The total miles surveyed is 450, and 273 artifacts were recorded at 202 sites; 79% of the artifacts were crosses, 19% were nichos and 0.5% of the sites were described in detail. Figure 7.1.2: Nicho with visitation pebbles. Site JL20, located about 10 miles east of San Juan de los Lagos (Figure 7.1.2), demonstrates a common practice of marking visitation to a roadside death memorial by survivors of the deceased (see various other sites Table B7.1). The horizontal surfaces, including the arms 100 of the cross, the flowerpot pedestal, and the interior of the open niche, have pebbles placed on them. The practice of leaving stones or pebbles at wayside death-related memorials has a long history in European culture (Monger 1997) and stretches back into the misty pre-history of indigenous Americans (Griffith 1992, 85). While it is clear that these rocks mean something, exactly what they symbolize is less than straightforward. Griffiths ethnographic evidence that adding a rock to a roadside sacred place will make the trip easy (85) represents a level of symbolism that has devolved into superstition. In general, rocks have a number of symbolic referents including that which is stable, unchanging, eternal, and by extension that which is divine (Biedermann 1994, 286). Candles, also rich in spiritual symbolism (Bachelard 1988; Bachelard 1990); are, correctly I believe, connected by Griffith to the custom of leaving rocks at a death site (1992, 101). He adds that Candles are a symbol of prayer and in many communities have become prayers- offerings- in and of themselves. (101) Rocks or pebbles symbolize a prayer for the dead; and seem to be a simple, and practical, substitute where the flame of a candle is quickly extinguished by the draft of passing traffic. Nicho makers and visitors place importance on making their prayers endure beyond the present moment; this is evidenced in constructing a nicho that faces away from the road (see Table B7.1, JL 34 and JL107; see also section 10.2 in reference to site GR99), or in fashioning a windbreak to protect the flames of candles. Table B7.1 in Appendix B gives a complete accounting of the sites and artifacts observed in Jalisco. 7.2: Michoacn Dominated by the mountains of the Sierra Madre Occidental and the volcanic chain of central Mexico, Michoacn extends from the Pacific Ocean northeastward into the central plateau. The Lerma River and Lake Chapala form part of its northern boundary with Jalisco; the Ro de las Balsas marks the southern border with Guerrero. The climate and soil variations caused by topography and varying elevation make Michoacn a diverse agricultural state, producing 101 temperate and tropical cereals, fruits, and vegetables. Most of the states 3,979,177 inhabitants are native Tarascans. Figure 7.2.1: Map of Michoacn, survey routes and places. Michoacn was surveyed along two transects: transect L3 closely follows 178 miles of breathtakingly beautiful, and treacherous, coastline where the Sierra Madre del Sur meets the Pacific; and W4 runs the length of the state, for 270 miles, crossing the Sierra Madre del Sur and terminating at its junction with Federal Highway 200 in La Mira (see Figure 7.2.1). Three hundred twenty-three crosses, 38 nichos, 20 shrines and 1 monument were observed at 301 sites; 27 of these were described in rich detail, and 18 were photographed. In most of the states in this section driving was problematic, usually because of the combination of mountainous topography and traffic density. In Michoacn, however, a unique problem occurred which more than ordinarily affected the research process. Shortly after passing the Colima/Michoacn state line along the Pacific transect, I began to experience a problem with the transmission of my 5-speed Toyota pickup truck. At first it was a minor irritation, the shifter was popping out of fourth gear which, considering the terrain, I rarely had an opportunity to use anyhow. As the day progressed and I traveled farther south and away from the nearest large town, so did the transmission problem. Within two hours the problem extended to all gears except first and reverse. Although I am not much of a mechanic, I can usually figure out, in general, what is wrong; especially with a vehicle I have driven for 7 years and 100,000 plus miles. But this had me stumped: I could shift into the next higher gear, but as soon as I let go of the shifter it would pop back out of gear and into neutral. Simultaneous with this progressively 102 deteriorating situation, the landscape became more and more vertical and the road more sinuous as it wound its way up and down the coastal mountains. I am not sure how drastically this affected the research results, but you should know exactly what physical actions were required to make your own judgment. First, I am driving; this involves manipulating the clutch, gas pedal, gear shifter, and steering wheel in a smooth simultaneity that is second nature to anyone accustomed to a manual transmission, and slightly exacerbated by a mountainous road. Second; I usually do not have any previous experience in driving the road I am on, so an extra set of eye movements is required to search for cues and clues about the unseen roadway ahead; in addition to the normal eye movements to see the immediate ahead, sides, and behind. Third; these eye movements are further complicated by the reason I am there, i.e. I am searching the immediate roadway ahead, behind, and side-to-side for the signs which might indicate the presence of one of the objects of interest to this study. And fourth, when I do spy an object of interest; the eye movements need to intensify in that direction, while the foot movements adjust to slow down so the eyes can do their job, while the hands work in coordination with the feet. If somewhere in this process, the decision was made to do a drive-by description (rather than stopping and pulling over, which requires available roadside space), then a task specific set of movements begin. My left hand had a mechanical tally counter hooked onto the middle finger and attached to the wrist by a rubber band; it needs to be clicked, advancing the count to reflect a new site. At the same time, the right hand needs to activate and deactivate the micro-cassette recorder that sits in the cup holder 8 inches above the shifter, while I deliver a soliloquy that describes what I see. Particular attention is paid to the rearview mirror to assure that I am not becoming a hazard to other motorists during this process. This is very simple if you imagine that I am seeing/describing a cross, for example; but, as the tables throughout this work verify, it is quite common that I am dealing with both multiple objects at a site and/or multiple sites in close proximity. This is exacerbated by the unique circumstance of needing to keep pressure on the shifter stick so that my vehicle will not suddenly shift itself into neutral, which 103 has dangerous potential on a steep grade. This all occurs in the context of riding the ridges, pot hole dodging, and watching out for motorists driving the wrong direction in your lane; all part of the normal driving experience in Mexico which is elaborated upon elsewhere in this work. This detailed explanation of the fieldwork process also serves the purpose of providing cues and clues to an underlying context. Where the empirical text comments upon driving times or conditions, or the tables show 10, 15, or 20 sites on alternating sides of the road within a single mile, the reality of the fieldwork lies just beneath the surface of the textual reality. While the purpose of these sections is to establish what and where, this information is at least partially conditioned by how, and under what conditions, the data were collected. In any case, alls well that ends well. I arrived in Lzaro Crdenas intact, stayed long enough to rest and make some new friends, and (a lifetime first) was actually under-charged by the mechanic who fixed the transmission. In addition, along that particular transect there were many opportunities to stop and marvel at the beautiful setting of some of these roadside sacred places. Figure 7.2.2: Site MC27, a nicho on a cliff overlooking the Pacific Ocean Site MC27, was one of the more attractive settings for a roadside sacred place (see Figure 7.7.2). This is a white concrete nicho with the gabled roof painted red; half of the area under roof is a patio that is open in front and partially open on the sides. Inside the closed portion are three prints: one of the Virgin Mary and Christ child and two of saints that I did not recognize. A cross is painted above the opening and it appears that something else was painted beneath it, but is no 104 longer discernable. No death information was anywhere in evidence, so I assume this is currently a nicho of religiosity. Another shrine of religiosity that is noteworthy is site number MC91, located in the Sierra Madre del Sur, 19.4 miles east of Arteaga on the north side of route 37. Numerous roadside sacred places in this study have some relation, or proximity, to trees (see e.g. MR10, QT147, VZ283). All are built of some material that is other than the tree; this small niche, however, is a cavity of a tree root. In this respect, it is akin to site CH322, a shrine inside a natural cave. The niche contains a framed print of St. Jude and two of the Crucifixion. Three votive candles were burning when I came upon it at 10AM on January 9, 2000. The wax from previous candles was on top of, and in, the soil beneath the concavity, indicating that this place has a long-term history as a local sacred place. Unfortunately, the photo of this site did not develop properly. Day of the Dead (and/or anniversary of the death) wreaths are another recurrent theme in the images, text and tables in this work. Figure 7.2.3 and 7.2.4 show typical examples of crosses Figure 7.2.3: MC218, 4 crosses with wreaths. Figure 7.2.4: MC18, shrine with 2 wreaths and a shrine, both multiple death sites, with wreaths. Site MC218, located on the north side of route 14, 11.4 miles west of the turn-off to Patzcuaro, represents four deaths which occurred here on August 2, 1998. The small white crosses in front are for angelitas, two little girls aged 10 and almost one; the larger black crosses are for two men, one age 50 and the other unknown (i.e. his birth date was omitted from the inscription). The four wreaths are still in very good condition, this photo being taken only two months after the Days of the Dead (1/9/00). 105 Site MC18, on the other hand, was sighted on June 27, 1999 and nearly seven months have passed since the probable day these wreaths were put in place. The one on the left still has a small bit of the plastic wrapping left and the color of the wreath (blue) is very clear; the one to the right has no protective wrapping left and its color has faded to a dingy gray. There is also the remains of a white wreath that has fallen off one of the four crosses, and lies on the roof of the shrine. The shrine is 2m tall and 1m square at the base, made of concrete painted blue; and the four metal crosses are welded onto a base bar that is affixed to the flat roof. The crosses and base are made of square tubing, and the cross members terminate in circles (probably slices of 2 pipe) which are welded together. This site is located 19 miles south of the Colima state line on route 200, the Pacific coast road. Table B7.2 (Appendix B) details what was observed and where in the state of Michoacn. 7.3: Aguascalientes Figure 7.3.1: Map of Aguascalientes, survey routes and places. With an area of 2111 square miles, Aguascalientes is the third smallest state in Mexico; and its 943,506 inhabitants make it the fourth most densely populated. Located in central Mexico about 250 miles northwest of Mexico City on the Anahuac plateau, its elevation of 3,000 to 10,000 feet above sea level provides a temperate climate where agricultural products such as wine grapes, corn and fruit thrive. The state was surveyed in one transect, driving south along Mexico Route 45 from the Zacatecas state line in the north, through the capital city of Aguascalientes, to the southern boundary with Jalisco. The total length of the transect was 58 miles, and 58 artifacts were described at 51 locations (see Figure 7.3.1); there were 50 crosses, 7 nichos, and one shrine in 106 June 1999. Aguascalientes was anomalous in the respect that 14, or 24%, of the artifacts lay within the urbanized area of the capital city. Site number AG03 (Figure 7.3.2) is a cross, located on the west side of route 45 two miles south of the Zacatecas boundary. This photo, and many others in this study, was taken either from the road or with the road behind the photographer. Behind the cross and its protective wrought iron fence, invisible except for its wooden posts, is a wire fence that marks off the boundary of the adjacent private property. This aspect of the situation of roadside memorials is seen in images throughout this text. Almost without exception, these memorials are on land that is legally the property of the federal government, the public right-of-way. Figure 7.3.2: Crucifix on a wedge with 2 urns, enclosed within a wrought iron fence. This location is neither road nor productive property, it is between places, and this situation is one of the key aspects of roadside memorials. In an ironic turn of logic the illegitimacy of the placement of a memorial on unused public land is part of its legitimacy. The thought process seems to be: land should be used for something, this is public land, we are members of the public, our loved one died here, because it is our custom-- it is permissible to erect a memorial on this land. The placement and materials of this artifact indicate the intent for it to be a permanent part of the landscape. The four corners of the wrought iron fence are set in concrete postholes and the wedge and crucifix are mounted on a concrete foundation block. The inscription reads: Rogilio Galvan Torres Oct. 27, 1940 Nov. 25, 1996, Remembrance of his wife and children. The Lord guides you with His light on the true path, so that you will be in His divine presence 107 and share in the kingdom of heaven for all eternity. The Galvan M. family. The religious wording verifies the intent to create a sacred place and, due to the context of the surrounding landscape, indicates that this very spot is where Seor Galvan passed away. Table B7.3 in Appendix B features the Spanish inscription of this site and lists all artifacts observed and their locations within the state of Aguascalientes. 7.4: Guanajuato Guanajuatos 30,589 sq km (11,810 sq mi) area has an average elevation of 1,830 m (6,000 ft) and a population of 4,656,761. In the mountainous north, gold, silver tin, lead, and copper are mined. Corn, barley, beans, and wheat are raised in the fertile plains of the south. Industries, concentrated in such urban centers as Leon and Celaya, produce petrochemicals, textiles, cement, processed foods, and leather. The 1810 war for independence began with Father Hidalgos grito on the church steps of the town that today bears his name, Dolores Hidalgo, Guanajuato. One hundred eighty-one miles of highways were surveyed in Guanajuato along two transects: 67 miles along the central longitudinal transect (L2) from the San Luis Potos boundary to the Queretaro state line on route 57; and 114 miles along a width-wise transect (W4) that passed from the Queretaro boundary to the Michoacn boundary, mostly along route 120 (see Figure 7.4.1). 128 artifacts were recorded at 101 sites; there were 111crosses, 11 nichos, 2 monuments, and six shrines. Figure 7.4.1: Map of Guanajuato, survey routes and places. 108 The extensive nature of this survey usually ruled out deviations from the planned routes for intensive investigation of any particular site and concentrated, instead, on gleaning information on-site as the opportunity arose. Transect W4 in Guanajuato, reflects an unusual circumstance that resulted in a 55 mile detour from the planned route to find a specific accident site. Thirty-three sites were recorded early in the morning of January 10, 2000 along a loop-route north from Acambaro; one of these, number GT59, made international news on December 14, 1999. Just before the second phase of fieldwork, my wife and I were vacationing in Dolores Hidalgo and drove into the capital city of Guanajuato for a day of sightseeing. That mornings newspapers headlined a horrendous accident involving a bus and a tanker truck the night before; thirty-one people reportedly died nearby, on the road from Acambaro to Celaya. Having already seen plenty of accidents and recent accident sites, our vacation continued along its plan; but the route for this transect had already changed in my mind. Various cues and clues confirm that roadside death memorials are located, more or less, at the exact death site; but how urgent is the need to establish a place remained a nagging question. At GT59 I sought at least a partial answer based on a particular incident. As Table B7.4 details, only two crosses were in place almost a month later; indicating that, for the majority of surviving family members, immediate action was not a particular concern in this case. This stands as a counterpoint to site ZT380, discussed in Chapter 9, where the familys response was relativity prompt. Figure 7.4.2: Sacred Heart death monument. Figure 7.4.3: Angel monument 109 Sites GT92 and 93 (Figures 7.4.2 and 7.4.3) are noteworthy because of the relative infrequency of the monument type of roadside memorial and their proximity (10 meters apart). The Sacred Heart monument (GT92) is inscribed with the hand-painted words fallecio El Sr Monico Juarez 12.15.75 (Mr. Monico Juarez died on December 15, 1975) and has imitation flowers that seem relatively recent. That a roadside memorial continues to receive attention 25 years after the death date shows a remarkable devotion to deceased family members. The lack of any sort of inscription on the monument at GT93 is curious, however, when considering its context on the landscape and the tradition that angel images refer to children; it seems rather straightforward that a child died here. The sites and locations observed in Guanajuato are detailed in Appendix B, Table B7.4. 7.5: Quertaro With mountains in the north and valleys and plains in the south, Quertaro raises a variety of agricultural products, especially grains; extensive pasturelands also make livestock breeding an important economic activity. This state was surveyed along two transects; L2 passed width-wise through 133 miles of southwestern Quertaro, and W4 traced the length of the state for 183 miles (see Figure 7.5.1). The eastern portion of transect W4 went through the beautiful, and treacherous, Sierra Gorda region of the Sierra Madre Oriental. 181 artifacts were described at 166 sites, they were: 90 crosses, 75, nichos, 15 shrines, and 1 monument. Figure 7.5.1: Map of Quertaro, survey routes and places. Site number QT103 (Figure 7.5.2) is a good example of a typical Mexican roadside shrine of religiosity. A yellow concrete structure, located 52 miles east of Jalpan on route 120, 110 this Marian shrine is at the top of a particularly steep grade. In spite of its relatively remote location, the altar was decorated with quite a few bouquets of fresh flowers and a dozen candles were burning. These clues indicate that this shrine is a popular sacred place among the local people, as if to dot an exclamation point; as I turned to leave the shrine after taking my notes, a pickup truck passed by with a boy partially hanging out of the passenger side window and, as he looked back at the shrine he crossed himself. Perhaps the most striking aspect of this particular structure is how the fixed feature symbolism of the shrine connects it to death. Mary, door of Heaven (Maria puerta del cielo) appears in wrought iron lettering above the open entrance, affirming the role of the Blessed Virgin Mary in the geography of the afterlife. The popular Roman Catholic prayer, the Ave Maria (symbolized on the face of the altar by the intertwined letters A and M) ends with the supplication: Pray for us sinners, now and in the hour of death (Pelikan 1996, 14). People pray for or about practically all the problems there are in a human lifetime, and Roman Catholics may pray to any of a multitude of intercessors; but Marys role in the favorable placement of people in the afterlife is sufficiently important to merit an entire chapter about her in the Catholic Book of the Dead (Ball 1995). Figure 7.5.2: Site QT103, a remote Marian shrine in the mountains of eastern Quertero. Where QT103 demonstrates an association of function between shrines of religiosity and death memorials through symbolism, site QT147 (Figure 7.5.3) shows both an association of form (see also section 4.2) and function. Although there is no inscription that indicates that this complex of nichos is a death memorial, two objects in the larger nicho to the right indicate that 111 possibility. First there is a wreath lying in a rear corner that is very similar to those found at death memorials and in cemeteries, second; the bouquet of flowers in front of the statue of the Virgin of San Juan de los Lagos are marigolds. Zempasuchitl, a kind of marigold .. is the traditional Figure 7.5.3: Site QT147; nicho complex featuring a wooden nicho in a tree. flower of the dead. (Toor 1947, 239) (also spelled cempoalxchitl (Cortez Ruiz, Oliver Vega et al. 1996, 18) and semposuchil (Green 1972, 248)). The wooden nicho mounted in the tree is quite old, judging by the weathering of the wood, and the smallest nicho appears to be especially for the burning of votive candles. A sign (Do not throw trash in this place) above the old wooden nicho indicates that this is probably used for religious purposes and receives enough visitations to have negative side effects. The symbolism of the wreath and the marigolds however, place the current or original function of the complex, or part of it, in some doubt. Figures 7.5.4 and 7.5.5 (below) show nichos in various stages of existence. Site QT108 features a small tree planted in front of the nicho and a cross-shaped wreath in front of the opening. The roof has partially collapsed and is temporarily repaired by placing flat rocks over Figure 7.5.4: QT108, nicho with a tree. Figure 7.5.5: QT162, nicho under construction. 112 the holes. The death date on the cross inside the nicho is 1996, and visitation may be beginning to taper-off. Site QT162, on the other hand, is so new that the form boards for making the roof are still in place, the pail for mixing the concrete is still on-site, and a piece of rebar sticks out of the rear of the roof awaiting a cross. This site also demonstrates the common phenomena of a nonroadside; which is one of the difficulties involved in doing close inspection of roadside sites, especially in the mountains, or needing to pull off the road for safety or emergency reasons (see Figure 10.7.6 for a different type of non-roadside). The final featured example from Quertero, site QT163, is a wooden cross of the style typical to the eastern Sierra Gorda. Situated six miles west of the San Luis Potos state line on route 120, the exact site location is 21o 15.68 north and 99o 10.85 west. Figure 7.5.6: QT163, wooden cross in the eastern Sierra Gorda region. The surrounding landscape is pine forest and the road runs along a ridge that closely follows the 980m (3251ft) contour line. The feature that typifies crosses in this region is the mounting of the cross on a post, which is concreted into a posthole. This cross is a plain Roman design, painted green and decorated with imitation calla lilies twined around the cross. This local practice probably relates to the background of Figure 7.5.6, which shows a slump scar on the soil surface. Because mass wasting events are quite common in the mountains, particularly in the monsoon season, having ones cross mounted on a post may keep it from being buried. Table B7.5, in Appendix B, details the sites observed in Quertaro. 113 7.6: Mxico The state of Mxico, surrounding the Federal District (and the worlds largest metropolis) on three sides, is the most densely populated state in the nation. Its population density (1578 persons per square mile) is more that double that of the second most densely populated state, Morelos, which is the other state that bounds the Federal District. Although the state is highly industrialized, agricultural activities, especially dairying, still survive the onslaught of urban expansion. The state was surveyed along the two most central transects (L2 and W5), both of which are discontinuous within the state of Mxico (Figure 7.6.1). In 281 miles I saw 147 sites that had 212 artifacts: 168 crosses, 40 nichos, and 4 shrines. Driving conditions were hectic, as in any mostly metropolitan area and, photo and detailed description opportunities were scant. Among those the following three illustrate a practical aspect of constructing and maintaining a roadside memorial. Figure 7.6.1: Map of Mxico, survey routes and places. Most crosses discussed in this work have some sort of decorative embellishment to the standard Roman cross that is esthetically pleasing to those who create these sacred places. The addition of a roof-type addition to crosses is common throughout Mexico and is the one embellishment that seems to have a more practical purpose. The roofs are situated on the cross with the inscription scroll or plate directly beneath, and acts as a protection against weathering that any surface that is constantly exposed, in an open area, would experience. As Figure 7.6.2 shows, the roofs themselves are not particularly an esthetic enhancement, but the hand-painted inscriptions are still legible 4 and 8 years later. 114 Site MX49 (Figure 7.6.3) shows an adaptation of this practice to a different type of memorial that contributes to a blurring of categories. By virtue of the partially enclosed niche this memorial is a nicho according to my rubric of walls and a roof, but just barely. The addition of a makeshift sun-shade extends the roof and makes the appearance more nicho-like. Again, this modification protects rather than enhances appearance and, although this particular case is unique, similar windbreaks and other protective adjustments are frequently seen throughout the country. Figure 7.6.2: Sites MX41 (left) and MX42, metal crosses with roofs above the inscription plates. Figure 7.6.3: Site MX49, nicho with a sun-shade. Table B7.6 in Appendix B gives the details gleaned from the field notes for the state of Mxico. 7.7: Morelos Morelos is the second smallest state in Mexico, covering only 4,950 sq km (1,911 sq mi). Separated from the Federal District and Mexico state by the east-west volcanic chain, Morelos is mountainous with broad valleys in the south, where agriculture flourishes. The growing of sugarcane, wheat, rice, corn, tropical fruits, and vegetables is the most important economic activity in Morelos, followed by tourism. The state is named for Jos Mara Morelos and was 115 both his stronghold in the war of independence against Spain (1810), and that of Emiliano Zapata during the social revolution of 1910. Morelos was a small part (71 miles) of the two disjunctive transects (L2 and W5) that pass through the cultural center of Mexico (see Figure 7.7.1). Ninety-four artifacts (65 crosses, 26 nichos and 3 shrines) were recorded at 44 locations, 29% of these artifacts were at a single location. Figure 7.7.1: Map of Morelos, survey routes and places. At this point in the text, a multiple death site should be neither surprising, nor particularly stirring to the reader. Death on the highway seems to occur frequently to more than one person at a time, and ample evidence of this is in each of the section tables included in this work. Site MR10, however, with 23 crosses and 4 nichos has that potential. Figure 7.7.2 (below) is a veritable menagerie of death markers; even with the aid of a tape recorder, it took 45 minutes to locate, identify, and record the details of every artifact at this site. We know, on an intellectual level, that each of these artifacts represents, at least in part, grief over the sudden loss of a loved one. The symbolism behind each artifact is the life, and then the death, of one of our fellow human beings. But what I present to you here is only the end part, the result as it appears on the landscape on the particular day when I passed that way. What would that site have looked like on some other day; perhaps the day? Would that scene have touched us on some other level? Figure 7.7.3 (below) gives an idea of the scene one would have viewed when coming upon this site within a few hours of the accident that resulted in all these artifacts. 116 Figure 7.7.2: Site MR 10; 23 crosses and 4 nichos arrayed about a large eucalyptus tree. Figure 7.7.3: Site MR10 within hours of the September 2, 1996 accident. In Table B7.7, in Appendix B, gives the full text of the news article describing this accident, and the description of all the sites in Morelos. Twenty-three people were killed here and fifteen injured, eight of them seriously, when a bus lost its brakes coming down the steep road that curves sharply to the left of the big tree. The driver yelled out for people to jump if they could and began zigzagging the bus in an attempt to slow the bus enough to make the curve, to no avail. The bus hit the large cargo truck, pictured above, and a pickup truck that were parked on the side of the road, probably in connection with the farming activity in the adjacent field. After hitting the two trucks, the bus then hit the tree with such velocity that it broke in two. 7.8: Hidalgo Hidalgos 8,058 sq mi (20,870 sq km), crossed by the Sierra Madre Oriental, is extremely mountainous; in the southern and western areas there are plains and fertile valleys lying within the central plateau. The climate is warm in the lower valleys, temperate on the plateau, and cold in the mountains. Hidalgos chief crops are maguey, grown on the central plateau, alfalfa, corn, sugarcane, and coffee. 117 Figure 7.8.1: Map of Hidalgo, survey routes and places. This state was surveyed as part of two transects: on route 57, the central lengthwise transect (L2) passes through a portion of southern Hidalgo that is bounded by the state of Mexico on three sides; and transect W5 passes through the state from east-to-west along route 132 (see Figure 7.8.1). Although these two routes amount to only 81 miles, the travel time of over 6 hours testifies to the topographic classification of extremely mountainous (above), and hints at the degree of difficulty involved in the mountainous portions of the fieldwork. 122 crosses, 21 nichos, 8 shrines, and one monument; 152 artifacts in all, were recorded at 53 locations. Discounting the eight shrines, which were religious rather than memorial, this means an average of three deaths were memorialized at each location in Hidalgo. Table B7.8 provides a detailed summary of Hidalgos roadside sacred places along these two routes. 7.9: Tlaxcala Tlaxcala has an area of 3,914 sq km (1,511 sq mi); the western part lies within the central plateau, the remainder is extremely mountainous with a temperate to cold climate. Tlaxcala is primarily agricultural, with maguey, cereals, and subsistence crops grown in the valleys. The local claim to fame is the breeding of Mexicos fiercest fighting bulls. The present Tlaxcala corresponds to the pre-conquest Tlaxcala kingdom, which was never subjugated by the Aztecs but was conquered by the Spanish under Cortez; afterward, the Tlaxcalans became his allies and helped to destroy the Aztec empire. Tlaxcala was surveyed as part of the northeastern branch of the central transect, L2 (see Figure 7.9.1). The route was 84 miles in length, 245 artifacts (154 crosses, 86 nichos, and 5 118 shrines) were recorded at 141 sites; this was the highest density of artifacts-per-mile of all 31 states. Driving conditions, even compared to the other states in this region, were unusually hectic in Tlaxcala and resulted in a paucity of thickly described and/or photographed sites. Figure 7.9.1: Map of Tlaxcala, survey routes and places. Figure 7.9.2 shows a multiple death site (TX03) marked by 10 crosses of various styles and materials. At the far left is a black pipe cross with a center scroll and an outline filigree; and 2 small, white metal crosses made of 1 square tubing with the ends flattened. Each has a different filigree design between the arms, and both have 2 angels mounted on the filigrees above the ends of the horizontal arms; the left one has silver-colored angels, the right has bronze-colored angels. Both have a Christ figure attached where the filigrees meet the vertical member; the left cross has a square scroll and the right has an oval scroll. The fourth cross is a white granito variation that is a hybrid between the cross botonne and the cross fleure (Webber 1927, 117-119); in addition to having the persons vital information inscribed at the junction, it has a small metal ornament attached to the top of the vertical member and a small metal outline cross crucifix attached below the inscription. Figure 7.9.2: Site TX03; 10 crosses of various designs and materials. 119 The fifth cross from the left is a wooden spindle-type cross with a center scroll that resembles the shape of the heart that is traditionally associated with the Jesus Sacred Heart images. It has a variety of small items of unidentified materials affixed to the arms. The next two crosses are also made of wood, but are much more complex designs and a higher level of artisanship that the spindle-type cross. They are also significantly more weathered than the other crosses and are set one-behind-the-other, as is common when a newer cross replaces an older. Another wooden spindle-type is next in the row; this is very similar to the fifth cross except for minor variation of the lathing and a square center scroll. Directly in front of that (and just barely visible in Figure 7.9.2, above) is a gray metal outline cross. Each of the three upper arms comes to a double-beveled point and all have filigrees within the outline; in addition, each of the quadrants formed by the arms has a heart-shaped filigree. A square bit of thin sheet metal in the junction serves as a scroll, which has the persons information hand-painted onto it. Furthest to the right is a gray metal cross made of angle-irons; the upright is a T-shaped piece and the crossbar is L-shaped. A center scroll, similar to that on the previous cross, is protected by a small roof. Behind, in front, and to the sides of this cluster of crosses is a variety of associated debris that includes auto body parts, the remains of old wreaths, and containers that probably held flowers at one time. Table B7.9 in Appendix B details the sites and their locations that were recorded for the state of Tlaxcala. 7.10: Puebla The state is almost entirely mountainous, with large valleys between its ranges. Pueblas extreme northeastern section lies on the Gulf coastal plain; the southern part is in drier upland valleys. Differences in climate and elevation permit the cultivation of a variety of agricultural products, although corn and wheat, and alfalfa are dominant. Stock raising is also important in the southern part of the state. Puebla was surveyed as part of the central longitudinal transect, and along portions of the 5th and 6th latitudinal transects (see Figure 7.10.1); totaling 331 miles. Four 120 hundred two artifacts were described at 288 sites, there were: 209 crosses, 162 nichos, 30 shrines, and 1 monument. Figure 7.10.1: Map of Puebla, survey routes and places. This section, due to the luck of having good photos available, shows and tells about the ordinary, or frequently seen, nicho types. This may help the reader to visualize the descriptions given in the tables throughout this work, and points out the variety of the usual. The first nicho is religiously motivated and, as usual, is in a place that might seem unusual in a context other than Mexico (Figure 7.10.2). Nichos and shrines of religiosity seem to be just about anywhere in Mexico, no place or type of place is excluded as a possible site. This setting is a small grassy area at a PEMEX gas station (PEMEX is a governmental monopoly that is the oil industry in Mexico). According to the cashier un seor built the nicho for his own religious reasons, with the permission of someone at PEMEX. Because all motorists need gasoline, and the only place to get it is PEMEX; they are quite common at or near PEMEX stations. Figure 7.10.2: Site PB73, nicho/shrine to the Virgin of Guadalupe at a PEMEX station. Another common location is at toll booths. Choosing this type of location, a place where many, or all, people must stop, indicates the intention of providing others with a place to pray- 121 perhaps for a safe journey. In this case it also indicates that, in spite of official separation of church and state, individuals make decisions that clearly mix the two. Figures 7.10.3 through 7.10.6 represent a particular genre of nicho that is often referred to in this work as homemade. This type of nicho is built in situ by the family or friends of the deceased person being memorialized and, is the least costly and most labor intensive way of placing a nicho on the death site. The materials: cement, bricks (sometimes homemade), framing lumber (possibly scraps or pre-used), concrete blocks, and, in the case of PB40 glazed tiles; are all locally available and relatively inexpensive. A feature shown in Figures 7.10.3, 5, and 6 is another cost-cutting measure; instead of buying an urn to hold flowers, a tin can is incorporated into the pouring of the concrete to create a flower receptacle that is part of the structure. In spite of many families need to keep costs down, much effort is put into making memorials esthetically pleasing and constitutive of a sacred place. One strategy toward this end is to mimic the form of a church; site PB89 uses spires or steeples to achieve an appearance associated with an acknowledged sacred place. Compare this to site BN17 (Figure 4.1.2a), which uses the same strategy with a different design that is familiar to its region. Site PB82 may also, even if subliminally, be employing this strategy by mixing the pyramidal shape of pre-Hispanic sacred places into the shape of the roof. PB94 alters the structure slightly and achieves the same Figure 7.10.3: PB89, nicho with steeples. Figure 7.10.4: PB94: brick, flat-roof nicho. affect with the three-tiered base at the rear of the nicho which, in Christian symbolism, represents Faith, Hope, and Charity or the hill of Calvary (Griffith 1966). All of these nichos feature a cross, in addition to the structure, which also establishes the sacredness of the place. 122 Figure 7.10.5: PB82, nicho with a deck. Figure 7.10.6: PB40, tiled nicho. Three of these memorials feature some form of a platform, or deck, which extends out in front of the walled and roofed nicho structure. This form, especially in the case of PB82, is reminiscent of the raised tomb type of marker frequently seen in Mexican graveyards, or within walking distance of the LSU campus (Highland Cemetery, on Oxford Street). This type of grave marker was prevalent throughout the Americas (as influenced by Mediterranean Europe) through the early nineteenth-century (French 1974). Traditional cemetery architecture, copied in roadside death memorials, seems a natural transition in establishing a sacred place of this specific type. The next series of images illustrates a variety of nichos that I often refer to as: prefabricated (or prefab) and/or made of the material called granito by its venders and manufacturers. Figures 7.10.7, 8, and 9 are memorials that could be seen in a sales display as well as by the roadside; Figure 7.10.10 is a hybrid of the prefabricated and the homemade. Site PB50 is made up of several different prefabricated elements: a trapezoidal niche with a cross atop, an open-book inscription plate, two urns, an A-frame shelter, and a platform that Figure 7.10.7: PB50, granito nicho and fancy cross. Figure 7.10.8: PB44, nicho with urn. 123 Figure 7.10.9: PB51, double urn nicho. Figure 7.10.10: PB39, hybrid nicho. supports all of the other elements. The edge-view of the A-frame is interesting because it shows how chunks of stone(Figure 7.10.7), inserted into the mortar and later polished, give the appearance of marble; hence the materials colloquial name marmolito (little marble). Placing this sort of memorial at a death site can be as easy as purchasing the materials, hauling them to the location, and putting them together like pieces of a puzzle. Making a concrete foundation, and/or mortaring the pieces together are efforts that do not necessarily add more permanence. Next to the nicho is one of the fancier crosses observed during this project; the arms are of twisted white metal and curlicue filigrees, a heart-shaped scroll, and a rectangular INRI plate add artistic flourishes. Site PB44 (Figure 7.10.8) repeats the trapezoidal form with a cross atop, in this example, with a ledge to accommodate an urn and a wrought iron gate that is lockable. The urn is caulked onto the nicho, and the nicho is caulked onto a concrete base that is painted white. Inside the locked niche is a porcelain vase with artificial flowers. Almost the exact form is replicated in Figure 7.10.9 at site PB51. This nicho has a double urn configuration and two small niches beneath the urn platforms. Soot marks on the urns indicate that these smaller niches are being used as places to burn votive candles; the central niche is not locked in this case and there is nothing inside. Site PB39 (Figure 7.10.10) shows the common practice of combining elements that are prefabricated with a homemade nicho. Most crosses, regardless of the material used to make them, are the product of a craftsperson. This is the case at this site where a granito cross is 124 concreted into the back of the concrete nicho. The Virgin of Guadalupe ceramic was part of the nicho design, as evidenced by the unusual cutout on the inside of the gable peak. Two granito urns were cemented into place on either side of the nicho, to complete the memorial complex. The form boards in the background show that the main part of the nicho was constructed in situ, and quite recently; the death date inscribed on the cross is May 5th, this photo was taken on May 26th, both in 1999. This site also reinforces a point made previously (see QT162 in section 7.5), i.e. that roadside is a relative term that may or may not mean that some amount of space exists beyond the driving surface. In this case there is barely room for a person to stand between the pavement and a wall of granite. These last eight sites demonstrate the economic reality that families must come to terms with when memorializing the place where a loved one met their untimely death. The basic decision that I have demonstrated is a tradeoff between money and labor expended. The first four examples require quite a bit of time and effort but little cash; the next three require a, perhaps significant, cash outlay but little effort; and the final example strikes a balance that requires both time and money. These decisions are occurring within the context of a country where the annual average income does not exceed $5000 US, and the decision makers have recently paid for a funeral and burial. In an interview of a funeral director in Tepic, Nayarit on 6/24/99, I was told that a midrange casket, a plot in the least expensive cemetery, and an average monument would cost in the range of $3000 to $4000US. Another interview with a storekeeper in Sonoyta, Sonora on 12/22/99 revealed that life insurance is, except for the very wealthy, unheard of in Mexico. When the context is viewed as a body of information, the decision to buy $100 worth of anything extra is a serious choice. 125 Figure 7.10.11: PB267, nicho constructed as nine crosses. Sites PB267 (Figure 7.10.11) and 268 are identical nichos, less than a mile apart, that are a clever use of the cross shape to construct a nicho-type memorial. The blue tiled, concrete nicho has a flat roof with a pyramid atop and a black metal cross mounted on its peak. The sides are open, but instead of placing the four supporting posts at the corners of the square roof, they are in the middle of each side, with a fascia at roof level. The open sides are thereby offset at 450 angles and each one is of black wrought iron (one of which is a locked door) with a white cross in its center. The nicho itself is four crosses with another cross atop its highest point. That an identical structure is less than one mile away indicates a single craftsperson designed and built them. Table B7.10 in Appendix B details the artifacts and their locations, observed in the state of Puebla. 126 CHAPTER 8: CONCEPTUAL CONTEXT: (MESTIZO CULTURE)x The title of this chapter could just as well have been hybrid culture to the x power, because hybridity, or the mixing of culture(s) is the topic of this chapter. The terms; mestizo, mestizaje, hybrid, and hybridity are, essentially, Spanish/English synonyms. Mestizo Culture was chosen for several reasons. Latin American and Latin Americanist scholars have a long and continuous engagement with the fundamental concepts in this chapter. Vasconcelos, referred to below, originally wrote La Raza Cosmica in 1925; Morners (1970) edited volume complied selected research on the topic up to that point, and various aspects the topic has continued to engage us up to the present (see e.g. Whitten 1965, 1976; Wade 1997; Rahier 1999). Parallel to this is another, theoretically and critically oriented literature within which the term hybridity was coined by Bhabha (1988) and is central to debate in post-colonial theory (see e.g. Ashcroft, Griffiths, et al.1995; Werbner and Modood 1997; Brah and Coomes 2000). The choice of Spanish rather than English terms honors and identifies with the Latin American(ist) scholars who first explored this intellectual terrain. A second reason for using mestizo rather than hybrid is to distance this work from more general uses of hybridity. Mexico and Latin America is, in my opinion, uniquely hybrid. There the language and religion of conquest are more-or-less universal, whereas the same may not be said of British, French or other former colonies. Indigenous religions and languages are still practiced/used, but the majority are, for example, practicing Catholics; no matter how syncretized that practice may be. In fact, Latin America is so Catholic that there is currently much speculation that the next pope must be a Latin American! Having stated that, this work is certainly indebted to post-colonial scholarship; however, this influence comes most strongly from those who are primarily Latin American(ist) scholars (e.g. Escobar 1995; Garca Canclini 1993, 1995). If the idea of mestizo culture blurs rather than clarifies, then it is at least partially successful. In the Americas, and particularly in Mexico, mestizo has a particular meaning that refers to a biological hybridity. Vasconcelos (1997) re-thought this meaning as a mandate 127 from History [that] is first noticed in that abundance of love that allowed the Spaniard to create a new race with the Indian and the Black, profusely spreading white ancestry through the soldier who begat a native family, and Occidental culture through the doctrine and example of the missionaries who placed the Indians in a condition to enter into the new stage, the stage of World One. (17) His idea of a cosmic race envisioned a Mexico transformed into a perfect mestizo nation, acting as both an American and a global model that would eventually lead us toward a more harmonious world. This Utopian perspective on the condition of being Mexican enjoyed considerable popularity throughout Latin America through the 1960s and still reverberates in contemporary folk art (Figure 8.1). Figure 8.1: Cosmic theme of mural in Chicano Park in San Diego, CA. The thinking of Vasconcelos may not ring true for all persons in all times; but the kernel of his ideas, broken free from attachment to biological hybridity, is today accepted as reality in both popular (e.g. Zwingle 1999) and academic (e.g Said 1994) circles. Culture, as we understand it at the turn of the twentieth-century, is inherently hybrid or mestizo culture. Its outstanding features are diversity and change; culture, on the national scale, can no longer be conceptualized as a monolithic and stabile aspect of the Earths various societies. Each nation affects, and is affected by, the culture of others; a phenomena that has been referred to as global culture (Swerdlow 1999). Mestizo culture in this work is a response to Beers (1996) suggestion that: Perhaps we need another term now, something closer to what Salman Rushdie praises as mongrelization or others as creolization. (117) to alert ourselves to reality of our contemporary world; the 128 relation between self and other, between self/other now and self/other then. There is nothing particularly new about this conceptualization of culture; academics pursuing an understanding of how culture works in fields such as development (Bebbington 2000; Escobar 1995), anthropology (Aug 1999), and literary theory (Said 1994; Eagleton 2000) use variations on the term mestizo culture to express various aspects of cultural practice, usually reflecting back upon the densely detailed theoretical structure of Bourdieu (1977). My application of these theoretical principles is encapsulated in the term Mestizo Culture which seeks to undermine the tendency to revert to a dualism that succumbs to the notion that there exist prehybrid cultures (Bebbington 2000, 500). In this chapter I argue, along with not a few others, that culture is always already hybrid; and that Mexico provides us one of the clearest examples of this. Mexico was, in the sense I propose, a mestizo nation long before the arrival of Corts. Any conceptual, or intellectual, cultural context logically begins with its historical roots; understanding how a culture developed often goes a long way toward understanding the actions of the present. The contemporary culture of Mexico has its roots in the Spanish conquest, which began in 1519. Spain dominated the clash of cultures that became modern Mexico. Today nearly all Mexicans speak Spanish and claim Christianity as their chosen religion. Because Spain also has a well-documented history, our forays into context will begin there. Spain, as the political and cultural entity it is today did not exist in antiquity and came into being during the medieval period only gradually. (Reilly 1993, 1) The indigenous Iberians had existed since the Paleolithic period, but what culture existed was mixed with conquering Phoenecian, Cartaginian, Greek, and Celtic cultures by 218BC when the Romans arrived. Rome imposed not only the name Hispania, but also Roman language and religion; by the first-century AD indigenous languages, outside of the Basque region, were rarely heard (5), and Christianity had arrived. But its geography was against a unified Spain; the topography predisposed it to being a bundle of local units tied together by a rope of sand (Carr 2000, 5), 129 and the location of the peninsula, on the western margin of Europe, kept it at the edge of the empire. As the empire declined Spains position on the margin of Rome translated into marginal importance, and Spain became expendable. Although Rome attempted to defend Spain from the advances of Germanic invaders, ultimately other regions of the empire became more important. Visgothic Spain, although sporadically contested (Reilly 1993), spans the period of 409-711AD (Collins 2000). Perhaps the greatest impact upon Spanish culture made by the Visgothic rule was in religion. The Visgoths were newly converted Christians and, at least initially, the authority of their rulers rested on rather nebulous claims to hoary antiquity and divine descent (41); a carryover of their so-called pagan, or pre-Christian beliefs. Even their Christianity was different. The Goths in both Spain and Italy were followers of Arianism, a heresy that had developed in the Roman Empire in the fourth-century, which denied the equality and co-eternity of the Son in the doctrine of the Trinity. These beliefs had been accepted by the Goths as a result of their having been converted to Christianity in the Balkans at a time when this heresy had enjoyed imperial support. (49-50) The majority Hispano-Roman population followed Catholic theology, but the Goths held to their beliefs and sought to expand them to the general populace. A synod held in Toledo in 580 had modified Arian theology, and under [King] Leovigilds persuasion the Catholic bishop of Saragossa had converted. (53) While the status of Christ was a point of contention between the rulers and the ruled, it is likely that the cult of the saints and Marian devotion brought consensus between these rival Christian factions, as was the case with the Frankish barbarians of the same period in Gaul (Brown 1981, 99). In any case, the Visgoths were devout and the great landowners, including kings, founded private churches on their estatesto secure the presence of men noted for sanctity, who lived as hermits in chambers built around the main body of the church. (Collins 2000, 47) 130 The theological rift was eventually resolved with the personal conversion of the new king, Reccared, in 587; and was formalized when sixty-two bishops and other senior clergy participated in the Third Council of Toledo in May 589 (50). This led to a general rise in the social and economic importance of the episcopate and eventuated in the Church becoming the legitimator of the throne. The effect of this 180 year theological war upon Christian practice is difficult to estimate, but a de-emphasis of devotion to Christ and magnification of interest in Mary and the saints seems a likely outcome. Another aspect of the Visgothic period of interest in this study is a dependence upon the written word and the development of a relatively high level of literacy in Spain. They introduced the making of records and the use of writing in all forms of legal and commercial transactions. The law of the land was codified into a twelve volume set called the Lex Visigothorum (The Law of the Visgoths) and, known in the vernacular as the Fuero Juzgo, was applied over much of Spain through the thirteenth-century. By around 600AD Roman and indigenous identity had been completely absorbed into the creation of a new common sense of a Gothic identity the Goths could have come to be seen as the ancestors of the modern Spaniards in the way the Franks are so regarded by the French and the Anglo-Saxons by the English. However, the fatal fracturing by the Arab and Berber invasions of the political and cultural unity that had been achieved in the Visgothic period prevented that from happening (61-62) Among historians the Muslim invasion of 711 and the destruction of the Visgothic state mark the beginning of the [Spanish] medieval period, and the [re-] conquest of Granada in 1492 brings it to a close. (Reilly 1993, 2) The forging of Spains national and cultural identity coincides with its medieval history and is bound up in the Reconquista, or Reconquest of Spain from the Muslims. Organizing their medieval history round the drama of the Reconquista has traditionally been a cherished feature of the [culture and] self-image of the Spanish people. A potent national mythology could be spun about the Catholic, crusading mission of their medieval 131 forebears. Above all, the kaleidoscopically jumbled history of the Spanish Middle Ages could be rendered intelligible by this radical simplification. (Fletcher 2000, 63) The persona of this myth is the noble Spanish warrior: a devout Christian from the tip of his sword to the whirr of his spur, going to battle alongside of his patron Santiago Matamoros (St. James the Moor slayer) to vanquish the evil infidels. He was (almost literally) the spearhead of Christian values, as he battled his way southward from the tiny Christian enclaves in northern Spain. This black-or-white view of an eighth-century period is belied by a dappled and speckled cultural map (64); a product of the migration and ethnic mixture that were Spains fundamental characteristics of the period. Basque and Cantabrian peoples, who had been less affected by the Romano-Visgothic Christian culturewere spilling out from their mountains onto the plains (64). And although a somewhat grudging toleration was extended to Christians under Islamic rule in accordance with Koranic precept, emigration from al-Andalus [the conquerors name for Spain] to the friendlier north was always a tempting option (71), these migrants were known as Mozarabs or Arabized Christians. Intermarriage between Christian, Jewish, and Muslim populations and shifts of religious allegiance were common, especially in the cities. Often these shifts were fueled by political or economic reasons, as in the case of the Castilian nobleman Rodrigo Daz, known as El Cid. The Cid was not the Christian hero that legend later made of him, he was a mercenary who sold his services to the highest bidder, Muslim or Christian. The flow of gold, in exchange for mercenary services, from al-Andalus into the northern Christian statelets was an important source of income for the latter and of political maneuvering for the former. It was not unusual for both sides in a battle to be Christian, with one side fighting in support of a Muslim lord. Whether the reality of the Reconquista created the myth, or the myth created the reality, is of little interest here; the more important fact is that both existed, in greater or lesser proportions in different times and 132 places. It exemplifies an eight hundred year effort to create a specific type of Christian culture, whose shade persists in contemporary Spanish and Hispanic culture. The impact of Islamic rule over Spain had dramatic affects upon Christian practice. For example, in the mid-eleventh century Clunaic monks [from France] set about reforming what they saw as a tradition-bound and lamentably outmoded Spanish church [in the northern Christian Spanish strongholds] (76) Because the reconquest proceeded from north-to-south, these outmoded practices, known as the Mozarabic Rite, persisted in southern Spain through (and beyond) the Reconquista. The origins of the Mozarabic rite, also known as the Gothic, Toledan, or Isidorian rite, are unclear; its three alternative names, however, hint at Visgothic roots (Toledo was the ritual center under the Visgoths and Isidore was a theologian who re-wrote Arian theology). The Visgoths had received their Arianist version of Christianity while occupying the valleys of the Danube, north of present-day Belgrade (late 3rd and early 4th centuries). Their religious practice included, among other distinctive elements, veneration of Mary and the saints; which, at that early date, indicates close ties to what would later (1054) be called the Eastern Orthodox Church. Liturgical scholars (possibly for political reasons) usually discount the theory that the Mozarabic rite originated in the Eastern Church; but, lacking solid evidence to the contrary, the circumstances seem to point in that direction (Jenner 1909). As Jenner wryly put it Spanish Christians had little leisure for improving their liturgies while under the rule of the Moors; Christianity was in a survival mode and remained virtually unchanged for 800 years in southern Spain. Throughout the al-Andalus period the Roman church consolidated and expanded its power and influence in Christian Spain. Special indulgences and proclamations for the Spanish Crusade were sought from and dispensed by various popes over the centuries. Urban parishes and dioceses obtained properties through gifts and inheritance. Nobles were often selected to become bishops, bringing their property and vassals (along with wives and mistresses) into the realm of the Church (Reilly 1993). The lines between church and state were blurred; and it was, 133 in fact, Isabella and Ferdinand, known as the Catholic Monarchs, that united the competing Christian principalities into a nation, and completed the Reconquista. This began a period of Christian monarchy that lasted through Spains dominion over Mexico, which ended by revolt in 1810. These years (1500-1800) were marked by a monarchy that waxed and waned as a world power. The successor to the Catholic Monarchs, Charles V, also became the Holy Roman Emperor, the ultimate symbol of cross and sword in a world order that placed primary importance on religion. Spain, at least in its self-image, became the most Catholic of the Catholic nations. The joint project of converting and conquering brought new wealth from the Americas and both monarchy and church were strengthened as a result. (Kamen 1973; Carr 2000) In this brief outline of Spains history, each step along the way carried forward some elements of culture that persisted beyond the period. Six-hundred years of Roman Hispania entrenched a language and the beginnings of a religion, three-hundred years of Visgothic rule further defined and entrenched (essentially) the same religion, eight-hundred years under Islam created the self-image of the fervent warrior fighting to defend and spread that religion, and three-hundred years of the Hapsburg and Bourbon monarchies entrenched the myth of the Spaniard as the spearhead of Catholic Christianity. Spanish culture is, in reality, a complex amalgam of a number of different influences; some of which remain more than others. Each of the massive changes that took place along this timeline placed stress upon society and culture as it existed at a moment in time. The reaction of individual persons, as well as the entire state or region, was inertial (Dodgshon 1998). Religion and language, being primary influences upon how a society thinks and orders the world, were the aspects of culture that were most dear, and therefore most resistant to change. The result was a hybridized, or mestizo culture, featuring a hybrid form of both language and religion. Spanish culture was, and is, not static; like all cultures it is a dynamic hybrid of now and then and us and them. As Said (1994) put it: Partly because of empire, all cultures are involved in one 134 another; none is single and pure, all are hybrid, heterogenous, extraordinarily differentiated, and unmonolithic. (xxv) What was this Spanish culture (or the elements of it most pertinent to this study) that the conquistadors brought to the shores of Veracruz on April 22, 1519? To answer this question one needs first to look at whom the conquistadors were, where they were from in Spain, and why they went out into the unknown lands of the New World. The most defining factor in the aspects of culture that were immediately transmitted to the Americans, and how that occurred, is the fact that the Spaniards were men; warriors from the greatest war machine in all of Europe. (Foster 1997, 45) These were raw men, penniless nobles, debtors, and criminals (46) who came to fight, fuck, and find their fortunes; no feminine or family focus featured in their worldview. Cortz is exemplar: the son of an old, honorable, but bankrupt family; he sought to attain wealth in the New World, but his departure was delayed nearly a year by an injury from an amorous escapade in which he fell from a window. (46) Always accompanied by clergymen, their conquests were legitimated by the authority of the Church, directed by that of the Crown, but carried out by people with a personal stake in the outcome; theirs was a life-or-death mission and both adrenalin and emotions, one assumes, ran high. For the most part, these were southerners; men from the arid lands of Extremadura, long the borderlands between Moorish and Christian Spain, and Andaluca, the last bastion of Islam to fall in the Reconquista (Meyer et al. 1999). The philosophy of these worldly men, true believers in a higher calling, and soldiers in the last Crusade (Weckmann 1992, 4) might well have been: Live on the edge, and pray like crazy. The clergy who accompanied them also came principally from Extremadura, Castile, and Andaluca. (Schwaller 1987, 200-1) Most of the elements of culture that were brought to America by these people closely tally with Le Van Baumers (1978) description of the main body of medieval thought [as] authoritarian, theocentric and theocratic (21). He describes a pioneer society based upon an agrarian economy where the daily round of manorial existence went on without noticeable 135 change (20-21). There was a clerical monopoly of education that produced mostly clerical intellectuals who, relying ultimately upon authority past and present, they believed themselves to be already in possession of all truths that mattered (22). Everywhere medieval people looked they saw visible signs of an invisible order: the Papacy and the Empire embodied divine unity on earth, the knights sword signified the cross, his spear the truth. A sense of the miraculous pervaded a hierarchical universe of a sublunary world of the four elements exhibiting rectilinear motion and hence mutability and decay, [and] the celestial world of the stars circular motion and hence changelessness (24); a world where man, as a nodal link in a chain of being ranging from God to the animals, partook of the nature of both angels and animals. And their world was ordered theocratically i.e., God and Gods agents ruled society. Society, like the human body, was said to consist of organs or parts (clergy, nobility, workers), each of which had its separate function to perform in the life of the wholeThe individual existed but only as part of a class, which in turn had being only in the life of the larger organism, the Corpus Christianum. In this system the only equality was religious equality. The stated aim of this system was to reduce competition between individuals, classes, and states; but its effect was to preserve the status quo by making it appear to be the unalterable will of God (25). And, while St. Augustine had repudiated the classical conception of time as cyclical, the daily lives of people, as agrarians, followed the annual cycle of the seasons; and the lives of all revolved about the liturgical cycle of the Church. The broad strokes of the intellectual historian, summarized above, indicate a typically medieval culture. This supplements the fine details exposed when discussing minute portions of Spanish history. The element of theocracy, for example, came to Spain in bits and pieces; first as Visgothic kings of divine descent, later as a monarchy legitimated by bishops, and continuing to evolve with Charles V, Gods standard bearer, King of Spain and the Holy Roman Emperor. 136 Medieval culture is the result, in the case of Spain, of centuries of changing ideas about how the world (or cosmos) works, each new idea mixing with the old to arrive at a hybrid moment. The idea of a culture, or culture in general, as, single, pure, homogenous, undifferentiated, or monolithic (to paraphrase Said) is the result of an intellectual viewpoint; a matter of scale. As with the Text chapters in this work, in viewing concepts and context, as well as reality, from the perspective of different scales one may achieve clarity. From afar, things may appear to be a certain way; but when viewed in minute detail they sometimes are quite different. This changing of viewpoints is, of course, easier to state than to practice; the indigenous culture of Mexico is an example where much of the finely scaled details are lacking. Many problems arise when attempting to re-create the culture that the Spaniards encountered; there were, and are, many Mexicos (Simpson 1966). Pre-Hispanic Mexico lacks a detailed 2000-year written history; however, the same pattern of conquest, adaptation, and hybridizing seems to exist. Most scholars agree that successive waves of barbarians from the arid north conquered central Mexico; and that the existent culture at the point of contact between European and Amerindian was the result (see e.g. Coe 1994; Fehrenbach 1995; Foster 1997; Meyer, et al. 1999). Like the Spaniards, the people of Mexico had a myth or a dream as Le Clzio put it (1993), they were fervently religious, and preoccupied, or at least fascinated, by death. From the large-scaled view: their culture was authoritative, theocentric, and theocratic; i.e. the same as Western European medieval cultures, but expressed in radically different practices. Mixing that culture with Spanish culture, in both general and specific terms, resulted in the mestizo culture of Mexico that was/is fundamentally medieval. This, perhaps overly brief, representation of pre-Hispanic indigenous culture mentions but one culture area, central Mexico. But equally important is the south where groups, which we cluster under the name Maya, had an advanced and significantly different culture from the center. Likewise the so-called Chichimeca of the north, the barbarians had another, different culture. But these groups, as well as the central Mexicans, were in reality made up of groups of 137 groups. Because there are still 62 living languages in Mexico (Rodriguez Lizrraga 1998), it is reasonable to postulate that over 100 different groups of people are clumped together in the term indigenous culture. The mixing that resulted in mestizo culture (i.e. hybrid) was largely a unidirectional transfer. The traditional Latin Americanist notion of mestizo culture is a view that takes a more racial slant upon the meeting and melding of two supposedly monolithic cultures (see eg. Morner 1970; Vasconcelos 1997). As stated in the opening of this chapter, the vast majority of Mexicans speak Spanish and profess to be Christians; and most of them are Roman Catholics. Whatever the similarities or differences in particular aspects of culture; the two cultures were hybrids of their past and their present, of us and them, the civilized and the barbarian. But joining these two cultures did not produce a hybrid culture; it was, instead, another stage of the hybridization in two already hybrid cultures. The hybrid moment that began in 1519, and continued throughout the New Spain period (1519-1810), is not the end of the story of Mexican culture, it is in many ways, the beginning. Mestizo Culture extends the hybridization metaphor to the macro-cultural paradigms of medieval and modern worldviews. Mestizo Culture applies hybridism to modernization and modernity, in general, and treats them as the characteristic mode of [Western] civilization (Benko 1997, 1) that succeeded medievalism. Modernitys succession was not as immediately evident as, for example, the changing of political rule through conquest; it came about in stages. Modernity is probably a misnomer, the four intellectual movements that coalesced to form what we know as modernity were revolutionary, and might more accurately be called antimedievalism. Each of the elements that coalesced to give birth to modernity; Renaissance humanism, the Reformation, the Scientific Revolution, and the Enlightenment; occurred among an intellectual elite as protestation of the established order in their time and place. Renaissance humanism had its beginnings in Italy in the fourteenth-century with the reemergence of Greek and Latin classics that placed man, not God, at the center of creation. The 138 classical studies of Francesco Petrarca (Petrarch) and others fostered an appreciation of these values and freed scholarship from ecclesiastical control (Rohmann 1999, 185). Its emphasis was on man and his everyday world; on the practical and the concrete as opposed to the abstract; on the individual rather than the collectivistic; on the active rather than the contemplative. (Le Van Baumer 1978, 105) As revolutionary as these simplifications sound (when compared to the previous descriptions of the medieval order of things), the movement was, in reality, retrogressive and synthetic; it sought a return to pre-Christian bodies of knowledge and an attempt at a fusion of the philosophy of Christ, with the moral wisdom of Greece and Rome, the emphasis being on the practical and concrete: ethics rather than theology and dogma, inner piety rather than outer church observance. (110) At the time, most of the humanists were still devout Christians; almost nobody seriously suggested an alternative to the Christian world-view, and very few professed doubts about the main teachings of the Church. (109) These were ideas yet to be expressed. The Reformation began on October 31, 1517, when Martin Luther nailed his famous 95 theses (objections against Church policy and theology of the time) onto the door of the castle church at Wittenburg. As an intellectual movement, this was the most war-like of modernitys formative elements; it began in an act of protest, and was responded to with acts of violence (the Counter-Reformation, Inquisition, and several wars and armed conflicts). The original ideas of the reformers were far less revolutionary than the results of their ideas; Luther and Calvin were essentially religious men who aimed to reform individuals and society along religious lines. (168) The result was the first major split in Christianity since the East/West split, or schism, in 1054. Although many indirect consequences of this split are usually laid at the doorstep of the Reformation (e.g. the Protestant work ethic), its direct, and immediate, impact concerned the nature of the Christian cosmic reality. The Protestant cosmos was of a black or white nature; one proceeds from earthly life into an eternity in either heaven or hell. Luther threw out Purgatory and all that went with it, including the Virgin as intercessor no one would be saved 139 but by Gods grace, and there was no way to influence the outcomeprayers for the dead were useless. (Turner 1993, 160) Where the Renaissance humanists had empowered the individual, the Protestant reformers took that power away with a sense of ultimate finality. The loss of purgatory (and power), as one might imagine, caused extreme distress for millions of Christians; and Europe split along emotionally charged lines. The ideas of the Scientific Revolution loom large as the real origin...of the modern mentality (Le Van Baumer 1978, 249). Science, as a body of knowledge, a method, a metaphysic, and an attitude, displaced theology and classical studies to become the directing force of European culture(s). The process is usually aligned with the publication of two of its defining works: De Revolutionibus Orbium Celestium by Copernicus (1543), and Principia by Sir Isaac Newton (1687). Knowledge now meant exact knowledge: what you know for certain, and not what may possibly or even probably be. Knowledge is what can be clearly apprehended by the mind, or measured by mathematics, or demonstrated by experiment. (252) This new definition of what may be known excluded theology or the older philosophy or poetry which involve opinion, belief, faith, but not knowledge. (253) The clock became the model for the cosmos and all of existence (Capra 1990); the human body, rather than being the organic model for society, succumbed to the mechanical metaphor of scientific reality. Every entity could be understood by examination of its parts and, being machines, were subject to the laws of the physical universe. Quantitative thinking, cumulative and tentative knowledge, and a fascination with technology supplemented the movement of humanism and Protestantism toward the concrete. The new reality drove revealed Christianity out of the physical universe into the region of history and private morals; to an ever growing number of people in the two succeeding centuries it made religion seem outmoded even there. (Le Van Baumer 1978, 249) Science did not need God to explain the cosmos; the Great Clockmaker had served His purpose. Religion and science, seen to be contradictory and opposing forces, were on a collision course. 140 By the eighteenth-century the Reformation had led to the bloodbath of the Thirty Years War, the Inquisition, and a heightened awareness of national identity; with Europe split along religious boundaries, the modern nation-state had gained strength. An increasingly prosperous, literate, and self-aware mercantile, middle class had emerged as a force that did not fit into the established, medieval, social order. Especially in France, the time was ripe for an expansion, coalescing and new expression of the ideas of the Renaissance and scientific revolution. The Enlightenment combined the, occasionally contradictory, ideas of these two previous movements and expanded them into the human and social sciences. This intellectual movement was actionbased; the project of the French philosophes was to change society- the educational and religious system, the economic and social system, and eventually even the political system. (364) The Enlightenment (also referred to as the Age of Reason) was characterized by cosmopolitanism, secularism, distrust of traditional authority, respect for human dignity, and the conviction that reason would illuminate mankind and lead to perpetual social, political and scientific progress. (Rohmann 1999, 115) Kants proposed motto, Dare to know; the philosophy and economics of David Hume and Adam Smith; the rationalism of Descartes; Francis Bacon and John Lockes empiricism and theory of natural rights; and an agenda of repudiating the authoritarianism and dogmatism of the Roman Catholic Church were doctrines that inspired and popularized the Enlightenment. This movement marked the beginning of open warfare between science and theology in the West. (Le Van Baumer 1978, 368) Roughly concurrent with the Enlightenment two major trends developed that cemented the nature of modernity. An agrarian transformation began in the early eighteenth-century, marked by Jethro Tulls (1701) invention of the seed drill and horse-hoe; this mechanization of agriculture allowed a few people to feed many. But what were all of those redundant farmers to do? By the late eighteenth-century, inventors and entrepreneurs had developed an answer; they became the workers in the Industrial Revolutions factories, and capitalism became the economic 141 answer to the perpetual progress of the philosophes. Modernity was poised to sweep across Western Europe and, ultimately, the world. Modernity, to the mass of people in the early twenty-first centurys more developed countries, is invisible; it is only noticed when it malfunctions and/or when some (usually) academic intellectual points it out. It is to us as the water is to a fish; it is simply the way things are, the context of our daily lives. Modern culture places confidence in the future; progress through rational action and technological advancement assures a better life for all. Reason trumps inspiration, practicality-custom, and alienation- community. Although the individual is supreme, we are ultimately but one of the mass of homo economicus; our lives are compartmentalized, materialistic, linear; and lived within standardized, centralized and bureaucratized institutions (Rohmann 1999; Spretnak 1999). Modern philosophers have written Gods obituary (Nietzsche 1998) and theologians have tried to salvage what they can (Bonhoeffer 1953) but most people still claim one religion or another. Belief, however, seems to have become a mere shadow of its former meaning, and moderns are split between differing worldviews in the attempt to practice religion (see eg. Caputo 2001; Vattimo 1999). It is not unusual to hear about God at worship services and funerals from people whose lives otherwise place me at the center of their universe. Modernity is, in many ways, the antithesis of medievalism and in the more developed countries we accept this as a matter of course. It is merely the water that we school in, but what about modernity in Mexico? That a modern Mexican culture exists is undeniable; yet its coming into being is problematic, not easily simplified, and patterned after its medieval origins. The acculturation, or transference of culture, from medieval Spain to New Spain was not simply a transfer. Medieval institutions, which were in obvious decline in Spain, experienced a rebirth, became naturalized and acquired a new vigor on the American continent. (Weckmann 1992, 10) These traits and institutions were neither untimely nor tired in the New World; for the indigenous people these were new ideas; for the conquistadors, conquest was not a time to try new and untested ideas. 142 The old ideas, or a reinterpretation of them, worked just fine in the time and place. At any rate, they were not the intellectual elite of Spain and could not give away what they did not have. The relationship between the medieval and modern periods is one of continuity, and the problem of transition is a problem of emphasis and degree. (7) The Spaniards could not transfer a culture they were yet to fully know. Even Spains intellectual elites were hesitant or resistant to modern thought, for example: Spanish universities in the eighteenth-century were still rejecting Newton (Roberts 1993, 549). Modernity came late and in a fragmented fashion to both Spain and Mexico. Renaissance humanism did not fit well with the Reconquista, these are ideas for a place at peace, with leisure time for contemplation. The Reformation simply did not occur in Spain; what happened instead were the Counter-reformation, the Inquisition, and a Catholicism that rewarded orthodoxy and displays of fervent belief, and violently punished any and all hints of heterodoxy (see e.g. Carr 2000 and Mitchell 1990). Much of the writings of the Scientific Revolution were banned in Spain (Herr 2000) and the Enlightenment and modernization were bitterly contested by the Catholic Church, which saw them as a threat that must be met by a return to the past. (Carr 2000, 232) Both the medieval and the modern came to Mexico late (i.e. with a time lag from their inception in Western Europe) and conceptually fragmented. In addition, the spread of these macro-cultures was spatially fragmented. The Valley of Mexico, Mexico City and the surrounding areas, is the political, economic, and cultural center of Mexico. Ideas and attitudes seem to diffuse from there outward in a spatially uneven fashion. The topography of Mexico is a major factor in distancing a community from the center. For example, religion in Mexico City may be assumed to be fairly orthodox, now and in the past, due to the high concentration of clergy there. The more remote a community is from the center the less orthodox religion becomes; folk Catholicism, syncretism, and parallel belief systems become standard practice. The Mayos of Sonora, a thousand miles north of Mexico City, have practices which combine syncretism and folk religion (Crumrine 1983); the Papago, a few hundred miles farther north, 143 practice the parallel beliefs of Sonoran Catholic[ism] (Weir and Azary 2001, 49) and their ancient religion. Yet the phenomena of remoteness is not strictly a function of distance; the Eastern Nahua in the rugged mountains of Veracruz, less than 100 miles from Mexico City as the crow flies, practiced a complex syncretism of the Virgin of Guadalupe and the Aztec goddess Tonatsi as recently as 1982 (Sandstrom 1982). Acculturation, whether of the macro-cultures of medieval and modern, or of the national cultures of Aztec and Spanish, is subject to the reality of Mexican geography. Having stated this; modernity came to Mexico, in part, with the conquistadors and their rapacious search for wealth. The homogenization of [their] values by money is a new phenomenon and it heralds the modern mentality (Todorov 1984, 143). This negative aspect of modernity was, arguably, the dominant aspect of the modern mentality in Mexico until the war for independence from Spain and the social revolution of 1910 began to introduce the populace to more benign and/or beneficial aspects of modernity. By this time, 400 years after the conquest, Mexico had its own, well developed, intellectual elite and they were the spearhead of a modernization that simultaneously brought many of the major tenets of the modern ideology to Mexico (Kroeber 1983; Foster 1997). Mexico became a constitutionally mandated secular society, at least legally, with specifically anti-clerical articles in the new constitution. President Obregn, (1920-24) openly encouraged Protestant missionaries and the YMCA; a secular educational system was put in place with over a thousand rural schools (Meyer, Sherman, et al. 1999, 553) built in the early 1920s, and long-established medieval institutions were the subject of intense criticism. Modernization projects begun by the nineteenth-century liberals, mostly to the benefit of large landowners; roads and railroads, dams and irrigation, and electrification and sewerage (Kroeber 1983; Meyer, Sherman, et al. 1999); were continued and expanded by the twentieth-century reformers (Bantjes 1998). The spread of modernity (and modernization) was hindered, however, by more than its spatial and conceptual fragmentation; Mexico was part of a Hispanic culture which simply could not cope successfully with either the democratic or the 144 industrial revolution, the two major sources of power in the modern world. (Feherenbach 1995, 304) The application of the ideas that resulted in modernity in Western nations were based upon an independent, propertied, bourgeoisie;no such middle class had ever evolved in the Hispanic nationsbecause the value systems that created such people in other parts of Europe never existed in Spain. (305) The distance between the haves and the have-nots was immense; the vast majority of the population was still outside a true money economy (304) and there was nobody in the middle. The medieval roots of Mexican culture had no social basis to build the utilitarian concepts and techniques of modernity upon. Improving the quality of life of the citizenry, industrializing and creating internal wealth, required capital that could come only from the domestic elites or foreign sources. The first option further strengthened the position of the hacendados, or landed aristocracy; the second created as rash of new problems, not least of which was sovereignty. The prospect of radically changing both the entire (medieval) social structure, and the political order and the economic and technological techniques left post-independence leaders in a quandary. The resulting cycles of anarchy, civil war, pretorianism, liberalism, caudillaje, rampant reform and crushing reaction were similar everywhere from Argentina to Mexico to Spain (305). Modernity and modernization in Mexico is but another chapter in the story of a struggle by very human men and women to make a livable present out of an intolerable past. (Fehrenbach 1995, 307) Even the most saintly of social reformers (Lzaro Crdenas, supposedly) had to sacrifice their ideals to economic progress (Bantjes 1998), a concession that further consolidated the concentration of wealth and invariably diluted the spread of the new, modern culture. A Mexican middle class, nonetheless, slowly emerged from the have-nots and retained many of the cultural beliefs and practices that are characteristic of the medieval. Mestizo Culture came about as they, and Mexico, embraced modernity with one hand, and held onto the past with the other. 145 Perhaps no act could be quite so symbolic of embracing modernity and medievalism simultaneously as the actions of President-elect Vicente Fox Quesada on December 1, 2000, his inauguration day. Fox, the first opposition party president of Mexico, began the day on his knees praying at the Basilica of Guadalupe in suburban Mexico City. Elected as a populist, his progressive agenda was represented as a formula for bringing Mexico into the twenty-first century as a fully participating player in the global economy. With one foot in the future and the other in the past, what becomes of the present? The present that I saw during the fieldwork was a complex dynamic: convoys of hot-offthe-assembly line Volkswagens screaming along the highways at 80+ miles per hour, doing road tests; trucks without the body, just a chassis, engine, and a seat for a goggled driver, racing southward to receive the finishing touches of their assembly; horse, oxen, and mule-drawn wagons carrying farmers along these same roads to and from their daily labor; vaqueros with the working version of the traditional garb (made famous by mariachi musicians) riding horseback from town early in the morning to their fields, cyber cafes full of youths paying by the hour to be on the internet, and outside, a street vender grilling corn-on-the-cob; and the steady rhythm of trucks moving northward. Mexico is in motion, and the direction of that motion is toward a future of modernity, prosperity, and the global economy. Practically everyone wants prosperity, who can say no to safe drinking water, electrification, a higher standard of living? Yet the commitment seems to be conditional, perhaps nave, because old ways, as President Fox demonstrated, seem to have a life of their own. In Mexico pilgrims walk for hours along ancient pathways, part of which are now an interstate highway. They adjust their route, as they carry their sacred objects, banners, and gifts for the village that hosts their fiesta; and walk beneath the highway through a concrete culvert (see Figure 8.2, the culvert is just below the truck). Modernity is a welcomed intrusion; pleasant when it is pleasant, and irritating when it is irritating. 146 Figure 8.2: Pilgrims afoot, with semi-truck overhead. Mestizo Culture to the x power is a particular way of thinking about culture. The example of Mexico is presented here as a mixing of a mixed Spanish culture with a written history, and mixed indigenous cultures without. The result is a Mestizo Culture of an unknown degree of hybridity, indeed with an unknown number of different indigenous cultures input. This already hybrid culture then began another cultural change, from the medieval culture (as interpreted by mixed groups) of the dominate Hispanic conquerors, to the modern culture of Western Europe. The project of modernization has rapidly expanded in the latter half of the twentieth-century in Mexico and culture is responsive to socio-economic and political changes that are directly connected to this project. The result is (Mestizo Culture)x. 147 CHAPTER 9: NARRATIVE CONTEXT: MY SON DIED HERE ON NAVIDAD This story began while preparing for a trip with my wife to Michoacn to see the Monarch butterflies, and to San Diego for Christmas. Our plan was to drive from Laredo to Guanajuato, spend a few days sightseeing, move on to Michoacn, and then go up to Durango. We would then do the Devils Backbone transect together (see sections 4.4 and 4.7); if there was time we would also do the northern part of the Pacific coastal transect, and the border transect from Agua Prieta westward. Because it was as much holiday as work we took along all of our cameras; my good one that I use for fieldwork, and two cheap, pocket-sized cameras that companies send out as part of some offer or another. We had a great time, met some really nice people, got a lot of my work done, and arrived in San Diego two days before Christmas. Our time there was limited because Cindy had to fly back home on the 26th, while I was to continue on and finish my fieldwork. Nevertheless, our time was well spent; it was nice to see our old friends and we took a lot of photos, mostly prints for our scrapbook. Dinner on Christmas Day was at the home of our most special friends. Mary and Levon entertain with an elegance that few, but the wealthy, bother with nowadays. The guests, as always in their home, were a strange combination of people. It made for lively and fascinating conversation. It was a warm, comfortable, and entertaining evening. It was the perfect ending to a perfect vacation. Seeing Cindy off at the airport the next morning was anti-climactic. We were both ambivalent about ending our vacation, neither of us wanted it to end; yet she was anxious to be at home and I was ready to get back to work. After her plane took off I did some car maintenance, loaded up the cameras with slide film, and headed back to Arizona to finish up the border transect from San Luis to Tecate. This part of the research was different in several ways. This time I was driving my wifes Ford Explorer, a much newer model than my pickup and with an automatic transmission; the act 148 of driving would be much easier and less dangerous the previous summer. The mechanics of recording the data were well established, the transects were known and, in a sense, all I had to do now was connect the dots on a map by driving from point-to-point. All of the little details and decisions had been worked through the previous summer; now I could work a lot more efficiently. I was changed too. The reality of my own grief (Chapter 3) had been apparent for some time. Because of that and my close calls (see Chapter 6), I had come to terms with death in a personal way. I was much better prepared for all of the aspects of doing the fieldwork this time I thought. About three-quarters of the way down the Baja peninsula I got a wakeup call. The fieldwork had been going really well. The decreased day length of winter had drastically shortened my workday. But the desert terrain helped to compensate for that, because I was able to spot an artifact in the distance and drive faster between sites. The road in Baja is much better than it was 20 years ago when I first made the Tijuana-to-Cabo trip; but even the nicely paved version has a dip at each place where an arroyo turns into a river occasionally. These dips are constructed such that the high points are actually higher than the part leading up to, and away from, the arroyo. When behind a slower vehicle, I had been using these high points to peek around them. If the road was clear, I could then pass them in the swale and come over the other side in front. At 1:45PM on January 31, 1999 I was in the process of passing a tractor-trailer in a swale when, at 60MPH, my left front tire blew out. I managed to keep control of the car, pulled it off to the right side of the road, and shut off the engine. I sat there with my hands and head on the steering wheel for several minutes before I could move. I was trembling from the inside-out and wasnt sure if I opened the door to get out that my knees wouldnt buckle. I managed to change the tire, but was none too confident about putting on the spare. Part of the maintenance that I did in San Diego was to rotate the worst tire off an make it the spare. Now I was driving on it with no backup. Here are my field notes from three miles after the blowout: Im at a llanteria [tire repair shop] where I feel the need to have someone check these 149 tires. Its starting to shake again and Im a little bit scared. Note [added when transcribing the tape]: I dont generally say little bit scared [about myself] unless Im a whole lot more afraid than if I say scared shitless; so the field notes, in this case, are understating the reality by quite a bit. The fact is that I could barely drive the car and the only thing that kept me doing it was that there was no place to stop and curl-up into a ball. La Paz was shutting down when I arrived, it was millennium New Years Eve. I bought two new tires at the only tire store I could find that was open, found a hotel, checked in and brought in the new century while awaiting my ferry ride to the mainland. Lesson learned: no matter how much practice you have or preparation youve done, swimming with sharks is swimming with sharks. Back on the mainland, I headed north to do the W1 transect from Obregn to Ojinaga. The first part of that road made the Devils Backbone look like a cakewalk! There isnt a paved road along the Big Bend in Mexico, so I had to cross over and take the Texas roads to Piedras Negras to do the first part of the W2 down to Durango. That finished off the vast distances of northern Mexico, then I headed south; to finish the W3 branches, and, eventually, to the Yucatn. About 35 miles south of Jalpa, Zacatecas I came across a unique situation. Off to the right (west) of the road was a man, on his knees laying brick, building a nicho. Another man was standing nearby, and behind them were three ladies standing by the back of a pickup truck. By the way they were dressed, they were country folk; the women were weeping. On the left side of the road was a late model car with D.F. (Districto Federale) plates and a man with a camera was walking away from the people, towards the car. I pulled off to the right about 100 yards past (south of) them. Realizing that this was a very delicate situation, I sat in the car for a few minutes; during that time the D.F. guy drove away. Seeing the situation, he had obviously just finished doing what I was about to do. Damn! Two rich assholes in a row, how was I going to handle this? There is quite a bit of distrust among rural people towards gringos, number one; and people from the capital, chilangros, number two. Both are assumed to be rich and, usually, 150 somewhat obnoxious and condescending towards regular people. Previous experience in doing ethnographic work in Mexico (Weir and Azary 2001) taught me that sticking around in one place was the best, and perhaps the only, way of overcoming this built-in prejudice. I could not fail to approach these people so I decided to take one of the pocket-sized cameras, no notebook or clipboard, and to be on my best behavior. After collecting my thoughts, I got out of the car and walked slowly toward them; noticing along the way that there was a set of fresh skid marks on the pavement next to them. When I was within 10 feet of the man on his knees, I tipped my hat to him and bid him good afternoon and after the greeting was returned asked him: What are you doing? He said: Building a recuerdo, my son died here on Navidad. I removed my hat and offered my condolences to the family. He nodded and immediately turned his attention back to the task at hand. I stepped closer to the brother, who was about six feet away (to the north) from his father, and asked: What happened? He said: My brother was walking along the road, on his way home, on Christmas night and a car came along and hit him. (Judging from the skid marks, his brother was walking on the road. Maybe a bit tipsy from a day of celebrating?) I continued talking to the brother a short while; I wanted to be sure that I didnt wear out my welcome. When I was about to leave I asked the brother if I might take a photo, he said OK, and I put my hat on, snapped a photo, said Thank you and, again, my sincere condolences on your loss. As I walked back to the car I recall thinking how dramatically different our Christmas evenings were. The following are excerpts from my field notes of that site. 1/7/2000: ZT380; the response was the typical we do this because it is our tradition; i.e. they do it because they do it. It was interesting to talk with them and see they were engaging in an action that gave them a way to grieve. It was obvious that the women were quite shook-up and the men were no less hurt but were fully absorbed in doing the work necessary to make the brick pedestal. The brother said that they live in the next village down the road [Moyahua]; confirming the idea that, at least some of these recuerdos, are close to where the families live. 151 Theyre local folks. He was hesitant to speak his brothers name (and didnt!). I think his dates were 1981-1999, but Im not sure. I also asked if they had permission from the municipio and the brother said: No, anyone who is Mexican can do this in Mexico. It is an understood thing part of the unwritten common knowledge. The skid marks were still very prominent on the road! The brother of the deceased man specifically said that as soon as they put a cross there the place became sacred because that symbolizes Jesus Christ. The film from that camera didnt turn out, my notes and the memory must suffice. 152 CHAPTER 10: TEXT: TROPICAL, SOUTHERN MEXICO A warm, wet climate is most characteristic of Colima, Guerrero, Oaxaca, Chiapas, Veracruz, Tabasco, Campeche, Quintana Roo, and Yucatn; which are Tamayos Zona Golfo de Mxico and Zona Pacfico Sur (1953, 241) and the region referred to as tropical in this work. As with the preceding regions; there are exceptions within these states that do not have a tropical climate, usually due to altitude. However, the southern region is dominated by coastal lowlands and roughly corresponds to Wests tierra caliente, (1989, 40). Climate affects the study in the south in two ways: first; roadside vegetation is dense and often grows to the eye level of a motorist before it is burned, a normal maintenance activity that is cheaper than mowing, second; wear and tear on the pavement itself is accelerated under these climatic conditions. Soils beneath the pavement become soaked with moisture, which leads to soil slumps, potholing, and ridging of the road surface. It is not unusual to see, particularly in the rainy season, a section of highway that is missing one of its two lanes due to a soil slump. Potholes deeper than six inches are commonplace as are deep ruts in the pavement, caused by over-burdened trucks wearing grooves in each of the two lanes. This results in ridges in the center and at the edge and center of each lane, which may be 6 inches to a foot higher than the grooves. To clarify: when looked at in cross section the road surface from edge-to-edge is; ridge at the edge of the pavement, rut, ridge, rut, ridge in the center of the road, rut, ridge, rut, ridge at the edge. This particular phenomenon of 4 grooves and 5 ridges is responsible for an unusual driving behavior that I call riding the ridges. Drivers, particularly of passenger cars and light trucks, seeking to avoid the damages of hitting the deep potholes in the ruts, pick two of the three ridges in their lane and drive either slightly left-of-center or on the extreme right-hand edge of the pavement. One can easily imagine the quick, and tricky, maneuvering that occurs when two motorists round a curve and encounter each other riding the left-most ridge. The South constitutes 24.10% of the total area of Mexico and 26.88% of the population live there; 33.4% of the miles surveyed in this project, 24.01% of the artifacts and 36.54% of 153 those which were thickly described, were in this region The number of artifacts recorded is lower than expected based on the population and miles, primarily because this region has the worst driving conditions in Mexico and the worst conditions for seeing a roadside memorial. However, the percentage of thickly described sites is significantly higher than expected. This is due, primarily, to which type of roadside artifacts are most frequent in the south. Table 10.01 (below) summarizes the artifact types for the three regions. Table 10.01: Artifact Types, National Summary % Artifacts % Crosses/monuments North Center South 53 23 24 58 24 18 % Nichos 41 21 38 % Shrines 49 25 26 Because nichos and shrines are the type of artifacts that require more intensive study to determine their function (i.e. death memorial or religiosity), and the southern region has a disproportionate share of these types; the ethnographic method was most heavily employed in this region, in spite of the difficult conditions alluded to above. The following state summaries reflect the specific conditions and artifacts recorded in each of the nine states that make up the southern region. 10.1: Colima Colima (2000 pop., 3,047,867) is the fourth smallest state at 5,191 sq km (2,004 sq mi), and is mainly a coastal plain that rises to the foothills of the Sierra Madre Occidental. Agricultural activities include raising livestock and cultivating rice, sugarcane, tobacco, cotton, copra, lemons, bananas, papayas, peppers, and maize. It is this aspect of tropical climate, and agriculture which places it in the south as an outlier, surrounded by Jalisco and Michoacan. Colima was surveyed along two transects (see Figure 10.1.1): 85 miles of the Pacific coast transect (L3), and, for 43 miles, the southern branch of the third lengthwise transect (W3b). 154 There were 115 crosses, 23 nichos and one shrine at 107 locations, 4 of which were thickly described. Figure 10.1.1: Map of Colima, survey routes and places. Figure 10.1.2: Cross with retaining walls and wreath on a dangerous curve. Site number CO43 (Figure 10.1.2) is demonstrative of principles previously discussed. Firstly, although the photo was taken in late July 1999, a relatively fresh floral wreath dominates the scene. Unfortunately the inscription dates are not clear, but the date dic 198_ can be read to the right of the missing Christ figure. It is probably safe to assume that this is Joss death date, based on the condition of the cross and the surrounding retaining walls. Whether the wreath commemorates his death date or the Day of the Dead in November, the loved ones of Jos Luis Guerrero Trujillo continue to visit the place where he died. In addition to the wreath there are rocks that were placed on the horizontal surfaces of the walls to mark the visit, therefore; this place is sacred not only because of the cross-used-to-be-a-crucifix, but because of the silent prayers left behind by its visitors (see section 7.1). Another notable aspect of this image is the sign to the left of the cross that indicates an immediate and hard curve to the left. Although it was previously stated that these memorials are usually in places where driving conditions are extremely hazardous, most images show only the 155 artifact and not the context within which it appears on the real landscape. The details of Colimas roadside sacred places, as observed by myself, are given in Appendix C, Table C10.1. 10.2: Guerrero Guerrero is extremely mountainous except for a narrow coastal strip, the coast and the deep valleys are hot and rainy, but the highlands are temperate and drier. Tourism, centered at Acapulco, is the main economic activity. Agriculture (the growing of coffee, tobacco, cotton, tropical fruits, and cereals), forest products, and mining are the other chief economic activities. Mineral resources include gold and silver; and the silver artisans of Taxco are famous. This state was surveyed along two transects: the L3 closely followed the Pacific coast from the Michoacn boundary to the Oaxaca boundary; the W5 went from the Morelos boundary to Acapulco, splitting to include Taxco and Iguala in one direction, and taking the AcapulcoMexico City autopista in the other (Figure 10.2.1). 257 roadside sacred places were recorded in the 621 miles traversed, they had 314 artifacts; 204 were crosses, 96 nichos, 13 shrines, and 1 monument. Figure 10.2.1: Map of Guerrero, survey routes and places. Although, as section 7.10 pointed out, roadside sacred places may be observed nearly anywhere in Mexico, there are certain types of places where one is more likely to see a death memorial. Site GR250 (Figure 10.2.2), located in front of the leading edge of a guardrail, is one such place. This location has several aspects of a typically dangerous place: 1) an immovable object stands within a few feet of the driving surface, 2) the road is beginning to curve, and 3) nearby signage announces a bridge (Puente Dos Arroyos), the type of place where pavement is frequently 156 slippery and, in the rainy season, may have some depth of water flowing across the highway. Surface features of the landscape such as the sinuous winding of a road in mountainous terrain, trees, utility poles, railroad crossings, and abutments for bridges, overpasses, and guardrails are the context within which the text of roadside sacred places are read. These permanent landscape cues, along with temporary situations such as road construction and the behavior of other drivers, heighten both the observers and the participants alertness to a possible death site. Figure 10.2.2: Site GR250, roadside cross at a guardrail abutment. Site GR134 (Figure 10.2.3), located on the inland side of transect L3 about 25 miles north of the Oaxaca boundary, is another dangerous place as indicated by the sign in the background. This light blue concrete nicho has a flat white roof that is slightly domed in the center. The dome is a small mound of concrete and is a practical solution to the problem of setting a prefabricated cross atop the homemade nicho. I wonder how the deceased, Architect Roman Mayo Gonzalez, might have solved this problem. This local area, known as the Costa Chica, is home to a large population of morenos, persons of African and mestizo or indigenous descent which gives rise to intriguing local customs (see e.g. Lewis 2001). Figure 10.2.3: Site GR134, nicho near a curve. Figure 10.2.4: GR99, backwards nicho. 157 Figure 10.2.4 shows a solution to the problem of having ones candles blown out by the draft of passing traffic (see also section 7.1). Site GR99 is on the seaward side of transect L3, 9 miles southeast of the junction of 95 and 200, which is just north of the entrance to the Acapulco Tunnel, in a small village. As in any location where houses or people were nearby, I employed a simple technique to gather ethnographic information beyond what the place could tell me; I worked slowly. A slight bit of lingering, making sure the photo is framed just right, dictating my notes slowly, or just smelling the flowers kept me visible and accessible just long enough for someone to approach me. Previous experience in doing ethnographic fieldwork (Weir and Azary 2001) showed that people seemed to be more forthcoming if allowed to initiate the conversation, this was particularly the case where that person and I had no previous contact. Throughout this fieldwork I had scores of casual conversations with people I had never seen before and would never see again. Rather than approaching them and risk their feeling defensive or importuned, I simply turned the tables and let them be the aggressor. This passive technique paid off handsomely in villages and small towns where everyone knows everything about the local lore, having already spent endless hours discussing it all (see e.g. Richardson 1986). In this case, as the lady who lives in the nearest house was approaching, I bid her Good morning and (I was facing opposite the view in the photo, which has fresh flowers in front of the cross) commented that the flowers were very beautiful. Her response was that her neighbor (the one who lives down there, [pointing] in that last house) puts fresh flowers out everyday and that it was her son who died here. After answering her questions (what are you doing and why) I was then free to ask what this type of structure is called and why it faces away from the road. She called it a cabaita and said that the candles get blown out, so they (pointing again) built this new cabaita with the opening away from the traffic. This practical solution may also explain the pile of concrete and bricks, which seems incongruous to the rest of the artifact, in Figure 10.2.5. In this photo of site GR136, a candle inside a tin can sits in front of a wooden spindle-type cross. 158 The classical design of an open portico supported by columns is aesthetically pleasing, but, considering the roadside location, needs a windbreak to protect the flame of burning candles. Figure 10.2.5: Site GR136, nicho with windbreaks. Figure 10.2.6: GR239, well protected nicho. Site GR239, on the other hand, has no problem with protecting the flames of a candle, nor any other aspect of the memorial (Figure 10.2.6). This nicho is enclosed within a 5 foot tall wrought iron fence that is lined with chicken wire; on either side of the nicho stands an urn on a pedestal, both contain fresh red gladioli. Inside the aluminum and glass nicho box are six crosses, three wood crosses with signs of weathering are lying on the floor, and three granito clover, or botonne, crosses according to Webber (1927) are inscribed with each persons name and birth date. Judging from that evidence, they were a mother, her 18 year-old son and 20 year-old unmarried daughter. Hugo, Gaby, Berta: We will always remember this place where our friends, whom we will never forget, met their end. They fell on February 15, 1998 is inscribed on the middle of three granito tiers beneath the nicho. Figure 10.2.7: Site GR133, pre-fabricated nicho. Figure 10.2.8: GR155, a puzzling cross. Site GR133 (Figure 10.2.7) is also adorned with gladioli and is a prefabricated granito nicho shaped like a church with two belfries and a centered cross. A niche with an aluminum and glass arched door is in the middle, and two side niches may be used to burn candles. In front are 159 three urns; one obscuring the view of the central niche and two on either side of an open book inscription plate. The inscription reads: A. Arnulfo Maren Mendoza; from August 15, 1954 to January 22, 1997, R.I.P.: you lived with honesty, nobility, and courage, we regret to our souls your departure; relatives and friends. All of these components sit on a granito platform that sits upon a larger concrete base along with a fourth small niche that contains a votive candle. In front of the base is a black pipe-cross which is assumed to be the original memorial. Both this and the previous inscription are given as they appear on the artifact (i.e. in Spanish) in Table C10.2. Figure 10.2.8 shows site GR155, located in Taxco el Viejo 10 miles south of the present city of Taxco on the road to Iguala. It is a wooden spindle-type cross that has experienced some weathering and a former cross-shaped wreath clings to it taters. It is mounted atop an antique machine, which is mounted on/into a large block of concrete. The machine appears to be either a pump or some sort of grinder, perhaps related to silversmithing which is the local claim to fame and object of tourism in Taxco. I am mystified however, as to the connection between the cross and what is beneath it. My guess is that the block and the machine preceded the cross and were the immovable object involved in a fatal crash. A small chunk of concrete is missing (and now painted over) from the left front edge of the pedestal, and may be a scar from a vehicle hitting it. This site exemplifies the weakness of ethnography of place, i.e. an interpretation based solely on what one sees and unaided by local human input. Any local person would know all of the details and have a complete story to tell about it (see above); due to the lack of local input the ethnographic evidence is uncertain beyond the fact that someone died here. Table C10.2, in Appendix C, gives the location and description of sites observed in Guerrero. 10.3: Oaxaca Oaxacas area of about 95,364 sq km (36,820 sq mi) varies from low-lying coastal plains to deep valleys in the south and broad, open semiarid valleys, plateaus, and the Sierra de Oaxaca in the north. Agriculture is the principal economic activity: sugarcane, coffee, tobacco, corn, cereals, and tropical and semitropical fruits are grown, and livestock is raised. The state's 160 population of 3,432,180 are mostly indigenous peoples, with the Mixtecs dominating in the highlands and Zapotecs elsewhere. Oaxaca de Jurez is the capital city and, although the author consciously avoided staying in larger cities, this exception is one of the most beautiful cities in the world. Figure 10.3.1: Map of Oaxaca, survey routes and places. Oaxaca was surveyed as part of 4 transects, one of which (L2) is effectively two transects through Oaxaca (see Figure 10.3.1). The northern branch of the central transect enters Oaxaca from Veracruz near Tuxtepec and proceeds southeast to the junction of 147 and 185 at Palomares. The southern branch of the L2 enters the state from Puebla near Huajuapan, passes through the capital on route 190, and terminates at the Pacific coast highway near Tehuantepec; and a small (11 mile) section of the same transect extends from San Pedro Tapantepec to the Chiapas boundary, the three sections total 340 miles. The Pacific coastal transect begins at the Guerrero boundary and closely follows the coastline for 339 miles to San Pedro Tapantepec. Transect W6 passes from the Puebla state line to Puerto ngel on the Pacific coast, and W7, the Isthmus of Tehuantepec transect, runs from the Veracruz boundary to La Ventosa, near Juchitan. The combined length of these routes was 889 miles, and 448 artifacts were recorded at 344 locations, they were: 195 crosses, 232 nichos, and 21 shrines. 18% of the locations were described in detail, the following are a few examples of the crosses sighted in Oaxaca. Site number OX249 (Figure 10.3.2) is a white pipe cross, perched precariously among a cluster of granite boulders at mile 168 of 248 on transect W6. A black metal cross that may represent a second persons death accompanies it; both the metal plate near the black cross and 161 the granito open- book inscription plate are nearly illegible. The open-book has Dr. Jorge.. and the rest is unreadable. Figure 10.3.2: Site OX249, 2 crosses among granite boulders. Figure 10.3.3: OX02, weathered wooden cross Figure 10.3.4: OX07, the oldest known cross Figure 10.3.5: OX179, memory of a trucker. Figure 10.3.6: OX244, memory of a professor. Site OX02 (Figure 10.3.3), located 8 miles from the Chiapas boundary on route 190, is a simple, unpainted wood cross made of 1x3 lumber. The bottom of the vertical arm fits within a metal sleeve that has a bracket for flowers and is set in concrete. A rectangular inscription scroll is mounted at the junction of the cross arms and it is weathered and split in two places. Someone has wired one side of it together, evidently an attempt to prolong its existence. The mans name was Jos Luis, he was a trailero (a person who drives a tractor-trailer rig), he passed in May of 1995, and his family will remember him. Other details of the inscription have fallen victim to exposure in this tropical climate. 162 Site OX07 (Figure 10.3.4) is located 25 miles north of San Pedro Tapanatepec on route 190. The inscription plate is professionally made and reads: Manuel Edmundo Farrera Rodas, fallecio el dia 6 de octubre de 1954. Although several other crosses look quite old, this is the oldest know cross in the study due to the well preserved inscription. The soil around the cross has eroded, or otherwise been moved away, and it sits upon a column made of its concrete base and rocky conglomerate soil that, including the cross, extends six feet above the surrounding ground level. The next two crosses (Figures 10.3.5 and 10.3.6) are very monument-like and strain the limits of the rubric that separates the four forms of memorials. Site OX179 is a colorful combination of two crosses and a raised marble platform monument with a small niche built into the bottom of the vertical wall, which I have counted as 2 crosses and a nicho. The marble monument/nicho is for a different person than the brown and white pipe cross, and the large cross may be for them both, who were evidently truck drivers. The whitewashed rocks outline a small flower garden where six rose bushes are prospering. Site OX244 is classed as a cross, even though the cross is tiny in comparison to the rest of the structure. This memorializes a professor who died here on March 18, 1996, and likely was erected by those whose lives she/he influenced. Most of an extensive hand painted inscription on the face of the slab is no longer legible; either through maintenance or good luck, the inscription on the arch remains clear: Men die, but not their ideals. A high proportion, more than half, of the artifacts observed in Oaxaca were nichos; the majority (86%) of these were of the non-prefabricated, or homemade, type. Of these, site OX25 illustrates several recurring themes and has a particular poignancy, especially for a parent. This site, located 7 miles north of the terminus of transect W7, was observed on June 9, 1999; not quite a year after the death date (July 31, 1998) and this site was already in its third stage of development (see Figure 10.3.7). Inside are two crosses, both inscribed in remembrance of the same person, that are set in the foundation in a manner that indicates that they existed prior to the 163 nicho. Even upon close inspection (by laying down on my stomach!) it is difficult to say which cross was the first, both had detailed inscriptions and the wooden one referred to the man as the new Doctor. The black pipe cross atop the nicho bears the inscription Dr. Alvaro Espinosa Santos, Q.E.P.D. (star) 29-Octubre-1975 (cross)31-Julio-1998. Because the honorific Dr. usually refers to a physician in Mexico, and the education system (i.e. the length of the process from primary to secondary and the various levels of the university) in Mexico is quite similar to that in the U.S.; to see that title referring to a 22 year-old is quite unusual. This young man was a very special person and one need not be a parent to empathize with his, they must be crushed. Figure 10.3.7: OX25, young doctor nicho. Figure 10.3.8: OX22, nicho with beer bottle. Both Figure 10.3.7 and Figure 10.3.8 illustrate the recurring theme of leaving a drink at a death memorial. In the first case the drink is a Coke with the cap removed and, a swig already taken from the bottle; site OX22, on the other hand, shows a liter of beer that is already finishedoff. Figure 10.3.8 also clearly shows the practice of inscribing a metal cross with a welded bead. Another recurring attribute of roadside memorials is the effort to create an enduring and aesthetically pleasing place. Figure 10.3.9 is a tin pole nicho, a type first introduced 1700 miles to Figure 10.3.9: OX272, metal pole nicho. Figure 10.3.10: OX86, nicho with a fine wooden cross. 164 the north in the Vizcaino Desert of Baja California Sur (see Figure 4.2.2c). The functional attribute of this nicho type, and therefore its ability to endure, lies in the manner of clearing roadside vegetation in Mexico. Fire is the usual way that the grasses and forbs (seen surrounding site OX272) are cleared. With the nicho made of metal and set a few feet above the growth, its longevity is greatly enhanced. Site OX86 shows an unpainted concrete nicho with a finely crafted wooden cross attached to the rear of the structure. The cross is made of 1x3 lumber, seamlessly joined, with semi-circular concavities routed from the arms and arm ends. The wood is stained, varnished, and hand-painted with the inscription: Sabias Wenseslao Muos Q. fallecio 12-III-99 a la edad de 39 aos. The effort expended to make the cross reflects a priority in creating an aesthetically pleasing place to commemorate this persons death. The front of the nicho has two bricks standing on end, probably as windbreaks, and an open soft drink bottle. a) OX23 b) OX139 c) OX12 d) OX90 Figure 10.3.11: Various representations of multiple death events on the roadside landscape. Figure 10.3.11 shows various ways of memorializing multiple deaths. Site OX23 (10.3.11a) is a brick and concrete open-faced nicho with six metal crosses inside: 4 are identical gray, spear-point tipped with heart-shaped scrolls and the other 2 are white with filigrees and a 165 rectangular scroll, the sole difference between them is that one is smaller. OX139 (10.3.11b) is a blue concrete double nicho with arched roofs, and identical black metal crosses with pointed tips, filigrees, and heart-shaped scrolls. The names (Ramulio and Carlos Franco C.) indicate that these were probably brothers, and the scrolls are inscribed along the edges with: Here ended my physical existence, today began my spiritual existence (see Table C10.3 for the original inscription). OX12 (10.3.11c) is a blue concrete triple nicho on a large concrete pedestal; the nichos are half the depth of the pedestal, gable roofed, and each has a black metal cross attached to the rear of the nicho. The site is decorated with marigolds in tin cans and attached to the crosses. Site OX90 (10.3.11d) appears to be the location of two multiple death events. In the foreground are four crosses; two concrete, one wood and one red metal, and a concrete arch roofed nicho with a cross atop the rear. These artifacts appear to be weathered more or less equally, and the metal cross and two concrete crosses bear similar dates (Jan. 21, 1989 and Jan. 20, 1989). Because the chances that two fatal accidents occurred in the same place on successive days are rather slim, I assume that these five deaths occurred in a single event (it could be that an error was made in making the cross(es) or that one victim died the following day). In the background is a triple nicho with two wooden crosses that are much more heavily weathered and discolored with mildew and mold buildup. No inscription empirically verifies a separate event yet that seems a reasonable conclusion, judging from physical appearances. Site OX163; located on route 190, about 50 miles southeast of the city of Oaxaca, returns to the familiar theme of dangerous places, seen in various images throughout these descriptions and discussed in detail in the previous section. Figure 10.3.12 shows two views of a sharp curve and the lack of a space to pull off the road. A spot was located about 300 yards behind the point of view from 10.3.12b (right) that allowed me to park with all four wheels off the pavement, but just barely. Crossing the road was hazardous and listening was more effective than looking for on-coming vehicles. I recall thinking that I was probably pushing the limits of safety by being there. Given that my most frightening experiences were past (July 3, 1999) and I was already 166 somewhat hardened to the risks of this fieldwork, the thought of personal danger is more likely to be a reflection of the reality of the place, rather than a fearful state of mind. Figure 10.3.12: Two views of a dangerous curve. How if I, who have done this for 50 days in a row carrying only a camera and a clipboard, am scared; must the people who are building these nichos and erecting these crosses feel? In addition to all of the emotions involved in dealing with a sudden tragic death, here they were digging, toting water from wherever they parked, mixing concrete, etc., as traffic continues apace a few feet away; they cannot help but be a bit fearful on top of everything else. Yet, the weeping and working continue, with a cautious glance now and then at a truck or bus rushing straight at them, and perhaps a quick prayer that el chofe makes the turn smoothly. The result of this double ordeal is described in Table C10.3: six nichos, three crosses is the data, but this data has hidden emotional costs beyond time, materials, and the expression of grief. Site OX63 (Figure 10.3.13a) shows a slightly different variation on the dangerous place theme, this nicho is located only a few feet away from a railroad track, along the side of route 175 two miles south of Tuxtepec. This nicho is simple to construct, being made of six bricks and a concrete roof that may be two paving stones mortared together. The number placard, which is the size of this sheet of paper torn in half, provides the scalar perspective. OX62 (Figure 10.3.13b), 50 meters south of the previous site, is a light blue tiled nicho with a white metal cross centered on the rear of a gabled roof. This is a somewhat unique and ironic site due to its location in front of a business establishment that makes and sells, among others, items that may be seen as part of roadside shrines or nichos. 167 Figure 10.3.13: Dangerous and ironic places; a) by a railroad track, b) by a monument vender. Figure 10.3.14 presents four views of nichos that feature cut flowers, permanent plantings, or artificial flowers as items that are commonly associated with roadside death memorials. Site OX134 has a bouquet of artificial flowers in a pot that is set into the concrete apron that extends the foundation of the nicho. An empty vase is also visible in this image, indicating that fresh cut flowers are also intended. The concrete of the nicho is only partially cured, and the white metal cross adjoining its rear has yet to receive a painted inscription; indicating that this is a new site and likely, based on what is usually seen, will have finishing touches applied to the nicho at a later date. Site OX33 has two vases of fresh flowers on either corner of the open front; one of gladiolus (Gladiolus spp.), and the other of red and white carnations (Dianthus caryophyllus) garnished with sprigs of babys-breath (Gypsophila elegans). Inside is a votive candle that is still a) OX134 b) OX33 c) OX248 d) OX26 Figure 10.3.14: Roadside memorial nichos with flowers or planted flowering shrubs. burning, indicating very recent visitation; this was a frequent occurrence during this fieldwork. The feeling that I had just missed an opportunity to speak with a person who could enrich my understanding of a particular site, added an element of frustration which tended to enhance any negative emotional state operative on that particular day. 168 Site OX248, located in the rugged Sierra Madre de Oaxaca 79 miles north of Puerto ngel, is a small arch-roofed nicho dating from 1996. Flowering oleander shrubs (Nerium oleander) are planted on either side of the nicho. This shrub species is seen frequently around roadside memorials, probably because: it requires little or no maintenance, does well in poor soils and dry conditions, and is easily propagated (i.e. it does not cost anything, one only needs access to a parent plant to start cuttings). The cross is inscribed In memory of Miguel Angel Cruz Flores with the immense love of your mother and loved ones. (see Table C10.3 for the original Spanish). Site OX26 is a light blue concrete nicho with a vase of pretty flowers inside. I have not made the effort to identify this particular bouquet as other than pretty because the point of putting or planting flowers in and around these places seems to be just that. They are pretty. They further enhance the aesthetic value of a place, and the memorial they decorate, that would otherwise be nondescript without them. No place was ever intended to exist in these places; they were purposefully created and part of the purpose, it seems, is to create a nice place, one that is sensually pleasing. Flowers help to accomplish that goal. Most (86%) of Oaxacas nichos are of the homemade variety, which, although certain styles are more popular than others, leaves considerable latitude for variation. Figure 10.3.15 shows a sampling of nicho shapes from the state of Oaxaca. Both sites OX21 and OX95 have a cross deeply embedded in the rear of the nicho, indicating that the death was first memorialized by the cross and the nicho was a later improvement. OX21 is the shape that I usually describe as flat roofed; a variation on this basic design is the shed roof in which the front wall is higher than rear. The shape that OX95 most nearly resembles is a gabled roof with a flat ridge although, due to the narrow width and steep pitch, it is nearly an angular arch. OX58, on the other hand, is an arched roof shape that is nearly flat due to its broad width. This site has an unusual addition of a partial front wall, probably to act as a windbreak, as discussed in section 10.2. Another noteworthy feature of this site is the 169 partially failed attempt to make a concrete cross to stand upon the rear of the nicho. While the concrete structure itself is quite durable, the cross is not; which is probably why most nichos feature a cross made of a different material. Site OX28 is a gabled shape with the ridge flattened. The simplicity of its design is the result of using materials that are easily and quickly obtainable, or already sitting around ones house; a few homemade concrete bricks, two paving stones and a bag of cement, combined with a cross obtained from a local metalworker and a bit of labor are the basic ingredients of this nicho. a) OX21 b) OX95 c) OX58 d) OX28 Figure 10.3.15: A sampling of the various shapes of homemade nichos in Oaxaca. The appeal of these nichos, as opposed to the polished beauty of the pre-fabricated ones, is the rustic quality of an attempt to create a beautiful and durable memorial to a loved one. Most folks who make one of these have probably never done it before. What one sees on the roadside is the humble effort of a person building something they would rather not be building, and doing it for the first time in their life. When these circumstances are taken into account, even the most poorly made structure has a bit of beauty to it. Site OX242 is one last example of a rustic homemade nicho, this one is a shrine of religiosity rather than a death memorial. This small roadside shrine is on the outskirts of the Figure 10.3.16: OX242, a rustic nicho/shrine to the Virgin of Juquilla. 170 village of La Soledad, 32 miles north of Puerto ngel on route 175. With thick stakes and a wall for support, a corrugated tin roof, and an old apartment-size refrigerator for protection, the small statue of the locally popular Virgin safely awaits all who would pay homage to her. Two bouquets of fresh flowers and 5 votive candles testify that her vigil is not a lonely one. Table C10.3, in Appendix C, details the locations and descriptions of artifacts observed in Oaxaca. 10.4: Chiapas This states 28,732 sq mi (74,416 sq km) area is crossed by mountain ranges, separated by subtropical valleys, that rise from the Isthmus of Tehuantepec and extend southeast into Guatemala. The Sierra Madre de Chiapas parallels the Pacific coastal plain and reaches an altitude of 13,310 ft (4,057 m). Much of the state is forested by; its average temperature is 20 C (68 F) and rainfall is heavy from June to November. Chiapas is the end of the road in non-peninsular Mexico, both in spatial and social terms. Its 3,920,515 citizens are among the poorest and most rural in the country, 25% speak a first language other than Spanish. Their agriculture is mostly for subsistence; coffee, cacao and rubber are the main cash/commercial crops. The people of Chiapas have a history of rocky relations with the federal government, the latest chapter of which (the Zapatista Rebellion) is currently ongoing. Tourism is an important source of income to the people of Chiapas and, somewhat covertly, the support of the Zapatistas. Chiapas was surveyed along six transects: 1)W8 extends from the junction of routes 186 and 199, near the Tabasco boundary, to Ciudad Cuauhtmec near the Guatemala border, 2) B2 proceeds along route 211 from there to junction of 200 at Huixtla, 3) L3 runs from the junction of 190 and 200 at Arriaga and terminates at the same junction as B2, 4) The final section of L2 runs from the Oaxaca boundary on route 190 and terminates at San Cristobal de Las Casas, 5) L1b terminates in Chiapas where it runs from the Tabasco boundary to the same junction of routes 186 and 199 and, 6) The Yucatn peninsular transect (P1) begins at that same point and runs for 13 miles to the Tabasco state line (see Figure 10.4.1). 171 Figure 10.4.1: Map of Chiapas, survey routes and places. These transects total 691 miles of roadside surveyed which recorded 364 artifacts at 310 locations; 150 were crosses, 206 nichos, and 8 shrines; a high percentage (47% or 146 locations) were described in detail and an extremely high proportion (193 or 94%) of the nichos were of the homemade variety. If one were to choose a single word to capture the essence of both the artifacts and the research experience (see Chapter 9) in Chiapas, colorful would be an appropriate choice. a) CP163 b) CP52 c) CP134 Figure 10.4.2: Colorful nichos. d) CP105 Figure 10.4.2 presents a selection of colorful nichos encountered in the state of Chiapas (see CD-ROM for a fuller appreciation of these images). Site CP163, located 73 miles southwest of the state capital (Tuxtla Guiterrez), memorializes a fallen driver. Existing boulders and the curb of the road are concreted into and painted in the memorial color scheme, which is the Mexican tricolor of green, white, and red. The site prominently displays the name of the mans employer, who donated the memorial. The sponsoring of a roadside memorial to a professional driver by the employer is encountered so frequently that it seems to be a type of survivors benefit (see section 4.3, site SN508). This custom tacitly recognizes the inherent danger of the 172 occupation and symbolically aligns the corporation with the popular version of Christianity that underlies the custom. Site CP52 is located 68 miles north of Comitan on route 185. It is finished in glazed tiles that grade from white to light brown. The death date on the cross atop the nicho is 7 May1993. A tattered wreath and wilted flowers verify that the site still receives some attention, probably at the Days of the Dead. CP134, a turquoise concrete nicho with a flat roof and a trefoil faade, is located one mile south of Ciudad Cuauhtmoc near the Guatemala border. The face of the faade is inscribed in yellow/tan paint with the death information; the same color is used to highlight the niche opening and a cross cutout that is centered under the pinnacle. Site CP105 is a tan concrete nicho with a fancy metal outline cross centered atop the flat roof. This nicho is located 2 miles south of Comitan and has two metal doors that are both padlocked. All four of these sites draw ones attention through using a color scheme that contrasts with the local surroundings, either subtly (CP134) or dramatically (CP163). Figure 10.4.3 features a selection of nichos in shades of blue. Each of the sites are described in Table C10.4 in Appendix C, however some notes which point out certain features and conditions of these images are in order. One interesting aspect of this collage is that all except CP126, which has no door, and CP87, whose door is not visible, are locked. CP131 has pebbles on the roof and the ledge of the pedestal, an associated object with which the reader is by now familiar. Three of these photos also evidence different types of fencing in the background. CP51 is nearly up against a chain link fence which, if no other data were available, indicates a location that is less rural and more urban; it is, in fact, just 3 miles from the city of Comitn. CP90, although the actual fence is not discernable, clearly shows a climb-over gate in the background, a common way of dealing with barbed wire fencing which is usually associated with livestock. And CP96 shows, in the upper right, part of stone fence that survived my image cropping. This is 173 also a common type of fence throughout Mexico and is usually for keeping stray livestock out of a crop field, as opposed to barbed wire, which is to keep livestock in a particular field. Another aspect of an image that may fall out during the image processing is where the photograph was taken from; CP87 is clearly taken from the drivers seat of my vehicle in the uncropped version (see the accompanying CD-ROM). The nicho is on the right side of the road and I am leaning as far toward the passenger side as possible, but not quite far enough to not include the door. On busy and/or sinuous roads this positioning of the observer happened too frequently, a) CP126 b) CP131 c) CP264 d) CP51 e) CP80 f) CP84 g) CP87 h) CP90 i) CP96 Figure 10.4.3: Nichos of Chiapas in shades of blue. and it was always a nerve-wracking experience. The condition that necessitated this approach was the lack of roadside space to park and the inability to see on-coming traffic at a distance; the result was an attempt to simultaneously frame a photo while listening for approaching traffic. The experience of researching a landscape seems seldom limited to the visual. Figure 10.4.4 presents another selection of nichos, these in varying shades of pink. Again, doors, where they exist, are locked; thus creating a place that is both public, due to the roadside location, and private. Site CP98, with a black and a pink cross atop the nicho and a blue wooden cross off to the right, presents an interesting exercise in interpreting color symbolism. Previous 174 encounters with pink crosses indicated a little girl (site BN134) in one case, and an elderly lady (BS108) in another; this last was juxtaposed with a blue cross for her husband. In this case the pink probably indicates a girl and the black an adult man; the blue may be for an adult female. The point however, is that color symbolism seems to be a personal matter and is inconsistent from one site to another and an interpretation based solely on color (as above) is questionable. a) CP98 b) CP97 c) CP50 d) CP28 Figure 10.4.4: Nichos in Chiapas, shades of pink. As mentioned above, this fieldwork was seldom solely a visual experience and the nichos in Figure 10.4.4 offer the reader entry into an appreciation of the tactile sensory experience. Site CP98 is a concrete/stucco structure, a rough surface to the touch; depending upon how the concrete is finished, this type of surface may be rough enough to cause an abrasion. CP97 features a heavy grade metal door, depending the time of day and the aspect, these can be quite hot. CP50 and 28 are made of glazed tiles, a smooth surface that is slick when wet. Both the tile and the concrete are relatively brittle, prone to chipping, cracking, and deterioration in chunks. The metal doors and crosses, on the other hand, are hard and resilient; they should last much longer on the side of the road than concrete. Not every photograph represents an artifact that I touched, but my body did have some experience of the place. Usually I stood or knelt on one knee to take the photo, often I sat or even lay down on my belly to get the desired angle. Frequently during the summer my clothing became saturated with perspiration as I worked, occasionally I left some of my blood, and every now and then a tear fell at one of these places. The reader (hopefully) will not have such an expulsion of body fluids over this text, nor is its texture an 175 unfamiliar one; but these images give at least a glimpse into the textures and colors of the roadside places under discussion. The majority of nichos in Mexico are finished in various shades of white. Figure 10.4.5 shows a selection of white nichos observed in Chiapas, in a variety of sizes, shapes, and settings. None are large enough to classify as a shrine, they range in size from 2m tall by 1 x 1.5m (CP82) to .75m tall by .25 x .5m (CP216). The shapes are a variety of gabled (CP63, 216, and 78), flat (CP82 and 132) and arched roofs (CP125); and all except CP82 display the cross symbol. The settings range from tropical (CP132 and 78) to pine forest (CP82 and 63) to hardscrabble (CP216). CP216, CP82, and CP132 show a fence that bounds adjacent private property; CP82 also shows the road and a ramp to access the nicho from the road. The between-ness of these places, situated between a public road and private property, repeatedly recurs throughout this study and in the images presented in this text. a) CP82 b) CP63 c) CP216 d) CP132 e) CP78 f) CP125 Figure 10.4.5: White nichos in Chiapas. Where roadside memorials are situated in relation their surroundings is their physical context on the landscape. This context often speaks volumes on why the artifact is there rather than 100 meters away, for example, and what that situation means to the observer as a person 176 seeking to understand both text and context. Figure 10.4.6 presents several images of a physical context that contrasts with a previous example in section 7.5. These images are presented here as a continuum from a higher to a lower altitude. CP244, 254, and 251 were at various locations in the Sierra Los Altos de Chiapas between Chiapa de Corzo and San Cristbol de las Casas. CP149 was in the Sierra Madre de Chiapas, 27 miles north of Huixtla. All were part of the ups and downs, twists and turns of roads that crossed and recrossed the 2000m (6562 ft) contour. a) CP244 b) CP149 c) CP254 d) CP251 Figure 10.4.6: Roadside memorials in a landscape of clouds. Site CP244 shows the physical context of a roadside that is (just barely) above the clouds. This cross, made of sticks with a makeshift shelter, is quite recent; freshly cut, unused sticks lie behind and in front of the guardrail stanchion. As the tilt of the shelter shows, there is less than two feet of level roadside before the landscape gives way to a precipitous drop into oblivion. As in all of these photos, there is no debris to mark that an accident occurred here; one assumes that the vehicle went over the edge at the point marked by the memorial. Sites CP149 and 254 are older; more well established memorials that were in the clouds when the photos were taken. The background is a white sheet of clouds. Both sites feature a wooden cross abutting the rear, but not built into, the nicho; indicating that a cross first marked the spot, and a nicho was added later. CP251 is slightly below the level of the clouds; here we can see land in the background. As with all of these sites, there is a steep drop from very near to the surface of the road and the opposite side of the road resembles Figure 7.5.5; a paucity of roadside is common in most of Mexicos mountainous terrain. 177 My field notes include some rather colorful commentary immediately preceding CP149. Expletives aside, the important details are: the road was quite sinuous, there were no guardrails, visibility varied between 10 and 20 feet which headlights did not enhance, and these driving conditions were the source of feelings of tension and anxiety. Taking the photo involved leaving my vehicle in the traffic lane with the emergency flashers on, which further enhanced the tension and anxiety levels. a) Mule wagon and tractor-trailer b) Women carrying firewood c) Highland Maya sheepherders d) Equine-induced traffic jam Figure 10.4.7: Sharing the roadway with non-motorists and animals. In even the best of driving conditions one would experience some degree of anxiety and tension with such limited visibility. In Mexico expected encounters only begin with ones fellow motorists; a condition which magnifies the intensity of hazardous situations. Figure 10.4.7 shows a variety non-motorist situations that one commonly encounters while traveling through Mexico. The road is a shared resource used by local farming families, whether they are gathering wood for the hearth or contributing to the familys livelihood (Figure 10.4.7a-c); and, as in any rural area, livestock are liable to escape their designated foraging area from time to time. In addition to human and animal encounters, the roadway itself is often unexpectedly hazardous. Poor maintenance, especially in the poorer states in the south, along with topographic 178 and climatic conditions combine in creating a road surface that impedes rather than facilitates traffic. Figure 10.4.8a and b are examples of roads losing a lane due to erosion, probably a byproduct of the monsoon rains. In the latter case, the boulder has been there for some time, the opposite side has an advertisement painted on the rock. In Figure 10.4.8c both lanes are being repaired, creating an abnormal travel condition. These conditions are pointed out as typical but may lead one to the conclusion that driving in Mexico is a situation that is constantly fraught with danger. This is not particularly so, in my opinion. The point here, and in the previous chapter, is that driving in Mexico is consistently different from driving in the U.S. Situations may be shocking or unusual to a European or Anglo-American are the norm in Mexico and Latin America, they are the expected. The danger lies in not acculturating quickly enough, i.e. developing driving habits that anticipate conditions that would be unexpected in another country. a) Lane out, erosion below. b) Lane out, erosion above. c) Road out and being repaired. Figure 10.4.8: The road as a travel hazard. Roadside memorials are occasionally found where unusual road conditions prevail. Figure 10.4.9a, site CP86, is a white tile nicho at the side of highway 190 in a location where a currently dry riverbed (arroyo seco) crosses the road. The cross atop the nicho reads: Dra. Sofia Arevalo Z. 18 Sep 71, 30 Sep 97; indicating the site of another young physicians death (see Figure 5.3.7), this one a lady doctor (Dra. Is the abbreviation for Doctora, a female doctor). Site CP106, shown in Figure 10.4.9b, is a green, shed roofed, concrete nicho that appears to have been moved to a new location in anticipation of a road widening project currently under way. To the left of the nicho are the surveyors stakes showing the new pavements elevation. 179 The base of the nichos foundation, which is normally below ground level, is visible with no soil beneath it and there are scuffmarks on the face that indicate the nicho was probably scooped up by heavy equipment and put in its current location. To the right of the nicho is a pile of debris that includes chunks of asphalt and a road sign, which was probably moved by the same machine that re-placed the nicho. Figure 10.4.9: a) Nicho near an arroyo seco and, b) nicho moved to a new roadside. a) CP164 b) CP104 Figure 10.4.10: Apparently old nichos. Occasionally the observer, ever struggling to wrest information from mute place, is humbled by the silence. Figure 10.4.10 shows two such places; nichos that appear to be old, tell no tale, offer no clues. They simply are, mildew and all, where they are; no associated artifacts, inscriptions, or dates offer themselves up to the probing eye of the beholder. One cannot even say with assurance, in this humid climate, that they are old. Their story, like death itself, is silent. The silence does, sometimes, expose different faces of death. Death is not, after all, the same to all people or creatures. Figure 10.4.11 offers a glimpse of two views that run counter to the standard point of view that prevails in the United States (see e.g. Becker 1973; Mitford 1998). 180 a) Life goes on at CP67. b) Death is welcomed at CP170. Figure 10.4.11: Nichos in the foreground, life/death in the background. Site CP67 is one of many places where a roadside memorial is framed by people going about the business of living. In this case the people in the background are busy tending a field that will produce life-sustaining food, they are both living and assuring that life goes on. Mexicans, although they are often characterized as being fatalistic, are realistic about death. They accept that death is part of life and do not bother to sanitize it or insulate themselves from its reality. Unlike in the U.S., for example, a dead Mexican is only embalmed if they died in el Norte and the body is shipped home for the funeral. No effort, according to an undertaker I interviewed in Tepic, is made to make the body look alive or attractive. Nobody at a Mexican funeral would ever say My doesnt he look good! a statement I have heard at every wake in my life. The reality is he or she does not look good, they are dead. That is as bad as it gets in life! But in Mexico the reality is of a different sort (see Chapter 5) and the dead body is just a corpse. Life goes on. Site CP170 shows an entirely other point of view about death. Here, looking closely at the birds perched in the tree behind the nicho, death is a welcome and life-giving event; it is in fact, dinnertime! These carrion-eating, vultures (there were 50+ of them moments before this photo) provide an eerie context for the nicho of Baldomero Farfan Solis who died here on Oct. 20, 1991. Both vultures and roadside death memorials are quite common throughout Mexico, but the coincidence of seeing them together was unusual, to say the least. Site CP205 (Figure 10.4.12a), located about 25 miles west of Tuxtla Guitierez on route 190, is a unique case of displaying Masonic symbolism on a roadside memorial. Freemasonry has a long history in Mexico; the York and Scottish rite lodges served as ad hoc political parties 181 during the struggle to determine newly independent Mexicos form of government (ca. 1810; the Yorquinos were federalists, the Escoceses were centrists) (MacLachlan and Beezley 1994). The public display of their symbol, however, is rare; probably due to longstanding Roman Catholic opposition to Freemasonry. During my Mexican travels, including occasional cemetery visits where this symbolism is usually common (in the U.S.), I saw no other Masonic symbol. a) CP205, Masonic nicho. b) CP93, fenced-in cross. c) CP94, empty fence. Figure 10.4.12: Unique roadside memorials. Site CP93 is a wooden cross, uncharacteristically staked directly into the ground (rather than set in concrete), and enclosed by a wooden fence. Inside the enclosure are bouquets of fresh flowers. Both the fence and placement method of the cross are unique. CP94, only 100m south of CP93, presents the observer with a dilemma. The fence is the same as the neighboring death memorial, yet there is no cross. Without the symbol is this still a death memorial? I recorded it as a cross-type memorial with no cross. My rationale is that the fence-type is unique to this location, and that the neighboring cross is not permanently set; therefore it is most likely a cross-type memorial whose cross has deteriorated, broken off, or otherwise gone missing. Figure 10.4.13 shows three multiple death locations and a variety of ways to memorialize these type of places. Site CP207 was personally significant because it was the first place I could stop after the event discussed in the previous chapter. It is a cluster of six small nichos memorializing eight deaths that occurred here in a single event. Adjacent to this site is another nicho and two crosses, also with the same death date and assumed to be from the same event. Excepting the white, partially pre-fabricated nicho, these are all very simple, inexpensive, and easy to make memorials; in this they reflect the poverty that is the major problem in Chiapas. 182 a) CP207, six nichos. b) CP241, three crosses. c) CP300a, nicho exterior. d) CP300b, nicho interior. Figure 10.4.13: Three treatments of multiple death sites. Site CP241 memorializes three people with green wooden cross pommes (Griffith 1966) decorated with boughs of juniper. Placing evergreens at a death site is symbolic of the souls immortality (Drury 1994, 102), or at least someones belief in the same. Site CP300 memorializes seven people with wooden spindle-type crosses inside a large concrete arch-roofed nicho. The inscription above the opening indicates a work-related affiliation between the deceased persons and those who made the nicho. Each cross also has a metal inscription scroll that includes, in addition to the deceaseds name, the abbreviation that is above the portal; probably the acronym for a private or governmental corporate entity. There are numerous fresh and artificial floral bouquets inside the nicho and the exterior is festooned with white paper flowers on blue stringers. Many crosses, monuments, nichos, and death shrines feature handicrafts and artisanship in the articles associated with them; these artistic efforts, however, are also displayed to good effect at shrines of religiosity. Site CP166 (Figure 10.4.14, below) was accidentally observed when I pulled off to the side of the road for a moment to enjoy the view after driving to a mountain summit. This large shrine, perched on a bluff above the highway, was actually 183 invisible from the road and would be missed altogether in busy traffic. The climb up to the shrine is made easier by a set of stone steps. A close look at the well-maintained interior is reward enough for the effort. Figure 10.4.14: Exterior (a) and interior (b) of CP166, a Guadalupe shrine. The altar is nicely decorated with a variety of fresh and artificial flowers, candles, and religious articles including a statue and prints of the Virgin of Guadalupe and a photo of the pope. The main altar cloth, hand embroidered with an image of the Virgin and four bouquets of roses, is quite impressive in its own right and even more so in this setting. The view, by the way, was awesome! Table C10.4 in Appendix C presents the locations and details all of the sites observed in Chiapas. 10.5: Veracruz Veracruz (2000 pop. 6,901,111) is a long (430 miles), narrow (30 to 100 miles) state that dominates Mexicos eastern, Gulf of Mexico, coast. It is a good example of altitudinal zonation, rising from a tropical coastal plain into the temperate valleys and highlands of the Sierra Madre Oriental. The state shares with neighboring Puebla the highest peak in Mexico, Citlaltlpetl (also known as Orizaba Peak), a 18,700 ft (5,700 m) high snowcapped volcano and most of central Veracruz is mountainous. Abundant rainfall and extremely fertile soil permit the cultivation of numerous crops. The state is a leading national producer of coffee, sugarcane, corn, and rice, and produces a wide variety of other crops. Cattle raising is practiced in upland semitropical and temperate zones. From the tropical forests come dyewoods and hardwoods, chicle, and rubber, and in the colder 184 regions maguey, various cacti, and coniferous forests are found. The states principal natural resource and dominant industry is oil. The state is home to the Huastec and Totonac peoples, and the conquest of Mexico began in 1519 when Cortez first set foot upon the shore of Veracruz. Figure 10.5.1: Map of Veracruz, survey routes and places. My survey of Veracruz identified 647 artifacts at 497 sites along an 865-mile route. There were 370 crosses, 233 nichos, and 44 shrines; 13.7% (or 68) sites were described in detail. The main transect was L1, the eastern coastal transect; L2 the central lengthwise transect also passes through Veracruz, and three of the widthwise transects (W5, 6, and 7) originate in the state (see Figure 10.5.1). The first 124 miles of transect W6 is unusual because, although there were normal numbers of crosses and nichos, I recorded only shrines and closely inspected but one of them. This section, as far as I know, is the only part of the fieldwork that suffered due to my emotional state. Personal grief (see Chapter 3) and road stress (Chapters 6 & 9) overwhelmed me; this, combined with a strong sense of purpose, resulted in a state of mind where I could neither stop moving nor continue looking. Even when fully focused on looking, seeing is no simple matter and an unknown number of artifacts are missed for a variety of reasons (section 10.6 provides a detailed discussion). Site number VZ488 (Figure 10.5.2) is a good example of an artifact hidden in tall vegetation, a problem that may be particularly acute in the tropical south where roadside vegetation is frequently four feet tall or more. This particular site features two nichos about 5 meters apart, one (on the left) is only barely visible from the roadside. While wading through the dense grass 185 between them, I tripped over something solid about half way between the two. Only after parting the vegetation was I able to see that there is a third nicho at this site. Figure 10.5.2: Three nichos, one hidden in tall grass. a) Cross on a stake. b) Sheltered stake cross. Figure 10.5.3: Crosses attached to stakes. One possible solution to the problem a tall roadside vegetation is mounting an artifact on a platform or, in the case of crosses, a pole or wooden stake. Figure 10.5.3 shows two examples of this technique. Site VZ258 (Figure 10.5.3a) is a stained and varnished, spindle-type cross that is wired to a wood stake. A bucket is attached to the cross for fresh flowers and there are also paper flowers on the cross. Site VZ40 (Figure 10.5.3b) is constructed in a similar fashion, with the addition of a shelter made of stakes and corrugated tin. A container with fresh red and white carnations sits in front of the cross and there is a decorative foliage plant to one side. This cross has a framed photograph of the deceased mounted in the center of the cross. The situation of the cross, at the bottom of a slope, necessitates the placement of sandbags and rocks below the concrete pad; this protects the structure from erosion during heavy rains. These strategies assure visitors that the cross can be located in the future and, in the second case, that it will probably be intact. 186 Occasionally a roadside memorial seems to outlast its intended future use; this may be the case at site VZ283 (Figure 10.5.4a). This wrought-iron cross has a spray of rays about the junction, filigrees on the arms and a center scroll. The cross is heavily oxidized and the concrete in which it is set is partially out of the soil. The right arm is one-third buried in the adjacent tree and the cross leans in that direction. After gently cleaning the tin scroll with a stiff brush I was still unable to discern any details of the inscription; later magnification of the image also failed to clarify the death date. Undoubtedly this artifact is has been in this location for a long time, it is now part of both the human and natural landscape, and continues speak of some long ago grief. a: Tree and metal cross. b: Eleven crosses and a sharp curve sign. Figure 10.5.4: Artifacts situated in a way that speaks. Figure 10.5.4b shows three cross clusters and four separate crosses (11 total) with a hazardous curve sign at sites VZ183-9. While the location of death memorials adjacent to hazardous road conditions is common (see Figure 10.1.2 and the discussion in section 10.2), these seem to be adding something more to the landscape than the crosses and their inscriptions. It is as if the sign is saying Watch out and the crosses are adding, Really! Site VZ267 (Figure 10.5.5) is an unusual nicho because of its star-shaped body. A black metal and glass niche opening in the center of the granito star contains a votive candle, urns on either side of the star have fresh flowers, and a statue of the Virgin of Guadalupe is mounted on each of the two horizontal arms of the five-pointed star. 187 Figure 10.5.5: Star nicho with Guadalupe statues. Figure 10.5.6: Boy hanging out at a shrine. Figure 10.5.6 shows site VZ74, a white concrete and stone nicho-shrine. The stones are painted red and green and a statue of the Virgin of Guadalupe behind the wrought iron and glass door announces to whom the shrine is dedicated. The boy in the picture was there when I arrived; he was not waiting for a bus or a ride and, evidently, felt no reason to give up his spot for my photograph. He was just hanging out and this shrine was a good place to engage in his inactivity. The sites recorded in Veracruz are listed in Appendix C, Table C10.5. 10.6: Tabasco Tabasco has an area of 24,661 sq km (9,522 sq mi) and a population of 1,889,367. Its low, flat territory is covered by swamps, lagoons, and rain forests and is crossed by numerous rivers, the Grijalva and the Usumacinta are still used for travel and transport. Predominantly agricultural, Tabasco is known for its tropical produce, which includes cacao, sugarcane, bananas, pineapple, vanilla, and chicle. Since the 1960s, petroleum extraction has become important, and the capital city of Villahermosa reflects the prosperity of an oil-town. Except for a short section (6 miles) of the first peninsular transect (P1), the state was surveyed as part of the Gulf of Mexico route (L1) which forks at Heroica Cardenas, with one branch following the coastline on various routes to the Campeche state line and the other taking the main highway (186) to the Chiapas border (Figure 10.6.1). This was accomplished in trips through Tabasco, in May 1999 and January 2000, during which 108 artifacts were observed at 97 locations; they were: 39 crosses, 64 nichos, and 5 shrines. 188 Figure 10.6.1: Map of Tabasco, survey routes and places. The left, or coastal, fork of the L1 includes a 40-mile section that was surveyed driving coastward in May and inland in January. Although both surveys recorded 19 sites; four sites were recorded in January that were not seen in May, and four that were visible in May were apparently invisible in January. Admittedly this is a small sample, but the fact that 4-of-19 locations were invisible both times gives an indication that some portion of what may be seen is missed and not recorded. Figure 10.6.2: TB 65, a nicho in tall grass with an ornate cross Figure 10.6.2 (above) and Site VZ488 (see section 10.5) are examples of one of the many reasons why a roadside structure may be hidden from view even at close range. In this case the ornate cross, a nice bit of artisanship, stands out on the landscape as well as the upper half of the open-faced nicho. Some other reasons an artifact may be unseen are, on the drivers right: large vegetation, rock outcrops, or human constructions in the line of vision, road cuts, bridges, abutments or overpasses immediately in front of the artifact, and a sharp curve to the right aggravated by terrain variations. On the drivers left: as above, substituting left curves for curves to the right, and the added factors of oncoming traffic, particularly busses and trucks, and, where a multi-lane highway is divided, the left lane may not be clearly within sight. 189 Sites TB45 and 51, Figure 10.6.3, are good examples of nichos constructed in situ and finished with glazed tiles, a construction technique that is particularly prevalent in the south. Figure 10.6.3: TB45 (left) and TB51, nichos finished with glazed tiles. The hard, smooth finish of this material seems to hold up well under the humid tropical conditions of southern Mexico, and offers the opportunity for selecting more sophisticated and/or finishing touches than tinted stucco. TB45s tiles are a cocoa-brown than grades to cream-white, and TB51 uses a combination of solid sky-blue, white, and aqua tiles with yellow edge molding tiles. The latter has a front deck that is concrete in the middle and was hand inscribed while it was wet: Falleci el Sr. Rodolfo Gonzalez. Pedraza. El dia 7 de Julio del ao de 1975 a la edad. de 60 aos. D.E.P. (Mr. Rodolfo Gonzalez Pedraza passed away [here] on July 7, 1975 at the age of sixty. R.I.P.). Sr. Gonzalez date of death testifies to the durability of this building technique in this hot, humid environment. Table C10.6, in Appendix C, enumerates the type and location of the artifacts observed in Tabasco. 10.7: Campeche Campeche covers 50,812 sq km (19,619 sq mi) of the western portion of the Yucatn peninsula, and the population is 689,656. The first 199 miles and the last 233 miles of transect P1 were within the state of Campeche (Figure 10.7.1). A total of 78 artifacts were recorded at 60 locations, they were: 31 crosses, 43 nichos, and 4 shrines. Although Table C10.7, gives a complete accounting of the fieldwork results; several specific examples are notable. 190 Figure 10.7.1: Map of Campeche, survey routes and places. Site number CM52 is located 12 miles east of Ciudad Carmen on a beautiful stretch of route 180 that is built upon a long spit that, only barely, separates the Laguna de Trminos from the Bay of Campeche. Figure 10.7.2 shows how rapidly even durable materials can deteriorate in some environments, in this case salt is the main agent of decay and the cause of the oxidation stains on the concrete pedestal and the metal cross arms. This is a triparted cross fleure, according to Webbers classification scheme (1971), with the middle limbs terminating in a fleurde-lis and fancy filigrees in the right angles of the cross members. The center inscription plate is inscribed: Sra. Marcella Garcia de Padilla, te recuerdomos con mucho carino, 4 jul 1999 (, we remember you with much affection, July 4, 1999). This photo was taken six months and 11 days after the inscription date. Figure 10.7.2: CM52, a metal cross near the Bay of Campeche. Site CM22 (Figure 10.7.3) is an example of a multiple death site with multiple types of memorials; there are 4 crosses on the left, and two tiny nichos on the right, one of which has a white wooden cross attached. The eye-catching aspect of this site is the beautiful flowering bougainvilleas behind the crosses which, it seems, someone is caring for and attempting to train along a stick placed there for that purpose. 191 Figure 10.7.3: Site CM22, four crosses, two small nichos and bougainvilleas. Figure 10.7.4: Crosses and shelter for four men, two who were professors. Site CM07, in Figure 10.7.4, another multiple death site, is an example of memorial improvement or expansion over time. There are four wood crosses, four blue rebar crosses, and an open shelter made of four square, concrete posts that support a concrete gabled roof. Judging by the weathering of the materials I would say that the four wooden crosses were the original memorials, with the metal rebar crosses and then the shelter added later. Another interesting aspect of this memorial is that the occupation of two of the four men who died here is given in the brief inscriptions (see Table C10.7 in Appendix C); in this case the men were professors. 10.8: Quintana Roo Quintana Roo occupies most of the eastern part of the Yucatn peninsula and is dominated by tropical lowland forests, inhabited by scattered communities of Maya. It has an area of 50,212 sq km (19,387 sq mi) and a population of 873,804. Henequen, chicle, and cotton are the main agricultural products. Tourism at Cancun, Cozumel, and Isla Mujeres is the dominant economic activity of the state. Quintana Roo was surveyed along the P1 transect for 321 miles from the Campeche boundary on route 186, north on the 307 near Cancun, and west on route 180 to the Yucatn state 192 line (Figure 10.8.1). The farthest east boundary transect (B1) lies entirely within Quintana Roo. It is an unmarked, paved, state route that parallels the Ro Hondo, the international boundary between Mexico and Belize. 54 artifacts were recorded at 43 locations along the 375 miles of these two transects. Fifteen were crosses, 37 nichos, and two shrines. This state has the lowest density of artifacts-per-mile and the second lowest density of population. Figure 10.8.1: Map of Quintana Roo, survey routes and places. Figures 10.8.2 and 10.8.3 are examples of the 16% of sites in Quintana Roo at which multiple artifacts memorialize multiple deaths in that place. Site QR09 is a double nicho of the side-by-side variety (the other type is the double decker, with one atop the other). Although the names are no longer legible, the structure has two qualities of special interest. Firstly, it is made of concrete and is monolithic. Usually nichos built in situ are made in stages, with the foundation and/or pedestal being poured first and the nicho built upon it later. There is usually doubt if the nicho is solid concrete or if it is made of some other material that is then stuccoed. Here, as there are no seams, it is clear that the foundation, walls, and roof were all constructed in one pouring of concrete. The second interesting aspect of these nichos is the wooden crosses that, for lack of a better term, I call spindle types. The pieces are turned, or lathed, and finished; much like the balusters of a staircase, spindles of a chair back, or legs of a table. The two pieces are then mortised together at right angles to form a cross, with the un-turned joint serving as a small inscription plate. Although the process of making one of these crosses is not extremely complex, it does require special tools and is quite likely a side business for cabinetmakers. 193 Figure 10.8.2: Site QR09, a side-by-side, double nicho. Site QR01 (Figure 10.8.3) shows a pair of nearly identical nichos that are finished in glazed tile. They sit about 20 feet apart on the north side of route 186, approximately 21 miles east of the Campeche state line. The nichos have white tiled exterior walls, including the pedestals down to ground level, and green tiled roofs. Both have a metal cross voided atop the rear (Webber 1927, 129), generally referred to in this text as outline crosses, the arms of which terminate with a fleur-de-lis and feature heart-shaped inscription plates at the arm junctions. Both have aluminum framed, tinted glass windows on three sides and a front door which is etched, in the case of the 48-year-old woman, with an image of the Virgin of Guadalupe; and for the 28day-old infant, the Nio de Atocha. This last has statues of Jesus Sacred Heart and an angel, and both have votive candles inside. Figure 10.8.3: Site QR01, identical nichos finished with glazed tiles Site QR05 (Figure 10.8.4) is one of only two artifacts seen along route B1 and has an unusual shape. Made of white concrete/stucco, the front is a arched roof that slopes downward to the rear and the side walls taper together from front-to-rear and join to a rear wall that is approximately half the width of the front. This nicho features a ventilation pipe in the rear, a padlocked metal gate, and a metal, rayed cross fusile (119) atop the front apex of the roof. 194 Inside are 2 votive candles and two crosses, one with a heart-shaped wreath on January 13, 2000, probably placed there on the Day of the Dead in November. Figure 10.8.4: Site QR05, unusually shaped nicho along the Belize border. Table C10.8 in Appendix C gives the details of the field observations for Quintana Roo. 10.9: Yucatn The state of Yucatn (2000 pop., 1,655,707), located on the Gulf of Mexico and Campeche Bay, has an area of 38,402 sq km (14,827 sq mi) and occupies the north central Yucatn Peninsula. The capital is Mrida, and the majority of the inhabitants are Mayan. Yucatn is a sparsely settled state, with henequen as the main agricultural crop, complemented by corn, rice, fruit, sugarcane, and beans. Petroleum is extracted along the coast, and fishing and tourism are also important. Yucatan is known for such famous archaeological sites as Tulm, Chichen Itza and Uxmal. Figure 10.9.1: Map of Yucatn, survey routes and places. Yucatn was surveyed as part of transect P1 along route 180 from the Quintana Roo boundary, west to Mrida and, from there, south to the Campeche state line, a total of 190 miles (Figure 10.9.1). 33 artifacts were recorded: 4 crosses, 25 nichos, 3 shrines, and one monument; of 195 the 31 states, only Quintana Roo has a lower density of roadside sacred places than Yucatn. This notwithstanding, several were particularly interesting. Figure 10.9.2 shows site number YC28, a concrete broken pillar monument, similar to those one might see in many older cemeteries in the United States. The site is located 44 miles south of Mrida and 9 miles north of the Campeche boundary on the east side of route 180. A broken pillar, like a broken tree or tablet, symbolizes a life cut short; in this case that of Teresa who was 39 years old in 1970 when she died. The monument is mould and mildew stained and the inscription, which is professionally chiseled into the pedestal base, is only partially legible; but it has withstood nearly 30 years of Yucatns hot, humid climate in otherwise good condition. This monument is a rarity in Mexico because of the absence of any religious symbolism. Figure 10.9.2: Broken pillar monument. Figure 10.9.3: Nicho with soccer field deck. Site YC13, located 18 miles east of Mrida, is unusual in the respect that a statement about the deceased is imbedded within the standard architectural elements or fixed-feature elements (Rapoport 1982, 86) of the structure (Figure 10.9.3). The teal-green concrete/stucco nicho has a decorative white cross botonne (Webber 1927) with two winged angel heads in the junction, mounted atop a globe which sits on the front gable apex. There are two more globes on the roof edge at either side of the front, one of which has a stylized cross pate mounted atop. The right-side of the roof surface has a painting of a wooden cross entwined with a flowering vine. The front wall, on either side of the black wrought-iron door, has an inscription that includes the mans name, birth and death dates (22 years-old), and Remembrance of his wife, daughter, parents and brothers (see Table C10.9 for the full Spanish inscription). 196 These religious and remembrance elements are normal and others like them may be observed at thousands of nicho sites in Mexico. It is the front concrete deck, tinted dark or grass green and painted with the white lines of a soccer field, which makes this nicho special. This simple design actually speaks to the observer in a symbolic silence that tells something about this young man. If the observer were a local, maybe they would see the soccer field and immediately associate his name to a locally renowned soccer player, or maybe not. Perhaps, like 100 million others in Latin American who spend their Sundays glued to a TV screen, he was simply a ftbol aficionado. In any case, there can be no doubt that soccer was a big part of the life of young Jos Luis, because in death he is remembered with a ftbol field up front. The addition of an element of the memorial that identifies the deceased as more than a name, allows one to search personal experiences with people to get a generalized view of that person as a human being. A memorial that identifies the person as a professor, attorney, engineer, accountant, mechanic, football fan, little girl, or truck driver gives the observer cues and clues to how that person lived, what personality traits, values, and behaviors seem to be common among the people one knows, who share membership in that cohort. It gives, in short, a flesh-and-blood reality to the life that ended in the very spot where one stands. Even if this subjective/fantasy exercise is totally erroneous, it has value. After seeing, or in your case reading about, thousands of roadside memorials, it is easy to forget that for every cross, every nicho, every monument; a real person lived, touched the lives of others, and then died. These are not just humanly built structures, they are symbols that refer a persons life, and any attempt to connect with that life is inherently an act of participation. 197 CHAPTER 11: SYMBOLIC/POETIC ATTRIBUTES OF THE TEXT Chapters 4, 7 and 10 have focused on presenting descriptions of the roadside landscape in Mexico. This is the text as a cultural landscape of some 10,000 artifacts that are intended to make sacred, the 7,000 sites in which they are placed. This reading occurs through an adaptation of the anthropologists ethnographic methodology. I observed, participated, and will attempt to interpret according to my training and abilities. Before launching upon that endeavor, however, it might be helpful to summarize the poetic or symbolic attributes that were noted in above-mentioned chapters. This chapter, in setting the stage for the next, acts as a sort of preconclusion that focuses upon the expressive attributes of artifacts identified during the fieldwork. The poetic attributes of roadside sacred places may be organized into three broad categories: the site and situation of the artifact upon the landscape, physical attributes of the artifact, and the objects associated with the artifact. 11.1: Site and Situation of Artifacts Site refers to the exact, or absolute, location of a place on the Earths surface; this includes the area covered by the place of interest. Baton Rouge, for example, may be located on a map at certain coordinates; no other place occupies those exact coordinates. We also know that Baton Rouge is more than just a point, at ground level; it covers several square miles of area, and all of that area is Baton Rouge. The same is true of the sites discussed in this text; they are all at a specific location. The method used to determine that location suffers some error and variability, but the site remains in the approximate location specified and includes a variable amount of landscape surrounding the artifact(s). It is this variable amount of surrounding landscape, that is most easily identifiable as a site. Many times throughout the text, images and descriptions reveal an attempt by the creators of sacred places to expand sites beyond a particular artifact. Examples of this are: installing fences around artifacts, building shelters over them, outlining a walkway or area with whitewashed rocks, building a staircase or walkway, and planting trees or ornamental shrubs around an artifact. 198 Fences, shelters, and other demarcations of the expanded site are ways of separating one place from another. They say that the side of the road is a place of a particular sort, and the marked-off area is a place of a different sort. Shelters have the added dimension of a place that somebody cares about; and is oppositional to the useless surrounding roadside. Planting trees, shrubs, and flowers is also indicative of a cared about place. Plantings may bring into play the iconographic symbolism of individual plants (see e.g. Drury 1994; Biedermann 1994). I have chosen, however, a more pragmatic approach. Plantings reflect what is possible to grow in a certain location, personal preferences, or local customs. But in all cases, plantings show that somebody cares about the place and has taken a culturally appropriate action to expand the place beyond an artifact or group of artifacts; thereby separating and distinguishing this place from the surrounding landscape. The situation of artifacts refers to where they in relation to other places. Situation may include other artifacts, the surrounding landscape features, and, at a larger scale, urban/rural-ness, and the state or region which surrounds the artifact. The larger, or macro-scalar situation is usually assumed and seldom mentioned; within the text and tables, only urban-ness is specified, because state and region are givens, and rural-ness is the norm. During the fieldwork, the micro-situation is usually the most noticeable aspect of a roadside sacred place when one approaches an artifact. There are three ways that an artifact is situated in relation to others: either it is one among a cluster of artifacts at a site, part of a cluster of sites, or it is alone and not within sight of another artifact. Artifacts are clustered at a site in two ways: either parallel, or at right angles to the road. Parallel clusters indicate a multiple death site and usually reveal more about the site than the individual artifacts. Exceptions, for example site TM44 (Figure 4.11.2), are discussed in the text because they are unusual. Linear or parallel clusters, like a cluster of sites, usually occur in predictable locations on the landscape: where the road curves sharply, on long and/or step grades, at intersections and junctions with railroad tracks, and where two or more of the above coincide. 199 These are dangerous places where a death is more likely to occur and numerous examples (e.g. Figures 4.1.3 and 10.3.12) are discussed throughout the text. Perpendicular, or stacked, clusters are sites where one person died and artifacts were added over time; each new artifact is in front of, closer to, or more visible from the road than the older one(s). Sites CH92 (Figure 4.6.3), ZT193 (4.5.5b), OX21 and 95 (Figure 10.3.15), and many others in the text, demonstrate that people are visiting these artifacts over a long period of time. These stacked artifacts express the desire of the survivors of the deceased to improve upon the memorial, usually as financial conditions permit. Each new layer is invariably of more enduring material, larger, or more esthetically pleasing. This indicates not only a respect for the dead by their survivors, but also that the dead are still within the cultural system. A respectable memorial confers status or respect upon the deceased in the eyes of passersby; a message that somebody, as opposed to a nobody, died here. Most of the 200+ images in this text show, in greater or lesser detail, the situated-ness of the artifacts. In almost every case there are, either shown or implied, three distinct places: the road, property (mostly private), and a zone that separates these two. Roadside sacred places are invariably in the zone that is neither road, nor property. They occur in a margin of between-ness. Their physical situation is transitional or marginal. Coinciding with this physical situation, there is a marginal ethnography; i.e., observations that occurred between places of interest. People see that this land area is currently unused and remedy that situation, in accordance with their needs. They were observed cutting and gathering fodder or grazing their livestock along the roadside and in the medians of divided highways. In the poorer areas where there are large numbers of landless peasants (Southern Mexico, especially Oaxaca and Chiapas), one sees corn planted in this zone of marginality. It is the perfect place; the road is an impermeable surface, so rainfall drains immediately onto the area where seed is sown, maximizing the amount of water available to the plants. And, best of all, it is free. It belongs to the government, which is both everyone and no one. 200 This marginal zone also expands or contracts, according to the landscape within which it is situated. In the arid north this zone tends to be larger than the 20 meter Federal right-of-way (Figures 4.2.4 and 5). In mountainous (Figures 7.5.5 and 10.4.6), urbanized (Figure 10.3.13b), and intensively farmed areas (Figure 4.1.2a) the zone contracts, due to lack of physical space or the value of land. The marginal, ironically, becomes dear as it becomes sparse. The neither/nor-ness of the physical situation coincides with its intellectually marginal place. Creating a sacred place in this zone is both illegal, by rule of law, and non-criminal, by rule of common sense or common knowledge (section 4.4 and Chapter 9). It is neither legal nor illegal; anyone [has the right to] do this in Mexico as the bereaved brother pointed out in Chapter nine. 11.2: The Physical Attributes of Artifacts This section, following the architect Rapoport (1982), treats the physical attributes of artifacts as fixed features [whose] size, location, sequence, [and] arrangement communicate meaning. (88) These basic architectural elements, walls, roofs, floors, etc. change only rarely or slowly, once they are put in place. Here the focus is on the shape, color, and texture of these elements as important communicators of meaning. The most important element of all roadside places is shape; a fixed and, in the case of crosses, defining element of the structure. Excepting monuments (discussed below) all roadside places that are sacred, are defined as sacred by the presence of the Christian cross shape. The place is symbolically connected to Christian thought, ideals, and worldview through the display of some variation upon the cross shape. Perhaps no artifact represents the desire to communicate this affiliation with the cross shape so well as PB267 (see Figure 7.10.11). All four sides of this blue tile nicho are crosses. Each cross-shaped wall is connected to the adjacent wall with wrought iron fancy work, which includes a cross. Atop its roof there is a black metal cross. The cross theme, built into the structure, is repeated nine times. While this artifact represents an extreme, examples of the norm 201 within the text are too numerous to recount; crosses (by definition), nichos and shrines all display, displayed at one time, or intend to display this shape. The cross is the most universal of the simple symbolic figures, its importance is in no way limited to the Christian world. First of all, it represents spatial orientation, the intersection of vertical (above/below) and horizontal (right/left) axes, the bringing together of multiple dualities in a single whole that, moreover, suggests the human form with the arms extended. (Biedermann 1989, 81) Crosses are featured prominently in cosmological representations across cultures. In Mexico, the Aztec Codex Fejrvry-Mayer (Figure 11.2.1) is a particularly good example of the symbolism referred to above, and in addition includes trees of life or world trees such as those featured at the Temple of the Foliated Cross at the Mayan ruins in Palenque. Figure 11.2.1: Cross of the Codex Fejrvry-Mayer. These ancient, or pre-Christian, symbolic references to the cross shape reinforce, rather than dilute, its contemporary Christian symbolism. When a cross marks the place where somebody died the place [becomes] sacred because [the cross] symbolizes Jesus Christ (Chapter 9). This symbolism is at the level of conscious awareness. On a more abstract level, the cross also symbolizes the Christian or cosmic reality of heaven, earth, purgatory, and hell on the vertical axis; with earthly reality as the horizontal axis. The point of intersection, death, takes one out of one plane and into another. On this level of abstraction the cross is symbolic of both what happened and what is currently happening in the life of the deceased person. It says: s/he died here and he is now there, which is usually assumed to be purgatory. 202 Shapes other than crosses are also important, but less prevalent, at roadside sacred places. Monuments that prominently feature statues are usually straightforwardly symbolic of a heavenly personage. The Sacred Heart of Jesus is the most common, and several examples were discussed in the text. The rare, but perhaps more intriguing, monuments are those which eschew religiosity in favor of a more secular-looking memorial. Two of the examples discussed in the text are from opposite extremes of Mexico: Baja California Sur (Figure 4.2.3b), and Yucatn (Figure 10.9.2). Both feature Classical architectural shapes; simple Doric columns supporting a gabled roof in the first case, and a broken column in the latter. The choices of non-religious memorial types coincide with Edmonsons (1968) analysis of dichos, or inscriptions on trucks; which have several distinctive strata of cultural identification, first among them is the Classical. Edmonson concludes that; the truckers identify themselves with a single cultural tradition leading back to Spain, Rome, and Greece in a relatively unilinear sequence. (84) The placement of Classical architectural structures along the roadside as death memorials seems to be a parallel manifestation of a community of attitudes and opinions (81), which have remained consistent through time. These structures avoid a religious affiliation by confirming membership in the culture(s) that preceded Spain; their message is not antireligious, rather it avoids the issue by seeking out an older cultural identification. This type of memorial is particularly appropriate for a civil servant (Figure 4.2.3b) or one of the 5% of the population who do not claim Christianity as their primary religion. Both of the examples referred to above feature a broken object (tablet and pillar), symbolizing a life abruptly ended; and, through their shapes establish an association with death. One final manifestation of shape as an expressive attribute refers only to the more complex structures of nichos and shrines. With few exceptions, these buildings declare their sacredness by featuring a cross in the design or added, usually, onto the roof. Some go a step further by simulating other, easily recognizable, sacred structures through the inclusion of a faade. Figure 4.1.2a mimics California mission architecture, and Figures 7.10.3 and 10.2.7 203 simulate churches with belfries on both sides and a cross in the middle. This latter is the most frequently encountered of church-type shapes. Figure 10.2.7 also displays urns, a feature that distinguishes it as a death memorial; urns have the practical function of holding flowers, and also exemplify nineteenth-century funerary motifs (Linden 1979/80; Dethlefsen and Deetz 1966), which remain popular in Mexican cemeteries. The basic architectural elements, in addition to their shapes, also have distinctive textures and colors. Texture is the result of the building material and usually expresses permanence. Concrete and stucco, glazed tile, and metal structures exude permanence because of their ability to withstand wind, rain, and fire. A polished metal surface (Figure 4.2.2c) or a finely finished paint (Figure 4.9.6) or varnish (Figure 4.9.5) job also indicates good artisanship and attention to detail. Some textures may also symbolize wealth, or lack of it (see the discussion of Figure 4.7.3). Another aspect of texture arises where a surface is engraved, welded, or painted with an inscription. Inscriptions usually give, at the least, the vital statistics of the deceased; i.e., name, date of birth, and/or date of death. Occasionally only the persons initials or a nickname appear on a roadside memorial; this case arises where the object lacks space for more information. The most interesting, informative, and poetic inscriptions occur where a surface is specifically dedicated for the purpose of inscribing. In these cases the words generally make reference to the personal qualities of the deceased, religious beliefs, and/or grief of the survivors. All imply solidarity with the deceased, and the word choice can be very poetic, sometimes including rhyming, metonymy, metaphor, personification, simile or other rhetorical devices. Inscriptions are the most expressive aspect of memorials because of their direct use of language to convey symbolic meaning. Color is also symbolic, especially in the case of crosses. Monuments, nichos, and shrines are predominately white. Colors other than white tend toward softer, pastel shades and the choice seems a matter of an individual aesthetic values. The symbolic message seems to be that these are places meant to have a dignified beauty. One notable exception to the use of pastels is the 204 Mexican tri-color (red, white, and green), which is usually symbolic of nationalism or of the Virgin of Guadalupe. The color symbolism of crosses is inconsistent and, at times, baffling. White recalls the color of bones and pallor of the corpse, or may symbolize purity. Black signifies darkness and the silence of night; or, as the antithesis of white, may symbolize the impurity of worldliness. Blue symbolizes things of the spirit but may also, through association with the Virgin Mary, represent virginity. Crosses for men tend to be black, indicating their worldliness; except when adjacent to a pink cross, when blue indicates the male. Women, except in the previous example, usually have white crosses, and children have blue. Color symbolism does not necessarily hold where there are no contrasting colors, and these three colors represent only the most straightforward of examples. It seems the symbolic value of color is somehow muted by the individualistic nature of its usage; and color symbolism must be approached on a case-by-case basis, rather than attempting to formulate a universal code. While color symbolism may seem to be frustrating, a far richer ethnography lies in the poetic and symbolic attributes of objects associated with the roadside artifacts. 11.3: Objects Associated with Roadside Artifacts The objects that are associated with roadside sacred places are non-structural, or semifixed-feature (Rapoport 1982, 89) elements. They may be removed or replaced, and in some cases are renewed at regular intervals. These elements of the structure offer much greater latitude for personalization and the creation of a unique place. The most frequently observed objects include: flowers, wreaths, votive candles and pebbles, religious articles, statues, prints and various other depictions of heavenly personages, photographs, vehicle parts and replicas, symbols, logos, and perishables such as food, drinks, and cigarettes. Flowers, as alluded to in Chapter 3, have been associated with death for 60,000 years (Constable 1973); usually in direct connection with the corpse. In contemporary Western society, the church, home, funeral parlor, or other place associated with the funeral is bedecked in flowers 205 and wreaths; and graves are decorated with them at the funeral and regular intervals thereafter. This custom is extended to roadside death memorials, and the usual dates for renewing floral arrangements and wreaths are the date of the death, and November 1st and 2nd, the Days of the Dead (Cortez Ruiz, Oliver Vega, et al. 1996). Flowers may be fresh-cut, potted, or artificial; wreaths are always artificial and, like flowers, are either made of paper, fabric, or plastic. The choice of which flowers are used seems to be a matter of personal preference, some, like gladioli (Figure 10.3.14b) are commonly associated with funerals and are therefore symbolically connect to the death event. Marigolds ritual association with death is deeply embedded in pre-Hispanic Mexican culture, yet Green classes them among the nonrepresentational objects associated with [death occasions] (1972, 248). One could argue, however, that their presence is symbolic of a certain degree of cultural continuity that reaches beyond Christian symbolism. As with most symbolic interpretation, one could keep digging ad infinitum without ever reaching a conclusive completion. As Geertz (1973) put it: it is turtles all the way down and at some point each ethnographer must admit the intrinsic incompleteness of their work. I shall stop at personal preferences that are aesthetically pleasing, the point of flowers seems to be to make the place prettier and they accomplish that goal. Votive candles and pebbles, as discussed in section 7.1, are, or represent, prayers for the deceased. The connection of candles to prayers is certainly the conscious intent of those who leave them; a visit to any Catholic church will confirm that this custom is universally practiced within Roman Catholicism. Pebbles at roadside memorials are probably a combining of ancient custom with the Christian symbolism of the candle. The pebble is not subject to being extinguished by wind or the draft of passing vehicles, and is therefore, a practical solution to a problem inherent in the memorials location. Rocks and pebbles may also symbolize the eternal or divine (Biedermann 1989, 286), and the flame of a candle may also symbolize the Holy Spirit (129). 206 Religious articles such as: rosary beads, scapulars, medals, statues, prints and various other depictions of heavenly personages are the most commonly encountered objects associated with roadside memorials. Roadside shrines of religiosity have these, plus a separate genre of objects relating to miracles and miracle requests, the treatment of which is beyond the scope of this work. These articles are an affirmation of the religious affiliation of the survivors and, probably, of the deceased as well. Scapulars and medals are personal items, worn around the neck, and may have belonged, or are similar, to one worn by the deceased; rosary beads may also have been the property of the deceased. These items may also represent a heavenly personage (the Virgin Mary) that was a favorite of the deceased or who is being sought out to aid in the cause of delivering the deceased from purgatory. Statues, prints and other depictions of saints serve as a focal point in the directing of ones prayers for the dead. The most popular saint, by far, is the Blessed Virgin Mary; and, of the multitude of her manifestations, the Virgin of Guadalupe is dominant throughout Mexico, followed by the Virgin of San Juan de los Lagos (Northern Mexico), the Virgin of Juquilla (Oaxaca and the surrounding states) and other regional favorites. As the mother of Christ she is considered the ultimate intercessor; what son, after all, would deny the request of his mother? Her motherhood extends beyond Christ, who when dying, made her the Mother of all. She knows that mothers take special care of their weakest, sickest and neediest children. (Ball 1995, 85) The Virgins association with death, derived from her presence at the crucifixion, warrants a separate chapter in The Catholic Book of the Dead and Our Lady of Mt. Carmel is one of the most ancient and strongest of Marian devotions (90) in this regard (see Figure 4.6.3 and the interpretation in the following chapter of site CH100). Next to the Virgin Mary the most popular saint found at roadside memorials throughout Mexico is San Judas Taddeo, or St. Jude the apostle. Not to be confused with Judas Iscariot, he is traditionally identified as the brother of James and the author of the Epistle of Jude in the Bibles New Testament. St. Jude enjoys great popularity as a powerful intercessor for those in 207 desperate straits (Attwater 1995, 215); Bunson, et al. (1998) expand upon this saying that he is venerated as the patron saint of lost causes. Judes feast day, October 28, is near to the Days of the Dead (November 1 and 2). Although the feast day for Jude may be just a coincidence, his reputation for helping those in dire straits certainly makes him one to consider for helping get somebody out of purgatory. Discounting the image of Christ on crucifixes (which I consider as a uniquely Catholic type of cross), images of Jesus rank third in frequency among roadside memorials. The most popular depiction is of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, which is a representation of Christ based upon the visions of St. Margaret Mary Alacoque in 1673-4. The cult that arose around the Sacred Heart aspires to attain twelve promises resulting from a structured devotion. Among them are: sanctuary throughout life and in death and, a blessing upon places where the image of the Sacred Heart is displayed (America 1967). According to Trinitarian monotheistic belief, placing a Sacred Heart image at a death site is a direct supplication to the Supreme Being; unlike the previous examples where an intercessor is involved. Many other saints enjoy a small, usually regional, popularity; St. Francis, however, rivals St. Jude as the second most popular in northern Mexico. Although there is some confusion as to which of the forty-two saints bearing the name Francis is venerated (Nabhan 1991), the images and statues are always garbed in the brown robes of the Franciscan Order. This indicates that it is St. Francis of Assisi, the founder of the Franciscans, that is the subject of devotion. There does not seem to be any particular logic that connects the north, more than any other region, to this particular saint. Discalced Franciscans did their missionary work throughout Mexico with more or less the same zeal. Father Eusibio Kino, however, was, and remains enormously popular as the individual who brought Christianity to Sonora. Kino wore the black robe of a Jesuit and his favorite saint was, of course, St. Francis Xavier the founder of his order. Whether the particular saint being venerated is a case of mistaken identity or not, the 208 pilgrimage at Magdalena, Sonora takes place on Assisis feast day; and there is no clear symbolism attached to the St. Francis images that adorn roadside memorials in the north. The objects associated with roadside sacred places discussed up to this point, in one way or another, reflect back upon a tradition of Christian culture. The next group of items symbolically links these places with the culture of modernity and modernization in Mexico. The most prevalent of the modern objects associated with roadside memorials are those representing a vehicle; in many cases it is apparently the vehicle that was involved in the fatal accident. Figures 4.1.3 and 4.6.3e, with pieces of vehicle parts strewn about near the memorials, exemplify the most commonly encountered example of vehicle parts at a memorial site. Highways are not maintained quite so well in Mexico as in more developed countries, the roadside even less. It is not unusual; therefore, that an accident site frequently includes the debris created by the event. These bits and pieces of the vehicle are strewn about the site or gathered about the memorial, usually in a haphazard manner. 4.1.4b features a wheel and other parts of the racing motorcycle that did in its owner. This example is a case where the parts remaining from the accident were incorporated into the memorial in a way that tells the story of how the man met his end. Even without closely inspecting the site, one sees the motorcycle wheel and racing number; it is obvious to a passing motorist that a racer died in this place. Figure 4.9.6, where the nicho is made entirely of auto parts, is an anomaly in this genre. The kinds of parts used are internal engine parts that would not usually become exposed as a result of an accident. These parts were gathered up from a mechanic shop and welded together as a representation of the deceaseds affiliation with mechanical work. The symbolism here is of automobiles in general, rather than of a particular vehicle. Vehicle logos, emblems and replicas, also a common sight at roadside memorials, represent the idea (as opposed to the physical presence) of particular types of vehicles. Figure 4.6.3f displays the Chevrolet symbol, affirming that the deceased was a Chevy person. At site CH100 (Figure 4.6.3a) the nicho contains a toy Harley Davidson chopper. Harley aficionados, 209 unlike the Chevy or Ford person, are distinctive. When entering a small store with a chopper parked in front, it is immediately obvious which of the other customers owns the Harley. Riding a Harley confers membership in a cult-like in-group, and the representation of a Harley at this memorial strongly implies this persons inclusion in that group. Membership in a slightly different group is represented in Figure 4.4.3c, which displays a truck emblem in the center of a cross. Although the make of truck is unknown (it may be an old Scania design), the size of the emblem indicates that it came from a truck. In-group members, no doubt, would know immediately which brand of truck this person drove; that is, it seems, the point of these representations. Passing motorists who are members of the in-group, see not only the place where some one died, but can immediately recognize that he/she was one of us. The use of logos and symbols as identification with a group, gains a level of specificity where a corporate entity becomes involved. Figures 4.12.2, 3, and 4 show how employers and co-workers add corporate identification to a memorial. This level of symbolism not only identifies the deceased but the company or government agency; in effect, it becomes a type of advertising that says we take care of our own. Personal photographs of the deceased (e.g. Figure 4.9.6) add the ultimate degree of personalization and specific identification. These associated objects (photographs, vehicle parts and replicas, symbols, and logos) celebrate modern technology through display of its products or byproducts. Logos, especially corporate logos, are manifestations of modern marketing techniques and are consumer oriented. The presence of Chevy, Harley, and BMW symbols attests to Mexicos membership in the global economy and the culture of modernity. The final set of objects associated with roadside memorials combine pre-modern ideas about how the world works with the contemporary reality of peoples day-to-day lives. Perishable items, such as food, drinks, and cigarettes, are encountered throughout Mexico. Figures 10.3.7 and 8, for example, show bottles of Coca Cola and Sol beer left at nichos, site SN329 has packs of cigarettes, and site SN387 a package of Carnation drink mix and a bottle of 210 water, left just outside the nicho. These modern products are taken to be favorites of the deceased, and are left as an offering or a comfort to the departed spirit. The final chapter will offer a more detailed interpretation of this type of associated object, along with a generalized interpretation of roadside memorials as a phenomenon. 211 CHAPTER 12: CONCLUSION: MESTIZO CULTURE, PLACE, POETICS Hey, you there on the side of the road Broken and unspoken in a nameless no place By the streaming, screaming highway. Hey, you with the smashed and bleeding body Where do you think youre going now? All alone, away from home and fading fast, Dont you know? That there aint no place to die. 12.1: Mestizo Culture: The Poetics of Place, in Particular The idea that there are things, there are words for things, and there are ideas-behindwords-for things (Short 1991, xvi) sets the stage for interpretation of the poetic or expressive attributes of the landscape and its places. I refocus now on site CH100 (Figure 4.6.3a) as an example of a typical roadside memorial site in Mexico. The main features of this site that constitute its representative-ness are the main artifacts: a handmade nicho, i.e. one that was constructed in situ; and two crosses, each of a different material, one wood and the other metal. The implication of these artifacts, since all memorialize a single person, is that the site is accretionary; a frequently observed attribute in all regions of the study. As with all sites in this study, CH100 is nearby to the pavement of the highway; being located in the median of a divided highway it is, in this respect doubly typical. In addition to these structural and situational aspects, the site also displays a typical array of associated articles and objects. The site features an abundance of flowers, a traditional expression of grief or sorrow that, within a Eurocentric context, cuts across cultural dividing lines. Symbols of piety are also prominent, including three crosses, and three divine personages are specified as preferred benefactors. A specific method of enlisting their aid (prayer followed by lighting the candle) is implied by the presence of a votive candle. Because of the memorials roadside location it is also understood that this man did not die in a proper place or manner. He died suddenly and without the benefit of a last confession or the last rites. No matter how well he lived, he was human and is now suffering in purgatory. The 212 prayers are for his speedy release and should be directed to the appropriate benefactors. St. Jude enjoys great popularity as a powerful intercessor for those in desperate straits (Attwater 1995, 215) and, within this cultural context, is especially appropriate. The reference to Nuestra Seora del Carmen has both a direct and indirect interpretation. Being one of the innumerable manifestations of the Virgin Mary, she is the ultimate intercessor. Symbolic references to Mary (which may include the two blue crosses, since blue is commonly associated with the Virgin) have at heart both respect for motherhood and the interconnected concept of mariaismo (see Paz 1985, 85; Ehlers 1991; and Burkhart 1993 for various slants on this concept), which makes Mary the model of mothers in Hispanic culture. The specific reference to Mary as Nuestra Seora del Carmen has a less direct but equally cogent contextual symbolism. Devotion to her is connected to the discalced Carmelites, a branch of the monastic order of nuns and friars founded by Teresa of Avila. The sixteenth century Christianity that was brought to Mexico from Spain used three major models to establish the paradigm for a proper death: Christ (Richardson 1971), King Philip (Eire 1995), and St. Teresa of Avila (Eire 1995, 371-510). (Philip II, reigned over the Spanish empire from 1556-98; Teresa lived from 1515 to 1582; their influence upon religious thinking in the formative years of New Spain was substantial.) This last is particularly powerful because, in addition to her own death, ..it was commonly believed[that Teresa] had gained Philips release from purgatory in eight daysa nearly impossible feat[since] anyone could easily discern that he deserved a long stay in purgatory. (371) Clearly, since Teresa was a devoted member of the Carmelite order, her power as an intercessor was due to her benefactor, Our Lady of Mt. Carmel. The average Mexican may not be aware of this depth of detail and may use this particular image because everyone knows the Seora del Carmen is a good one for death, or, quite simply, because it is a pretty picture. In the end, how each observer interprets the symbolism is less important than its existence. That the connection, and subsequent practice, remains intact into the 21st century, and is inherently Medieval is the more important point. 213 The final image is of Jesus Christ, who serves a dual role in this complex. As the Son in Trinitarian Monotheism, He is the personage to whom the others address their supplications; He has the power to deliver a suffering soul into heaven. Also, as stated above, He is the primary model of a proper death and may, therefore, be sympathetic toward one who missed the opportunity to die properly. The nicho complex gains yet a different type of specificity with the symbols of modernity, the photo of the deceased and the toy Harley. The message of the complex may be read as: Here died Seor Parra G. (this one here in the photo, the one that rode a Harley), pray to Our Lady of Mt. Carmel, St. Jude, and Our Lord and light a candle for him that he may live forever among the saints in heaven. This interpretation reaches deep into the history of the particular aspect of Mexican culture, i.e. religion, which is prominently displayed. Minute details like the candle, reveal that ritual behavior is suggested. Taking into account where the display occurs (the roadside) explains why the ritual is necessary. Someone died, suddenly and unexpectedly, in this place; without the benefit of proper or sacramental preparation and, as a consequence, that persons soul, spirit, shade, or ghost may not yet be at rest in its proper place. The prayers, candle, photograph, flowers, crosses, and images of sacred personages all serve a dual communicative capacity. They aid or enhance communication between the family, friends or other survivors who visit the memorial and the heavenly personalities they address seeking intercession on behalf of the deceased. They also communicate with passersby; motorists see the structures and symbols, recognize their intent, and, as I frequently observed, may even bless themselves as they pass. This action may be interpreted as a form of prayer in behalf of the anonymous soul who is associated with this particular location. There may also be other communicative purposes for items left at roadside memorials. Occasionally throughout the text, articles associated with a site or artifact such as drinks, food items, and cigarettes are described (See the Appendices for sites: GT08, SN329, and 214 OX335; and BN07 at which cigarettes were noted, and SN387, SN445, SN527, SA127, NL41, OX22, OX25, and OX335 where drinks are noted.). These sites are atypical and may represent an extreme of traditional culture that, may or may not, be consciously reproducing medieval ideas on the contemporary landscape. These sites mimic the custom of leaving ofrendas, or offerings, at an altar in ones home for the deceased during the Days of the Dead when the dead return from the hereafter to visit their relatives (Cortez Ruiz, Oliver Vega, et al. 1996, 19) making their way to their earthly homes via the cemetery. (See Figure 12.1: note the Carnation instant drink mix, the bottle of water, and Coke can. You or I could combine the mix and the water in the can to make a refreshing drink, possibly a favorite of the deceased.) Many scholars interpret this complex ritual as worship of the dead (7) thereby connecting contemporary culture with preHispanic customs that supposedly go back to at least 1800 B.C. (7). Although this may be splitting hairs, I believe that worship is a bit strong in describing contemporary relationships with the dead in Mexico. As Geary (1994) points out: ancestors [who had] enjoyed divine or quasi-divine veneration, became an age class that continued to have a role and to exercise rights (36) in newly Christianized, European culture. There is no reason to believe that the same process did not occur in Mexico, and that this custom is simply a communication from one age group in a family to another. This is more than being respectful to ones elders (so to speak) it has pragmatic purposes. Estebans family (see section 4.4) sought out a more distant relative to get official permission to build a shrine where his cousin died; they used their contacts to influence the outcome of their desires, they greased the wheels of bureaucracy. The same strategy might be used when communicating with dead members of ones family, extended family, or community. Perhaps grandfather or grandmother knows somebody who knows somebody up in heaven; it would be wise to be on their good side when ones own time comes. So offerings during the Days of the Dead are a way of communicating to the dead, they say: Hey abuelo y abuelita (Grandpa and Grandma) we still love you and care about you, see weve even put out all your favorite foods! 215 Figure 12.1: Site SN387, an example of an ofrenda at a small nicho. But what about at a roadside memorial, is it the same communication? Possibly, but it may also specifically address the conditions of the death. The communication is still a respectful manipulation of the dead by the living, but in the case of sudden, premature death another element is added. Occasionally the dead do not automatically join the world of the dead (Ctedra 1988, 253); this is true of, above all the ill-fated dead those who died violent deaths (Schmitt 1998, 12). These spirits have an especially rough time of it. If one can imagine: one moment you are driving along, maybe listening to some music, maybe in a hurry to get somewhere and then a split-second later you are without a body but unaware of that fact, dead but still walking about. In a desperate state of confusion, the dead are in the wrong place. Being out of place (Cresswell 1996) they jeopardize their future well-being and that of the living. Their presence, as disembodied spirits, may inconvenience those living nearby (Ctedra 1988, 253), requiring intervention from a saint (Weckmann 1992, 271-2), or, according to the Mendicant preachers (who were in charge of the Christian missionary work in Mexico), may necessitate special prayers, almsgiving and (paid) masses to placate and send them on the way to their proper place (Schmitt 1998, 133-40). What better way to avoid all these problems and inform them, than by laying out their favorite drinks, foods, and smokes? They cannot partake of them, since they no longer have a body. This, possibly as much as the memorial itself, would seem to get the spirit, ghost, or soul back on the right track and off to its proper place. Ghosts, either phantasms or souls in torment according to Weckmann, have aroused peoples imaginations from time immemorial: these beliefs have always existed in Mexico (1992, 272). 216 This interpretation, based upon the poetics of various places encountered during fieldwork and the concepts explored in Chapter 5, goes a long way toward accounting for why these places exist, as opposed to not existing at all. Culture, informed by religion, enables a people to act with confidence. We do things this way because it has always been so. (Tuan 1989, 172) With the sure knowledge that these places are where their loved ones souls left their bodies, under perilous conditions, people do what they have seen done a thousand times before. They make the place sacred with symbols, religious icons, poetic epitaphs, and their own actions. They pray to the saints, light candles, and perhaps ask a priest to come bless the place as Estebans family did for his cousin (see section 4.4); they bring flowers, clean and maintain the place and make it special. Religion and peoples conceptualization of how the cosmos works is not all that is going on at these sites. As Oliver Vega states: we [Mexicans] suffer anxiety in the face of death, the same as any other human being (Cortez Ruiz, Oliver Vega, et al.1996, 17). The power invested in these roadside memorials does not originate in culture, religion or peoples conception of reality; it comes from the anxieties, fears, anger, confusion, and sorrow of individual human beings. The shock of grief felt by a young woman who just lost her 22 year-old husband and father of their child (site YC13, Figure 10.9.3), a man who just lost his wife and six children (site SN508, Figure 4.3.4), the parents whose 4 year-old daughter was suddenly killed (site BN134, Figure 4.1.4a), or the children and grandchildren whose abuelos died in a car wreck (site BS108, Figure 4.2.7) are an emotional force which strains to be loosed. This emotional force is released through fissures in societal norms or established cultural channels. In Mexico, popular Catholicism provides a channel wherein peoples ethos is rendered intellectually reasonable by being shown to represent a way of life ideally adapted to the actual state of affairs [their] worldview describes, while the worldview is rendered emotionally convincing by being presented as an image of an actual state of affairs peculiarly well-arranged to accommodate such a way of life. (Geertz 1973, 89-90) The action of constructing a roadside 217 memorial in these circumstances is completely rational within the system of reasoning that religion provides. Furthermore, it allows this energy or force to be expended within a network or community of similarly affected people. Throughout this text, and the data in the Appendices, one reads inscriptions from family and friends, godparents, co-workers, employers, and students of the deceased. Often, where multiple deaths occurred, groups of groups join together to construct a memorial. This is the real work of community, where somebody breaks a sweat, others stand by and watch, but all are involved in the action of mourning (see Chapter 9). My personal experience confirms the utility of the actions of the participants in this study and brought me to a point of understanding askance; the phenomenon of one whose attention [is] fixed elsewhere (Beer 1996, 2) yet experiences learning or understanding from some seemingly unrelated field of influence. In this case, the engaged but objective intellectual struggled through personal grief, and did not realize his predicament until well after the fact. The observer observed all but himself. In retrospect, I see that my emotions had ran rampant throughout the first four months of the field research; baffling, and exhausting me to the edge of physical and emotional collapse. Even the conscious awareness of deep sadness on Fathers Day was not enough to deflect the rigid focus of my attention. After the fact, when the observing I was safely back in my accustomed environment, it finally dawned upon the unfazed gazer that he had experienced the gut wrenching emotions of grief while attempting to understand the actions of others in a similar situation. Nevertheless, the experience at the Guadalupe shrine (described in Chapter 6) significantly eased the emotional pressure experienced in the first three weeks of the fieldwork. In that respect, it had the same desired result of the actions of the other participants in this study. There are certainly other significant differences: their grief came as a sudden jolt to them and was worked out within a community of likeminded people, mine was expected, came upon me slowly, and was worked out alone. Their action was reasonable within their cultural context; mine was 218 irrational within my cultural context, but reasonable in theirs. Yet, I am convinced that I would not have been able to complete three more months of fieldwork without the intuitive and spontaneous action I took that day. However, that is but a part of the value of my experiences surrounding this research. The combined impact first, of having lived the experience, then of re-living it through writing, is an exercising and practice of the empathetic imagination, by which I mean the ability not only to see but to live and feel from another persons standpoint. (Tuan 1986, 12) I have created a slight fissure in the structure of this text where you can appropriate other peoples experiences for [your] own. By writing my own experience, and relating close encounters with others, I have used myself as a vehicle and attempted to place you in a position to see with such vividness that it is as though it has happened to [you] (12); provided youve had the will and temperament to do so. The poetics of the artifacts and sites related in this work reveal a strong emotional force, channeled through religious/cultural ideas about the nature of existence, and let loose at or near the location where someone died in a vehicle accident. The evidence suggests, provided that the various titles of the commemorated dead can be assumed to reflect the status of the survivors, that this phenomenon cuts across educational, economic, and status boundaries. One event, one place at a time, the landscape of the modern roadways of Mexico have been transformed, by a broad cross-section of society, into a religious and commemorative monument to the medieval values that are still a working part of their daily lives. The example of site SN387 presents but one end of a broad spectrum of the roadside memorials we have observed in this text. Site BS107 (see Figures 4.2.5a and b) places the emphasis on the modern rather than the traditional, medieval, or pre-modern. Here the traditional broken pillar of 19th century cemeteries (see Figure 10.9.2) is re-interpreted in a stylized, modernistic design. The 14 broken pillars (representing 14 people who died suddenly and tragically) dominate the memorial and the plain Roman cross in the background, is almost an 219 after thought. This memorial also explodes the idea of immediate action satisfying the needs of the grief-stricken; as discussed in section 4.2, this memorial was built 19 years after the deaths occurred. It does, however, confirm the idea of on-going community action in these events, since the memorial was the culmination of efforts from five ejidos. Here, modernity and community are foregrounded, religion and emotions and backgrounded. We find variations on this same choice in a minority of memorials throughout Mexico, with stylized crosses, secular monuments, and, to a lesser (and more contestable) degree, with prefabricated, granito memorials. I hesitate to label the poetics of any roadside memorial as postmodern; the will to whimsy, a sense of playfulness, is inappropriate in this context. Yet elements of a certain postmodern pastiche may be observed from time-to-time. Site BS108, only a mile from the previous site (see Figures 4.2.6a and b), is a good example of an eclectic assemblage that might be viewed as postmodern. a) Gravestone photo/plaque, b) Michelangelos David Figure 12.2: Eclectic aspects of Site BS108 When viewed closely, the hodgepodge at this site is nearly a parody of pastiche. Like almost all roadside memorials, this one prominently displays symbols of Catholicism; a Virgin of Guadalupe plaque to the left of the main nicho, and a crucifix as the central object above the nicho. Figure 12.2a (above) magnifies the photo/plaque that is directly above the crucifix. This type of memorial plaque achieved popularity in U.S. cemeteries in the 1980s, but I did not observe any in my several visits to cemeteries in Mexico. The plaque memorializes Rosa and 220 Manuel Avendao with both words and an image of the elderly couple embracing; and indicates a strong awareness of, and connection to, cultural practices regarding death in the U.S. The yard ornament-type reproduction of Michelangelos David brings a pre-Christian religious personality and Renaissance art into the mix, along with Puritanical tastes regarding the naked human body. David, as a historical figure, has a nebulous connection to Christianity, since Christ is claimed to have been a descendant of David; and the statues creation (1504) played upon that connection but portrayed the youthful hero in a style that is representative of Renaissance humanism. While the citizenry of Florence was proud to display the statue in its central plaza, 500 years later a skirt is required to cover its representation of male genitals. The simple explanation for this is that a naked male figure is deemed inappropriate at a death memorial. Yet the choice of images reflects the tastes of the survivors, and arguably, the deceased. This mixing of genres, spanning three millennia and reaching deep into Judeo-Christian history, is an extreme example of an otherwise ordinary occurrence at roadside memorials in Mexico. These examples of the particular are examples of culture in action. Mexican culture is not enfeebled [by having come] adrift from its roots in religion (Eagleton 2000, 67) like more modernized nations. In Mexico, religion is [still] the single most powerful ideological force [in their] history (68); a force which forges a relation between ones most intimate experience and the most fundamental questions of existence. (40) Viewed from afar, from the non-specific perspective of the theoretician, these observations ring true; yet, when viewed more closely, with specific examples at hand, a certain complexity appends them. How might one view these artifacts and sites from a distant perspective, and retain the poetic attributes that are so expressive when they are up close and personal? 12.2: Mestizo Culture: The Poetics of Place, in General The ideas and attitudes, values and beliefs, that roadside sacred places in Mexico exhibit, through the linguistic and non-linguistic symbols they display, are a conscious action of 221 emotionally motivated individuals to communicate our culture. The nature of Mexican culture has long been described as mixed, hybrid, or mestizo; but usually assumes a pre-determined starting point when mixing began, i.e. 1519, the meeting of Spanish and indigenous peoples. The complex, race-oriented, vocabulary developed by the Spanish conquerors, adopted by popular culture, and re-produced in the academic literature, sorts and classifies this mixing of people (see Whitten and Coor 1999 and Crowley and Griffin 1989 for examples of this vocabulary). While this pigeonholing of people may help us make sense of the world in some ways, it also creates an us and them. Forging a distinct, yet hybrid, us requires a national narrative, which, in the case of Mexico, is characterized by ambivalence. Octavio Paz (1985) described Mexican culture as being derived from a violent, conquering father (Cortez) and Doa Marina, or Malinche, an ambivalent character; victim and traitor, whore and mother to a bitter nation filled with self-loathing and disgust. According to Paz the Mexican people have not forgiven La Malinche for her betrayal (86) and do not want to be either an Indian or a Spaniard. Nor [do they] want to be descended from them.(87) Whatever else Malinche was (or was not) she was a survivor who adapted to change, and truly the mother of the Mexican nation; and this ethnicized view of culture hints at more contemporary conceptualizations of Mexican culture. Rather than centering the view of culture on two parent cultures Garca Canclini accepts that for being the land of pastiche and bricolage, where many periods and aesthetics are cited, we have had the pride of being postmodern for centuries, and in a unique way. (1995, 6) His view for contemporary Mexican culture is not a struggle of self-identity, a search for who I am; it is instead a struggle between elite, popular, and mass culture where all are changed through the process of the struggle. The players are no longer that European part of me and that Indian part of me; they are traditional, modern and postmodern culture. And just as the struggle of the past resulted in hybrid place(s), the contemporary struggle is played out in space and place. 222 12.3: Mestizo Place Mestizo Culture, as discussed in Chapter 8, is always already mixed or hybrid. The idea that one can start from the present moment and work backwards, to some distant point in the past, and discover origins of purity seems to be an obsession in Western culture. Rosaldo (1995) acknowledges his personal vexation that it is hybridity all the way down (xv). And points out that, among Latin American authors, distinctions between the modern and traditional are used as organizing assumptions (e.g. Garca Canclini 1993, 1995); resolving a tension between them is not a problem to be solved, it is, instead, the starting point of discussion. Hybridity is, in other words, a fundamental aspect of culture in Mexico and all of Latin America. As Richardson points out: being-in-a-particular-culture means being-in-a-particular-place. (1984, 64) This particular, Mexican culture is fundamentally mixed, these particular places where culture comes about therefore, are fundamentally mixed, or Mestizo Places. The human landscape that unfolds at the side of the highway, is a prototypically modern elongated place (Sack 1997, 33) of thinned out meaning (9); the type of generic place that Aug refers to as non-places. (1995, 34) The power, or force, behind them is modern rationality and all of the economic and political structuring that comes along with modernity; roads are, in fact, referred to as infrastructure. They are an integral part of national and global economic participation, the dispersal of goods and services, and the movement of human resources. Highways are not interesting places. Any particular square meter of highway is pretty much the same as any other. Social intercourse does not usually take place there unless the participants are contained within a vehicle; in which case that social interaction would be considered as having occurred in the car or on the bus. The east-bound lane of the I-10 at mile 237, for example, is not a good place to have dinner with the family, a pickup game of soccer or poker, or for a moonlit stroll. These are absurdities; we only belong there if we are participating in the movement for which the highway was designed. 223 In Mexico, as everywhere, all is well as long as everyone keeps moving; it is the sudden and unexpected stop that begins to transform the landscape and the reality of the highway. There is no question that most folks will quite happily engage and use the beneficial aspects of modernity in the contemporary world, as long as it works in ones behalf. That fatal, sudden stop ends modernity working in ones behalf for the group of people who lost a loved one. The modern reality has no answer for them, no panacea for the emotional distress of losing a family member or an entire family; these survivors have a crisis on their hands and need to act, the sooner the better. Their actions, as we have seen throughout this text, creates a new and hybrid, or Mestizo Place where no place was previously envisioned. The repetition of this dramatic sequence of events: participation in modernity, exiting modernity, creation of place; is repeated thousands of times across the length and breadth of Mexico. The resulting roadscape of states, regions, and nation is neither modern nor traditional, nor is it both modern and traditional. Each individual place is always already mixed, some with a dash more of this or that, but as a distinct place they all have a hybrid identity. The Mexican landscape of roadside sacred places is a heterotopia capable of juxtaposing in a single real place several spaces, several sites that are in themselves incompatible. (Foucault 1986,25) It is a landscape of contemporaneous worlds (Aug 1994), of opposing versions of reality. Having traveled to the very end of an experience, to the point beyond which no human being can go (Bachelard 1964, 220), individuals poetically separate the region of the same from the region of the other (222) and transform a modern space into a Mestizo place. The usual problem of changing from a smaller-to-larger analytic scale is the loss of detail in aggregated data. While this study does not rely on quantitative, statistical analysis, the problem remains the same in having lost the specific, individual participants. In Mexico and Latin America, it is the individual person who inhabits multiple realities, which may be entered and exited at will (see e.g. Garca Canclini 1993, 1995). At the scale of the individual site or artifact, the emotions felt by individuals empower them to exit modern reality, and enter the traditional 224 reality that has answers for the crisis they are experiencing. The larger-scaled abstractions have, and admit to, no reality beyond that which is bestowed upon them by the originators and perpetuators of their existence. At the state, region, and national scales, these places are resistant adaptations (Radding 1997, 249) that both accommodate and oppose the dominant ideology; a survival strategy that is at least as old as the conquest. On these scales this is a geography of resistance. The momentum of social movement is away from traditional culture and toward modern or hyper-modern culture. The combined emotional force of tens of thousands of places moves in direct opposition to the hegemonic force, in favor of Dodgshons inertia metaphor. These places are further mestizo-ized by modernity, a closed, single reality system, that can only be resisted from within, and therefore on the larger scale. As individual places, created by individuals acting in multiple realities, they do not resist a reality in which their existence is predominately within a separate reality. Therein lies the thoroughly modern vexation with hybridity all the way down and other aspects of Latin American culture (e.g. the literary genre magic realism), where multiple realities are an accepted, and normal aspect of individual peoples everyday life. 12.4: Mestizo Poetics The text of this dissertation has tracked along three different lines of communication. Words or language is, in our time and culture, the expected or most common mode of putting ideas out in front of others. Language, when used with fluency, can be quite concise about what it is meaning to express; yet, it may also leave one with a sense of emptiness or confusion when it equivocates or is nebulous. Words as text are contestable because description, explanation and interpretation come from the point of view of one particular person. Words and numbers in tabular form, therefore, supplement words as text. The tables are an accurate journal of the authors experience of doing the fieldwork upon which this research is based. They rearrange the experience to reflect the political geographic structure of Mexico but, nevertheless, bring forward to the reader the reality of what is where. The use of an empirical means of communication does 225 not eliminate contestability, but it does present an unvarnished version of the viewing moment. This is further enhanced with the presentation of 226 images, representations of 203 of the 6891sites (~3%) that are described in the tables. If a picture is truly worth a thousand words, then these images, when viewed via the supplemental CD-ROM, constitute two more volumes. These are especially valuable because they allow you, the reading observer, to glimpse what the author saw and provide your own description, explanation, and interpretation. Photos go a long way in the effort to communicate but as Lutz and Collins (1991) point out; somebody aims the camera, selects the field of view, and in the end chooses which photographs (of 1200 in this case) to present. This text, as a whole and as a communicative effort, is a triangulation that re-presents the landscape as text. The purpose of my approach is to reduce the authorial bias as much as possible, allow the reader to create an experience that is both unique to the individual and true to my own, and to present a disciplined vision (Smith and Foote 1994, 28) that maximizes the readers opportunity to navigate the terrain of object and perspective. Lacking the writing skills of the great novelists, I have used an analog of the method used by navigators, surveyors, and artists to aid in gaining multiple perspectives on Mexicos roadside sacred places. This method of presentation, as explained above, contains its own logic that is explainable within the context of academic discourse in the early 21st century. Simultaneously, the text is subversive; the I who sees and relates is also an I who is seen and related. Subject and object are not consistent throughout the text, nor is knowledge. In some chapters material is presented as if I know something, in others the material is more on the order of Im not sure I really know what went on here but this is what I think happened; you tell me. The text also bounces around from topic to topic across an array of seemingly unrelated intellectual compartments; just where a reader is settled in and accustomed to one thing, it changes. Im sorry, but Im not sorry. It could have been worse. I didnt have to use chapters, or even punctuation. I conformed, to a degree, because I wanted you with me all the way to here. 226 The text attempted, doing my humble best, to mimic the reality that I observed and participated in; nothing is clearly and cleanly this or that on the road in Mexico. It is always more-or-less a poetic landscape with multiple and contradictory messages. If this conclusion fails to conclude, it is because the multiple realities of Mexico neither conclude nor resolve themselves into some brilliant Ah-ha that makes it all understandable. And probably (hopefully) never will. 12.5: A Final Note on Experiential Knowledge and Epistemic Humility Having concluded that concluding might be impossible; I have tied all but one of the various strands of this text together (although whether the knot is a granny or a Gordian is debatable). The entry into this project was through the door of epistemic humility, simply put, a knowing that I dont know (see e.g. Bowlin and Stromberg 1997; Ray 2000). This leads to the question: Has personal experience significantly affected knowledge, or the pursuit of it, in this work? I know, or perhaps feel is the better word, that my understanding of the memorial-makers was taken to the level of sympathy (see Planalp 1999, 216); but has that been transferred into, or transposed onto a text that increases understanding for one and all? I dont know. But I do know that it opened avenues of interrogation that were previously not considered. It broadened the search for theories, previous research, and points of view that were not part of the original plan, and took us into areas that are far a field of the nice, simple, little project of my dissertation dreams. I cannot imagine that personal experience closed my mind to any area that would have significantly influenced this work, but then, I am the author and we all have blind spots. I saw only what I could see, and if what you saw was different then everybody wins; for that is the purpose of the search for knowledge. In the final analysis the answer, if there is one, is simply this: for each of us, for all people everywhere, the side of a road, away from family and loved ones, alone and lying in the dirt or on the pavement, is no place to die. 227 REFERENCES America, C. U. o., Ed. (1967). New Catholic Encyclopedia. New York, McGraw-Hill. Arendt, H. (1958). The Human Condition. Chicago & London, The University of Chicago Press. Aries, P. (1974). Western Attitudes Toward Death: From the Middle Ages to the Present. Baltimore, The Johns Hopkins University Press. Aries, P. (1981). The Hour of Our Death. New York & Oxford, Oxford University Press. Arreola, D. D. (1981). 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National Geographic 196(2): 6-33. 248 NO PLACE TO DIE: THE POETICS OF ROADSIDE SACRED PLACES IN MEXICO VOLUME II A Dissertation Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in The Department of Geography and Anthropology by Daniel Raymond Weir B.A., San Diego State University, 1995 M.A., San Diego State University, 1997 May 2002 APPENDIX A NORTHERN MEXICO DATA TABLES The following conventions are used in the data tables in Appendix A, B, and C. The first column is the number of the site (waypoints usually begin with the lower case letter w or b to indicate a waypoint or boundary); all other site numbers begin with the two letter state abbreviation, (which is also used in Figure 4.01, the state location map) followed by a number. Column 2 identifies what artifact(s) are associated with that site, column 3 marks the location of the site, usually to the nearest mile, in relation to the starting point of the particular transect through that state. Column 4 gives the route number (usually a Federal Highway) and the direction that I traveled, and column 5 gives the sites aspect in relation to the pavement (i.e.: n, e, s, and w for the cardinal directions or m for the central median of a divided highway). The tables, along with the few sites that are described in the text, apprise the reader of what is where on the state, site and artifact scales. 249 Table A4.1: Baja California Norte Site# Description wB45 SN/BN state boundary/ transect B4, cont. BN01 Blue, 1x4, wood cross BN02 White wood cross w/ clover tips & red inscription BN03 White concrete cross next to a bridge abutment BN04 White wood cross & a slate-stone painted w/ Good Shepard BN05 Light blue metal outline-cross w/ spear-point tips Rte Mile Dir Asp 0 2W 0.6 1.2 2.3 3 4.8 2W s 2W s 2W n 2W s 2W n 2W n BN06 White metal outline-cross, wreath 5.1 White granito, 1m sq x 2m tall nicho, w/ cross centered atop a flat-roofed 3tiered facade, black wrought iron & glass door; inside is a milk carton w/ wilted flowers & a can of Tecate. Inscription; Jose Hernandez Cruz, 22-076.5 BN07 37/1-2-83. Has fresh flowers. 2W n BN08 White metal cross w/ filigrees & scroll; 50m W of 07 6.6 2W n 3m sq x 2m tall, white concrete nicho w/ light blue tile accents, flat roofed w/ 4-step facade, 2 belfries & 3 crosses atop. Black, locked, WI gate. Inside; large (4ft tall) statue of the Virgin of Guadalupe (NSGuad) slightly to the left, 3ft tall statue of a crowned Virgin dressed in blue, crucifix centered on rear wall, prints of NSGuad, San Martin de Porres, & a Virgin & Child. 10.2 2W s BN09 There are 3 bouquets & 6 votive candles. BN10 2 white metal crosses, both w/ fresh wreath BN11 2 black metal crosses w/ scrolls, white inscriptions and red wreaths BN12 Black metal cross BN13 Light blue cross on concrete pedestal BN14 White metal cross w/ filigrees & scroll 11 2W s 11.5 2W n 13.4 2W n 13.4 2W s 13.9 2W s 2W n BN15 White granito nicho & white metal cross atop; 'R.C.H.' 14.6 White granito, 2ft tall nicho w/ Maltese cross atop; 19-4-80, Franco Javier Glez.; Para el mundo has muerto, pero en el corozon de tu novia y de quienes te quisieron segurias viviendo There are plastic rosary beads hanging from cross &several floral bouquets. This is on the edge of a cotton field &the 14.7 BN16 farmer plows around it. Arch-roofed, 1m sq x 1m tall, gray concrete nicho w/ facade, cross atop BN17 front; NSGuad statue & 3 candles inside the padlocked door. 15.1 BN18 White granito nicho, 1m tall, w/ cross; enclosed in a fence 16.7 BN19 White granito nicho w/ cross broken-off, faces parallel & was moved BN20 White granito nicho w/3 white crosses & 2 light blue metal crosses BN21 White granito cross on pedestal, wreath BN22 Adobe, gable-roof nicho w/ 2 white metal cross w/ filigrees atop BN23 White granito w/ cross broken-off BN24 White metal cross BN25 2 blue wood, 1x2 crosses w/ center scrolls BN26 White concrete cross 2W n 2W n 2W s 17.4 2W n 21.4 2W s 21.9 2W s 22.7 2W n 23.3 2W s 23.4 2W s 23.5 2W n 23.7 2W s 250 BN27 White metal outline-cross w/ scroll & wreath BN28 White granito nicho and 2 concrete crosses BN29 3 black metal crosses w/ filigrees on a concrete pedestal 24.5 2W n 24.7 2W s 24.9 2W s BN30 Wedge-type monument 25.1 2W n Brick, flat-roof w/ rear 6-step facade, built around a white metal outline cross w/ pointed tips. Marzo 20 de 1987, Aqui fallacio Arturo Balderes Bueno[?] BN31 a la edad de 30 anos, DEP 25.5 2W n White granito cross, 2m tall, inscr; Everardo Baretta Perez, aug 7-1965/jul 23-1988, recuerdo de sus papas, esposa, hijos y hermanos; votive candle & BN32 wreath 25.7 2W n BN33 Brick gable-roofed nicho w/ white metal cross atop rear BN34 White metal outline-cross w/ wreath BN35 4 identical white metal crosses on a pedestal, w/ filigrees & scrolls BN36 White metal cross on a box nicho BN37 White metal cross; 20m W of 36 BN38 2 white granito nichos w/ cross atop both BN39 3 white metal crosses w/ scrolls & wreaths BN40 Red metal outline-cross w/ wreath on pedestal; faces parallel BN41 Green granito nicho w/ wreath; on E outskirts of Mexicali BN42 White granito nicho, 2m tall, cross atop w/ flowers; WI fence BN43 White metal cross w/ filigrees & scroll; wreath BN44 Adobe nicho w/ 3-step facade & white metal centered atop BN45 White concrete cross BN46 White metal cross w/wreath BN47 White granito nicho w/ Maltese-style cross atop, 1.5m tall BN48 2 black metal crosses w/ scrolls & wreath 26.2 2W s 27.1 2W n 27.7 2W n 27.9 2W s 28 2W s 28.4 2W s 28.7 2W n 29.6 2W n 30 2W n 33.2 2W n 38.5 2W m 39.2 2W n 39.6 2W n 46.8 2W n 47.1 2W n 47.4 2W n BN49 White granito nicho 47.9 2W n Gray metal cross w/ scroll; it & the concrete foundation, was lifted & set to BN50 the side 48.9 2W s Blue concrete nicho, 3-tiered w/ light blue pipe cross atop rear, wreath; faces BN51 away from road 49.5 2W s BN52 White metal outline-cross w/ scroll; "Joven" BN53 Black metal cross w/ wreath BN54 White metal cross w/ scroll BN55 White metal cross w/ scroll BN56 White granito nicho w/ centered cross BN57 White metal cross w/scroll & wreath BN58 2 black metal crosses w/ scrolls BN59 White metal cross w/ scroll & red roses BN60 White granito nicho w/ cross atop BN61 Black metal cross w/ scroll 251 52.8 2W n 53.1 2W n 53.4 2W s 53.5 2W n 53.7 2W s 53.8 2W n 54 2W n 55.1 2W s 55.7 2W s 56.6 2W s BN62 White metal cross w/ filigrees & scroll BN63 Up on a road-cut; white metal cross w/scroll BN64 2 white metal crosses, 1 w/ scroll & 1 larger than other BN65 Green metal cross w/ filigrees & scroll BN66 Tan metal cross w/ scroll & pointed tips BN67 Brick, arch-roofed nicho, 1m cubed, under construction BN68 White granito cross w/ 2 urns & pedestal BN69 White metal cross w/ scroll; buried up to just below the scroll BN70 White granito nicho w/ cross atop; obscured w/ 2 or 3 wreaths BN71 White metal cross w/ scroll & wreath BN72 White metal cross, wreath 57 59 2W s 2W s 57.3 2W s 59.5 2W s 59.8 2W s 60.4 2W n 64.6 2W n 65.8 2W m 66.9 2W s 68.4 2W n 69 2W m BN73 Very large rock painting of NSGuad, about 100m off road 75.6 2W 2.5m cubed blue & white block, flat roof shrine w/ gabled front facade & metal cross centered atop. The front is WI & has WI & glass door w/ a doorknob. The inside is tiled, the central figure is NSGuad, tiled into the rear wall; there is also a print to the right & 1.5ft tall statue of her, also a print & statue of St. Jude, a small bust of NSGuad, a Sacred Heart statue & Mary Sacred Heart w/ baby Jesus print. There are 10 bouquets of imitation flowers, 25 votive candles [10 are lit], photos, a large pile of hand-written notes and a 77.9 2W n BN74 mop. There is no place to leave a donation. Off the road 100M behind 74; a white metal cross at the base of a cliff w/ BN75 wreath. Great view! 77.9 2W n BN76 Green & yellow metal cross w/ scroll; "M.A.P." BN77 Small brick nicho w/ white metal cross w/filigrees atop rear BN78 Black metal cross w/filigrees, scroll, pedestal & blue & white wreath BN79 3 tan concrete crosses, identical BN80 Black metal cross w/red & white wreath; 1400m altitude BN81 White metal cross w/ filigrees & scroll BN82 White metal outline-cross w/ scroll & wreath 80.4 2W n 86.2 2W n 87.4 2W n 87.7 2W n 89.4 2W s 90.1 2W n 90.7 2W n BN83 On a hard curve; black metal cross w/filigrees & scroll 91.1 2W n Down in a gully; 1 old white metal outline-type w/ filigrees & scroll, and a white metal w/ filigrees & scroll together in the foreground, these are hard to see. Behind are a wood cross with center scroll, a tan metal cross, 2 identical black metal crosses, and a third black metal cross. The last three appear to be the most recent, there are auto parts behind the last of the black crosses; and 91.2 2W n BN84 4 of the 5 have fresh wreaths on them. BN85 Black metal outline-cross w/ filigrees & scroll BN86 Black pipe-cross w/ scroll, appears to be fairly new BN87 Black metal cross and white metal cross BN88 White metal cross w/ filigrees, scroll & red inscription BN89 White wood or metal cross BN90 Up on a road-cut; white metal cross w/wreath on a concrete pedestal 91.6 2W n 91.7 2W n 93.3 2W n 93.6 2W n 96.7 2W s 97.1 2W s 252 BN91 2 identical white metal crosses w/ spear tips, scrolls & filigrees BN92 Black metal outline-cross w/ scroll & wreath; "Jorge" BN93 Metal box-nicho and white metal cross BN94 Wedge-shaped marble monument w/corporate logo; 50m W of 93 BN95 White metal cross; 50m W of 94 BN96 Black metal cross w/ scroll BN97 White granito cross on 3-tiered pedestal; "Ramon" BN98 White metal cross w/ pointed tips & a white concrete cross BN99 Black metal cross BN100 Black metal cross 98.1 2W s 98.8 2W n 100 2W n 100 2W n 100 2W n 102.2 2W s 102.6 2W s 102.9 2W n 102.9 2W s 103.1 2W n BN101 White concrete nicho, w/ white metal cross inside 103.2 2W n White granito nicho w/ 2 urns & open-book, inscription is worn away. There BN102 is an angel holding a cross and a black WI gate w/ broken glass 104.8 2W n BN103 Blue metal cross, and an old 2x4 wood cross 104.9 2W n Large white wood, 4x6 lumber cross, w/metal & glass nicho box nailed to the crux, there is a paint bucket at the foot of the cross and it is surrounded by a ring of stones. Nicho is 1ft cubed, has 3 votives inside. A metal plate at the top of the vertical member with; Miguel Cordova, Miguelon, 27-10104.9 2W n BN104 1991, QPD welded onto it. BN105 White granito, arch-roofed nicho, blue rear wall, white cross inside BN106 White tile nicho, 1m cubed, gable-roof, open-faced BN107 White 2x4 wood cross w/ center scroll BN108 White concrete nicho, 8" tall, & white concrete cross w/ wreath, 1.5m tall BN109 Large wood cross, 1.5m tall BN110 Black metal cross w/ spear tips & scroll BN111 White stucco shrine, flat-roofed w/ facade, 1.5m cubed BN112 Black metal cross BN113 White metal cross BN114 White metal cross w/ filigrees & scroll on blue pedestal, 1m tall BN115 Brown wood cross 2x4 w/ center scroll BN116 2 white metal crosses; 1 w/filigrees, both w/scrolls; on a road-cut bank BN117 Green metal outline-cross w/ filigrees, scroll & pointed tips wBN06 Junction 2W/3S @ Tecate; end transect B4, beginP2 BN118 White metal outline-cross w/ scroll BN119 White concrete cross 2 identical open-faced, gable-roofed, nichos w/ black metal crosses inside; BN120 "Arturo" & "Maria" BN121 3 identical black metal crosses w/scrolls & wreaths on a pedestal BN122 Wood, 1x4 lumber, cross BN123 Black metal cross & smaller white cross BN124 White metal cross w/ wreath 253 106.2 2W n 109.1 2W s 110.4 2W s 112.5 2W s 113.8 2W n 114.2 2W n 115 2W s 116.7 2W s 116.7 2W n 117.6 2W n 120.7 2W n 121.6 2W s 123.9 2W s 124.9 2W 128 3S e 128.6 3S w 130.5 3S w ? 3S w 132.5 3S w 132.8 3S w 133 3S BN125 Brown metal cross w/ scroll White concrete cross; Sr Jose Ramon Curiel M., 18-03-47/23-08-96, recuerdos esposa, hijos y amigos; Dios guarda tu alma, la tierra guadra tu BN126 cuerpo, y nosotros tu amor y tu recuerdo. BN127 White metal cross mounted atop a boulder BN128 Blue metal outline-cross w/ filigrees, scroll & a red flower on top BN129 White metal cross w/ scroll; 10 ft above road level 133.6 3S e 135.8 3S w 137.2 3S w 137.9 3S e 138.5 3S w BN130 2 blue metal crosses w/ wreaths; behind some boulders 139.9 3S w White granito nicho w/ black metal cross atop rear & NSGuad image painted BN131 on the rear wall; up in some boulders on a road-cut 140.7 3S w BN132 Black metal cross BN133 Green metal cross w/ wreath Pink metal cross w/ filigrees & flowers: "Nina Andrea Valarea Leon A., 3BN134 dic-94/19-jun-99, DEP" (32.23.28/116.36.82) BN135 White concrete w/ scroll & flowers on white concrete pedestal BN136 White metal or wood cross w/ round ends; flowers BN137 Black metal outline-cross w/ flowers BN138 White concrete cross, pedestal, gabled inscription scroll, photo built in BN139 Black metal outline-cross; "Leonardo" 141.5 3S e 141.6 3S w 141.7 3S e 141.8 3S e 144.3 3S w 148.1 3S w 149 3S w 149.2 3S e e BN140 Cross covered w/ blue & white flowers 153.2 3S Concrete block, 1m cubed, open-faced, gable-roofed. Inside; Recuerdo de JSF, 2-nov-1991 on a metal homemade, horse shoe cross [horse shoes welded together] & a scroll made by welding some sheet metal to the back of the horse shoes. In front is a prefab nicho about 2ft tall and both of those are 155.2 3S BN141 enclosed in the current structure. Fresh flowers. 2.5m tall metal cross; "Rafael Carranza, 24-oct-71/8-aug-99"; new ribbons BN142 on it 157.9 3S BN143 White metal cross w/ flowers 159.8 3S White granito nicho; "Lic. Carlos Ramirez Salas" has Jesus Sacred Heart in BN144 the rear & 2 urns on sides, gable roof 165 3S BN145 White metal cross w/ flowers BN146 White granito nicho w/ cross atop rear & 3 white metal crosses BN147 2 white pipe-crosses w/scrolls & flowers BN148 White metal [?] cross, covered by red flowers BN149 3 white metal crosses w/ scrolls & wreaths BN150 White metal cross w/ scroll, 2m tall ? w w w w 174.7 3S e 3S e 178.5 3S w 181.4 3S e 183.2 3S w 183.9 3S w BN151 Black metal cross w/ scroll 184.4 3S e 2 shrines. The north one has NSGuad image tiled into the rear wall, 20 votive candles [4 lit], 2 faded bouquets of fresh flowers. It is 1.5m sq x 3m tall with a gabled tile roof. The south one has a print of NSGuad pasted onto the rear wall, 12 bouquets of faded fresh flowers, 24 votives [4 lit]. It is 4m long x 2m wide x 3m tall and has a cross atop the gabled concrete roof and an inset 186.1 3S w BN152 gated entrance area. 254 BN153 White metal outline-cross BN154 3 white metal crosses, identical, w/ flowers BN155 White metal cross; "Chris Hunt" wBN10 Junction 3S/1S; just north of Ensenada BN156 Brown wood cross w/ scroll; facing N White granito nicho w/ 2 urns, centered cross & NSGuad image in the rear BN157 and fresh gladiolas BN158 2 black metal crosses w/scrolls & wreaths BN159 White metal cross w/ scroll BN160 Light blue metal cross w/ scroll BN161 White wood cross w/ red inscription BN162 2 white wood crosses BN163 White metal cross w/scroll BN164 5 white wood crosses, all w/ flowers; on a hard curve BN165 Green pipe-cross w/ flowers BN166 Black metal cross w/ filigrees BN167 Blue nicho, 2ft sq x 4ft tall, flat-roofed BN168 Brick nicho, 1m cubed, gabled w/ black metal cross inside BN169 Light blue block, open-faced, gable-roofed nicho w/ blue metal cross atop BN170 White metal cross w/ filigrees & scroll BN171 2m tall black metal cross; covered on both sides by flowers BN172 White metal outline-cross w/ scroll BN173 Black metal cross w/ filigrees, scroll BN174 2 white wood crosses w/ scrolls BN175 Yellow concrete home made nicho & white metal cross; both have flowers BN176 White metal cross w/ scroll BN178 White wood or metal cross [1x4 material];"El Mingo" BN179 4 white wood crosses; 2 small ones in front of 2 larger ones BN180 Black metal outline-cross w/ wreath BN181 2 white metal crosses w/ scrolls BN182 3 white metal crosses w/ wreaths BN183 Red brick nicho, gable roof w/ white metal cross atop rear, 2.5ft sq BN184 White metal cross BN185 Black metal cross BN186 2m tall, tan metal cross w/ filigrees & scroll BN187 White metal cross w/ spear-point tips, filigrees & wreath; a bit twisted BN188 Gray concrete cross, on the edge of a field BN189 Red metal cross 186.2 3S w 186.3 3S e 187 3S w 190 1S 191.4 1S m 212.1 1S w 213.2 1S e 216.2 1S w 218.6 1S w 219.5 1S e 219.7 1S w 221.5 1S e 223.9 1S w 224.3 1S w 226 1S e 227.1 1S e 228.8 1S w 238.2 1S e 243.3 1S e 245.4 1S w 248.3 1S w 248.6 1S w 251.7 1S w 254.6 1S e 257.9 1S e 266.4 1S w 268.6 1S e 274.7 1S w 275.6 1S e 276.1 1S e 289.3 1S e 292 1S e 292.1 1S e 292.2 1S e 292.9 1S w 294.3 1S w 295 1S w BN177 Blue wood cross on pedestal w/ flowers; opposite an NSGuad rock painting 261.3 1S w 255 BN190 2m tall white cross; "Baby" 295.3 1S w 2 white metal crosses on a 2-tiered pedestal, crosses are mounted on the first BN191 level and a concrete stool sits atop the second level. 301.1 1S e BN192 Gable roof nicho w/3 large visitation rocks, blue metal cross atop rear. BN193 White granito nicho, 1m tall w/ granito cross atop BN194 White granito nicho, 1m tall w/ granito cross atop BN195 White granito nicho w/ 2 crosses atop & white cross next to it BN196 White metal cross w/ scroll BN197 Black metal cross BN198 Wood cross BN199 Concrete, gable roofed nicho w/ turquoise cross; faced away from road BN200 White metal cross BN201 White metal cross w/ spear-point tips; Col. Vincente Guerrero BN202 Brick gable-roofed nicho w/ white metal cross atop rear BN203 Block nicho w/ cross atop rear BN204 White concrete gable-roofed nicho, w/ black metal cross atop rear BN205 White granito nicho w/2 crosses atop & white cross next to it BN206 Pink gable roof nicho w/cross atop; faces away from road BN207 White gable-roofed nicho w/ 4 white metal crosses atop BN208 White metal cross BN209 Large block, gable-roofed shrine, w/ cross atop BN210 Cross, obscured by flowers BN211 White metal cross w/ flowers & lit candle in front BN212 2 white metal crosses w/ filigrees & scrolls BN213 Blue arch-roofed nicho w/ white cross atop rear BN214 White metal cross BN215 White metal cross on concrete pedestal BN216 White metal cross BN217 White metal cross BN218 White metal cross w/ flowers BN219 White metal cross w/ flowers BN220 White pipe-cross w/ flowers BN221 Black metal cross w/ scroll & flowers 301.2 1S e 302.2 1S w 302.2 1S e 302.7 1S w 302.9 1S e 303.5 1S e 303.6 1S e 305.8 1S e 306.1 1S e 308.1 1S w 309.6 1S w 310.5 1S w 310.7 1S w 311.8 1S e 312.8 1S e 313.2 1S e 314.9 1S e 315.4 1S w 316.1 1S w 316.5 1S e 317.1 1S e 317.5 1S w 318.6 1S e 318.9 1S e 323.7 1S w 323.8 1S e 324.7 1S e 324.9 1S w 325.6 1S e 325.8 1S w BN222 1m tall, concrete cross; arms are 4" sq 326 1S w Brick nicho w/ 3 gable roofs, on a concrete pedestal painted blue, the walls are natural brick with the mortar painted white, the roofs are concrete and painted white. Nacio la Sra Fausta ? on the first cross, which is black. The middle one is white Pedro ? [death date] 4-7-93, the third one is black 326.6 1S e BN223 Alvia ? BN224 Gray metal cross, used to be blue; "Javier": 15m S of 223 326.6 1S e 256 BN225 Black pipe-cross BN226 Blue wood cross; on a hard curve BN227 White metal cross, 2m tall BN228 3 black pipe-crosses w/ scrolls and wreaths BN229 White metal cross w/ scroll BN230 White wood cross BN231 White gable-roofed, nicho w/blue trim, white concrete cross in rear BN232 Natural wood cross w/ routed edges & scroll, nice piece of work. Concrete, 1x1x1.5m tall, gabled w/ wings & a white metal w/ filagrees & scroll cross inside; Moises Eduardo Sesania Guitierrez, 2-may-74/17-nov95; Siempre viviras en nuestros corozons, madre, esposa, hermanos, familiares te recuerdemos, descanse en paz; next to it is an older wooden BN233 cross w/ a Buick emblem stuck into the concrete footing. BN234 Block shed roof nicho w/crucifix inside and white metal cross nearby BN235 White metal cross w/scroll; "Julio" BN236 See text 327.7 1S e 327.8 1S w 329.3 1S e 340.2 1S e 350.9 1S w 352.1 1S w 358.5 1S w 359 1S w 364.1 1S e 387.7 1S e 387.7 1S w 404 1S w BN237 White metal cross w/scroll 419 1S w Shrine made of large homemade concrete blocks, & hand-hewn lumber (cottonwood?). The window sash, doorframe, everything is made of this material. It is 3x2x2m, has a flat roof, corner facades & centered cross (even the cross is homemade). Inside is a small step with a 5x7 print of NSGuad and the head of a statue of same, there is an offering box with 2 US pennies in it, and some flowers. Looks like there was a larger print of NSGuad, evidently this has experienced some vandalism; this is out in the middle of 427 1S w BN238 nowhere. BN239 Red metal outline-cross w/ scroll; auto parts strewn about White metal cross w/ filigrees & scroll; weathered wood cross; auto parts BN240 scattered about. 20m S of 239 BN241 2 white metal crosses BN242 3 white metal crosses; 2 are 2ft tall, other is 5 ft tall; on a hard curve BN243 Black metal cross w/ filigrees, scroll, pile of rocks at the base & auto parts BN244 White pipe-cross w/ scroll BN245 White gable-roof nicho on pedestal w/ black metal cross atop rear BN246 Brown homemade concrete cross, 1.5ft tall BN247 4 white pipe-crosses w/ scrolls BN248 Bright red metal cross and white granito nicho; cement bag nearby wB46 BN/BS Stateline; 28/114.00.71 453 1S w 453 1S w 458 1S e 465 1S e 481 1S w 482 1S w 489 1S w 495 1S w 526 1S w 540 1S e 577 1S 257 Table A4.2: Baja California Sur Site# wB46 Description End BC, begin BCS; 28/114.00.71 Shrines to NSGuad & St. Jude; main shrine, 7m sq x 5-6m tall. Inside there are 2 rows of 4 pews, a main altar, central crucifix and 4 ft tall statue of NSGuad to the right, a 3 ft tall statue of St Jude to the left. The altar has (2) 2 ft tall SJ statues flanking a slightly smaller statue of NSGuad. There are 6 bouquet of imitation & 1 of fresh flowers. Both shrines and a well outside are 2-tone pink. The second shrine has a 5-tiered votive candle rack, a central crucifix, 2 ST Jude statue, 2 Sacred heart Jesus prints, a Virgin image that says; Riena y Madre de Jalisco reuga de nostras (looks like V.SanJuan), 25 lit votive candles. 2 black metal crosses on pedestals; both w/ flowers White metal cross w/ auto tire hanging from it 3 white metal crosses w/ reflective tape Wood cross, 1x lumber Black metal cross w/scroll & filigrees 3 white metal crosses w/ scrolls & wreaths Black metal outline-cross w/scroll White metal cross w/wreath 3 white metal crosses, on a pedestal, w/ wreaths White granito cross & 2 urns on a wedge pedestal, behind was an auto fender White concrete, gable-roofed nicho w/cross atop, & wreath 2-tiered nicho w/ 2 niches & cross in front, 2m tall Black metal cross w/ wreath Wood cross w/ red fender in front Unpainted wood cross,1x2 lumber; on a hard curve White pipe-cross on concrete pedestal w/ faded flowers White outline-cross w/ scroll & white metal cross w/ filigrees & scroll White concrete cross White wood cross w/ forked tips, rock & concrete pedestal White metal outline-cross w/ scroll, 1m tall Pink & green brick, 1m cubed, flat-roofed nicho. On the rear half of the roof is a second nicho, open-faced, with NSGuad inside an arch. The whole thing a slightly arched roof with wings. Inside is 14x24 print of NSGuad & Diego, on the side is another print, this one has scenes from the JD story in ovals at the corners. There are 20 votive candles, none lit, there are22 pesos in coin laying on the floor, and also some plantings around the shrine including oleanders and cacti. White wood cross, stone & concrete pedestal Black metal cross w/ pointed tips & scroll White granito nicho w/ 2 urns on a pedestal, has a Christ on the cross, couple dozen pebbles; Jose Luis Bastida Villa, July 30, 1994, recuerdo de sus amigos, QEPD Mile 0 Rte Dir 1S Asp BS01 BS02 BS03 BS04 BS05 BS06 BS07 BS08 BS09 BS10 BS11 BS12 BS13 BS14 BS15 BS16 BS17 BS18 BS19 BS20 BS21 2.4 4.2 5.8 15.8 25.5 25.8 29.4 30.3 40.5 41.3 44.5 47.5 48.6 54.7 54.8 64.4 64.8 66.3 78.8 84.3 85.1 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S w w w w w w e e w e e e e e e w e e e e e BS22 BS23 BS24 BS25 85.5 90.8 97.1 104.6 1S 1S 1S 1S w w w e 258 BS26 BS27 BS28 BS29 BS30 BS31 BS32 BS33 BS34 BS35 BS36 BS37 BS38 BS39 BS40 BS41 BS42 BS43 BS44 BS45 BS46 BS47 BS48 BS49 BS50 BS51 BS52 BS53 BS54 BS55 BS56 BS57 BS58 BS59 White metal nicho & white metal cross behind Shrine to holy family, knocked off its foundation Small metal A-frame pole shrine w/NS Guad print inside Metal pole-type nicho White granito double nicho, used to have 2 crosses atop 2 nichos & 2 urns on either side, 1 cross & 1 urn are broken; Sr Emilio Palla Montez, enero 2, 1997; papa, por siempre te tendremos en nuestros corazones, tus hijos que nunca te olvidares. The other one: Miguelia Vasquez Montes, enero 2, 1997; mama, nunca olviaremos tus consejos, tus ejemplos, y nunca te olvidaremos, tus hijos. White concrete cross & urn w/ plastic flowers White granito nicho w/ cross atop, 2ft tall White concrete, gable-roofed, 1m sq nicho, w/ NSGuad statue inside, aluminum & glass door White pipe-cross w/filigrees, scroll; Aqui llacen los restos Sr. Sergio Morales; familia y amigos de Transports Zanzini, QEPD White metal cross w/ wreath; 50m S of 34 Pink shrine to NSGuad, 50m off road Blue & white shrine to NSGuad, outside of a prison entrance White granito cross w/ 2 urns & wedge pedestal White granito cross w/ wedge pedestal 2 white crosses w/wreaths & white-washed rocks outline the area White granito cross w/ 2 urns & wedge pedestal White brick, flat-roofed nicho, 3ft sq x 4ft tall White granito nicho White metal cross White metal cross 2 white metal crosses 2 black metal and white metal crosses Block nicho w/ black metal cross atop rear Brick nicho, red gable roof Pole-type A-frame metal nicho; 2m tall White metal cross w/ black tips 2 black metal crosses on turquoise 3-step pedestals, w/ filigrees & scroll White metal cross White metal cross on a 1m cubed, 3-step pedestal White concrete cross White concrete cross, covered w/ wreaths Dark blue pipe-cross w/ scroll on concrete pedestal Cross, white metal nicho, white concrete nicho In Mulege, up on a hill, is a large shrine built into the rock, about 5m square; there is a sign up behind it stating; Mulege a la Virgin Maria, defensadora de la fe catolica It is white concrete & stucco with blue trim and a brick arched doorway, has a facade with blue pillars on either side with white balls 259 105.2 111.2 113.8 116.3 1S 1S 1S 1S e w w e 116.9 125.4 126.6 127 127 127.1 138.2 139.6 140.8 140.9 142.7 143.2 145.3 145.6 145.7 145.8 145.9 147.2 149.4 149.8 150.8 153.4 156.3 156.6 157.9 160.8 163.8 164.7 171.5 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S w e e e w e w e e e e w w w e e w w w e w w w e w e w w w 175.1 1S e BS60 BS61 BS62 BS63 BS64 BS65 BS66 BS67 BS68 atop. A third of the way to the middle of the gabled faade are 2 other pillars supporting a brick arch which has a white cross atop. Inside there is huge old painting, about 5 feet tall by 3 feet wide of the Virgin holding the baby Jesus with the sacred heart and it has a gabled old wood frame and in the apex of the gable is anotherpainting of the Holy Spirit, a bird with a halo on its head which is pointing downward. The rear wall is stone with white painted mortar, thats what the large painting is hanging on. To the left of this is 2x4 foot framed print of NSGuad sitting on a table with a dozen votive candles and 2 floral bouquets on it. There are 2 more below the table. Below the large painting is a large landscape painting, apparently of what Mulege must have looked like in the colonial days; and it says; Madre santa bendice a tu pueblo Mulege that sits on a 6 foot long bench. There are 2 more of those benches against the side walls; in a corner is a 6.5 tall crucifix sitting in a concrete block and there are 3 votive candles in front of that. In another corner is another wooden cross, a ships bell, mops and brooms and stuff. Evidently this is the villages shrine, it is quite beautiful, nicely landscaped on 3 tiers, cant take a picture of it because a semi truck is parked in front of it. The outside has an unusual design; there is a circle within a circle, the outside circle has compass points that are forks. (Rooster crowing in the background.) Just as I was leaving, an old fellow, who works across the street; who was keeping an eye on me came up to the chapel to pray and he said that he prays here every day and that many other people do also. He also said that the painting was of Mulege in the colonial days. White metal cross w/pointed tips & scroll and wood cross w/ scroll Pink, brick shrine to NSGuad, gabled roofed, w/plaited palm fronds around the entrance. Has flowers & votives inside. 3 black metal crosses, 2 are 2ft tall & middle one is 1ft tall Black metal cross w/flowers & scroll White metal cross w/wreath White pipe-cross w/ scroll & spear-point tips Shrine on sea cliff; Inside is a NSGuad image in tile on the rear wall, beneath that is a 24x48 gilt & red felt framed print of same; there 25 votives, 2 bouquets each of silk & fresh flowers, and 10 candles are lit. The shrine is 2x3x3m, w/ a cross centered at the apex of the gabled tin roof, the walls are concrete or stucco. Its a gorgeous site, I caught it with the sun rising behind the building and the islands in the background. White metal cross In a natural cave, a small shrine to NSGuad 177.3 180.6 183.7 184.2 188.4 188.7 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S w w w w w w 190.8 191.1 194.7 1S 1S 1S e e w 260 BS69 BS70 BS71 BS72 BS73 BS74 BS75 BS76 BS77 BS78 BS79 BS80 BS81 BS82 BS83 BS84 BS85 BS86 BS87 BS88 BS89 BS90 BS91 BS92 BS93 BS94 BS95 BS96 BS97 BS98 BS99 BS100 BS101 BS102 BS103 BS104 BS105 BS106 BS107 Black metal cross w/ filigrees, scroll, & flowers White pipe-cross w/ scroll & auto parts laid out in front White granito nicho w/cross, 2 urns & wedge pedestal White metal frame & glass nicho, 1ft sq, w/white metal cross atop gabled roof Black metal cross w/wreath Green metal cross w/ scroll & wreath Yellow concrete box-nicho w/ cross in front Black pipe-cross w/ scroll & wreath Large [5ft tall] white cross w/ pointed tips & flowers White metal cross White granito nicho w/ cross; 10m S of 78 White metal nicho & white granito nicho w/ 2 urns & cross atop arched roof Unpainted wood cross w/ scroll White concrete, gable roofed nicho w/black WI & glass door Large concrete cross & a semi-circular 1m tall monument inscribed; en memoria de Ricardo Chato Corvarubias, jul-2795 Gable-roofed nicho w/ cross atop, 2m tall Black metal outline-cross w/ scroll & flowers Cross obscured by flowers White metal cross w/ ribbons, blue inscription Unpainted wood cross White metal cross w/ scroll & pink flowers 2 black metal crosses w/ red flowers Black metal cross in post-hole footing Turquoise brick, gable-roofed, open-faced nicho w/ white metal cross atop rear Black metal cross w/ red wreath Turquoise metal cross w/ wreath Cross covered by red wreath Tan concrete nicho, w/cross atop rear, flowers White concrete, gable roofed nicho w/ cross atop rear covered by wreath, 2ft cubed Light blue concrete nicho w/cross covered by flowers Black metal outline-cross w/ red & white wreath Black metal and white metal crosses; both w/ flowers Black metal cross w/ blue & white wreath Black metal cross w/ sun-rays White concrete nicho w/red tiled gable roof & white metal cross atop rear White metal cross w/ filigrees & scroll & wreath White metal cross w/ scroll Black metal cross w/ scroll, spear-point tips & blue wreath Large monument and cross with 14 pillars and a cross with 2 wreaths, one very large, and a votive candle at the base. 4 of the pillars have wreaths, and there is an inscription plate which 197.6 213.4 231.3 250.1 259.1 262.1 270.2 271.6 279 282.1 282.1 282.4 283.5 288.3 290.7 298.1 300.6 302.1 312.8 323.9 335.2 335.5 338.7 339.4 341.8 342.2 343.6 345.4 349.4 349.7 350 353.9 355 356.6 357.6 360.5 366.8 367 368.9 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S w w w e e w e e w w w w w e e e e e w w e w e w w e w w e e e w w e w w w 261 BS108 BS109 BS110 BS111 BS112 BS113 BS114 BS115 BS116 BS117 BS118 BS119 BS120 BS121 BS122 BS123 BS124 BS125 BS126 BS127 BS128 BS129 BS130 reads; Homanaje a los companeros caidos en la lucha agrigaria y un meyor parte de la agua. 27 abril 1973. Juan Ontaveros, Paulino Rodriquez, Jose Rico, Miguel Torres, Marcos Villegas, Asencion Mercado, Encarnacion Ramirez, Cruz Soriano, Luz Villalpano, Manuel Moreles, Vincente Castaneda, Faustina Alvarado, Filipe Ramos, Leonides Resa. Esta obra fue posible constuirla con la cooperacion de los 5 NCPE ley Federale de Aguas otra vez de la union de ejidos 20 nov con un costo total de 18,350,606 pesos, mar 1993. It is not especially clear how these people died. A high voltage power line runs fairly close behind the monument opening the possibility that this was an industrial accident. Of further note; inland, or east, of Villa Insurgentes & running more or less parallel to Rt. 1 south to around Cd. Constitucion; is a series of ejidos named Ley Federal de Aguas numbers 1 through 5. See Text Black metal cross Concrete, gable-roofed nicho w/ cross atop rear 2 crosses Wood cross w/wreath White metal cross w/wreath Blue metal cross w/ scroll & filigrees White concrete nicho, 1m sq, w/open concrete box atop. White metal outline-cross inside a white WI fence Gray metal cross w/ spear-point tips & scroll White concrete cross w/flowers Red brick & concrete nicho on pedestal w/ white cross atop rear & blue & white wreath NSGuad shrine with 12 floral bouquets, 36 votive candles, 12 lit (this is 1 mile south of my blowout). There are 2 carloads of people here using the shrine. White concrete shrine to NSGuad Black metal cross White granito cross on 3-tiered pedestal, 4ft tall Large angel monument; Nino ? Ramon ??, 18 mar 1988 --24 sept 1995; sus padres, tios, abuelos dedicam este recuerdo con amor eterno, Es un angelito mas en corte celestial ? Dios, si un nino vive con aceptacion y amistad grande[?] en contra el amor Rigo Casrto y Chicas Cesena just in front of it is a wooden cross on a concrete pedestal. White granito nicho, arch-roofed w/ cross atop rear White granito nicho, flat-roofed w/ cross atop rear & flowers White granito monument, gable roof supported by 4 columns. Inscribed; Andres Molina Garcia, 29-aug-63/29-aug-96; recuerdo de sus companeros policia federal de caminos 2 white metal outline-crosses w/ pointed tips & flowers Large, light blue shrine to NSGuad, near a store White granito nicho w 2 urns & cross atop arched roof; flowers 369.9 370 370.6 370.6 378 378.1 380.1 380.8 382 384.4 385.1 387.7 390 400.9 409.8 410.2 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S w e e w e w w w w w w e w w w w 411.6 414.9 414.9 1S 1S 1S e w e 415 416.8 417.9 423 1S 1S 1S 1S w w w w 262 BS131 BS132 BS133 BS134 BS135 BS136 BS137 BS138 BS139 BS140 BS141 BS142 BS143 BS144 BS145 BS146 BS147 BS148 BS149 BS150 BS151 BS152 BS153 BS154 BS155 BS156 BS157 BS158 BS159 BS160 BS161 BS162 BS163 BS164 BS165 BS166 BS167 BS168 Turquoise concrete nicho, gable-roofed w/ white cross atop rear and chain-link fence around it Brown wood cross; 25m S of 131 Concrete nicho w/ sheet metal gable roof & black metal cross atop rear; faced away from road Cross, obscured w/ wreath Pole shrine to Jesus Sacred Heart Wooden nicho w/ flat roof & cross behind covered by flowers White granito nicho w/ cross atop rear 2m tall cross w/ triple-forked tips; metal or wood Black metal cross w/ filigrees, scroll & red flowers White pipe-cross on 3-tiered pedestal w/white flowers White saguaro cactus pole nicho/shrine; inside is a 6" tall Nino de Atocha statue White concrete cross on 3-tiered pedestal, 4ft tall Small shrine to St. Jude, 1m sq x 2.5m tall, bottom opening for candles & upper opening w/print of SJ & flower White concrete A-frame nicho, w/ white metal cross atop 4ft tall white granito cross on pedestal w/wreath 3 black metal crosses w/ filigrees & scrolls 2 white metal crosses, one w/ scroll Black metal cross w/ filigrees & scroll White cross w/ scroll White cross w/ scroll Black metal cross w/ scroll White metal cross w/ scroll 4 identical white metal crosses w/ scrolls & pointed tips White metal cross Metal nicho, 1ft cubed, gabled roof; nailed to a tree limb. NSGuad image & several candles inside Tan concrete nicho, gable-roofed, 1.5ft cubed White concrete gable-roofed nicho, 1m cubed White metal cross w/ light blue scroll White concrete nicho, tiled gable-roof, 1m tall 2 blue concrete nichos on 1m cubed pedestal, w/ black WI & glass doors & rear facade w/ 3 black metal crosses w/ filigrees & scrolls; both w/ wreaths White concrete, flat-roofed nicho on .5m cubed pedestal, .25m cubed, w/ aluminum & glass door & wood [1x3 lumber, edge routed] atop rear; Homero Gerardo Avilas, 12-sept-72/9-jun91, DEP w/wreath White metal cross w/ scroll Concrete, gable-roofed nicho White concrete, gabled roofed nicho, lots of flowers & 3 crosses Black metal cross w/ scroll, diamond-shaped tips & flowers Blue gable-roofed nicho w/ pink interior & flowers, 1m tall Brick shrine to NSGuad, 2m sq x 2.5m tall 3 white metal crosses w/ filigrees & scrolls 426 426 428.7 430.4 431.2 431.4 432.1 435.6 436.1 438.7 440 440.8 444 444.7 445.6 446.6 449.8 452.1 452.4 453.4 453.5 456.4 457.5 458.7 462.5 469.5 469.6 469.9 490.1 491.6 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S e e w e w e w e w w w e w w e e w e w w w w w e e e w 491.6 492.9 496.5 496.6 497.5 498.3 499.4 500.5 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S 1S w w e e w w e 263 BS169 BS170 BS171 BS172 wBS13 BS173 BS174 BS175 BS176 BS177 BS178 BS179 BS180 BS181 BS182 BS183 BS184 BS185 BS186 BS187 BS188 BS189 BS190 BS191 BS192 BS193 BS194 BS195 BS196 BS197 Pink concrete shrine, 4m cubed, gable-wing roof w/ white metal cross atop front, inside; dark blue tile; central image is a Virgin & Child in tile. 40 candles, most lit, 2 bouquets of flowers on altar & 2 on floor. Oleanders planted around the building. White metal cross w/ filigrees & scroll & flowers 3 white wood crosses White concrete nicho w/ front painted turquoise, 2m tall x .5m sq, WI door w/ cross inlaid, cross atop gabled roof; San Judas Tadeo Jct. 1S/19S; 23.53.01/110.15.18 White concrete cross, 1m tall White metal box-nicho w/ white metal cross atop White concrete nicho w/ white cross atop rear White concrete nicho, gabled roof and 2 metal cross next to it 2 white metal crosses Brick gable-roofed nicho w/ cross atop rear Concrete, flat roof nicho w/ white metal cross atop Red metal cross w/ scroll & flowers on pedestal 2 black metal crosses; filigrees, scrolls, one on pedestal White concrete cross w/ wedge pedestal Dark blue concrete nicho & metal cross w/filigrees atop White concrete, gable-roofed nicho w/black metal cross atop rear; enclosed in black WI fence Black pipe-cross w/ scroll Lime green concrete shrine w/ St Jude print, Christ child statue, votive candle White granito nicho w/ cross atop, wreath 2 black metal crosses w/filigrees, scrolls, pedestals 2m sq x 2.5m tall, shrine to NSGuad Open-faced nicho w/ sacred heart statue, broken-off cross, faces parallel & inside black WI fence Concrete nicho, arch-roofed, under construction Unpainted concrete, arch-roofed nicho w/ cross atop rear White concrete 2-tiered nicho w/ hip roof, cross atop &, flowers 2m tall nicho w/ flowers on it White concrete & tile cross and black metal cross White concrete nicho w/ blue trim White concrete, gable-roofed shrine w/ dark green trim & cross painted above arched doorway; tile image of St Jude on rear wall, statue of same, 30 votives, 20 lit, notes [ayudame], crucifix, photos, baby clothing, lots of fresh & imitation flowers. Outside there is a patio area with 2 concrete & tile benches and 2 green picket fences enclosing Ficus trees and planters with desert flora. The entire built area is about 10m square and there is a sign to one side that reads; Como signo de respecto a San Judas no urine detras de la capillita, Gracias, un catolico creinte como usted. 500.8 501.6 501.7 1S 1S 1S e w w 503.5 503.8 503.8 504.4 504.5 509.8 510.9 511.5 515.8 516.3 517.8 518 521.1 523 524.3 528.1 530.2 530.4 533.3 533.5 536 539.3 540 542.4 543.8 548.4 1S 19S 19S 19S 19S 19S 19S 19S 19S 19S 19S 19S 19S 19S 19S 19S 19S 19S 19S 19S 19S 19S 19S 19S 19S 19S w w e w e e w w w w w e w e e e w e w w e e w e e 548.7 19S w 264 BS198 BS199 BS200 BS201 BS202 BS203 BS204 BS205 BS206 BS207 BS208 wBS16 A truck load of guys just drove by [as I was getting into the car] and 2 of them crossed themselves as they passed by. Nicho White & light blue brick shrine; bad location 3m cubed, shrine to Virgin de San Juan Black metal cross w/ scroll & flowers White gable-roofed nicho w/ cross atop rear covered in flowers & auto parts strewn about Adobe, flat-roofed nicho w/ black cross atop White concrete, gable-roofed nicho w/ cross atop rear White concrete, open-faced, gable-roofed nicho & white metal cross w/ filigrees & scroll atop rear Large shrine to Virgin of Guadalupe. This about 7m square of tan stucco and tiled gable roof and arched doorway, has a very large print of NSGuad, signs (in English & Spanish), about 30 votives (1/2 are lit), a large candle rack to the left and 15-20 bouquets of flowers. In talking with a local fellow who stopped to pray; he said that this is a government rest stop, and the signs are put up by the government, however the capilla was built by the church in San Lucas and the signs inside are asking for donations to help build a new shrine to the Virgin of Guadalupe. This is interesting because this is the first roadside shrine Ive come across that was built by the church or a church. It is obvious that this is not just a rest stop, but that people come here primarily to pray. As evidenced by the couple that was leaving when I arrived and the gentleman who arrived while I was inside and another couple who just pulled in (this is only 4 miles north of Cabo San Lucas and it is unlikely that people would need to rest traveling in either direction!). Even more interesting is that the fellow I spoke with actually came out here for the purpose of praying; he came from the direction of Cabo and when he left he drove off in the same direction. White concrete cross Pink shrine to NSGuad, 2m cubed w/ gable roof Jct 19/1; Cabo San Lucas; 22.53.95/109.55.44; end transect P2 550.3 551.4 552.9 561.4 567.6 572 572.2 573.4 19S 19S 19S 19S 19S 19S 19S 19S w w e e w w e w 577.1 577.9 578.1 581.5 19S 19S 19S 19S w w w 265 Table A4.3: Sonora Site # Description wB2 Boundary Sonora/Chihuahua; transect B4 SN35 1.5x1.5x2.5m white tin nicho w/ gabled roof. Interior: 0.6 x 0.9m print of Virgin of Guadalupe, 6 votives, small prints of Sacred Heart of Jesus and Virgin of Guadalupe. SN34 Large (12 x 3m) rock painting of Virgin of Guadalupe with white cross-above & altar below. SN33 Black metal cross on concrete base inscribed: "Alejandro Romero Ch. 18-Jun-87" SN32 1.5x1x1m white plywood nicho w/ cross centered atop a gabled roof; inside are 1 votive candle and a print of Jesus. SN31 1.5x1.5x2m white stucco nicho with arched roof and 0.75 x 1m wrought iron door. Interior: 0.5 x 0.8m print of St. Jude, 3 votives; another dangerous spot. SN30 Located on a dangerous twisting mountain road, white metal cross set in concrete, inscribed; "DEP Raymundo Gutierrez Morales 'La pequena Lulu' 02 Enero 1990" SN29 0.5x0.5x0.75 brick nicho w/ sheet metal gabled roof & bricked-up door opening. Interior: 6 votives, 2 prints of Virgin of Guadalupe, 1 statue of Virgin of Guadalupe, 1 flower, and inscription: "Familia Pinos, Casas Grandes, Chih. Recuerdo de 14 de Febrero, 1998 Ramon Cajibas de familia 3 Marzo 1998, Recuerdo de familia Serrano Garcia Chukis". Located on a dangerous twisting mountain road. SN28 Black metal cross SN27 0.5x0.5x0.75 white metal nicho w/ cross atop; inside 2 broken crucifixes & 1 votive candle. SN26 2 black metal cross; inscribed: "Enrique Duran B. 11-3-95" and "J. Simon Nevarez B. 11-3-95" SN25 3x2x3m white and mauve stucco shrine with gabled roof and metal fencing around its tiled and Astroturf exterior; partially on private property. Interior: 1 x 2m print of Virgin of Guadalupe, 0.5 x 1m print of Jesus, metal rack with 20 votives and 20 votives on a shelf, bottom right of larger Virgin of Guadalupe print has 5 x 7cm photos of 2 females and 1 male, and upper left a photo of an infant. SN24 4x2.5x3m brick with tin gabled roof, 3-tiered facade & black metal cross that has been vandalised. Interior: smashed NSGuad statue and pieces of charred wood. SN23 2 white concrete crosses, 50m west of SN21, Inscriptions: "Sr. Sergio Sandoval R. 9-15-19??" and "Sr. Ruben Gonzalez G. 9-15-19??" SN22 Located 0.5km east ofSN21 on a road-cut above a sharp curve. Homemade 0.5 x 0.5 x 1m white block nicho w/ gabled, plywood & corrugated-metal roof & aluminum & (former) glass door. Interior: beautiful lacquered, multicolored wood plaque w/ print of the NSGuad w/ Jesus face in the folds of her gown decoupaged onto the wood. An excellent piece of homemade craftsmanship. The doorway 266 Mile 0 1 RteDir 2E 2E 2E Asp n n n n s s n 13 2E 13 2E 17 2E 19 2E 19 2E 20 27 30 2E 2E 2E s s n s 31 2E 31 2E 32 2E 34 2E s n s 34 SN21 SN20 SN19 SN18 SN17 SN16 SN15 SN14 SN13 SN12 SN11 SN10 was boarded over w/ 2 scraps of plywood & rocks. White block nicho, 1x1x1.5m, w/ wood-framed & shingled, gable roof. Whitewashed rock path up to the nicho & a water bottle is set next to the path. The interior has one votive candle. Blue concrete shrine, 2.5x1.5x3m, w/arched roof & black metal outline cross centered atop & centered support post & door header are in slight relief and painted white, forming a structurally integral cross. The interior is painted white & has a reclining St. Francis statue, 36 votives (6 burning), and 12 ribbon bows on an altar step. 3x4.7x2.5m white stucco shrine to St. Jude; w/gabled roof. The front half of the structure is a portico. The interior is finished in light blue tile from floor-to-ceiling and has 1m high shelf w/ 0.5m tall statue of St. Jude, 60 x 90cm print of Virgin of Guadalupe, 24 votives, 12 floral bouquets. Brick nicho, 1.7x1.4x1.5m, on 3-stepped concrete pad, gable roof & 0.7x1m light blue wrought iron gate. Interior: The rear wall is a full (1.7x1.4m) hand drawn picture of a male in modern white shirt dress with "J.T." inscribed below the left breast pocket and "Malverde" written above the figure. 300cm tall statue St. Francis & smaller St. Jude & NSGuad statues, 3 votives, & 2 floral bouquets. 3 white metal crosses, 2m tall, 30m off pavement 20m east of SN15, brown particleboard, 0.3x0.5x0.8m, gable-roofed nicho w/ arched door opening, & 15 cm stilts, under construction. White metal cross, 1m tall. Inscription: "QEPD edad 27 anos, 12-05-93, en esta fecha fallecio el jovan Manuel Fco. Quezada Gonzales" White stucco over adobe brick 1x1.5x1m, flat roof nicho, w/ white wrought iron filigreed outline arch & a filigreed Latin outline cross centered at the apex; the arch/cross structure is attached to cantilevers that protrude from the front of the roof. The remains of a green wreath hangs from the junction of the cross and the arch, & there is a 0.5x0.5m white wrought iron door. Interior: Print and statue of NSGuad, 7 votives (1 burning), 3 flower vases. This is 5m east of SN13 & a tree is planted halfway between them. White stucco over adobe brick nicho, 1x1x2m. Has two ziggurat tiers supporting a gable roof with a black metal cross centered on top, and a 0.5 x 0.5m black wrought iron locked door. Interior: 300cm statue of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, four votives, one vase of plastic red roses. 1m tall white wood cross, with a floral wreath attached. White concrete cross, 1m tall on a 0.5m tall pedestal 20m north of the road. Inscription: "Fco. Mendoza Noriega, 1.5.1982, Rrdo. de su esposa E hijo." 1x1x1m brick nicho with concrete gable roof and 1x1m opening for door. This nicho is construction and has 2E 34 2E n n 38 2E s 38 2E s 41 44 44 2E 2E 2E n n s s 44 2E 45 2E s 45 46 46 2E 2E 2E n n n 46 267 SN09 SN08 SN07 SN06 SN05 SN04 SN03 SN02 SN01 wB1 SN285 "19Mr99" scratched into the roof. Major roadside shrine to NSGuad; 16x10x10m w/ a second (6x2x6m) building 6m behind & joined by breezeway. Rest rooms (2) are 25m off behind to the northeast. Interior: 5m tall print of Virgin of Guadalupe, smaller (45 x 90cm) prints of St. Theresa and NS Guad, 1m tall crucifix, 1m tall statue of NSGuad, 100+ votives, 30-40 floral bouquets. Open shrine to NSGuad on private property 20m off the road. White-washed rocks form a path from the roadside to the shrine which is on a mound of soil, approximately 1m above the surrounding topography. The site is landscaped with agave plants to the sides and an ocotillo (blooming in this photo) to the rear. 3 black metal crosses; leaning against fence 1.5x1.5x1m white concrete nicho with a blue painted flat concrete roof, and 0.6 x 1m locked aluminum and Plexiglas door. Interior: 500cm statues of Virgin of Guadalupe and St. Jude, 300cm unpainted ceramic statue of Virgin of Guadalupe, 5 burning votives, and 3 pots with plastic roses. 1x0.75x1m lime green, concrete, arch-roofed nicho, with forest green metal Cross Cleche centered atop front, and 0.5 x 0.6 Plexiglas door. Immediately adjacent to SN04. Interior: filled with votives. Doors to 04 & 05 are locked. 1.5x1.5x2m green concrete nicho, flat roof with stepped facade and arched wrought iron door (0.6 x 1m), black metal cross centered on top and, in relief, one on either side of the door. The wrought iron work and relief crosses are forest green and contrast with the lime green stucco. The top cross has a yellow and green floral cross attached. Interior: 6 of 25 votives burning, 2 photos of a young male (28 x 35cm and 35 x 50) with a crucifix between them and a silk floral arch over them. 3 pots of silk flowers in front. White concrete shrine, 2x2x3m with gabled roof and facade. Wrought iron 1x1.5m door is arch-shaped and above the door "Sombra de San Pedro Apostol" (lit. The shade of St. Peter the Apostle) is hand-painted in black. Interior: 300cm step with 330cm statue of Saint Peter, 10 votive candles, 2 vases with live evergreen boughs, 2 pots of plastic poinsettias and blue roses. Black metal cross, 1m tall, w/ filigrees. Sra. Evilia Garcia C. QPD White concrete nicho, 0.75x1x1m on a 2 x 1.5m concrete slab, with 0.5 x 0.5m white concrete Latin Cross atop the gabled roof and a broken, wood frame and Plexiglas door. Interior; 300cm St. Francis statue, 11 votive candles, 1 floral pot. US/MX border @ Douglas/Agua Prieta 3m square, arch-roofed shrine, gray concrete w/ rectangular facade & crosses on 2 corner pilasters & Jesus Sacred Heart statue in middle. Base under the statue inscribed: "lo que 2E n 46 2E s 47 48 2E 2E n n 48 2E 48 2E n n 48 2E s 48 2E 48 2E s n 49 55 57 2E 2S e 268 SN286 SN287 SN288 SN289 SN290 SN291 SN292 SN293 SN294 SN295 SN296 SN297 hagas a algunos de mis hijos aunque se almateceno a mi? a mi tambien me lo has" There are 11 circular pipe sections embedded in the soil and planted with desert flora leading up to the gateway. The gate is arched WI. Inside is a large (1m tall) statue of BVM, beneath that is an interesting Mary print with dark skinned Mary and a dark Jesus in her veil. There is a baby Jesus doll, Jesus Sacred Heart statue and another Mary statue. On a flat slab nicho w/ raised open-book inscription plate death marker fenced in chain link w/ wooden posts & 2 xmas-type wreaths attached. Just inside the private property fence along side the road. 3m cubed, white concrete shrine, gabled tin roof &WI door & side panels. 2 reclining St. Francis statues, BVM plaque, 4 bouquets of artificial flowers, 15 votive candles. Just inside private property. White concrete nicho/shrine, w/ reddish-brown tin roof & outline cross centered in front & brown tile cross built into the doorway header. Inside is a small altar w/ 2 reclining St. Francis statues & a large NSGuad statue in the center. In the upper left is a print of NSGuad & Juan Diego miracle scenes; on the right wall is a 11x14 print of reclining St. Francis. White stucco, 3m cubed, flat-roofed shrine, w/ 5 step faade & white metal door, inside is painted blue, floor is white tile. On a raised altar, which runs the width of the rear wall, is a glass encased reclining St. Francis statue and 30 votive candles, none lit. 2 gray metal cross w/ center name plates & interarm filigrees and fresh wreath; "Sr.?" White metal cross, center name plate, tiled area around it & lime green & orange wreath 2 white metal crosses, w/wreath, 1 insc. "Sr. Ofelia Diaz Ga, Recuerdo de padres y hmns" Both set in concrete w/ rocks piled around upright arm and 2 tires are nearby. Brick, 3m cubed nicho, with church-type facade its next to a gate going into a rancho. Black metal cross, center name plate "Mazo Antoni Overa E. 24-4-68, 17-3-98" White metal cross w/ center name plate & green & white wreath "Maria Salazar, QEPD, rcdo. ?" 3m square white block nicho w/ tin gabled roof &white metal cross centered in front w/filigrees. White metal door. Inside: a 1m tall statue of St. Jude &a smaller one to its left, on the wall are prints of NSGuad, Nino de Atocha, &Last Supper. Above those; black metal cross inscribed: Joven Gildardo Trojillo Valencia, 18 anos; 10 abril 1994, recuerdo de padres y hermanos 1m square, 1m tall concrete nicho w/shingled gable roof, & a 2x4 lumber cross centered in the front & a small x-fix attached to the upper vertical arm. Inside: print of NSGuad, 2S 58 2S 58 2S w e w 59 2S w 60 2S 60 2S 60 2S 61 2S 61 2S 62 2S 63 2S e e w e e w e 64 2S 64 w 269 SN298 SN299 SN300 SN301 SN302 SN303 SN304 SN305 SN306 SN307 SN308 SN309 SN310 6 floral arrangements and votive candles. Adjacent to 297. Beige concrete nicho w/ gray gabled roof, has 3 crosses atop. Inside: prints of nino de atocha, Jesus sacred heart, votive candles & flowers in disarray. 4 crosses, from north-to-south: white metal w/ roofed center name plate, Victor M. Vega Barajas, 8-3-71/8-12-90; black metal w/ center name plate that is unreadable due to weathering; slightly larger (1m tall) black metal w/ center name plate that was white w/ black inscription in black but is now worn off but has fresh flowers on it; gray metal w/ arm fallen down, center name plate: Prospero Romero Valenzuela, fallacio dic 8, 1990 a la edad de 17 anos, sus duedos dedican esta recuerdo QEPD has fresh purple flowers. White concrete cross w/ an angel on pedestal covered by astro-turf type carpeting & several wreaths. The cherub indicates that is probably a child. The inscription is hard to read but the dates; 1970 and 1979 and HERI are legible, indicating a nine-year-old died here. Homemade concrete cross w/inscription scratched into it: "Ramos ? 8-5-84" White concrete nicho, 2m square, w/ shingled gable roof. Has brown tile pillars, & a white metal cross centered in the front. Inside: a photo of a young boy centered, & built into the tiles of the rear wall. To its left is a 2 tall statue of St. Jude, a votive candle, and silk flowers on the floor. White metal cross w/ freshly poured concrete pad in front (future nicho?) 2 wreaths White concrete cross, on a hard curve, on a wedge concrete & stone pedestal, has an inscription plate Bronze metal cross on a wedge pedestal, clover-type; seemed fresh 1 white concrete nicho Brown concrete nicho w/ gable roof & 2m tall metal cross centered on the rear. Opening has 2 votive candles, 1 is lit. White homemade concrete cross 1 on wedge pedestal; 25m back off the pavement White metal cross w/ center name plate a) White metal cross w/ center name plate; Oscar Javier Hernandez, 4 mar 66/ 15 mar 98, familiares, amigos dedican esta recuerdo QEPD b) behind it is a small brown metal nicho, 0.5m square, w/ gabled roof & church type facade w/ cross centered in front. Padlocked door. 18 tall Statue of NSGuad, & several unlit votives are visible; a) and b) appear to go together as 1 recuerdo. c) To the left of b) is a black pipe cross w/ centered name plate; M. Enrique Cruz, june 15, 1972/mar 15, 1998, Jimanez (possibly a nickname) QEPD d) next to c) is a hand-made wood 2x4 cross, nicely done w/ edges skillfully routed and center name plate; Senor ? Mora, (same death date) 2S 64 2S e e 64 2S w 66 2S 66 2S w w 67 2S 67 2S 68 2S 68 68 69 2S 71 71 2S 2S w e w 2S 2S e e w w w 72 270 SN311 SN312 SN313 SN314 SN315 SN316 SN317 SN318 SN319 SN320 SN321 SN322 SN323 SN324 SN325 SN326 SN327 SN328 SN329 SN330 SN331 SN332 SN333 SN334 White metal cross on concrete pedestal, center name plate and fresh WREATH "Senor Javier ?" Down below a bridge abutment; white wooden cross on a red block pedestal "Enrique Gastim Jr." White concrete cross w/ fresh wreath and torn-up fenders Brick,3m square shrine, altar in the rear inside; under construction. Up on a hillside, in front of some white-painted rocks. a small concrete, gable-roofed, pink nicho with pink metal gate (open) & pink metal cross atop. Green metal cross & 1 white metal 2 identical white concrete cross w/ center name plates & fresh wreaths Black metal cross w/ center name plate "Dario R." I have photos of this, small turquoise nicho Gray pipe-type cross w/ center name plate Yellow brick, 3m cubed shrine w/ arched roof & white metal door. Area is outlined by slump blocks set on edge w/clean gravel inside the demarcated area. Inside: 2 sets of metal gratings, rear altar w/ 2.5 ft tall statue of NSGuad, 6 votive candles. White pipe-type cross, center name plate, wreath White concrete cross, center name plate Black metal cross, center name plate, inscribed in white Light blue, 1m square box-type nicho w/ square facade & cross centered atop front & NSGuad statue in front White concrete shrine to St. Jude, 1.5m square x 2m tall, green shingled gable roof, w/white wooden cross centered in the middle. Large (1m tall) statue of St. Jude inside in the center, 30 votives (at least 6 burning), a couple of floral bouquets. Pink tiles on the floor. White metal, outline-type cross, center name plate & pink wreath White metal cross, center name plate, w/ pointed arm tips painted brown On a hard curve. White nicho w/ white cross centered in rear "David Garcia E. 11-98/" rosary beads hanging from center of the cross, fresh bouquet of flowers, opening is bricked-up. Inside: 6 packs of cigarettes (Delicados & Raleighs), cough drops (Halls throat lozenges), matches, a bit of rope. White concrete cross on pedestal, inscription, fresh DOD flowers. 2 white metal double cross (one atop the other) on whitepainted concrete blocks; up on a road cut White concrete cross, center name plate, fresh red & pink wreath White metal cross up on a road cut about 4 ft above road level, on a concrete pedestal w/ open book Block & concrete nicho, w/ WI gate, "Denny" inscribed into 2S 72 2S 73 74 74 2S 74 76 76 77 77 79 2S 2S 2S 2S 2S 2S 2S 2S w w e e w w e e e w e 79 79 80 80 80 2S 2S 2S 2S 2S w w w e s? 80 2S 81 2S 82 2S w w w 82 2S 82 2S 83 2S 83 2S 83 83 2S e w e e w 271 SN335 SN336 SN337 SN338 SN339 SN340 SN341 SN342 SN343 SN344 SN345 SN346 SN347 SN348 SN349 SN350 SN351 SN352 SN353 SN354 SN355 SN356 SN357 SN358 SN359 SN360 the gate, Statues of Jesus Sacred Heart & NSGuad Black metal cross on concrete pedestal with a bunch of car parts around it Black metal cross almost entirely obscured by a wreath Gray pipe-type cross w/ fresh wreath White brick nicho, 1m cubed, w/ white cross centered atop front; in front of the nicho are 2 small wooden crosses set in concrete, 1 broken off. Granito arched nicho w/ 3m tall white metal outline-cross; in front is a small white concrete cross w/ black inscription. Nicho w/ Christ statue atop a volcanic plug 100m off the road. Cross off to its left. A line of white-washed rocks marking the trail to the nicho White metal outline-type cross, 1.5m tall, w/ wedge inscription plate in front White metal cross, inter-arm filigrees, center name plate w/ black inscription & a purple ribbon/bow Old, wooden, broken cross w/ wilted flowers Up on a hill. Concrete, pale blue & white, gable-roofed nicho w/ cross atop, 1.5ft tall x 2ft square; lots of votive candles. On a road cut 10ft above road level. box-type nicho of paving stones. statue ? White concrete cross, w/ pink & white wreath Black metal cross w/ wreath White concrete nicho w/white WI gate, white concrete cross centered atop front Concrete nicho, 1m cubed, slightly arched metal roof, black door (Locked) with heart-shaped filigree. NSGuad statue, 12 votive candles. 30m off the road, just inside private property; brick & concrete, gable-roofed, nicho w/ black metal cross centered atop the front, black WI door. Nothing inside. Gray metal cross w/ red & white wreath White pipe-cross & white wooden cross mounted on adjacent concrete pedestals at right angles to one another; around both were piled rocks. White metal gable-roofed nicho w/ x centered atop the front; .25m square White metal cross w/ inter-arm filigrees, center name plate w/ black inscription & a purple ribbon/bow White metal cross w/ center name plate White pipe-type cross w/ center name plate Rough wooden cross w/concrete footing & fresh DOD flowers 2 gray pipe-types cross w/ ball ends & wreaths White metal cross on pedestal w/ name plate below the cross arm Small, white, concrete nicho w/ gable roof 2S 83 84 85 85 2S 85 2S 78 2S 79 2S 80 81 82 2S 82 83 83 83 2S 85 2S 85 87 89 2S 91 2S 93 95 95 95 95 95 96 2S 2S 2S 2S 2S 2S 2S 2S 2S 2S 2S 2S 2S 2S 2S 2S e e w e w w e w w w e w w w w w e w e w w e e e e w 272 SN361 SN362 SN363 SN364 SN365 SN366 SN367 SN368 SN369 SN370 Under construction; 1m cubed nicho, shows what may be typical method of construction. Finished it looks like concrete; in this stage, it is brick that will be stuccoed over. Small white concrete nicho w/metal gable roof; 2ft cubed, the opening is only about 6" square Just on the outskirts of Cananea w/ long stairway & large cross (concrete, 25ft tall). Shrine is about 5m cubed, w/ red gabled roof & domed facade in the rear & a mission facade in front w/ belfries & crosses atop & an arch in the middle. Inside: center on a pedestal that sits off the floor is a 1m tall statue of St. Jude, directly above it is a 1.5m tall x-fix, to the left of it is another pedestal about 1.5m tall w/ a 1.5m tall statue of NSGuad. To the right of the St.Jude/x-fix is another pedestal 0.5m tall with a reclining St. Francis about 18 long; another pedestal about 1.5m tall has a 1ft tall Nino de Atocha statue, 1m above that a third pedestal on the right has a 1ft long reclining St. Francis encased in a wood & glass cabinet. All of this is behind a full-length heavy gray WI gate that is chained and locked, on either side of the gate are 3 metal votive shelves welded onto the WI, each w/ 6-12 candles on it; currently about 12 are burning. The stairway and walkway are landscaped with desert-type plants & the interesting thing is that there is no indication who built it & there are no offering boxes. Gray concrete nicho w/ galvanized metal gable roof White concrete cross Unpainted concrete, gabled nicho1 under construction. Just to its left is a rock painting of NSGuad 2-tone green, concrete, 2m cubed, shrine w/ gable roof & 1 belfry and a cross atop. Chili peppers painted on the side of the belfry, chapel to St. Jude. On a bluff about 20 ft above the road and 20 ft off to the west. 4-5m square & 6m tall, white stucco shrine w/ bronzepainted belfries & centered cross on either side & gable roof facade. Inside: 2 kneelers, bronze WI gate, central figure is reclining St. Frances 4ft long, above that (about 1.5m off the floor) is a raised altar w/ centered St. Jude print & 12 tall statue of same, to its right is Jesus Sacred Heart print. There is large (3.5 m tall x 2m wide) rectangular concrete marker right out on the bluff that marks this spot and it has a large parking area. White metal nicho, 1ft cubed, w/ cross centered in front atop gabled roof, sitting on a white painted barrel. 7 white wooden identical crosses in the same footing w/ red wreaths, enclosed by a WI fence w/ belfry-type corners w/ crosses atop of each belfry and a cross in the middle of a gabled section, front crosses yellow, rear blue. Centered in the rear 2ft off the ground attached to the WI work is a small glass & metal nicho box. Inside is a small 5x7 print of St. Martin de Porres, 3 votives, 3x5 print of NS de Lourdes, and 2S 96 2S 100 2S w e e 100 102 103 104 2S 2S 2S 2S e w w e w 105 2S 106 2S 106 2S e e 108 273 SN371 SN372 SN373 SN374 SN375 SN376 SN377 SN378 SN379 SN380 SN381 3x5 print of Jesus Sacred Heart (neither framed), and visitation pebbles. Inscriptions: Jose; a different Jose; Estanaslau; Beca Miranda; Ruben; Alphonso handpainted inscriptions are almost worn off, the only date I got was 1998 White metal cross, center name plate bordered in green; "Jesse". on concrete pedestal, red flowers. Brown metal pipe-type cross w/ center name plate A-frame metal nicho that is bent into a triangle (I have a photo of this one) White concrete nicho, 1m square, 1.5m tall, sheet metal gable roof; has white metal cross w/center name plate centered in front on top with 4 batteries arranged around the cross; large stone holding door closed. 'Capillita' scratched into the white paint on the concrete facing of the gable roof. Inside is painted light blue: print of St. Jude in center w/ another print of NSGuad with the pope below it, on the left wall are 2 NSGuad and a NS Senora del Sagrada Corazon prints, on right wall are Christ crucified, Christ w/ crown of thorns, and Christ (pre-suffering) prints. 3 votive candles, 1 burning. An elderly gentleman pulled out from a side road in a red pickup truck while we were there, and he blessed himself as he passed by the shrine. Small gray metal, gable roof nicho & metal cross centered atop in front White wooden cross, 1m tall, w/ stones painted white around it & blue wreath Brick nicho, 10ft above the road on a bank, 3ft cubed, gabled tin roof, front facade & cross w/ center name plate 2 white concrete gable-roofed nichos w/ crosses centered atop, metal doors. 1st one had NSGuad statue, 2nd had a St. Jude. 2 white metal crosses w/ inter-arm filigrees, center name plates on single concrete pad; both had red wreath Hot, shockingly pink shrine to NSGuad made of metal; sits up on a knoll 15ft beyond the private property line. There is a welded metal set of steps, set in concrete, going over the barbed wire fence; painted the same color. Rear wall of the shrine is a 4ft tall image of NSGuad on a piece of thick metal; inside are 25-30 votive candles (none lit), bunches of plastic floral bouquets. Just as we were getting back into the car a trucker drove by and as he passed he crossed himself. Large shrine, central figure is St. Francis. Concrete, 4m square, gabled roof, has a large front facade w/ belfries &a center outline, bronze-painted cross w/ center & top sunbursts. 2 arched windows. Inside: bronze-painted trim, a double altar, a locked grating & 6 votives (2 lit). A reclining St. Francis about 1m long is the central figure, above that on the raised altar is x-fix, to the right a St. Martin de Porres statue, to the left is a NSGuad print, to its left is a Mary 2S 108 110 112 2S 2S 2S w w e w 112 2S 112 2S 114 2S 114 2S 116 2S 117 2S e e w e w w 118 2S w 120 274 SN382 SN383 SN384 SN385 SN386 SN387 SN388 SN389 SN390 SN391 SN392 SN393 SN394 SN395 Queen of Heaven print, a nino de atocha statue, a print of an unidentified saint, St. Jude statue 2.5ft tall, &Jesus Sacred Heart print. The same JSH print is to the right, below it is a print of a female saint holding a palm frond and a plate with 2 eyeballs on it (St. Lucy), and there is a large framed string art NSGuad. White concrete crosses w/ urns on either side, on a concrete pedestal White concrete cross 3 white concrete cross, smaller than the others White wood cross in a concrete base Small metal nicho box 6" cubed, painted blue, arched roof & x centered in front, drop-down door inscribed "Sr Francisco Javier Luzana Ibarra nacio 1-11-56, fallacio 11-7-92, QEPD 'Macizo'" on the left side is painted in black Te recuerdantus padres, tu esposa y hijos y hermanos on the other side Senorproteje a todos mis companeros de cualquiere pellegroy permiteles vovler a sus hogares. Amen Lord protect all of my friends from whatever danger and permit them to return to their homes. Amen Yep, thats what this is all about, just getting to see that. Ever so humble. Small metal nicho, the one with the carnation instant drink in front that I have a photo of Large NSGuad rock painting referenced in Griffith. It has a little nicho underneath, dozens of votive candles, 6 fresh floral bouquets; up above the painting of the Virgin there are 2 little stands with a Jesus Sacred Heart & a St. Jude statues. Quite an impressive structure. Theres a fountain painted below the niche ledge and it actually says who donated it: Patrocenado por hermanos Cordova another little niche is built into the rocks on the right & a large structure that is 4m cubed w/ gabled roof and 2x4 cross, iron gratings. Its empty but its certainly big enough to take shelter in; theres nice vegetation planted around the area. The trucker stopped here is fiddling with his truck; obviously this is a major place where people stop along this route and everyone is pretty aware of it. White concrete cross, 1.5m tall, on a wedge pedestal (seen thru rear view mirror) White pipe-type cross w/ center name plate Black metal cross w/ tips gold-painted & DOD flowers White metal cross, 1m tall, center name plate, inter-arm filigrees 3 white metal crosses center name plates & inter-arm filigrees, all the same. One inscribed "Ernesto", another "Mario". Black metal cross, spear-point ends, one arm broken off Large white metal cross (2m tall) "Papa", flowers, stones piled up around the concrete base of the cross 275 2S 123 123 129 130 2S 2S 2S 2S e w w w e 133 2S 134 2S e e 137 2S 137 138 138 138 2S 139 139 140 2S 2S e w e 2S 2S 2S e e w w SN396 SN397 SN398 SN399 SN400 SN401 SN402 SN403 2 black metal crosses, one with 3 name plates. From N-S: "Luis Fernando Martinez, 14 mayo 91" "Otron Descara Martinez, same date" "Efran Felipe Maldonaldo, same date" second cross is also for Efran, 2-4-72/5-14-90. 2 crosses, 3 deaths. White concrete cross on wedge pedestal; "Elizar Ernesto Leon Rivera, 13-10-48/17-9-92, recuerdo de sus chofres" his fellow drivers, he was probably a bus driver. Sacred Heart statue on a concrete pedestal w/ a bunch of votive candles in front. Luis Enrique Garcia Arizmende, 22-jan-72/13-aug-97, hermosos recuerdos nos dejaste de tu breve paso por la vida; recuerdo de tus companeros QEPD the builders signed in the wet concrete: Gera Tony Enrique Corecamos Manuel Sylvia Cranky Estaban Alvira Lola Franco Herico Miel the slab w/ printed inscription is marble, which is pretty rare. White concrete nicho, 1m cubed, gable roofed w/ cross atop, votive candles inside and a frame w/o a picture 3 crosses w/ whitewashed stones around them, covered w/ plastic flowers, one (white metal, inter-arm filagrees, center name plate) has fresh wreath "Aqui murio mi hijo el 22 sept 1995, Juan Chaparo C. a la edad de 28 anos, sus padres, hermanos y mas familia lo recuerderan siempre QEPD" to its left is a brown metal w/ center name plate: Aqui murio Jesus Manuel Acosta G., a la edad de 26 anos, sus padres, espose y hijos siempre lo recuerdan between these two in a gully is a white 2x4 wooden cross w/ a pile of rocks & cement around it &a bunch of imitation flowers. Concrete, gable-roofed nicho, .25square & .5m tall, begin 2.5m tall white concrete cross w/ Christ painted on it. In front of it is a granito cross/pedestal, inscribed: "Cristobal Franco Canales Velasco, aug 15, 1954/mayo 1, 1984; recuerdo de su hermana Adela y su amigo Juan de Dios Garcia, Triste quedo nuestro hogar sin su sombra querida se fue que dandonos la noblesa de su alma y la vondad de su corazon que sea tu volutad y que descanse eternamiente en vostro reino celestial. Next to it, is what makes it so awesome; is a 1m square & 3m tall pillar w/ St. Francis painted on one side, Virgin of Guadalupe another and a marble inscription that says: Hos. Amare en el cielo como hos ame en la tierra y valare por vosotras, Cristobal F. Canales Velasco 8-15-54/5-18-84, Padre nuestro perdonolos on a third side is painted 3 crosses on a mountain above a village. Shrine to Juan Soldado. Concrete, 3m square, w/ tin gabled roof, metal outline cross atop, & a WI gate. A metal plate above the door with a Virgin of Guadalupe centered at the top, under it; Anima del purgatorio Juan Soldado, 15 feb 90 Inside is a very plain altar with a statue of Juan Soldado w/ 5 votive candles, 4 are San Martin Caballero, 2 are lit and 2S w 141 2S 142 2S w w 143 2S 143 2S w w 143 145 2S 2S w e 146 2S e 146 276 SN404 SN405 wSN11a SN407 SN408 SN409 SN410 SN411 SN412 SN413 SN414 SN415 SN416 SN417 SN418 SN419 SN420 SN421 SN422 SN423 SN424 SN425 SN426 SN427 SN428 SN429 SN649 are enclosed in 4 large adobe blocks. Sprigs of juniper are laying about. Newly constructed concrete shrine, 2m square & 3m tall, w/ gabled roof and red-brown pipe cross centered in front, 14x20 print of NSGuad inside. Block nicho w/ white WI gate & white metal cross atop front, 4ft cubed Junction of 2S & 15S White metal, gable roofed nicho w/ white metal cross atop Open shrine to Guadalupe & at a pull-off area w/ taquerias etc. Gray concrete cross, 1m tall, on 1m tall pillar, w/ black crucifix in the middle White concrete, gable-roofed nicho 3 white cross, 2 concrete, 1 wood 2 white metal cross w/ inter-arm filigrees White metal cross, 1m tall, outline-type Newly constructed concrete shrine, 2m square & 3m tall, w/ gabled roof &red-brown pipe cross centered in front, 14x20 print of NSGuad inside. White metal cross w/ inter-arm filigrees Black metal cross w/ center name plate & inter-arm filigrees @ intersection of free road to Magdalena & toll road to Hermosillo. White metal cross w/center name plate & inter-arm filigrees, adjacent to a bridge abutment; "Gerardo" 2 white concrete cross w/2 urns each & red wreaths Black metal cross w/ center name plate & filigrees @ intersection of free road to Magdalena & toll road to Hermosillo. White metal cross w/ inter-arm filigrees & center name plate, obscured by new wreath White granito nicho, arch-roofed w/ cross centered in front, inside painted blue; 2ft square & 3ft tall, flowers & votive candles inside 3ft cubed, gray concrete, gable roof nicho w/ gray cross centered atop and a purple bow tied to it, metal gate, flowers & votive candles White metal cross White concrete cross White concrete cross w/ red wreath White granito nicho, gable-roofed, 3ft tall Up on a hill, about 200ft off the road, shrine w/ brick stairway up to it. Brick, 4m cubed, 2 windows & metal gate on front door, a brick cross. Wedge monument cross w/cross missing Large (3m cubed) brick nicho w/o roof, inside; 2m tall concrete cross w/ fresh yellow & white wreath Intersection 15S & 2N; stone shrine, 10m tall Virgin of 2S 146 2S 148 148 149 149 15S 150 150 150 151 157 157 157 158 15S 160 160 162 15S 164 15S 165 15S 166 168 169 169 169 170 172 172 174 15S 15S 15S 15S 15S 15S 15S 2N 15S 15S 15S 15S 15S 15S 15S 15S 15S 15S 15S 15S w e e e e w m w m e e w e e e w e w w w m e e w m w 277 SN430 SN431 SN432 SN433 SN434 SN435 SN436 SN437 SN438 SN439 SN440 SN441 SN442 SN443 SN444 SN445 SN446 SN447 Guadalupe, with a fountain or something beneath White metal cross White metal cross w/ inter-arm filigrees & wreath White concrete cross on a concrete wedge pedestal Atop a bridge abutment; small brown wooden cross w/ a votive candle in front of it Black pipe-type cross w/ center name plate Black metal cross & 1 black wood Large white metal cross 1m square, box-type nicho w/white concrete centered atop in the rear White metal Nicho, 1 w/gable roof & white metal x centered atop in front; 3ft tall White concrete 2x1x2m nicho, cross centered in front of gabled roof; inside; 1m tall concrete cross & lit votive candle. 2 white metal cross White metal cross w/ filigrees & pointed tips, red wreath 3 white metal cross, maybe a nicho under the middle one 1m tall white concrete cross, concrete pedestal w/open book White concrete shrine, 4wide x 5deep, enclosed, open area supported by pillars, gable roof. WI gate w/a cross over the portal into interior, 2 windows on either side; all metal painted bronze. Inside: rear altar has 2 crosses; on the right one is inscribed Mario Sierra N. the other Marisella Q.C. & there is an open book between them, inscribed Mario Sierra Norzacery, aug ? 1944/sept 24, ?; QEPD, recuerdo de su mama, esposa, hijos, y hermanos & there are 3 bouquets of flowers & the remains of legs & arms of some sort of statue. Something I dont normally do but I just did; there was a plastic bag all rolled up, and I unrolled it; inside was some tissue paper, and I unrolled that; inside was cellophane packet all taped which I did not untape. Inside of it was a red cloth bag and by feel, it seemed as if it contained a chain with at least 2 medallions inside of it. And the reason this is the first and last time Ill ever pry into other peoples stuff is because when I went to walk back in (I went outside to see better) I forgot that the doorway is quite low and I smacked my head pretty good. [Actually I nearly knocked myself out on the metal door header and made a pretty good gash on my forehead]. Shit, I look retarded with this napkin hanging from my head. Cindys laughing so hard shes crying Light blue pipe-cross, w/ filigrees & spear-point end, center name plate; "INRI, Jose Luis M.H. 18-06-91 edad 32 anos, DEP, recuerdo de sus amigos" set in concrete w/rocks at base & a beer bottle. Black metal cross w/ inter-arm filigrees and center name plate on concrete pedestal & fresh wreath White metal outline-type cross w/ inter-arm filigrees, center 278 176 176 183 184 187 187 188 188 2N 2N 2N 2N 2N 2N 2N 2N 2N w w e w w w e e w e e w e w e 193 2N 193 195 195 197 199 2N 2N 2N 2N 2N 199 2N 199 2N 199 201 2N e e w SN448 SN449 SN450 SN451 SN452 SN453 SN454 SN455 SN456 SN457 SN458 SN459 SN460 SN461 SN462 SN463 SN464 SN465 SN466 SN467 SN468 SN469 SN470 SN471 SN472 name plate & wreath White metal cross, w/ inter-arm filigrees, center name plate; "El Cute" Weathered wooden cross just in front of a bridge abutment Weathered wooden cross Green metal cross & light blue metal nicho on a blue metal pole 1m tall w/ gabled roof, 1ft cubed; flowers. Black pipe-type cross & 1 white concrete; the white was directly behind the black one White concrete cross w/ black inscription & 1 white metal w/ inter-arm filigree White metal cross w/ inter-arm filigrees, center name plate and a red & white wreath 4x3x3m white concrete nicho w/ shed roof & white WI gate 1m cubed box-type nicho w/ NSGuad print affixed to the rear wall, 4 votives Black metal cross w/ pointed ends, center name plate and green & yellow wreath White concrete cross w/ cloth draped around the horizontal arms, inscription & pedestal; granito 5 white pipe-types crosses w/ center name plates, 4 the same height-one smaller White concrete cross 2 white pipe-types cross w/ center name plates, identical & on the same pedestal w/ identical blue wreaths Black metal cross, inter-arm filigree, center name plate White metal outline-type cross on concrete pedestal Black metal outline-type cross on concrete pedestal that was knocked over; "R.Z." 2 white metal outline-types cross w/ inter-arm filigrees, both w/ baby blue wreaths & on the same pedestal 4 white metal cross w/ filigrees & center name plates on a 2tiered pedestal w/open book in front & fresh bouquet of DOD flowers. The open book inscription: Alla en el cielo donde sus almas moran, recuerdan por sus esposas, hijos que sus aucencias lloran; Virginia, Jose, Raphael, Carlos descansan en paz, San Ignacio, Sonora White metal cross w/ filigrees on the ends & WI fence around it. In a concrete slab hand enscribed: "Para Joachin Tonotito, Tonito". Wooden handmade lumber cross, rather plain & 1 black metal Wood cross 2 white metal crosses on one pedestal w/ wreaths White metal cross w/ center name plate & filigrees on the edges of the name plate Large arch (6m across x 5m deep x 3m high) made of concrete. The front is of WI and the floor is tiled and the back wall is painted light blue. There is an altar about 1m off 2N 203 204 205 205 2N 214 2N 217 2N 218 222 223 2N 224 2N 225 2N 226 226 228 228 229 229 2N 230 2N 2N 2N 2N 2N 2N 2N 2N 2N 2N 2N e w w e e e w w w w w e e w e e e e e 231 2N 231 2N 233 233 233 233 2N 234 w 2N 2N 2N e e e w w 279 SN473 SN474 SN475 SN476 SN477 SN478 SN479 SN480 SN481 SN482 SN483 SN484 SN485 SN486 SN487 SN488 SN489 SN490 SN491 SN492 SN493 SN494 SN495 SN496 SN497 the floor and the only figure is a glass encased NS de Fatima, 3 votive candles burning and 2 wreaths of plastic flowers. Black metal cross, inter-arm filigree, center name plate Light blue pipe-type cross, w/center name plate Home made monument w/ 2 granito white granito crosses & wedge nameplate: "Brenda Guadalupe Oliver de Harano; Juan Carlos Patino Moreno 8 jul 1998" both w/ wreaths. Cream-colored metal outline-type cross, buried in soil up to the cross arms, fresh DOD flowers 4 black metal cross on one pedestal, all w/ fresh wreaths Home made nicho 3 black metal cross White concrete cross w/ 2 urns Unpainted concrete nicho w/ black metal cross centered atop w/ red DOD flowers White metal cross w/ center name plate; now in Caborca Large 2x4 white painted wood cross stuck in a 50 gal barrel full of concrete, in a rest area Rust red shrine & yellow trim on 3-tiered pedestal, w/yellow concrete cross centered in rear, a caution triangle above the doorway, flowers; St. Francis & NSGuad prints. White concrete, gable roof nicho w/ wings, metal & glass door, white concrete cross next to it; "Ignacio Alverez F." fresh DOD flowers & print of NSGuad inside. White concrete, granito nicho, w/ small tile nicho under it: "Mateo Urriquez A. 12-16-79" White homemade concrete cross White box nicho w/ cross inside: "Jorillio Perez Corona; 1987?" remains of a white concrete cross atop Large granito white concrete cross w/ 2 urns & wedge name plate w/ lots of DOD flowers; 1.5m tall Wooden cross & 1 white metal on concrete pedestal w/ flowers Black metal cross w/ inter-arm filigrees & center name plate w/ white painted inscription White concrete cross w/ brown pot on a vertical post facing opposite direction, on a pedestal White metal cross w/ center name plate & inter-arm filigrees Black metal outline-type cross w/ center name plate w/ white inscription on a pedestal; sits on a tilt White metal cross w/ center name plate up on a road cut bank Stucco & block nicho 0.5m square, blue double pipe cross beside it: "Benjamin" fresh flowers; nicho foundation has scratched into it: "Benjamin Algilar Leon nacia enero 5, 1949/ mar 19, 1988, Cabezon". 2 white concrete cross; "Magdelena Almazica Cota oct 9, 1983" "Eurelia C. ?? Almazica oct 9, 1983" 234 234 235 2N 2N 2N 2N e w e w e w w w e w w e e e w w e e e w e e w e 235 235 236 236 236 237 238 245 2N 2N 2N 2N 2N 2N 2N 2N 245 2N 245 2N 250 252 254 2N 259 2N 260 2N 263 2N 263 270 274 2N 275 2N 284 2N 285 e 2N 2N 2N 2N 280 SN498 SN499 SN500 SN501 SN502 SN503 SN504 SN505 SN506 SN507 SN508 SN509 SN510 SN511 SN512 SN513 SN514 SN515 SN516 SN517 SN518 SN519 White concrete cross on pedestal w/ open book & huge array of DOD flowers White concrete cross on pedestal 1.5ft tall granito arch roofed nicho w/ cross centered in front Beige metal outline-type cross on concrete pedestal Black metal cross w/ a ball on top w/ 3 stars Red, white & blue metal cross w/ fresh wreath White metal cross w/ heart-shaped center name plate, interarm filigrees & flowers White concrete cross on wedge pedestal, mounted on another pedestal, black outlines painted on it & inscription. Adobe brick nicho w/ red shingled gable roof, large bouquet of red flowers Tres Capillas (3 shrines). There is a picnic bench & grill here & plenty of room to park. 1st chapel has NSGuad in tile on the outside, its 3m cubed, w/ sunburst outline metal cross atop & a yellow & red arch over it. Inside: the arch is duplicated, a large string art [20x30] NSGuad, lots of votives [30-40 lit]. 2nd or middle shrine has 2 Nio de Atocha statues, one encased in a glass & wood cabinet, 20 votives lit. 3rd chapel has 3 large statues of St. Jude, 25 votives burning. See Text. Nicho on a brick foundation. "Martin Valezquez 1 enero 1996, recuerdo de sus companeros" Lots of debris around this one & a tie knotted onto the cross atop the nicho. White concrete cross w/ white rocks around it White concrete cross w/ a pebble atop the vertical arm White metal cross, center name plate, inter-arm filigrees, 1.5m tall 2 white metal cross & 1 black metal White concrete cross on pedestal Nicho w/ lots of votives, gabled roof, cross atop Gray metal outline-type cross w/ center name plate & pointed tips; set in concrete White concrete, gable-roofed, open-faced nicho w/3 black metal crosses atop & votives and a print of Christ w/ crown of thorns inside. 1.5 wide & tall and .5m deep. Pink concrete, gable roofed, open-faced nicho with 2 pink metal outline-type crosses w/sunbursts & filigrees & fresh wreaths & bronze-painted center name plates. 1.5m wide & tall, .25m deep. 2 paint brushes lying on floor. White concrete block nicho, 4x4x3m, tin gable roof, black metal cross w/ spear-point ends & inter-arm filigrees atop, lots of votive candles & flowers. Inside is a white wooden cross w/SARH emblem & "Salvador Saldivar A. El Chavo may 12, 1960/Aug16, 1994, recuerdo de sus companeros y amigos wreath on it, more flowers off to the side in an old votive glass, a dozen votives, bust of Jesus suffering, statue 2N 287 287 290 291 291 295 295 2N 299 2N 302 2N 2N 2N 2N 2N 2N 2N e w w w e w e w e e 316 317 317 318 318 320 321 321 321 325 2N 2N 2N 2N 2N 2N 2N 2N 2N 2N w e e w e w e e w e e 326 2N 327 2N e 328 281 wSN18 SN520 SN521 SN522 SN523 SN524 SN525 SN526 SN527 SN528 SN529 SN530 SN531 SN532 SN533 SN534 of Jesus Sacred Heart, and some flowers. Intersection 2N & 2W at Sonoyta 2 white concrete, gable-roofed shrines, 1 faces west, 1 faces north. The north facing is gabled w/ wings, open-faced, has a high altar and inside is 1 votive candle. The west facing has a black WI gate, white tile floor & altar. Cent. Image is NSGuad, to left is St. Jude, to right is Jesus Sacred Heart, all are prints laquered onto wood plaques. The altar has 20 votives. Both are 1.5m sq x 2m tall. White metal cross w/ red flowers Blue metal cross w/ filigrees 2 black metal cross w/ scrolls Un-finished shrine to StJude in a pull-out. 3m cubed, flatroof w/ dome atop, arched doorway. Inside; 11x18 print of SJ, 12of14 votive candles burning. Behind print is 16" tall SJ statue w/o head & piece of plywood w/ hand-painted SJ. White concrete cross w/ flowers in front White arch-roofed nicho w/ 2 urns in front filled w/ plastic flowers; in front of a black metal outline cross w/ filigrees & scroll w/ wreath. Poorly built metal nicho made of tan siding & wood frame, white metal cross in front, small open-book, & whitewashed rocks making a trail. The inscription in the scroll; Gerardo, 22 anos, 27-10-96, QEPD Laying around the site; a rearview mirror from a car, water pressure gauge, a horseshoe at the apex of the gable. Inside, which opens away from the road, is a full bottle of Corona beer and a fuel gauge. White concrete nicho w/ a crucifix atop, in disrepair Black metal, angle-iron cross, on a concrete slab w/ flowers Small box-nicho [8 sq] made of angle iron and wire-mesh, has a can w/ faded flowers in it and is padlocked with a pretty heavy-duty lock. Laying on top of the box is a cassette tape. Has an outline cross, 1m tall, inscribed; Juan Ramon Guitierrez Sandoval, nacio 1-feb-1966/ murio 24-apr-1995, recuerdos del Pelone y el Loco, MONY, DEP 10m west of that is a smaller cross with a box nicho made of sheet metal, also padlocked, 1 ft square, has a Virgin of Guadalupe statue 6 tall and a framed photograph that looks like it is glued to the back of the nicho, its all faded but you can tell that it is a person. Also a votive candle inside, 2 rocks atop the nicho and behind it a 0.5m tall metal cross with reflectors on it facing east & west; it is inscribed; DEP, Eduardo Gonzales Mendoza, nacio 14-1-71, fallacio 24-4-95, Dios te guarde Small white nicho, 2 ft tall w/ gable roof "Rolando Guitierez" white granito nicho, .75m tall, cross atop rear, a black metal outline-type, blue inside White metal outline-type cross w/ scroll White metal cross w/ filigrees & scroll and a pile of rocks almost covering it; 282 330 2N 2W s 331 333 333 334 2W 2W 2W 2W n n s n 335 336 337 2W 2W 2W s s n 338 339 340 2W 2W 2W n n n 341 341 343 343 346 2W 2W 2W 2W s n s n SN535 SN536 SN537 SN538 SN539 SN540 SN541 SN542 SN543 SN544 SN545 SN546 SN547 SN548 SN549 SN550 SN551 SN552 SN553 SN554 SN555 SN556 SN557 SN558 SN559 SN560 SN561 SN562 SN563 SN564 SN565 Black metal cross w/ scroll White metal cross on a concrete pedestal, 1m tall, lots of flowers, "8-feb-32/19aug-75" White concrete cross w/ Christ figure; 10m off road. Enclosed in a white WI fence White granito cross on a pedestal White granito, flat-roofed nicho w/ light blue pipe cross atop front & an arch over the cross & nicho on a brick med, glass door, flowers. 2 black [males], 2 gold[females], 1 white cross, larger than the others 2 white granito cross on a pedestal 3 white metal crosses on one pedestal; "Jose Ortiz, 24 anos" "Jose ?, 27 anos" "Zano, 32 anos" flowers, all died 21-9-99. Visitation pebbles, votive candles, flowers. pipe cross w/ pink tips White nicho w/ broken granito cross in rear 50m off road; white granito, gable-roofed nicho w/ cross atop rear White metal, gable roofed nicho w/ metal cross atop front & metal & glass door Pink concrete nicho, [6" tall] box-type & cross[1m tall] Turquoise tile nicho, 1x.25x.25m, curved & winged gable roof w/ cross atop front, in disrepair. In front is a concrete oval curb in which are 4 white pipe crosses. White-washed rocks leading up to a red, white & green open shrine, lots of flowers, half way up is a cross White outline-type, metal cross White metal outline-type cross w/ flowers White metal cross w/ scroll & the remains of a Transportes del Norte emblem White concrete cross White granito, gable-roofed nicho w/ white cross atop rear 3 white metal cross w/ filigrees & scrolls and 1 black metal w/ filigrees & scroll Black metal outline-type cross w/ filigrees & scroll Triple white cross, the one in the middle was smaller than the other 2 Black metal outline-type cross 2 black metal crosses w/ fresh flowers 2 white granito crosses w/ fresh flowers on pedestals White granito cross stylized 3-D diamond-shaped on a pedestal Unpainted concrete box-type nicho w/ platform in front, 2 urns & rusted metal cross atop rear Black metal cross w/ yellow tips Brick nicho w/ 2 white crosses atop White granito cross w/ 2 urns on a pedestal; "Jose Luis Gutierrez, jun 2, 1979" is quite weathered 347 347 2W 2W 2W n n s n n n s s n s n n s s s n n n s s s s s s n n s s n n s 347 348 349 2W 2W 2W 351 353 353 353 354 362 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 362 364 366 2W 2W 2W 366 369 369 369 369 369 372 372 373 373 374 375 377 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 380 380 381 381 2W 2W 2W 283 SN566 SN567 SN568 SN569 SN570 SN571 SN572 SN573 SN574 SN575 SN576 SN577 SN578 SN579 SN580 SN581 SN582 SN583 Wood cross [2x2 lumber] set in concrete White wood cross; very fancy w/ red/brown border; "DEP ?Lopez P.,fallcio 5apr93 edad 35 anos" auto parts scattered around nearby. White metal cross w/filigrees, pointed tips & scroll & flowers Metal cross obscured by wreath and 1 white granito w/ 2 urns & open-book wedge pedestal White granito, Maltese-style cross 2 concrete crosses on a pedestal, broken urns, lots of visitation pebbles, pebbles & a lantern battery. Inscr; "Andreas Cavata N., recuerdo de su primo, JRN""Carlos Rodriguez, recuerdo de su amigo". Black metal outline type cross, lots of flowers Black pipe-type cross w/ pink tips Block, flat-roofed nicho w/ arched facade, front edge is painted green, interior is red, looks like it had a cross atop front. Very weathered. 5 votives & fresh flowers. White metal cross w/ heart-shaped filigrees White concrete, gable-roofed nicho w/ black metal outline cross atop rear w/ filigrees & scroll, 2ft sq, flowers A very unusual death marker; it is a pile of rocks and a piece of ironwood or mesquite and an inner tube with the letters INRI painted on it in blue paint. The top rock has Borrego painted on it, the paint can lid and brushes are laying around. There is nothing indicating that this turns-off to any place and I take it to be a death site. Everything except the paint was stuff that could be scrounged from the desert. Note; no concrete, because it takes water to make it and theres no water nearby. This shows the lengths that people will go to in making a memorial, even where it is far, far from any place or resources. 2 white concrete crosses on pedestals, 2ft tall, flowers White cross w/ flowers White concrete cross, 2m tall, 50m off road Yellow pipe-type cross w/ red inscription on center scroll, up on a road-cut 2 white metal cross w/ scrolls The remains of a gable-roofed nicho w/metal cross, filigrees & a white stucco shrine, 4m sq, w/ double-domed roof each w/ a cross atop & there is large star of David on the top. Brown tile patio, white tile interior, padlocked. Central figure is an 11x14 print of the face only of NSGuad, next to it is a round framed Nino de Atocha print, on the left is a Jesus sacred heart statue, 4ft tall, on the right is a St Jude statue 4ft tall, each with their own niche & a basket w/ visitation pebbles in it, showing that leaving a pebble and lighting a candle are exactly equal. People also toss coins at the basket because there are coins scattered on the floor near the basket. Also an electric chandelier hanging from one of 284 383 385 2W 2W 2W n n n s s n 387 2W 391 395 2W 2W 396 396 396 396 397 401 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W n n s s n n 401 403 405 405 407 408 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W n n s n n s 408 SN584 SN585 SN586 SN587 SN588 SN589 SN590 SN591 SN592 SN593 SN594 SN595 SN596 SN597 SN598 SN599 SN600 SN601 SN602 SN603 SN604 SN605 SN606 SN607 SN608 SN609 SN610 SN611 the domes, there are 2 sconces w/o candles mounted on the wall. Outside are very nice desert plantings. Domed open nicho/shrine w/ cross in front empty, has a brick wall on the west; 200ft off road White granito, arch-roofed, empty shrine 2 small shrines made of concrete & local stone, one w/ metal & glass door w/small nino de atocha statue w/1 votive candle lit. Cross centered in front made of rocks. 2nd nicho, arched & open-faced w/ NSGuad print, 9 votives, none lit. Large shrine is concrete, shed-roofed w/ 4-step facade & concrete cross centered in front. Central figure is ST Martin of Porres, there are 2 statues [looks like there used to be 3] & a print of same; lots of little photos. In a corner is the remains of a st jude statue. Laid into concrete pedestal this is built on is a cross of various tiles. Black metal cross1 w/ filigrees & scroll in a bucket of concrete Metal cross w/ a ribbon hanging on it Brown metal cross w/ spear-point tips & scroll w/ white inscription Black metal cross w/ filigrees White granito arch-roof, nicho; metal & glass door, & 2 crosses Blue concrete nicho w/ cross atop, arch-roof Black metal cross w/ blue inscription; "Daniel" Wood cross, 1.5m tall, looks like varnished plywood w/ a metal cross inlaid in the crux; a tie hangs from the wood upright member. White metal cross w/ scroll, spear-point tips & red & green stripes painted on White metal cross w/ scroll; "Sra Sylvia Alguilar L. feb71/jun99" 2 urns w/ flowers; all on a concrete base 3 white concrete cross 4 white metal cross w/ filigrees & scrolls White concrete cross on pedestals, 2ft tall, flowers White box-type nicho, 1.5m sq, w/ 1m tall concrete cross inside on a pedestal White granito Maltese-type cross; "alejandro" Black metal cross w/ filigrees, scroll & spear-point tips White granito box-type nicho w/ cross in rear White & yellow metal cross w/ filigrees & scroll White, arch-roofed nicho w/ metal cross atop rear White metal cross w/ filigrees & scroll on concrete pedestal, spear-point tips Blue wood cross [1x2 lumber], 1m tall White granito nicho w/ cross atop, Maltese-style 1m cubed, gable-roofed open-faced nicho White granito cross on pedestal, 1.5m tall White metal cross w/ filigree & scroll on white concrete 2W 411 411 2W 2W n n n 411 2W 416 418 421 422 424 424 425 426 2W 427 2W 429 430 430 431 431 431 435 436 439 439 440 441 441 442 443 446 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W s s s s s s s s s n n s s s n s n 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W n s n n n n s n 285 SN612 SN613 SN614 SN615 SN616 SN617 SN618 wB44 wSN06 SN284 SN283 SN282 SN281 SN280 SN279 SN278 SN277 SN276 SN275 SN274 SN273 SN272 SN271 SN270 SN269 SN268 SN267 SN266 SN265 SN264 pedestal w/ flowers White metal outline-type cross w/ ribbons on it Small concrete A-frame nicho w/wooden cross on it Wood cross w/ scroll White metal cross w/ scroll, 2ft tall, rusty White granito cross on pedestal "Maria" White granito cross on 2-tiered pedestal w/ flowers White metal outline-type cross w/ pointed tips on concrete pedestal, cross barbe San Luis del Rio Colorado; end B4, Sonora Intersection of 15N/2W at Santa Ana; begin transect L3 3 statues in Santa Ana; 3m tall; Christ, St. Jude & ?? up on a rise overlooking the intersection w/white-washed steps leading up from the road. All were atop tall columns. Large floral decorated cross, couldn't see anything except the wreath; Brown brick & concrete shrine, 2m cubed, up on a rise in the median, gable roofed w/ white concrete atop centered in front. Metal door. White concrete cross w/ urns on either side, on 3-tiered pedestal; urns had red artificial flowers in them 2 black metal outline-type cross w/ fancy filigrees, identical & on the same concrete pedestal Homemade unpainted concrete cross 2 black pipe-type cross w/ spear-type ends & center name plates facing west White granito cross w/ 2 urns and next to it another slab w/ 2 urns and the cross fallen down Black metal cross w/ inter-arm filigrees Black pipe-type cross w/ center name plate White metal cross w/ center name plate on concrete pedestal w/ black painted inscription Cross, lost data White metal cross w/ center name plate and fresh wreath Granito nicho w/ cross atop and a brown wooden cross about 5ft away Black metal cross w/ inter-arm filigrees and large blue & white wreath 2 white metal cross w/ inter-arm filigrees & center name plates Large concrete cross on a pedestal (1.5m tall) Shrine w/ white walls w/ blue trim & blue roof. Its 2.5x3m & 2.5m tall, gable roof w/ white metal crosses each w/ 7 stars on the cross arms. Inside is a padlocked grate, behind that is a 3-step altar w/ a beadwork NSGuad print, 5 plastic and silk floral bouquets, 6 votive candles. White metal outline-type cross; flowers White 5x5m shrine with metal spire; Large white metal cross w/ filigrees; 1 small black metal; 1 447 447 449 450 450 451 451 456 0 0 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 15N 15N 15N s n n n n s n w e m m e m m m m e w m m m w m m e 1 15N 1 15N 2 15N 3 6 8 15N 11 12 17 17 19 20 20 15N 21 15N 24 25 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 25 26 27 28 15N 15N 15N e w w 286 SN263 SN262 SN261 SN260 SN259 SN258 SN257 SN256 SN255 SN254 SN253 SN252 SN251 SN250 SN249 SN248 SN247 SN246 SN245 SN244 SN243 SN242 SN241 SN240 SN239 small white w/ tile design in the crux 1 white granito, gable roof w/ cross at top rear & flowers Black metal cross set in concrete & whitewashed stone w/ filigrees & scroll Black pipe-type cross w/ flowers; sunflowers or pinwheels White concrete, 2m cubed, gabled roof shrine w/ cross atop a spire on the right, a green door. Inside; tiled rear wall w/ St Jude in the tile work, in the right corner is a x-fix, below that a print of SJ and an 8 tall statue of SJ. On the left is a fresh bouquet of flowers w/ a red ribbon on it. The shelf has 12 votive candles, half burning. In the forward right corner is another fresh bouquet of flowers w/ a white bow. White granito w/ black metal cross atop rear, flowers White granito, on top of a road-cut, NSGuad print on back wall Cross, obscured by wreath 2 large white metal crosses w/ scrolls; against a fence, 1.5m tall & identical Gray metal cross w/ flowers Large concrete cross pedestal w/ black metal outline-type cross w/ round tips Gray pipe-type cross, covered by large wreath White metal cross w/ filigrees & scroll w/ flowers White metal cross w/ filigrees & scroll; looked like it was freshly painted White concrete cross and 1 black metal Black metal cross w/ spear-point tips on concrete pedestal w/ wreath 1m tall red, white & green metal cross w/ scroll; "Chico" w/ wreath Large white granito cross 2 black metal outline-type cross Black metal cross Rough wood cross 3 white metal crosses w/ scrolls on pedestals & enclosed by a fence of 4 posts and a single strand of chain White granito cross on an arch w/ NSGuad behind, & pedestal w/open-book in front; Salvador Galvez Morfin, dec-17-54/ jun-2-94 on 1 side, on the other; Recuerdo de su esposa y hijos, QEPD there is a truck-sized lug nut [a good clue that this man was a trucker] between the book and the NSGuad, fresh wreaths on both sides & a bottle of water. Next to that is a small black metal cross w/rounded tips, filigrees & scroll; Jesus N. Felix V., 4-9-71/ 6-20-98 3, 2'tall black metal crosses w/ scrolls & filigrees and 3m tall white metal w/ filigrees & scroll White concrete, gable roof, flat ridge nicho w/ concrete cross atop front, votive candles Cross, obscured by yellow & white flowers; 10ft below road 29 31 32 15N 15N 15N 15N e e m e 32 32 32 34 35 36 37 37 38 38 39 39 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N m e m w e m e e e m w e m m e m m m 41 41 41 41 42 42 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 42 15N 44 15N 45 46 15N e e m 287 SN238 SN237 SN236 SN235 SN234 SN233 SN232 SN231 SN230 SN229 SN228 SN227 SN226 SN225 SN224 SN223 SN222 SN221 SN220 SN219 SN218 SN217 SN216 SN215 SN214 SN213 SN212 SN211 SN210 SN209 SN208 SN207 SN206 SN205 level Black metal cross w/ red reflective paint on pedestal w/ wreath 2 white metal outline-types cross, one twice as tall as the other, both w/ flowers White metal cross on pedestal w/ scroll Gable-roofed nicho w/ tall spire, turquoise trim, arched door; looked alpine White granito cross w/ an angel in front Arch-roofed nicho w/ black metal cross atop rear & black WI door and wreath Concrete, arch-roofed nicho, 2' tall x 1.5'sq, w/ black metal outline-type cross in rear White granito cross on wedge pedestal w/flowers White metal cross, 1m tall, on concrete pedestal w/ mardi gras-looking wreath White concrete cross White granito cross, 1m tall, open-book White, arched doorway shrine; in front of a business White concrete cross White block nicho w/ black metal cross atop & flowers 2 white homemade concrete cross w/ wreaths Black metal cross, 1m tall, on concrete pedestal White concrete cross, 1m tall Adobe, gabled, nicho, 1x1.5x1.5m, white concrete cross atop gabled roof & white WI doors White concrete cross White metal w/ wreath cross 2 white metal cross w/ painted sun-rays Light green metal cross on concrete pedestal w/ flowers and a cowboy hat White concrete cross on pedestal w/wreath White concrete cross 2 white metal crosses, one half as tall as the other White granito cross w/ wedge pedestal Black metal outline-type cross w/ filigrees & large flowers, 1m tall on pedestal White granito w/ NSGuad inside & cross atop and white concrete cross on a pedestal 2 white metal crosses w/filigrees & slab w/ open-book; "Joven Francisco A. Santiago Mendez, 1-9-57/28-4-89" on 1 side & the other; "Joven Roberto Hernandez Aberto, 28-?70/28-4-89" across the bottom; "Que Dios los bendiga". White granito cross Gray metal cross w/ scroll & wreath Black metal cross w/ round tips & blue & white flowers White concrete cross At intersection w/ the 4-lane highway; 40m off the road, white metal cross w/ sun-ray, & a Jesus Sacred heart statue, 288 15N 47 15N 49 50 53 54 55 15N 56 57 58 58 58 60 62 62 62 62 62 63 63 65 65 65 67 68 71 74 75 15N 76 15N 76 78 78 79 81 82 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N e m m w e m m m m w m w m e m m m e e m e m m m e m e e e 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N m w m e w SN204 SN203 SN202 SN201 SN200 SN199 SN198 SN197 SN196 SN195 SN194 SN193 SN192 SN191 SN190 SN189 SN188 SN187 SN186 SN185 SN184 SN183 SN182 all within a red WI fence Black metal cross w/ roofed scroll White wood cross on concrete pedestal, plastic blue flowers attached Black metal cross w/ scroll Small concrete nicho, 6" sq, w/ blue metal cross behind; concrete looked real fresh 2 pipe-type cross, one gray, one rusted; both w/ scrolls White pipe-type cross w/ scroll and white metal outlinetypes w/ scrolls 3 black metal cross w/ fresh wreaths "Jose" and white metal w/ wreath Light blue metal cross w/ black scroll Arch-roofed nicho w/ white metal cross atop w/ heartshaped scroll "Juan" & DODF; behind that is brown brick gable-roofed w/brown cross atop w/ heart-shaped scroll "QEPD Israel"; behind that is a white granito flat-roofed w/ cross [arm missing] w/ scroll. White metal outline-type cross w/ scroll; attached to a fence Rock nicho w/ turquoise metal cross atop w/ scroll & wreath Unpainted wood cross w/ scroll White granito nicho, .5m sq x 2m tall, gable roof, bronzecolored cross atop, inside a Jesus crown-of-thorns plaque. White granito, gable-roofed nicho w/ cross atop White granito, gable-roofed nicho, .5m sq 1 concrete cross, 3 metal, 2 black, 1 pink cross near intersection 20m north of 187 white granito nicho, 1.5m tall, w/ arched roof and 0.5m tall statue of NSGuad with an arched rose spray over it. On top of the nicho is a cross w/ initials D.R.F., 2-jun-1996 and then a cross atop the door inscribed; QEPD on either side are urns with same initials and smaller gable-roofed nichos. All three openings are padlocked. On either side of the whole thing are 2 planters painted gold & green matching the concrete work w/ trees in them, one is quite dead. .5x1x1m, brown adobe nicho w/concrete gabled roof & cross atop & visitation pebble on it. Has metal & glass door. Inside; 12 votives, 2 burning, and St Jude statue. Unpainted concrete flat-roofed, open-faced nicho w/ white metal cross atop rear and multi-colored wreath. 10 ft behind is a concrete flat-roofed, open-faced nicho. Black metal cross w/ scroll; facing N Black metal cross w/ scroll & blue & white wreath; on northern outskirts of Hermosillo Huge Guadalupe shrine in Hermosillo, built into road-cut & extending down to sidewalk. Rock painting, nicho & many votive candles on the sidewalk. Wood cross 85 87 91 93 98 98 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N w w w e e w w w e 100 100 15N 15N 100 101 103 103 103 104 104 104 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N w e w e w w e e 104 15N 104 15N 105 106 107 15N 111 116 15N w e 15N 15N w m m e 289 SN181 SN180 SN179 SN178 SN177 SN176 SN175 SN174 SN173 SN172 SN171 SN170 SN169 SN168 SN167 SN166 SN165 SN164 White concrete cross Unpainted concrete nicho 1m cubed, gable-roofed Light blue metal cross w/ scroll White concrete nicho w/ cross atop, flowers White metal cross w/ scroll on concrete pedestal w/ green wreath Wood dross [lumber], ribbon-bow hanging from it Red metal cross w/ scroll & yellow stripes on the arms & flowers 2 white metal crosses w/ scrolls on a concrete pedestal Black metal cross w/ filigrees & scroll; "Rigoberto Aujene, RIP 21-Feb-1993" and under that "Amigos La Palma". Shrine to San Francisco. A truck & a car w/Arizona plates are parked here. 3mx5m deep & tall, white concrete w/ red tile gabled roof, has a front facade w/ points on either side & a flat middle that supports a x-fix of the same material. It sits on a raised platform w/ 3 steps, that is about 1m larger than the shrine & each corner features a 0.5m tall angel statue that is part of a stone & concrete patio area w/ raised footings & black wrought iron fence. There are ficus trees on 2 corners & a juniper on a third. Inside: 3 wooden kneelers, 5 votive candle racks w/ 40 votive candles, about 15 lit. The central figure is a reclining St Francis statue on a centered altar w/ painting of St Francis. There are scores of identification cards, business cards & photos surrounding the main icon. On either side are 2 wooden crucifixes, to the left is a print of, I dont know for sure, maybe its supposed to be God and Jesus. Most of the votive candles are pretty normal but there is one that is unusual; The Seven African Powers & printed on it is; Oh seven African Powers, who are so close to our Divine Savior, with great humility I kneel before thee and implore to your intercession before the Almighty, hear my petition that I may glory in your powers, protect me and provide for my needs. Concentrate on this fire. Amen on the front is a picture; Chango, Llenalia, Orulla, Ogura, Urejugla, Ochuen, something else ? This is an informal rest stop. White granito cross, 1m high Black metal outline-type cross; flowers Large cross , 2m tall, 1 homemade concrete & 1 small white metal outline-type; flowers 1.5m tall white metal cross [the type w/ a smaller horizontal arm above the regular one], lots of red & green flowers; "Garcia". White granito nicho w/pillars on sides supporting gabled roof, wedge in front; behind is a small white granito cross. 1m tall, arch-roof nicho w/ white cross atop White granito nicho w/ 2 urns behind is brown metal cross w/ filigrees & scroll White metal cross w/ scroll above the horizontal arm 290 117 118 119 121 123 130 132 134 134 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N w e e m m m m e e m 134 134 135 138 15N 15N 15N 15N m e m e e w m m 140 15N 142 143 143 144 15N 15N 15N SN163 SN162 SN161 SN160 SN159 SN158 SN157 SN156 SN155 SN154 SN153 SN152 SN151 SN150 SN149 SN148 SN147 SN146 SN145 SN144 SN143 SN142 SN141 SN140 SN139 SN138 SN137 SN136 SN135 SN134 SN133 SN132 Black metal cross w/ scroll White granito cross, 1.5m tall and 1 black metal w/ scroll White metal cross w/ scroll & flowers 3 white metal cross; 2 are 1m tall, other is 0.5m tall; pipetypes w/ scrolls Black & red metal cross w/ scroll; "Mike" Small white metal cross w/ scroll White pipe-type cross w/ filigrees & scroll 2 black metal crosses w/ filigrees & scroll White metal roof-type cross Black metal cross w/ red & green wreath Gable-roofed nicho, open front & back, white concrete w/ cross inside 2-tone wood crosses w/ 3 wreaths Black metal outline-type cross White concrete cross Brown metal cross White granito cross 2 white granito cross Large shrine at a truck stop. Inside is a central altar w/ shelf behind it & glass encased statue of Jesus [the suffering precrucifixion one]; there are some oranges and grapefruit in front. On the right wall is a print of St Jude w/ 2 votive candles burning. Outside the gate is a large [2x4ft] print of NSGuad w/ a lot of red & green decorations around it & some rocks & cacti with reindeer on them. 6m wide x 8-10m deep x 6-8m tall including the main steeple. It is sort of ambiguous because inside the central figure is Christ, but Guadalupe is out front of the entryway. It seems, judging by the fruit offerings, that Christ is the central figure. This truck stop and a major bus stop; a lot of people are hanging out near the shrine waiting for their buses. White pipe-type cross w/ filigrees & scroll White granito cross Black metal cross w/ filigrees & scroll; "F.C.O." painted white; this is in the way of a road-widening project & is being worked around rather than moved. White metal cross w/ filigrees & scroll 3 black metal crosses on a pedestal; all w/ filigrees & scroll Blue metal cross w/ scroll White metal cross w/ spear-point tips, filigrees & scroll; facing north White metal cross w/ filigrees & scroll, facing north White metal cross White metal cross w/ filigrees & scroll 4 white granito crosses, one 1m tall, others 0.5m tall Green & white metal cross, 1m tall, w/wreath Black metal cross w/ scroll & white tips White metal cross w/ scroll 291 145 146 148 149 151 151 151 153 155 155 155 155 156 157 157 161 161 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N w m e e m m m m e m e m e m m w w e 163 165 165 166 168 169 169 173 173 175 175 177 177 177 179 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N m e m m m m m m w m w m m m SN131 SN130 SN129 SN128 SN648 SN127 SN126 SN125 SN124 SN123 SN122 SN121 SN120 SN119 SN118 SN117 SN116 SN115 SN114 SN113 SN112 SN111 SN110 SN109 SN108 SN107 SN106 SN105 SN104 SN103 SN102 SN101 SN100 SN99 SN98 SN97 SN96 SN95 White metal cross w/ filigrees & scroll 2 black metal crosses on pedestals w/ scrolls, filigrees & urns; light blue on white pedestal [nicho?]; white metal, matched the black ones. Black metal cross w/ scroll Black metal cross w/ scroll White metal cross w/ filigrees & scroll White metal cross Small white metal cross w/ filigrees & scroll 2m tall pillar cross w/ small cross atop Small white concrete nicho w/ cross atop White granito cross, 1m tall White metal cross w/ scroll (Almost dark); black metal cross w/ scroll White metal cross w/ scroll & filigrees White granito cross Yellow concrete shrine, 2m sq x 3m tall, flat-roofed w/ facade, black WI door 2 black pipe-type crosses, 1.5m tall 7 1m tall, w/ scrolls 2 black metal cross w/ scrolls White metal cross w/ filigrees & red bow on a pedestal, scroll w/ black inscription and 1 black metal cross w/ red reflector tape on a pedestal. Black metal cross w/ scroll & spear-point tips White concrete cross 2 black pipe-type cross on a pedestal 2 large white granito cross, 1.5m tall on a pedestal; both w/ wreath Black metal cross w/ filigrees & white scroll & wreath White granito cross, large Black metal cross w/ filigrees & scroll 2 white granito crosses 2 large white metal crosses w/ pointed tips & red reflector tape, 1.5m tall, on a pedestal White concrete, flat roofed nicho, 1m sq, Dome-roofed shrine to Virgin of Guadalupe; turquoise, w/ 4 pillars, cross atop White metal cross w/ filigrees, 2m tall White metal cross w/ sun-rays on pedestal White concrete cross and 1 green metal 2 white concrete nichos, .5m tall, arch roofed w/ rusted metal crosses atop 2 white metal crosses w/ filigrees, one w/ round scroll other w/ wreath White granito nicho w/ tablet & arch & red wreath Wood cross [2x2 lumber] on concrete pedestal White granito nicho, 1m tall, gable -roof w/ cross atop Black metal cross w/ filigrees & scroll and 1 small wood 179 179 181 182 184 189 189 189 190 190 191 201 201 201 202 203 206 208 210 211 212 212 220 222 225 225 226 227 228 231 232 232 234 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N m m m m m e m e m m m m m m w m w m e w m m e e m m m e w m w e w w e w m e 235 238 239 240 241 15N 15N 15N 15N 292 SN94 SN93 SN92 SN91 SN90 SN89 SN88 SN87 SN86 SN85 SN84 SN83 SN82 SN81 SN80 SN79 SN78 SN77 SN76 SN75 SN74 SN73 SN72 SN71 SN70 SN69 SN68 SN67 SN66 SN65 SN64 SN63 SN62 SN61 SN60 SN59 SN58 SN57 cross on pile of rocks 1 yellow shrine, 2 urns, NSGuad Concrete nicho, WI gate 2 tan metal crosses w/ filigrees & scrolls Lime green concrete, arch-roofed nicho w/ white metal cross atop rear, 2x3x3ft White granito cross w/ flowers Open patio-type shrine w/ 4 posts & roof to NSGuad Against a pole, blue wood cross on a blue pedestal Brown outline-type cross w/ scroll White metal cross w/ filigrees & scroll White metal cross w/ wreath Black-painted concrete cross on concrete slab [also painted](see sheet 4 drawing) White metal cross w/ scroll on a concrete slab White metal cross w/ filigrees & scroll on a slab w/ a pottery pot at its base Black cross &1 white metal on a pedestal, both w/ filigrees & scroll 2 black metal crosses on a pedestal w/ wreath Blue concrete, flat-roof nicho, .25m sq, black metal cross atop rear; faced west A-frame nicho w/ black metal cross atop w/filigrees & scroll; faced parallel to road Black metal cross on slab w/ wreath White granito cross w/ urn Black pipe-type cross w/ wreath 2 white metal cross w/ filigrees, scrolls & wreaths White granito cross w/ red bow Black metal cross w/ filigrees & scroll White granito nicho w/ cross atop and visitation pebbles on the flat roof White granito cross on pedestal Black metal outline-type cross w/wreath Black metal cross on concrete & rock pedestal White granito nicho w/ cross atop Black metal cross on wedge pedestal White granito nicho w/ cross atop Arch-roofed nicho w/ black metal cross atop and black metal cross nearby Black metal cross Cross, obscured by red wreath 2 black metal crosses Tile shrine, up on a 1.5m tall pillar to NSGuad White granito nicho, black WI door, 2 urns & cross atop 2 white A-frame nichos w/ metal crosses atop Pink tile shrine on a blue concrete pedestal, arch-roofed to NSGuad 243 243 244 245 246 247 248 248 254 259 262 263 264 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N e e m e e e e m e m m e e m e m e e w e m m m m m e m m m m m m e w e m m w 265 267 267 15N 15N 15N 268 269 269 273 274 279 282 283 283 283 285 287 287 288 288 288 290 291 295 300 302 305 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 293 SN56 SN55 SN54 SN53 SN52 SN51 SN50 SN49 SN48 SN47 SN46 SN45 SN44 SN43 SN42 SN41 SN40 SN39 SN38 SN37 SN36 wB42 wB47 SN647 SN646 SN645 SN644 SN643 SN642 SN641 SN640 SN639 SN638 SN637 SN636 Black metal cross w/ filigrees & scroll Small wood cross on large pile of rocks Black metal cross w/ scroll on conc. pedestal White granito sun-ray-type cross and a wedge-type monument within a fence Concrete nicho, 6" sq, w/ rusted metal cross atop rear Sky blue metal cross on concrete slab same color White granito cross, small White metal cross with filigree White metal nicho w/ metal nicho box welded onto the cross arms & hinged at the bottom w/ votives inside Green concrete shrine, next to a business to St. Jude White granito cross White concrete nicho w/ cross atop & flowers Black metal cross 2 white metal crosses w/ spear point tips on pedestals w/ identical wreaths Brick flat-roofed nicho w/ 2-step pedestal & white metal cross atop rear; faced parallel 3 black metal cross w/ wreaths Black metal cross Black metal double cross [one atop the other] on a white nicho Shrine to NSGuad, 2m cubed, flat roof w/ facade & cross atop, black WI gate 3 black pipe-type cross on a pedestal White concrete nicho on 2-tiered pedestal w/ white concrete cross atop; faces parallel to road Sonora/Sinaloa boundary; end L3, Sonora Boundary CH/SN; transect W1 1m sq, brick shed-roofed nicho w/ NSGuad print & white WI locked door 3m cubed pink concrete shrine to St Jude; its nearly dark Concrete open-faced, gable-roofed nicho w/ black metal cross atop White metal cross w/ filigrees & tiled pedestal; "Victor Manuel Fontes Dias, dic 17, 1963- jul 26, 1998" there is a plaque to the side;"?Manuel Segere?". Granito nicho w/ metal cross & scroll;"Alfredo Gavia Castillo, 17 aug 1973-26 jul 1998; siempre estaremos recordote" inside a small StJude statue & fresh flowers & votive candles. White metal cross w/ scroll Small nicho w/ NSGuad image 3m cubed turquoise shrine to NSGuad Black metal cross w/filigrees & scroll; by a bridge 2 white metal crosses w/ scrolls on pedestal White concrete cross, 2 ft tall, on a road-cut bank 3m wide x 12m tall shrine/rock painting of NS Guad w/ 294 308 308 310 313 313 314 316 317 321 322 327 329 331 333 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N e m m e m m m m m w m e m e m m w m w e e 334 334 335 335 15N 15N 15N 15N 342 345 346 348 0 12 26 54 15N 15N 15N 16E 16E 16E 16E 16E s n n s n 66 16E 66 67 70 89 91 102 104 106 16E SN17E SN17E SN17E SN17E SN17E SN17E n n s s n n SN635 SN634 SN633 SN632 SN631 SN630 SN629 SN628 SN627 SN626 small niche & 25 votive candles Light blue shrine to NSGuad, 2x3x2.5m, w/ white cross atop front of gabled roof 2x3x3m, pink concrete nicho w/ white metal cross w/filigrees & scroll atop front of gabled facade on a shed roof. Inside is painted turquoise w/ altar w/ 12 candles (4 lit), 6 bouquets. White granito nicho w/ 2urns, 2 crosses & wedge- openbook:"Ing. Luis Antonio Aguilar R., aug 14, 1980 a la edad de 22 anos, DEP; recuerdo de sus padres Y amigos" & "Ing. Fausto Valencia Z., nacio mar 1, 1956, aug 14, 1980, DEP; recuerdo de sus padres Y amigos". Cross, 1 white concrete set in stone & concrete Just across the road is an open nicho to NS Guad, w/ 25 votives, some lit. Painted on the side is; dec 1998 Lorena Penunuri Im not sure if this was a death site or not. 3m sq x 4m tall, concrete shrine to St. Jude, tan w/ green & white trim and has a cross atop the front. SJ statue, votive candles, some lit, & fresh flowers. Black metal cross w/ scroll & filigrees on a concrete pedestal A brick nicho to Jesus Malverde with an arched roof and a small altar with a bust of Malverde on it. A man who lives in the nearest house said that one of the neighbors put this up, its not because anyone died here, rather it is out of devotion to Malverde. In Anglophone terms, he is a sort of Robin Hood who robbed from the rich to give to the poor; and he is a peoples saint. In fact the man referred to him as a saint; he also called him un senor and described him as a Mafioso. And he said, I dont know if I should linger here long, that people around here used to be Mafiosos. And also pointed out that up on the hill, about 200m south of the village, across country, there is a statue of the Virgin. There was no pretending that Malverde was not a criminal, rather it is his criminality that has elevated him to sainthood in the popular imagination. The main shrine has a San Judas to the right & NSGuad to the left. To its left is an open shrine with a large ceramic of NSGuad that is about 4 feet tall and hand painted; inside of a little niche in it is another ceramic done in glitter paint and there is a pipe cross behind it. Attached to the cross are pieces of cloth, childrens socks, rosary beads, and all sorts of little gadgets and gizmos attached to it. In front of these is a pool fed by a hot spring that, according to a lady who was there with her children and her sisters kids, has healing powers. The shrines were built by people who came here and were cured. It was quite fun, the kids posed and hammed it up. Meanwhile, people keep arriving and going straight to the pools. Dark blue wood cross or concrete w/ flowers SN17E 113 SN17E 120 SN17E n s s 120 121 123 SN17E SN17E SN17E n s n s n 123 SN17E 126 SN17E 132 SN17E s 153 160 SN12E n 295 SN625 SN624 SN623 SN622 SN621 SN620 SN619 wSN23 Double nicho/shrine, 4m wide x 2m deep x 2m tall, has a double gabled roof (looks like an 'M') supported by 2 pillars & crucifix centered where the 2 roofs meet. 2 arched doors; inside 1 is a 2.5ft tall statue of StJude, other has a 2.5ft tall statue of BVM. Black metal cross w/ scroll & filigrees White granito nicho w/ cross atop gabled roof in rear Concrete pedestal w/ 5 black metal crosses; middle 3 are identical and the 2 on the ends are identical; from E-toW; Sr. Ing. Jose L. Machado C. edad 36 anos, 1956-1993, San Jose de B. Sylvia L. Garcia, 12-aug-1993 Carlos A. Lavia G. 12-aug-1993 Santa C. Leal F. 12-aug-1993 Nino Jose Jesus ? It looks like the middle 3 were made first & the ones on the ends where made at different times because the concrete foundation is not monolithic; though it was made to look as if it were. White metal cross w/ filigrees & scroll Rusted metal cross Large shrine to San Judas End transect W1: jct15N/117E at Esperanza SN12E n 163 163 163 SN12E SN12E SN12E n n s 164 166 166 166 168 SN12E SN12E SN12E SN12E n s n 296 Table A4.4: Sinaloa Site # Description wB42 SA531 SA530 SA529 SA528 SA527 SA526 SA525 SA524 SA523 SA522 SA521 SA520 SA519 SA518 SA517 SA516 SA515 SA514 SA513 SA512 SA511 SA510 SA509 SA508 SA507 SA506 SA505 SA504 SA503 SA502 SA501 SA500 Sinaloa/Sonora boundary; transect L3 Black metal cross w/ filigrees on concrete pedestal White granito cross, 2 urns & open book Concrete nicho 1 tan tile, gable roof nicho, 1x.5x1m, brown metal cross atop front, faced parallel to road w/ rear to on-coming traffic 1m tall white pipe-type cross at a bridge abutment w/ a tire & some car part hung from the cross arms White concrete nicho w/ black metal cross atop Black metal cross Blue concrete nicho w/ white concrete cross atop; at 30 degree angle to road, in front of a bridge abutment Blue concrete, home-made cross White metal cross w/ filigrees, scroll & a fresh bow Red metal cross w/ green filigrees & white & purple wreath Red metal cross, green filagrees & white & purple wreath. 2 black metal crosses pedestal w/ scrolls White granito nicho, .5m tall, arch-roof, blue WI gate & cross atop rear, open book pedestal; enclose in white WI fence; facing parallel to road. 2 white granito nichos / 2 crosses & 4urns, 2 open books; 2m tall Black metal cross 2 white granito nichos; [were] 2 crosses & 4urns, 2 open books; 2m tall White granito cross w/ large crucifix & open book wedge Red metal cross w/ red WI fence around it & the area, up to 1m high, is full of rocks White A-frame nicho w/ black metal cross atop rear Black metal cross Concrete A-frame nicho w/ black metal cross atop rear Blue metal cross w/ filigrees facing parallel & 1 white metal facing road White metal, gable roof nicho, .25m cubed, w/ white metal cross atop rear White granito, nicho, 3m tall, 3-tiered base, arch-roofed w/ romanstyle cross atop and WI door Turquoise metal cross on concrete pedestal and flowers Cross on a pedestal covered by flowers Cross, a cactus and a bunch of flowers Homemade concrete cross on large raised tomb platform w/ part of a fender lying across the front; parallel to road. White granito cross w/wedge base & 2 urns White metal cross w/ wreath Green tile nicho, 2m tall w/ tile roof & metal door & white cross atop rear and 2 white metal crosses w/ filigrees 297 Mile 0 1 3 6 7 Rte Dir 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N A s p e w w e m m e e e m m e e e e m w e e m m e e e e m e m e e w e 9 15N 9 15N 9 15N 10 15N 12 15 16 20 20 23 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 24 15N 24 15N 25 15N 26 15N 32 15N 32 32 33 37 15N 15N 15N 15N 38 15N 38 15N 39 39 39 41 15N 15N 15N 15N 41 15N 43 15N 45 15N SA499 SA498 SA497 SA496 SA495 SA494 SA493 SA492 SA491 SA490 SA489 SA488 SA487 SA486 SA485 SA484 SA483 SA482 SA481 SA480 SA479 SA478 SA477 SA476 SA475 SA474 SA473 SA472 SA471 SA470 SA469 SA468 SA467 SA466 SA465 SA464 SA463 SA462 Black metal cross Black metal cross and 1 white metal cross White concrete cross with 2 smaller metal crosses nearby White granito nicho w/ large inscription plate & 2 urns in front; 2 black metal crosses 2m tall cross and 5 smaller ones White granito, flat-roof nicho w/ cross atop & 2 urns in front & black metal cross Black metal cross w/ red bow on it White concrete cross w/ flowers White concrete cross w/ flowers Light blue metal cross; flowers Black metal cross White concrete nicho w/ black metal cross atop rear w/ filigrees & scroll Brick, gable-roofed nicho White metal cross Cross covered by flowers 2 black metal crosses w/ filigrees & scrolls on a pedestal; flowers Black metal cross with filigrees; flowers Black metal cross w/ filigrees & scrolls within 1m tall white WI fence 2 white metal crosses w/ filigrees & flowers Granito, arch-roofed nicho 2 white metal crosses w/ scrolls & filigrees Black metal cross with filigrees Black metal cross with filigrees & scroll w/ red flowers White metal cross w/ flowers White concrete A-frame nicho w/ white metal cross atop rear w/ filigrees & scroll Black metal, gable-roofed nicho w/ black metal cross atop rear, red & white flowers Black metal cross w/ filigrees & scroll Small pink A-frame nicho w/ pink cross atop rear covered w/ flowers Black metal cross, flowers 2 black metal crosses, flowers Cross, covered by wreath Black metal cross w/ red & white wreath Black metal cross on pedestal w/ flowers Small concrete A-frame nicho, white metal cross atop rear & lots of flowers Unpainted concrete, gable-roofed nicho w/ cross atop rear w/ flowers 3 white metal crosses; 2 large & small one in between, all w/ filigrees Concrete nicho with metal cross atop Gray concrete nicho 45 45 46 47 15N 15N 15N 15N e e e e w e e e e w e e e e e e e e e e w e e e e e w e w e e w m e e e w e 48 15N 48 15N 49 50 50 51 52 52 53 53 53 55 55 56 57 57 57 58 59 59 60 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 61 15N 61 15N 62 15N 63 63 63 64 64 65 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 66 15N 66 15N 66 15N 66 15N 298 SA461 SA460 SA459 SA458 SA457 SA456 SA455 SA454 SA453 SA452 SA451 SA450 SA449 SA448 SA447 SA446 SA445 SA444 SA443 SA442 SA441 SA440 SA439 SA438 SA437 SA436 SA435 SA434 SA433 SA432 SA431 SA430 SA429 SA428 SA427 SA426 SA425 SA424 SA423 SA422 SA421 Blue concrete A-frame nicho Concrete nicho w/cross & wreath 2 crosses covered by flowers Cross covered by blue & white wreath Black metal cross Large arch-roofed nicho w/ cross atop rear 3 crosses in series; yellow metal and gray metal and black metal. Last;"fallacio Angel Felix B. el dia 15-9-91 a la edad de 22 anos" it has a coconut hanging on it & flowers. White concrete cross 3 crosses, obscured by wreaths White metal cross White granito nicho & cross inside a light blue WI fence White concrete nicho, 2-tiered w/ black metal cross atop rear w/ red & white flowers Black metal cross Flat roofed, black & blue nicho w/ black metal cross Black metal cross inside a white metal fence White metal cross inside a white metal fence Blue concrete nicho w/ blue home-made concrete cross atop and unpainted home-made concrete cross White concrete nicho w/ cross atop 2 white concrete crosses White concrete cross 3-tiered, flat-roofed concrete nicho w/ white metal cross atop rear; faced parallel to road w/ opening opposite to traffic flow Black metal cross w/ flowers Yellow nicho w/ cross atop White concrete, flat roof nicho, w/ WI door, 1m cubed, w/ white metal atop rear w/ filigrees & scroll Small A-frame nicho w/ cross atop & flowers White rebar cross attached to a bridge railing Black metal cross w/ pointed tips, filigrees & scroll White metal cross w/ scroll & filigrees & flowers Small nicho behind white metal cross 2 black metal crosses w/ filigrees & scrolls Brick, broken-up nicho w/ cross in rear w/ fresh wreath Small A-frame nicho w/ black metal cross in rear Tombstone-like marker monument Black metal cross w/wreath Nicho with cross atop & red wreath White granito clover-type cross White metal cross w/ scroll & filigrees Concrete A-frame nicho w/ black metal atop front w/ red & white wreath 2 white granito crosses w/ wreaths Black metal cross w/wreath 2 green metal crosses with filigrees & wreath 66 67 67 67 67 67 67 68 68 69 69 70 70 71 72 73 74 74 76 77 78 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N e e m e e w e w w e e w m e e w e e w w w w m w e w w e e e e w w e w e w w w e w 79 15N 79 15N 80 15N 81 81 82 85 87 89 89 90 91 91 91 92 93 94 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 94 15N 95 15N 96 15N 299 SA420 SA419 SA418 SA417 SA416 SA415 SA414 SA413 SA412 SA411 SA410 SA409 SA408 SA407 SA406 SA405 SA404 SA403 SA402 SA401 SA400 SA399 SA398 SA397 SA396 SA395 SA394 SA393 SA392 SA391 SA390 SA389 SA388 SA387 SA386 SA385 SA384 SA383 SA382 SA381 SA380 SA379 SA378 SA377 SA376 Cross, obscured w/ wreath White metal cross w/ pointed tips, purple & white wreath; within fence White concrete, home-made cross on concrete pedestal w/ flowers; partially destroyed White granito cross 2 white metal crosses Cross, covered by wreath White granito, gable-roofed nicho w/ cross atop rear White concrete cross w/ wreath Large white metal cross w/ filigrees & scroll, 2.5m tall 3 black metal crosses 2 white metal crosses w/ filigrees & scrolls White metal outline-type cross Cross Cross 3 nichos Cross Cross Cross Cross Concrete cross 2 black metal crosses; flowers Nicho Concrete cross, flowers Cross Cross & nicho Cross & nicho Nicho Cross & nicho Nicho Nicho Cross Nicho Cross Cross Nicho Nicho Metal cross Nicho Black metal cross & concrete cross Concrete cross Nicho Cross 2 white lumber crosses 2 red metal crosses Black metal box-type nicho w/ black metal cross w/ filigrees & scroll in front; all on a concrete pedestal 96 15N 96 15N 96 15N 97 97 98 98 98 99 99 99 99 100 100 101 101 101 101 102 102 103 103 104 106 106 106 107 107 108 109 109 109 110 110 112 115 116 116 117 118 118 119 119 119 121 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N w w e w w w e w w e e e e w e w e e e e w w w e w e e w e e e w e w e w w w e e w w e e e 300 SA375 SA374 SA373 SA372 SA371 SA370 SA369 SA368 SA367 SA366 SA365 SA364 SA363 SA362 SA361 SA360 SA359 SA358 SA357 SA356 SA355 SA354 SA353 SA352 SA351 SA350 SA349 SA348 SA347 SA346 SA345 SA344 SA343 SA342 SA341 SA340 SA339 SA338 SA337 SA336 White granito nicho w/ cross atop and small white granito cross next to it Concrete, flat-roofed nicho on a pedestal w/ rusted metal cross atop rear; faced away from road White metal cross w/ wreath White granito nicho w/ cross atop & square pillar w/ shelf atop 2 white plain concrete cross on pedestals 2 concrete arch-roofed nicho w/ cross atop rear w/ blue wreaths White concrete cross 3 black metal crosses w/ scrolls & filigrees and 3 white concrete crosses White concrete cross, 1m tall White metal cross w/ flowers Cross Red metal cross at intersection w/ a dirt road; next to it a wood [stick] cross White concrete cross 1ft sq, open-faced, brown nicho w/ cross atop & flowers Concrete nicho on 2-step pedestal open-faced w/ white metal cross atop & gallon jug w/ wilted flowers in front Large white metal cross w/ filigrees & flowers Cross with flowers Nicho w/ cross w/flowers White concrete cross; by a bridge 3 nichos with crosses atop, 1is blue 2 metal crosses; 1 white & 1 blue 4 nichos with white granito crosses atop Black metal cross on concrete pedestal Brown concrete double A-frame nicho w/ crosses in rear Mostly destroyed nicho Gray concrete nicho w/ cross in front w/ fresh flowers Brick nicho w/ cross in rear Blue concrete flat roof nicho, w/ large blue cross Dark blue metal cross w/ filigrees & scroll White granito nicho w/ WI gate, 2m tall, arch-roofed White concrete cross w/ flowers Concrete nicho w/ black metal cross covered by wreath Large green metal cross on concrete pillar w/ flowers Black metal cross w/ scroll; behind guard rail 2 black metal crosses, 1m tall, w/scrolls in buckets of concrete; one w/ flowers White metal cross w/ filigrees Blue nicho w/ cross atop White granito nicho, 2m tall, cross atop A-frame green concrete nicho with green metal cross, fresh flowers Concrete gable-roofed, open-faced nicho, black metal cross atop rear; faced parallel to road; .5m sq x .5m tall 122 15N 124 15N 125 125 125 126 126 126 129 131 131 136 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N w e e w e w w e e e e w e w e e e w w w e e e w w e e e e e w w e e e w e w e w 137 15N 137 15N 142 15N 142 143 143 143 144 144 144 144 144 145 145 145 145 146 146 146 147 149 151 151 151 152 152 152 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 153 15N 301 SA335 SA334 SA333 SA332 SA331 SA330 SA329 SA328 SA327 SA326 SA325 SA324 SA323 SA322 SA321 SA320 SA319 SA318 SA317 SA316 SA315 SA314 SA313 SA312 SA311 SA310 SA309 SA308 SA307 SA306 SA305 SA304 SA303 SA302 SA301 2 white metal crosses, filigrees & scrolls; 8" tall & 16" tall 3 red metal crosses; all the same on a concrete pedestal White granito nicho Arch-roofed concrete nicho Cross in a bucket of concrete; obscured by flowers Cross obscured by flowers Cross obscured by flowers Black metal cross, filigrees & scroll; red flowers 2 white metal crosses Blue concrete 3-tiered, flat-roofed, nicho, light blue metal cross atop White metal cross w/ pointed tips, leaning against a tree w/ fresh flowers Metal cross w/ flowers Large white granito nicho w/ angel atop 2 crosses 2 white concrete A-frame nichos w/ white metal cross between them Black pipe cross White metal cross w/ filigrees & flowers 2 concrete crosses White tile double nicho; bottom is 1m cube w/open-face, top is .5m tall, gable-roofed; behind is a white metal cross. White granito nicho w/ cross atop, 3m tall Small gray nicho White concrete cross Lime green concrete, flat-roofed nicho w/ cross atop rear covered w/ flowers White concrete A-frame nicho w/ flowers Bronze-colored metal cross w/ filigrees 4 identical white metal crosses; "Guadalupe Gonzales de Zomara fallacio 14-9-97" "Jesus Zomara Gonzales, 14-9-97" "Rodrigo Zomara Gonzales, 149-97" "Giovanni Roberto Portillo Gonzales, 14-9-97". White nicho w/ cherubs in front & blue metal cross behind Gray metal cross w/ filigrees & scroll Pink concrete gable-roofed, open-faced nicho w/ votive candle inside & white metal cross atop rear w/ filagrees & spear-point tips. Gray A-frame nicho w/ cross atop & flowers Black metal cross On 5m tall x 1m sq pedestal; A-frame nicho w/ black metal cross centered in rear Brick & concrete, gable roof w/ black metal cross atop rear Concrete .5m tall, A-frame nicho w/ granito cross in rear; "DEP" on top arm, cross-arm-"Prof. Fernando Chavez Corales, 20-?-?3/31-91" white DODO & 1m tall WI fence. Blue & white A-frame nicho w/ white metal cross atop rear w/ filigrees & scroll 302 155 156 157 157 159 159 160 161 163 163 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N w w e w w w e e e w e w e e e e e w w e e e w e e w 164 15N 164 166 166 175 175 175 176 176 178 178 178 178 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 179 15N 179 15N 179 15N 179 15N 180 15N 181 15N 181 15N 181 15N 182 15N 182 15N 183 15N 183 15N w w w e w w w e e SA300 SA299 SA298 SA297 SA296 SA295 SA294 SA293 SA292 SA291 SA290 SA289 SA288 SA287 SA286 SA285 SA284 SA283 SA282 SA281 SA280 SA279 SA278 SA277 SA276 SA275 SA274 SA273 SA272 SA271 SA270 SA269 SA268 SA267 SA266 SA265 SA264 SA263 White metal cross w/ filigrees, scroll Large white concrete cross White concrete gable-roof nicho, 1m cubed, painted yellow inside w/ homemade turquoise concrete cross inside. Gray pipe-type cross w/ scroll Concrete A-frame nicho w/ black metal cross atop rear Black metal cross w/ filigrees Black pipe-type cross on concrete pedestal White granito nicho, 1.5m tall, gable roof, WI door, cross atop White concrete, bee-hive roof nicho, gray metal cross atop rear, faced away from road Flat roof, arched windows, open patio nicho; blue metal cross atop White granito nicho w/urns, cross atop gabled roof, flowers A-frame nicho w/ black metal cross behind 3 A-frame nichos w/ light blue crosses atop rear A-frame nicho, 1.5 ft tall, white concrete w/ black metal cross w/ filigrees atop rear White granito nicho 3 white granito crosses White granito, gable-roofed nicho w/ cross atop; "Fernando Beltran Cuen, 29-4-61/4-9-84, recuerdo de sus papas" large wreath. White granito cross w/ white flowers Small light blue A-frame nicho, black metal cross atop rear Black metal cross w/ scroll 2 white granito, flat-roofed nichos, 1.5m tall x1m sq, w/ WI gates, crosses atop rear; atop a road-cut; both w/ flowers 2 A-frame nichos, 1ft tall w/ a gray cross between them 2 white granito, gable -roof nichos w/ crosses atop rear and a large white granito cross to their left White granito, arch roof nicho, cross fallen over, NSGuad statue inside, black cross painted on the rear wall, 1.5m tall White pipe-cross w/ filigrees & scroll, concrete pedestal White granito, arch-roofed nicho, w/2 urns in front 3 metal crosses, ? black; ? white Concrete, A-frame nicho Brick nicho w/ black wood cross atop Rust-colored metal cross, 8" tall, w/ rocks around it painted the same color Gray cross, 3 m tall, w/ filigrees & scroll Gray metal cross w/ scroll Blue metal cross, 2.5m tall, on concrete pedestal White metal cross w/ large flowers White metal cross w/ filigrees, scroll Black metal cross w/ red & white wreath, black WI fence White concrete A-frame nicho, 1ft tall, w/ white cross atop rear w/ flowers White metal cross covered by wreath 183 15N 184 15N 184 15N 185 185 186 186 187 187 187 188 189 189 190 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N w w w w w e e w e w w w e e w w e w e e w e e e e w w e e e w w e w e e e e 190 15N 190 15N 191 15N 192 192 192 194 15N 15N 15N 15N 195 15N 195 15N 196 15N 196 198 200 200 200 202 202 203 206 207 208 208 209 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 209 15N 303 SA262 SA261 SA260 SA259 SA258 SA257 SA256 SA255 SA254 SA253 SA252 SA251 SA250 SA249 SA248 SA247 SA246 SA245 SA244 SA243 SA242 SA241 SA240 SA239 SA238 SA237 SA236 SA235 SA234 SA233 SA232 SA231 SA230 SA229 SA228 SA227 SA226 Blue metal cross w/ filigrees; white metal cross; 3m tall wood, blue & white cross White flat-roofed, concrete nicho w/ cross atop rear Black pipe-type cross w/ wreath Black metal cross w/filigrees & flowers 2 white crosses, 1 black in between; all w/ flowers Blue metal cross w/ flowers White metal cross w/ spear-tips & wreath White concrete cross w/ huge wreath, 2m tall White metal cross w/ scroll Cross, covered by wreath White metal cross, 1m tall, flowers White metal cross w/filigrees & is delineated by a large rectangle of white-washed rocks & cleared ground Black metal cross w/ filigrees, scroll & wreath White concrete, gable-roofed nicho w/ black metal cross atop rear inside a black WI fence, flowers; Small concrete, gable-roofed nicho [1.5ft tall] w/black metal cross [1m tall] w/ filigrees & scroll Black metal cross on concrete pedestal w/ filigrees and large white wreath White concrete cross, 1m tall Black metal cross w/ filigrees & flowers 2 brick arch-roofed nichos, black metal crosses atop rear, 1m tall x .5m wide White concrete cross Black metal cross w/ filigrees & scroll Pink concrete, gable-roof nicho, little angels atop on corners & black metal cross w/ filigrees & scroll on center: "E.L.S.N. 8-1083/23-4-89" 2 votives lit inside, looks like the flowers have been freshly watered. Concrete nicho w/ concrete cross atop, covered by wreath. White metal cross, flowers Concrete cross White concrete cross, 2m tall w/ flowers Small concrete nicho; at a crossroad Wood cross on a concrete pedestal White metal cross, filigrees, scroll & flowers above in a tree Concrete cross 2 white granito nichos w/ crosses White granito, arch nicho w/ a cross atop Yellow nicho w/ white cross atop Turquoise nicho w/3 white crosses Old granito nicho w/ spires Blue metal, arch-roofed nicho w/ 3 crosses atop & 2 spires 3 concrete crosses w/ urns; "Jose Martin Damien Castro, fallacio nov 13, 1989 a la edad de 25 anos" "Mario Arreyano Chevarria, age 42" "Daniel Guin Neblas, age 28" and a black metal cross 209 15N 211 211 211 216 216 218 221 221 221 222 223 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N e w w w e e e e e w w e e w e e e e w e e e 223 15N 223 15N 227 15N 228 15N 229 15N 229 15N 230 15N 231 15N 231 15N 213 15N 233 234 237 237 239 240 242 243 243 244 244 244 245 248 250 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N w e w e w e e w e w w w e e e 304 SA225 SA224 SA223 SA222 SA221 SA220 SA219 SA218 SA217 SA216 SA215 SA214 SA213 SA212 SA211 SA210 SA209 SA208 SA207 SA206 SA205 SA204 SA203 SA202 SA201 SA200 SA199 SA198 SA197 SA196 SA195 SA194 SA193 SA192 SA191 SA190 SA189 SA188 SA187 behind them. White granito nicho and white concrete cross nearby 2 black metal crosses on concrete pedestal Turquoise concrete A-frame nicho w/ cross atop White nicho, 1m tall, w/cross atop & flowers Black metal cross w/ filigrees & scroll Black metal cross w/ filigrees & scroll Rough wood cross w/ metal name plate, visitation stones on arms & top, fresh roses in coffee cans at base White granito nicho w/ cross atop & flowers Concrete cross & homemade nicho Large turquoise, arched roofed shrine w/ 2 gates White concrete cross Concrete nicho w/ cross behind Blue nicho w/ cross atop rear White concrete A-frame nicho on a platform, NSGuad ceramic in front & white metal cross in rear 3ft tall, flat-roofed nicho w/ facade, 2m cubed, white concrete w/ blue metal cross atop and a white metal cross in front w/ filigrees & flowers. White, 3m cubed shrine, white WI gate, 20m above road 4 small crosses covered w/flowers and large NSGuad rock painting [20ft tall x 10ft wide] above 4 white metal crosses, 2 w/ flowers Cross, covered w/ flowers 2 black metal crosses White metal cross w/ scroll White granito nicho, .5m tall White granito cross, 2.5m tall, w/ an angel 2x2ft, gabled nicho w/ white metal cross atop & flowers White metal nicho w/ white metal cross atop, flowers White concrete cross and 1 green metal Concrete cross, 1.5m tall 2 white concrete crosses Cross, covered by flowers, & dome-roofed nicho Brown metal cross w/ filigrees & scroll in a bucket of concrete, flowers White nicho w/ turquoise metal cross atop rear White concrete nicho w/ white concrete cross atop rear also a white metal cross Blue wood cross on white pedestal, flowers White, 4ft tall nicho, w/ black metal cross atop covered w/flowers Black pipe-type cross and 2x1ft yellow tile nicho w/ black pipe cross atop Cross, covered w/ flowers Box-type, concrete nicho w/ concrete cross atop rear Block shrine w/ pillars on both sides of black WI gate Concrete A-frame nicho w/ bronze-colored cross behind 251 251 251 254 254 254 256 256 256 259 261 262 262 262 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N w e w w e w e e w w e e e e e w w e w e e w e e e e e w e w e w e e e w w w w 265 15N 266 15N 267 15N 268 268 268 269 271 271 272 274 274 274 275 275 278 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 278 15N 278 15N 281 15N 283 15N 283 15N 283 284 286 287 15N 15N 15N 15N 305 SA186 SA185 SA184 SA183 SA182 SA181 SA180 SA179 SA178 SA177 SA176 SA175 SA174 SA173 SA172 SA171 SA170 SA169 SA168 SA167 SA166 SA165 SA164 SA163 SA162 SA161 SA160 SA159 SA158 SA157 SA156 SA155 SA154 SA153 SA152 SA151 SA150 SA149 SA148 SA147 SA146 SA145 SA144 2 concrete crosses; 1white on open-book pedestal, &1 black metal cross White metal cross in white WI fence, flowers Concrete, badly weathered cross White granito, flat-roofed nicho, 4 pillars, crucifix atop & a company emblem Metal cross, 1m, tall w/ 2 small metal crosses on the arms Blue concrete shrine, 2x3x1.5m, white cross atop Concrete cross, 18" tall Shrine, next to a business White concrete cross on pedestal w/ flowers Black metal cross w/ flowers White gable-roofed nicho; 1m sq w/ white metal cross atop, White concrete cross Black metal cross, 1 white concrete, 1 black metal on a freshly painted white concrete pedestal 2 concrete crosses White concrete cross 2 white metal crosses Large white granito nicho w/ cross & belfries atop gable-roof; decorated w/ flowers Blue concrete nicho w/ black metal cross atop Black metal cross [twisted WI], pointed tips & scroll Cross, fresh flowers obscuring the cross Concrete cross, 2m tall, on a wedge pedestal, just behind a private property fence. Cross Cross Cross Cross & nicho Cross Cross & nicho Cross & nicho Cross 2 crosses Cross Cross & nicho Cross Cross Nicho Cross Cross 3 crosses Cross Cross Cross Cross Cross 287 15N 290 15N 291 15N 293 15N 293 294 296 296 296 297 297 297 298 298 299 299 299 300 300 302 303 304 304 305 307 307 307 307 308 308 308 309 309 311 311 311 312 312 313 313 313 314 314 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N e w e w w w w w e w w w w e w e w w w w w w e w e w e w w e w w w w e e w w e e w e e 306 SA143 SA142 SA141 SA140 wSA02 SA98 SA97 SA96 SA95 SA94 SA93 SA92 SA91 SA90 SA89 SA88 SA87 SA86 SA85 SA84 SA83 SA82 SA81 SA80 SA79 Nicho Nicho Nicho Cross Jct. 15N & 40 W @ Villa Union Yellow 1/4m cubed, gable-roofed nicho w/ yellow metal cross w/ center name plate behind 3 black metal crosses, w/ red flowers on single pedestal White granito roman-type cross Silver metal cross between the vertical posts of a sign White granito crucifix w/ 2 urns Black metal cross Shrine where the first photo shows part of the highway and all of the steps leading up to it. There are areas to pull-off the road on both sides. Inside: large (18"x 36") NSGuad print in a wood & glass frame; surrounding it are red roses. There is also a blue wood cross made from 2x4s, a bunch of other flowers, a bunch of votive candles. Out back there is a cabana for people to rest, maybe have a picnic. Looks like gets a lot of visitation; a lot of the candles were burning and there is a large scrap heap of burnt out candles behind the shrine. 3 black & 1 white cross on blue concrete pedestal Concrete, 3-tiered nicho w/ white metal sun-burst cross atop: "Jesus Adrian Navvaro Lopez, nacio 6 avril 1986-fallacio 21 mayo 1998, recuerdos de su mama y hermanos". 3 crosses: Open book inscription in front one cross "Sr Feliciano Chincoia Concha, 9 junio 1960, 11 nov 1995; recuerdo de su esposa y hijos. recuerdo de sus padres, espose, hijos, y companeros de servicio panamericano de protecione suc. Mazatlan, Sin. The cross (black metal w/ spear-point tips) that is immediately to the right of it says: En memoria de amor Feliciano Chicoya Concha, fallacio 11 nov 1995; Cristo te tenga gozando en su reino" The cross to the left says: (its a spindle type) "Sr. [same name] on the heart-shaped with an arrow through it center scroll. White metal sun-burst type cross on concrete pedestal White metal cross Concrete, partly broken cross Small dome-roofed nicho w/ white concrete cross behind & flowers in front 2 black metal, outline-crosses w/ scrolls & red flowers on concrete pedestal White concrete crucifix on 3-tiered pedestal; "Ing. Jose Luis Garza" White nicho w/ white cross atop White dome-roofed nicho w/ white metal cross atop "Descanso Pedro" 1m tall granito nicho w/ cross atop; next to it is a similar recuerdo w/ cross broken off Rusted metal outline-type cross 315 314 317 318 320 321 323 325 326 326 326 326 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N e w e e e w w e e e W 326 15N 328 15N 329 15N e e W 329 330 330 330 15N 15N 15N 15N w w w e e e w w e e 331 15N 333 15N 333 15N 333 15N 335 15N 335 15N 307 SA78 SA77 SA76 SA75 SA74 SA73 SA72 SA71 SA70 SA69 SA68 SA67 SA66 SA65 SA64 SA63 SA62 SA61 SA60 SA59 SA58 SA57 SA56 SA55 SA54 SA53 SA52 SA51 SA50 SA49 SA48 SA47 SA46 SA45 SA44 SA43 SA42 SA41 White concrete nicho, pedestal w/ small arch-roofed nicho on rear, silver metal outline cross atop, fresh flowers & nicho opening covered by bricks. White granito roman-type cross Crucifix, 2 side urns, 1 urn in front, small nicho box behind: "jamie rodriguez luna; 6 julio 11996 edad 28 anos; recuerdo de sus padres y hermanos". White concrete open-faced, gable-roofed nicho w/ black WI door & black WI fence around it. 1.5m tall Natural concrete box-type nicho w/ black metal cross atop White nicho/cross Black metal cross on 1m tall concrete pedestal; red flowers on cross Black metal cross on white concrete slab White concrete nicho w/ white concrete cross atop 2 white concrete crosses on separate pedestals Black metal cross White concrete cross Black metal cross on turquoise concrete pedestal White concrete cross on nicho pedestal White concrete cross & 1 black metal cross on granito nicho & urn slab Small brick nicho with a white concrete cross on it White concrete cross White nicho w/ crucifix in the middle Concrete nicho w/ concrete cross atop White concrete clover-cross, 2 urns, & Jesus figure attached White nicho w/ black metal cross atop & red floral bouquet Blue metal cross Silver-colored metal cross w/ center name scroll Black painted cross on vertical stanchion on bridge over Rio Guaymole "Luis Alfredo Rodriguez Villa 12 marzo 1998" just outside of Rosario. White concrete roman-style cross Silver-colored cross on 2-tiered concrete pedestal White concrete cross w/ white concrete angel in front Concrete nicho, 2m tall, w/ white crosses atop White metal cross w/ center name scroll on concrete base. 1m tall Rusted metal cross White concrete cross 18" tall concrete roman-style cross w/ center name plate White concrete roman-type cross w/ 2 urns White nicho w/ white cross atop White concrete, gable-roofed nicho w/ white concrete cross centered in rear 2 large granito cross/nichos; 1m+ tall; situated closely White gable-roofed nicho w/ black metal cross on rear White gable-roofed nicho w/ large black metal cross beside 338 15N 338 15N 339 15N 340 15N 340 15N 340 15N 340 15N 341 341 342 343 343 343 344 344 345 345 345 345 345 346 346 347 347 348 349 349 350 351 351 352 352 352 352 354 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N E w W e w w e e e w w e e e w w w e e w w w w w e e e e w e e w w e e e e w 355 15N 355 15N 355 15N 308 SA40 SA39 SA38 SA37 SA36 SA35 SA34 SA33 SA32 SA31 SA30 SA29 SA28 SA27 SA26 SA25 SA24 SA23 SA22 SA21 SA20 SA19 SA18 Concrete block, 1m cubed nicho w/ white concrete cross & Jesus Sacred Heart statue atop 3 black metal crosses w/ red & green flowers 1m tall roman-type cross w/ Jesus Sacred Heart statue in front & an urn w/ red flowers in front of the statue Small white cross Open-faced, box-nicho w/ NSGuad statue Open-faced, box-nicho w/ NSGuad statue & arch behind 4 white metal crosses on concrete pedestal w/6" tall arch-roofed nicho between the second & third crosses 2 metal crosses;1 blue & 1 pink on blue concrete pedestals Dark blue nicho, lots of visitation pebbles. Rear 3-step facade, blue metal cross w/ an unusual arch on it: "Jorge Filipe Rivera Hidalgez, fallicio el 24 de marzo de 1996 a la edad de 19 anos, recuerdo de su familia y amigos" Small white box-nicho w/ wooden cross on rear; .25m sq. Monument, white Jesus Sacred Heart statue; 0.5m tall Concrete, 3m tall, pipe cross w/ arms approx 6" diameter White concrete sun-burst-type cross White concrete roman-type cross 3 white metal crosses on single pedestal Light blue nicho w/ white metal cross centered in rear White metal outline-cross w/ filigrees, concrete pedestal Black metal cross on pedestal 2 black metal outline-cross w/filigrees; 1 white concrete cross; on a single pedestal Blue box-nicho w/ silver-colored frame-type cross atop nicho about 1/4m cubed w/front opening, facing the road smaller than the front. White concrete crucifix on pedestal, granito White, adobe brick, flat-roofed nicho w/ a black spear-point cross atop and with 2 large stones on the inside. Inscription: "Zugale Evangilina Rendon Jimenez, fallacito a las diez anos el dia 17 de diciembre 1989, recuerdo de sus padres y familiares, D.E.P." Turquoise shrine.2x2.5x2.5m has a gabled-roof w/top flattened & wings on the side. 2 black metal crosses in front on the wings, enclosed by black WI fence w/turquoise post. Painted part of shrine is concrete; face is white tile w/ black WI door. The area enclosed by the fence is planted with flowers and tropical plants. Inside; large NSGuad print, fresh flowers, photo of a young male, above it another NSGuad print "Saludos de Navidad por una carina familia" One of the interesting things about this site is that there was no name or date, just the man's photo. Obviously it is a death site, and a recuerdo, but there is no way of knowing who or when. The flowers in there were fresh. (cont.): I just finished having lunch just near that last site and as I was finishing up; a guy pulled up in his pickup truck with his three sons and got out at the site and started cutting some of the flowers off of the planted flowers outside of the nicho/shrine (but inside of 356 15N 357 15N 357 15N 357 357 357 358 15N 15N 15N 15N w w w e w e w e w 359 15N 360 15N 361 362 363 363 366 366 366 367 367 368 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N e w e w w w e e e w e w E 371 15N 372 15N 373 15N 374 15N E 309 SA17 SA16 SA15 SA14 SA13 SA12 SA11 SA10 SA09 SA08 SA07 SA06 SA05 SA04 SA03 SA02 SA01 wB28 the fence) and took the in to refresh the flowers inside. So I went over and talked to him and as I pulled up I noticed he had California plates and so the whole conversation took place in English. I asked him quite pointedly, why does this happen instead of just in the graveyard, I asked him in several different ways. I asked him does this happen when somebody is out working in the field and they fall, does somebody out up a shrine out in the field? He said: "Well, they can" he didn't say they do, rather that they can. So I asked him OK how about like my Dad died last February and he had been sick for quite some time, when something like that happens do you put up something in the place where he died? He said; No, of course, we can't do that in the hospital and we know that. This is an old custom and when people expect someone to die we just put them in the cemetery, and we honor them in the cemetery. But this is for when somebody dies and you don't expect it. You know it hurts much more, the pain is much more when somebody who is young dies. His name was Estaban and he is the cousin of the boy whose picture is in the nicho. In his own words, from a Mexican, he confirmed what I previously thought. Further elaborating on the conversation with Esteban, he said: "You know in America you can leave home at the age of eighteen, but you can't do that here. You have responsibility to your parents because they brought you up; so you have that responsibility for your whole life. He said: Although the deceased was only his cousin, they were very close. I thought this was really quite interesting because it showed how close these (extended) family ties are here. Concrete crucifix, 1m tall, enclosed by 4 natural wood posts and barbed wire "Sergio ? Martinez" White metal, rusted chapel-shaped nicho White pipe-type cross w/ center scroll Dark blue concrete, gable-roofed, nicho w/ black metal cross centered in the rear & black WI door 2 black metal crosses w/ filigrees and a single pedestal Small concrete cross 1x0.5x1.5m brick & stucco white nicho w/ cross on the front; on private property White granito cross on brick pedestal White concrete roman-type cross on a pedestal White metal cross w/ filigrees, on a concrete pedestal Light blue, 1m cubed, open-faced nicho, w/ black metal cross in the rear Dark blue box-nicho w/small opening facing road & blue metal cross centered in rear White Cristo Rey statue, 0.5m tall monument Black metal cross, part of a soil slump below road level White concrete cross; fallen over as part of a soil slump 2 white metal outline-crosses on separate pedestals, 2m tall Blue metal outline-type cross Boundary Nayarit & Sinaloa; end L3, Sinaloa 376 15N 377 15N 378 15N 378 15N 379 15N 379 15N 379 15N 379 380 380 380 15N 15N 15N 15N w w w e w w e w e e w w w e e e 385 15N 387 390 390 393 394 394 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 310 wB41 SA99 SA100 SA101 SA102 SA103 SA104 SA105 SA106 SA107 wSA03 SA108 SA109 SA110 SA111 SA112 SA113 SA114 SA115 SA116 SA117 SA118 SA119 SA120 SA121 SA122 Stateline Durango/Sinaloa; transect W2 Turquoise concrete nicho w/ red metal gable roof w/ white cross atop front, 3x2x2ft Rust red metal cross w/ filigrees & scroll on concrete pedestal White pipe-type cross w/ scroll White metal cross on concrete pedestal White concrete, arch-roofed nicho w/ white metal cross atop and white metal cross White wood cross Blue tile shrine, built into road-cut, 1m cubed, w/ small statue of Vof SanJuan & several vases of flowers White granito nicho w/ white cross atop & 2 urns in front White granito cross Tropic of cancer Blue metal cross Concrete & brick shrine, 2 sets of steps going up in an arch to small nicho; inside there are statues of NSGuad & St Jude. In the parking lot of a restaurant built on the side of the mountain. Rose bushes, gladiolas planted, lots of votive candles lit, fresh flowers inside, lots of live foliage planted around the stairs. Very impressive. Restaurant La Pasidita and there is also a little motel across the street. We had a conversation with the girl in the store and she said that the family that lives here, that owns the store built it out of their devotion to their devotion to the Virgin of Guadalupe. Turquoise pipe-cross w/ white filigrees & scroll; "Jesus??" Very old nicho w/ cross atop, lots of visitation pebbles White granito nicho w/ 2urns & inscription plate; "Euclides??" Shrine in La Capilla de Taxde; NSGuad & a man kneeling down praying. About 4m cubed, pink w/ gable roof. Wood cross Black lumber cross White, 3-tiered, gable roof nicho, fresh flowers White concrete, gable roof nicho w/ 3 crosses atop, 1x.5x.5m 2 crosses & open-book on a pedestal; "Amando Castaneda P. 25 oct 74 & Teracio Castaneda P. 15 oct 71" "Hijos mios cada amencer de pedimos al Senor resignacion por tan irreparable perioda, los recuerdamos con amor y carino, sus padres, hermanos, hija, sobrinos, esposas, amigos, trelares de rio grande. Nov 24, 1993 the next one is a gray maltese-style, inscribed; Juan Rene Hernandez Maroquin, 10 dic 1995, a la edad de 23 anos. Has wooden rosary beads hanging from the vertical arm of the cross. The fourth is a x-fix w/ the christ about gone; Suboficial PEC Jesus Salvador Torres Alguilar, 25 dic 1963/12 dic 1996, recuerdo de su esposa y hijos, padres, hermanos, y companeros, DEP 2 crsosses;1 white granito cross, and 4-tiered pedestal cross Black metal cross on 2-tiered pedestal w/scroll & filigrees Rusted metal cross w/ filigrees & scroll White metal cross 0 40W 1 40W 5 6 7 9 40W 40W 40W 40W s s s s s s n s s n n 9 40W 10 40W 11 12 13 14 15 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 17 18 18 22 22 23 23 24 26 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W n n n n s s s s n 29 34 34 35 40W 40W 40W 40W s n n n 311 SA123 SA124 SA125 SA126 SA127 SA128 SA129 SA130 SA131 SA132 SA133 SA134 SA135 SA136 SA137 SA138 SA139 wSA08 Brown & white tile nicho White concrete, 2m tall shrine, black WI gate White granito nicho, 3m tall, arch-roofed w/ a company emblem atop, white metal cross behind, within black WI fence; lots of flowers. White metal cross; "Jose ?" The first noticeable thing here is that there is nearly case of empty Modello cans sitting about the area, Theres a metal framework w/ 5 crosses on it, behind that is a black metal cross, the top arm has INRI the cross-arm; 17 mar 1969/ 3 oct 1999 the bottom arm; Rincon de Romas and the scroll; Luis Armando Rodriguez Reyes, mientras viva tu amor no morire del todo, mientras tu amor aliente vivire en tu recuerdo in front of that is a wedge inscribed; En memoria al Ing. Luis Armando Rodriguez Reyes, todo en esta vida hermano estrastado por un corto numero de anos, prestada es la vida la familia y los amigos disfrutimos lo que Dios nos en dia cada dia, de tus companeros procisa constuctistas Telmex y Teleconstructores. 3 oct 1999, DEP behind the metal cross is a beautiful hand-carved crucifix and then there is a white wall behind it. The guys at Telmex really put in some labor on this. Green tile nicho, votives lit, "Prof. Juan Manuel Lopez Salazar" w/ a barbed wire fence around it White granito nicho, 3m tall, crucifix atop & 2 urns,; inside; 8x10 print of NSGuad, bottle of ? & photos. 2 granito crucifixes w/ 2 urns in front White metal cross w/ scroll White concrete cross on 3-tiered pedestal w/ 2 urns, facing away from road Lime green concrete shrine, 4x5x4m, gabled red tile roof, black pipe cross atop & beneath the apex of the gable is a ceramic x-fix, WI windows & door (locked) has several plantings around the outside (roses & citrus trees) on a concrete 9x7m platform. Inside; 20-30 votive candles on a wooden table under an offering box, more votives on the floor (lit), 35 vases full of fresh flowersdata lost. Nicho Cross Nicho 1 cross, 1 nicho 2 nichos Cross Jct 40W/15N @ Villa Union; end (devil's backbone) transect W2 35 40W 37 40W 38 40W 39 40W 39 40W n n n n n 42 40W 42 40W 42 40W 43 40W 45 40W 50 40W n n n s n s 50 51 53 55 56 57 59 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W n n n s s n 312 Table A4.5: Nayarit Site # Description wB28 NT104 NT103 NT102 NT101 NT100 NT99 NT98 NT97 NT96 Boundary Nayarit & Sinaloa; transect L3 Red metal cross w/ center scroll on concrete pedestal Turquoise metal outline-type cross w/ filigrees Cross, covered with floral wreath Adobe, 2x1x1.5m, nicho 20m off road. Empty inside White concrete diamond-shaped cross over a small nicho box w/ a name hand-painted on the cross Monument, statue of Cristo Rey Black metal cross w/ filigrees on a concrete pedestal Black metal cross on turquoise concrete box nicho w/ red flowers White granito open-faced nicho w/Jesus Sacred Heart statue inside. Both this & 97 are on a dangerous curve down below road level & are difficult to see, there may be more down there that was not visible from road-level. Black metal cross on concrete pedestal White concrete cross on pedestal Natural wood cross on concrete pedestal. Between this & 94, on the west, is the rusted remains of an overturned bus. White concrete cross on pedestal w/ built-in nicho 1m tall turquoise metal w/ center name plate & filigrees White concrete roman-cross; fallen off of its pedestal Monument, 1m tall white concrete statue of Jesus Sacred Heart enclosed in white WI fence White concrete cross on granito nicho pedestal, w/ blue floral wreath White concrete cross on granito nicho pedestal 2 light blue metal outline-crosses, one atop the other White concrete cross White concrete double arch w/ cross beneath Dark blue concrete cross on 2x1x0.5m blue tile pedestal Natural concrete cross Black metal cross on 1m tall concrete pedestal 2 white metal crosses on single pedestal Large concrete cross on pedestal w/ flowers 2 black metal crosses 2 white concrete crosses Large flat-roof, white granito nicho w/cross atop middle, black WI door. Nicho w/ white crown cross atop "Fallacieron junio 25, 1970 Miguel Rodriguez Morfin agente judicial Magdeleno Rodriguez Moreno agente judicial, Jose de Jesus Fausto Meji cabo de infinteria, Jose Ramirez Torrez soldado". White tile cross on a pedestal White concrete, 1m tall, cross (used to be light blue tile but they've fallen off) on concrete pedestal 313 Mile 0 1 2 3 3 4 Rte Dir 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N Asp w e w w w e w w w 4 15N 6 15N 6 15N 7 15N NT95 NT94 NT93 NT92 NT91 NT90 NT89 NT88 NT87 NT86 NT85 NT84 NT83 NT82 NT81 NT80 NT79 NT78 NT77 NT76 NT75 7 15N 8 15N 10 15N 10 10 13 14 15N 15N 15N 15N w e e w e w w e w e w e w w e e e e e w e 15 15N 15 16 16 16 16 17 20 21 21 24 24 24 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 25 15N NT74 NT73 25 15N 26 15N e e NT72 NT71 NT70 NT69 NT68 NT67 NT66 NT65 NT64 NT63 NT62 NT61 NT60 NT59 NT58 NT57 NT56 NT55 NT54 NT53 NT52 NT51 NT50 NT49 NT48 NT47 NT46 NT45 NT44 NT43 NT42 NT41 NT40 NT39 Used to be white concrete cross on a pedestal, the cross part is broken off; all that's left is the pedestal and some pieces of fender. White concrete roman-type cross on concrete base, partially deteriorated White concrete cross w/ light blue inscription plate; on a pedestal White metal cross on concrete pedestal White granito dome-roof, 3-tiered nicho w/cross White metal cross, 1.5m tall, sun-burst type, on a HARD curve Box-nicho, parallel to road, behind; a white metal outline-cross Nicho w/ 2m tall sunburst cross w/ black tile insert, Christ figure & urns to either side."Sr. Augustin Vandufano L., 12 abril 1989, recuerdo de sus companeros, amigos y familia" White granito nicho w/2 urns & cross Orange metal cross atop white concrete dome-roofed nicho Black metal cross 1m+ tall turquoise metal cross & smaller turquoise metal cross. Larger one was plain Roman, the smaller was a spear-tip style. Both on same concrete pedestal. Large monument w/ 3 granito crosses; next to it is the remains of another monument that had at least 2 crosses. Both had builtin nichos Black metal outline-cross, concrete pedestal, floral wreath 1m+ tall granito monument w/a shield backdrop, 2 crosses and 2 urns White concrete, arch-roofed nicho w/ white metal cross centered in the rear White concrete clover-type cross on pedestal Monument; statue of BVM & Christ child. Below it is an openbook inscription and all are on a turquoise pedestal, all of concrete. Rusted metal cross Black metal cross Light blue nicho w/ white metal cross atop Blue tile, arch-roofed nicho w/ white metal cross atop Black metal cross White concrete, flat-roofed nicho w/2 crosses inside White metal outline-type cross Bright yellow nicho 2 White metal crosses 2 white concrete crosses 2 white metal outline-type crosses on a pedestal Turquoise nicho White concrete cross Turquoise metal cross, attached to a tree. A burnt out hollow in the tree, above the cross, has been turned into a nicho. White granito cross up on a bank w/urns White granito crucifix w/ 2urns w/ flowers in them. 25m north 314 28 15N 28 15N 30 15N 32 32 32 33 34 34 37 37 39 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N w e e e w e w w w w w w w e w w e e e w e w w w w e e w w e e 40 15N 40 15N 41 15N 42 15N 43 15N 44 15N 45 45 51 53 53 54 54 54 55 55 55 55 55 56 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 56 15N 57 15N NT38 NT37 NT36 NT35 NT34 NT33 NT32 NT31 NT30 NT29 NT28 NT27 wNT09 NT26 NT25 NT24 wNT08 NT23 NT22 NT21 NT20 NT19 NT18 NT17 NT16 NT15 NT14 NT13 NT12 NT11 NT10 NT09 NT08 of this is a bridge over the Rio Santiago Yellow metal outline-type cross on a yellow brick pedestal White granito cross w/ 2 urns White metal cross White granito cross w/NSGuad plaque standing in front & 2 urns to each side 2 white granito crucifixes w/ a small nicho box between them White granito crucifix up on a bank White concrete cross White granito nicho w/crucifix Black metal cross w/ white WI fence around it White metal cross w/ wreath White concrete cross on pedestal White granito cross on pedestal Junction 74E and 15N White concrete cross on pedestal w/ many visitation pebbles; "Jose Angel Alvarez" Green metal cross w/set of wings at the crux White concrete crucifix San Blas Dark blue metal cross Small concrete, open-faced, gable-roofed nicho built into a retaining wall. Empty inside White concrete cross. Hand painted "Jose Ricardo Rinteria, 216-92" says this is the place where he died and has a picture of a bleeding Jesus w/halo; real nicely done. Small white granito nicho w/cross of white granito, pretty old, has lots of mildew. Yellow cross Small wood cross, just outside of the town of Cingueata White concrete, open-faced, gable-roofed nicho w/ 3 white metal crosses inside, all with the date 5 April 98. Inscribed "S.M.Cr." "P.M.R. Cr." "A.F.L." behind are 3 wooden crosses w/ same initials. Blue metal cross w/floral wreath Granito white nicho w/cross atop. nicho box empty 2 gray metal crosses w/ center scrolls Black metal cross w/ center scroll Gray metal cross "P.O.Y. 8-9-86"; nicho "Jesus Hector Curiae?" granito crucifix atop a pedestal w/small niche opening and w/ urns on either side. Black metal cross w/ center scroll White concrete cross on pedestal w/brick foundation "Stra. Professor Rosala Lopez Savalla, aug 24, 1955-aug 22, 1976" there is also a white concrete cross 10m west of this. White concrete cross Cross painted on a rock. I've seen several of these, but this one had a name painted on the rock also, making it a definite death marker. 315 57 57 59 59 60 60 61 63 63 63 65 66 67 76 79 88 88 108 112 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 74E 74E 74E 74E sr11 sr11 e e w e w w e w w e e w n n s n s n n n n n 113 sr11 114 sr11 120 76W 122 76W 125 76W 126 129 130 130 130 76W 76W 76W 76W 76W n s n n s n 138 76W 138 76W 140 15N 140 15N e w NT07 NT06 NT05 NT04 NT03 NT02 wNT01 wNT13 NT105 NT106 NT107 NT108 NT109 NT110 NT111 NT112 NT113 NT114 NT115 NT116 NT117 NT118 NT119 NT120 NT121 NT122 NT123 NT124 NT125 NT126 NT127 NT128 NT129 Light blue tile, gable-roofed, open-faced nicho; built into a road cut on a dangerous curve. NSGuad image on inside rear wall. White granito, gable-roofed, open-faced nicho w/ urns on either side & cross centered in the middle White granito crucifix w/urns to either side White granito roman-type cross on pedestal Light blue metal cross w/ concrete pedestal White granito cross w/ an urn Break in transect on outskirts of Tepic Resume transect on Tepic to Puerta Vallarta road Small adobe nicho w/ a blue metal cross w/ a center name plate behind it White concrete cross on a pedestal White concrete cross White concrete crucifix on a pedestal White concrete roman style cross on a pedestal White concrete cross on a pedestal White concrete nicho w/ white concrete crucifix on it Concrete, gable-roofed nicho built into the side of a road-cut and there is a white concrete cross inside White concrete crucifix on a pedestal White concrete nicho w/ white concrete crucifix on it Black metal cross White concrete nicho w/ white concrete crucifix on it Black metal outline-type cross w/ black WI fence around it White concrete cross 2 white concrete crosses on separate pedestals Silver-colored outline type metal cross on a 2-tiered concrete pedestal w/ red & white floral wreath on it White concrete nicho w/ crucifix above Black metal outline-type cross w/ filagrees on a blue & turquoise box nicho White metal cross w/ filgreeing & center name scroll on a 2tiered pedestal White concrete crucifix w/ 2 urns under a post and tin roof shelter Black metal cross w/ floral wreath At intersection of 68 & 200. A pedestal with 5 crosses on it, from left to right. "Maria de Jesus Cornejo H., 11-8-90"; "Francisco Moreno F., 11-8-90"; "Alberto Guerrero L., 11-890"; "Pedro Fuentes T., 11-8-90"; "Maria Luisa Anguiano P., 11-8-90". The three step pedestal is inscribed: "Padres nos dejaron por herencia el mas precioso tesoro el recuerdo de su ejemplo y de su vida en la tierra y sabemos que no han muerto han empesado a vivir." Amen White metal, 30' tall, cross up on a hill just to the left 20m off the road White metal cross w/ square-shaped center name plate White metal sun-burst type cross w/ center name plate on a 316 141 15N 148 15N 155 156 157 157 161 0 3 4 7 17 17 18 25 26 27 27 29 29 29 29 29 30 15N 15N 15N 15N 15N 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S w w e w e e e w w w e e e e w w e w e e e w w w w e e W 30 200S 31 200S 32 200S 32 200S 32 200S 33 200S 34 200S 37 200S 37 200S e e e NT130 NT131 NT132 NT133 NT134 NT135 NT136 NT137 NT138 NT139 NT140 NT141 NT142 NT143 NT144 NT145 NT146 NT147 NT148 NT149 NT150 concrete pedestal One of the largest shrines I've seen. It is red and has steps going up to a little chapel on the top; has 2 niches on the bottom, each with 4 votive shelves. The left side niche has a print Christ walking on water, a plaque-type statue of Christ w/ crown of thorns, next to it is Virgin of Guadalupe statue, above them is a 0.5m tall statue of NSGuad next to it is a crucifix. Above those within a brick arch on the left is a small Christ Sacred Heart and on the right is a larger Christ Sacred Heart about 0.5m tall. The is a sign hanging in the middle that says "Favor, no deterrar la something something [the tape is bad, probably dont throw trash] another sign to it s left "Capilla del Sagrado Corazon de Jesus, donado por Miguel Agurre Tovar 18 junio 1995, el senor delune tu camino" 30 steps to the top and there is another shrine type opening with 2, 1m tall Christ Sacred Heart statues, whole bunches of flowers and votive candles [tape garbled again] outline cross with red roses on it and two belfries that have little bells in them. White granito crucifix "Sergio Membrilla 4 julio 1968-11 enero 1997" 20m south of NT131; white concrete cross with lots of plastic roses on it: "Senora Rosa Hilda Barajas U, el 20 de oct. 1964, el 11 de julio 1996; recuerdo de sus padres y hermanos" Just after this site: there goes a wrecking truck going the other direction carrying a crashed bus. White granito cross on 2-tiered concrete pedestal White metal cross White concrete nicho w/ white concrete cross atop & blue metal cross to one side White pipe-type cross w/ center scroll on concrete pedestal Black pipe-type cross w/ red wreath on concrete pedestal Sky-blue metal outline-cross w/ filagrees on concrete pedestal; had a weathered wooden cross in front. Blue wood cross on brick pedestal; visitation stones on the cross arms White cross,1m tall concrete on pedestal "Jose ??" Green tile nicho w/ white concrete cross atop Concrete 3m wide nicho w/ 5 concrete crosses atop; 1.5m tall 2 light blue Cross, w/ blue wreath on concrete pedestal; just outside of Las Varas 2 blue metal crosses on pedestal White metal outline-type cross on pedestal White concrete nicho w/ granito cross & 2 urns atop; 1m cubed, cross 0.5m tall Blue tile nicho w/ white cross atop & floral wreath White gable-roofed nicho w/ white concrete cross centered in rear & 2 urns in front White granito crucifix on pedestal w/ 2 urns White concrete cross & 1 blue concrete pedestal w/ metal cross 42 200S e 43 200S 43 200S e w 43 200S 45 200S 45 200S 46 200S 47 200S 50 200S 51 200S 51 52 52 54 200S 200S 200S 200S w w e e w w w w e w e w w w e e w e 54 200S 54 200S 55 200S 56 200S 57 200S 57 200S 58 200S 317 NT151 NT152 NT153 NT154 NT155 NT156 NT157 NT158 NT159 NT160 NT161 NT162 NT163 NT164 NT165 NT166 NT167 NT168 NT169 NT170 NT171 NT172 NT173 NT174 NT175 NT176 NT177 NT178 NT179 NT180 NT181 NT182 NT183 wB29 wB27 NT01 wNT01 broken off w/ only a few inches left White metal outline-type cross on pedestal White granito cross on wedge pedestal 2 white granito crosses w/ an urn between Weathered wooden cross in front on a tree 2 white granito Cross, w/ 2 urns on pedestal White concrete cross White concrete cross; "Samy" Small white concrete nicho w/ light blue metal cross atop White concrete cross w/ urn in front & flowers on the cross Bronze-colored metal cross on concrete pedestal Forest green sun-burst style cross Black metal cross w/ filagrees & oval name plate White concrete cross on pedestal White concrete cross on raised tomb style slab White metal cross White concrete nicho w/ white concrete clover cross atop & red floral bouquet 2 natural (un-milled) wood cross White granito nicho w/ 2 white crosses on either side Silver-colored metal cross on a pedestal White concrete Maltese style on pedestal White concrete clover cross; 1m tall White concrete crucifix Remains of blue concrete cross White concrete cross 2 white concrete cross on a pedestal; one is broken 2 white concrete crosses on a pedestal White concrete cross Blue metal cross White wood cross White concrete nicho, 2m tall, w/ white concrete cross atop & red wreath White concrete crown-type cross Yellow & green tile cross & monument 4 concrete cross on a pedestal NT/JL boundary; end L3, Nayarit End Jalisco, begin Nayarit; transect W3a White concrete cross w/ red flowers End W3a, jct L3 at Tepic 58 59 59 61 61 62 62 62 63 64 65 65 66 66 68 70 71 73 73 73 76 76 78 81 85 85 89 89 89 90 90 91 91 101 0 48 51 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 15N 15N 15N e e w e e e e w e e w w w e w w w e w e w e w w e w e e w w e 318 Table A4.6: Chihuahua Site # Description wCH01a Janos: jct 2E/10S; begin transect B4 CH07 Wood cross CH06 White cross CH05 5 small white crosses & 1 large wood cross CH04 White cross CH03 0.75x0.75x0.5m brick nicho w/ concrete gabled roof. Inside; crucifix, 5 votives, 1 floral bouquet, statues of NSGuad & 2 other Virgin Marys CH02 White cross CH01 4 black metal crosses on dangerous curve wB2 CH/SN boundary; end B4, Chihuahua wCH01 Janos: jct 2E/10S; begin transect L2 CH08 3 x 3.5 x 3m brick & stucco shrine. Inside: 0.6x1.2m print of St. Jude w/ reclining St. Francis in front of it, & a small statue of a saint holding a feather, 12 votives. CH09 3 white crosses CH10 4 white crosses CH11 White cross CH12 2x2x2.5m brick shrine, dome roof, wrought iron gate. Inside: tile floor, glass windows, 1m St. Jude statue, 0.25m reclining St. Francis statue, 20x10cm plaque of NSGuad, 12 votives (2 burning), 1 vase of red roses (plastic). CH13 1x0.75x0.75m brick nicho w/ tin gabled roof. Inside: 20x 25cm print of Jesus Sacred Heart, small Nino de Atocha statue,5 votives. CH14 2.5x.5x2m brick shrine, concrete gable roof w/ church spire wrought iron work atop on sides & dome at rear center. Glass crosses built into brick work on sides. Inside: 0.75m tall statue of NSGuad, 0.5m statue of St. Jude, 4 votives, 2 plastic floral bouquets, & 2 small bags of salt. CH15 1.5x1x1.5m white stucco nicho, tin gabled roof & black WI cross atop; attached to private property fence & house nearby. Inside: 0.5m statue of St. Jude, smaller bust statues of Jesus Malverde & Nino de Atocha. CH16 1x1x1m brick & white stucco shrine, blue tin, gabled roof. Inside: Nino de Atocha statue & print, print of NSGuad, 9 votives, & 2 floral vases. CH17 Blue cross CH18 2 white crosses & plaque CH19 2 x 1 x 1m brick nicho, partially built, w/out a roof. 20m off the road, 0.5km south of CH18. CH20 White cross; in city of Nuevo Casas Grandes CH21 2 blue crosses; outskirts of old Casas Grandes CH22 White cross CH23 White cross CH24 2x2x2m brick nicho, front painted green, tin gable roof. Inside: 3 Nino de Atocha prints, 6 votives, 2 bunches of Mile 0 3 15 19 21 44 45 46 46 0 10 12 13 18 19 RteDir 2E 2E 2E 2E 2E 2E 2E 2E 2E 10S 10S 10S 10S 10S 10S Asp s n n n n s n e e w e w 20 10S 22 10S w e 26 10S w 32 10S 34 10S 35 10S 35 10S 37 42 45 46 53 10S 10S 10S 10S 10S e w e e w e w e w 319 CH25 CH26 CH27 CH28 CH29 CH30 CH31 CH32 CH33 CH34 CH35 CH36 CH37 CH38 CH39 CH40 CH41 CH42 CH43 CH44 CH45 CH46 CH47 CH48 CH49 CH50 CH51 flowers, & a braid of hair in one corner. 1x1x1.5m white stucco nicho w/ tin gabled roof. Inside: 28 x35cm print of NSGuad, 12 x 18cm print of Nino de Atocha, 12cm statue of Joseph & Holy Child, 2 bouquets of fresh wildflowers. 1x1x1.5m brick nicho w/ tin gabled roof. Inside: 46cm statue of Jesus Sacred Heart. 3 white crosses Large concrete cross Green pipe-type cross 2 white crosses 3x3x 4m brick & stucco shrine, tin gable roof, NSGuad painted on north wall. Inside: 61x91cm NSGuad print, 20 x 30cm Nino de Atocha print in very nice wooden frame, 20 floral bouquets (both fresh & plastic), & 20 votives (10 lit). .75x.75x1.5m white metal nicho, 20cm St. Jude statue inside. White cross 1x1x1m raw stucco nicho, green Astroturf, gable roof w/ white cross atop, & glass door. Inside: crucifix & 4 votives. 0.5x1x1m white adobe brick nicho, pink grout, tile roof; 50m above road. Inside: St. Jude statue & 20 votives. 3 x 1.5m rock painting of Nino de Atocha, 50m S of CH35 7 black crosses White cross Nicho, in ruins 1.5x1.5x2.5m gray stucco shrine w/ flat concrete roof, WI door (locked), & windows on either side. 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.5m white metal nicho on stilts w/gabled roof & centered cross atop. Inside: St. Jude statue & 3 votives. 2x2x2.5m white stucco shrine, tin gabled roof, square facade. Inside: 75x30cm wood lacquering of St. Jude print, 45cm statue of St. Jude, 2 NSGuad prints, 1 faded print of Nino de Atocha, 1 stylized crucifix, 3 Jesus prints, 5 bibles, 12 votives, 2 bowls containing coins. White metal cross: "Sra Eulogia Sandoval Glez. 01/10/93" 2 white metal crosses 5 white concrete crosses Green metal cross 2 white crosses Beige 2.5x2x3.5m stucco shrine. Inside; 1m statue of St. Jude & wall plaques on either side, 12 votives, & 2 floral bouquets. 2km south of Galiana. 3.5x2x2.5m gray brick shrine w/ tin gabled roof & cross atop. Inside: 45x90cm framed Nino de Atocha print, 5 floral bouquets, 4 votives, 2 hand written supplications & 1 of thanks, in a wicker basket. White concrete cross White pipe cross 53 10S w 54 10S 55 56 58 59 60 10S 10S 10S 10S 10S w w e w w w 60 10S 60 10S 60 10S 64 10S 64 64 64 64 65 10S 10S 10S 10S 10S w e e e e e w e e e e 65 10S 66 10S 66 73 75 78 81 82 10S 10S 10S 10S 10S 10S e w w w e e w 85 10S 87 10S 88 10S e w 320 CH52 CH53 CH54 CH55 CH56 CH57 CH58 CH59 CH60 CH61 CH62 CH63 CH64 CH65 CH66 CH67 CH68 CH69 CH70 CH71 CH72 CH73 CH74 CH75 CH76 CH77 CH78 CH79 CH80 CH81 CH82 CH83 CH84 CH85 CH86 CH87 CH88 White pipe cross White cross; in a cage inside town of Lagunitas Rusted wrought iron cross Gray metal cross Concrete cross Black metal cross in San Buenaventura Blue metal cross White wood cross 0.25x0.25x0.5m metal nicho w/ gable roof, has a statue of San Antonio de Padua. White metal cross, plastic flowers. Inscription: "M.O.V. 1993.31.10" White cross White cross "A.P.P." White cross White cross Nicho White pipe cross White cross, "MONI" Tablet tombstone Nicho White cross White cross Black pipe cross 3 black crosses Black wooden cross White metal 0.5x0.5x1m nicho w/ gable roof & glass door, situated on a dangerous curve. Inside: 10 votives, 20 x 25cm NSGuad print, 12 ceramic plaques of NSGuad. Immediately to the north are 2 tables for votive candles & a rock painting of NSGuad. 2 white pipe crosses Black pipe cross; 2m tall Black cross on white painted rock 1.5x1x1.5m white & red stucco nicho, gable roof, centered cross, & WI door. Inside: 60x90cm NSGuad plaque w/ scenes of Juan Diego story in each corner, 20x25cm print of NSGuad, broken statue of NSGuad, 30cm statue of NSGuad, 30 votives, 2 floral vases, 1 floral basket, 1 candelabra, & a hand made statue of ? Black pipe cross Small white cross 2 crosses, 1 black & 1 white Black metal cross on wedge-type gravestone 3 black crosses & 1 white cross White cross Black cross White cross 89 91 93 96 98 100 108 108 110 10S 10S 10S 10S 10S 10S 10S 10S 10S w e e e e e w w e w w w e w e e e w w e e w w e w 111 10S 114 115 117 117 123 123 124 126 126 126 133 137 137 140 140 10S 10S 10S 10S 10S 10S 10S 10S 10S 10S 10S 10S 10S 10S 10S 140 140 140 140 10S 10S 10S 10S e e w e 141 142 155 167 171 171 178 179 10S 10S 10S 10S 45S 45S 45S 45S w w w e e m m e 321 CH89 CH90 CH91 CH92 CH93 CH94 CH95 CH96 CH97 CH98 CH99 CH100 CH101 CH102 CH103 CH104 CH105 CH106 CH107 CH108 White cross on concrete pedestal 1x0.5x0.75m white & natural plywood nicho w/ gabled roof & centered cross atop & a black metal 1x0.5m cross in front inscribed; "J. Martin Quinonez 16.11.94" Inside: 20 x 25cm print of St. Martin de Porres, 2 votives, 1 floral vase, & 1 empty styrofoam cup. 2 white concrete crosses on a concrete pedestal 2 nichos & 1 cross: 2x1x0.25m raised concrete base w/ 0.25x0.75x1m open niche containing a built-in crucifix. Flower urns on either side of the niche & a rectangular flower holder at the foot of the base. Centered plaque reads: "Sr Diego Gonzalez Hernandez "Camotero" 13- Nov- 59 + Sep- 06- 95, Si el dolor y el sacrificio esuma oracion sin palabras estamos orando por ti- desde que nos de jastes sin nos me quisistes hermanos y amigos no me olvides en nuestra oraciones. Dedican esposa hijos padres hermanos y companeros." Next to this is 0.25 x 0.25 x 0.5 metal & glass gabled nicho & cross inscribed; "Diego Gonzales H. 13 Nov 59 + 01 Sept 95 "Camotero'" Lying between them is a fallen homemade crucifix, truck fender parts & 6 votives. 2 white crosses & 1 green cross White pipe cross 2 black crosses, flower laden White cross White, arch-roofed, 0.25x0.5x1m, nicho w/ glass & wood door inside 2m sq. WI fence & flanked by 2 white 1m tall crosses. North cross inscribed; "Margarito Castillo M. 1017-54 + 6-22-78 familia y amigos lo recuerdan y en una manana triste de los mas dulces dias la muerte la celosa por ver que me querias como a una margarita de amor te desajo." South cross inscribed;"22-6-78 Fallecio Luis Felipe Velezguez Garcia familia y amigos recuerdan" Inside of the nicho has 4 votives. Nicho, 1m tall obelisk White cross w/ box on top See text. White pipe cross White concrete cross Black cross Black cross 2 crosses, 1 black, 1 white White cross 2 white crosses w/ small open nicho w/ NSGuad; .25x.25m 10x6x5m blue stucco chapel w/ centered cross & a bell atop. Inside: 6 kneel-sit pews (4 persons each) & 2 one person kneelers near front altar area. North wall has cork boards across its length & is full of photos, hair braids, notes of supplication & thanks, baby clothing & booties, hats & toy stuffed animals. South wall has a votive alcove & offering 180 45S 183 45S e w 184 45S 186 45S w w 187 189 194 196 198 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S w m w w w 201 202 205 206 208 209 210 211 211 215 215 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S w w m w e m m w m m e 322 CH109 CH110 CH111 CH112 CH113 CH114 CH115 CH116 CH117 CH118 CH119 CH120 CH121 CH122 CH123 CH124 CH125 CH126 CH127 CH128 CH129 CH130 CH131 CH132 CH133 CH134 CH135 CH136 CH137 CH138 pot. Front altar wall has 3 large (1.5 to 2m) statues, 9 smaller statues, & 6 prints of St. Jude, 1 crucifix, picture of the Pope, 28 x 40cm print of NSGuad, small print of "Santissima Virgin de Juquila", & 1x2m h& painting of Jesus & John the Baptist. Black cross Turquoise cross White cross 2 white crosses 2 white crosses Turquoise pipe cross White broken concrete cross White cross White cross 7 small crosses joined together 2 black crosses & 1 white cross Black cross White cross White cross Black cross on pedestal, 1m tall 10x5x8m shrine & concession complex. The main feature is 2m statue of St. Christopher, also has prints of NSGuad, Theresa of Avila, Jesus Sacred Heart, Nino de Atocha, P. Perdo de Jesus Maldonaldo, Immaculate Conception, Sts. Cosmos & Damian, The Last Supper, 2 large petition & thanks boards & 12 votives. Brown metal nicho (.25x.25x.5m) w/ gabled roof & 30cm statue of St. Jude & 8 votives. White metal cross Black cross w/ white cross painted on ground in front White cross w/ inscrip. "JA Gutierrez 1-28-85" Small green cross; in Cd. Chihuahua Black cross w/ blue flowers Blue cross White cross White cross 4 white crosses Concrete cross 4 white crosses White cross 1x1x1m granito nicho w/ flat roof at a bridge built on a slope, w/ an angel statue outside & 20 x 29cm St. Jude print inside. Inscribed;"Sr. Oscar Armenta S. el 16 de Mayo 91 a la edad de 31 anos Q.R.Z. Angel Perverso V. 427 Angeles Latinos tus companeros te recuerdan- Figuermex" This is on a 3x2m slab & has a potted cactus outside. Adjacent to it is a black metal cross inscribed; "El senor Oscar Armenta Zavala nacio el 6 de enero 1963 fallecito el 16 de mayo 1994. Recuerdo de sus padres, hermanos, hijos, esposa, y 215 216 216 219 221 222 223 226 226 229 233 237 238 244 244 246 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S e w w w m m w e m e m e m e e w 247 45S 247 247 247 261 273 275 276 276 276 277 278 280 281 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S e e e w w e m e m w w e w 323 CH139 CH140 CH141 CH142 CH143 CH144 CH145 CH146 CH147 CH148 CH149 CH150 CH151 CH152 CH153 CH154 CH155 CH156 CH157 CH158 CH159 CH160 CH161 CH162 CH163 CH164 CH165 CH166 CH167 CH168 CH169 CH170 CH171 CH172 CH173 CH174 CH175 CH176 CH177 CH178 amigos. D.E.P." White cross 2 white crosses White cross White cross 2 crosses, 1 black cross & 1 concrete cross Black cross White concrete cross White cross White cross White nicho ; in brick White cross 2 white crosses Natural wood cross 0.25x0.5x1m arched niche w/ St. Jude statue & flower vases on sides of the niche; in front, an open book inscribed; "Javier Ramirez Huerta (Guerrero) 25-Nov-95 recuerdo de sus companeros Nunca te olvidaremos tus amigos de Autotransportes tresguerras que ahora que estas en el cielo sabemos que te acuerdar de nosotros como nosotros de ti." White cross White cross 4 red, white & blue crosses, Americans? 4 white crosses White cross on concrete pedestal Brown cross White cross Black cross White concrete cross White concrete cross White concrete cross White cross Blue cross White cross White cross by toll station Black, broken concrete cross White metal cross Brick, 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.5m nicho w/ concrete gabled roof & centered cross. Inside: 20cm oval Nino de Atocha plaque, 6 votives, 3 scrolls of petition & thanks. Burnt-out nicho, San Judas chapel White cross Blue cross White cross White pipe cross White concrete cross White, 1m tall cross White cross 281 283 284 284 287 288 288 289 289 289 291 291 293 294 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S m w w e m e e w m m m m m e 294 295 296 296 301 303 310 315 316 316 322 324 329 329 330 336 339 348 349 352 360 361 363 366 370 371 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S e m e w w e e e m e w w w w w w m m w w w w m m m m 324 CH179 CH180 CH181 CH182 CH183 CH184 CH185 CH186 CH187 CH188 CH189 CH190 CH191 CH192 CH193 CH194 CH195 CH196 CH197 CH198 CH199 CH200 CH201 CH202 CH203 CH204 CH205 CH206 CH207 CH208 CH209 CH210 CH211 CH212 CH213 CH214 CH215 CH216 CH217 CH218 CH219 2 crosses; 1 large white cross & 1 small white cross White cross White cross White concrete cross White cross 3x4x5m, inaccessible nicho, no photo; gray concrete White cross White cross, 2m tall w/ wrought iron fence White metal cross White pipe cross Blue cross White wrought iron cross 5 crosses; 2 white crosses, 2 blue crosses & 3 black crosses; all same design White cross w/arch; 2 smaller ones on concrete base Blue pipe cross White cross 1 x 1 x 2m granito nicho w/ flat roof. Inside: 1 cross, Chevy symbol painted on wall, inscribed; "Jesus Barcenes Vicencio 22 nov 1990 recuerdo de sus companeros" White concrete cross, 1m tall Black wrought iron cross White pipe cross White pipe cross White pipe cross Blue wood cross 3 crosses; 2 white pipe crosses & 1 concrete cross White concrete cross Blue metal cross White pipe cross White pipe cross White pipe cross w/scrolls White cross White cross White concrete cross Blue, rusted cross White concrete, broken cross White metal cross White Cross 1.5x2x2m concrete nicho w/ flat roof & wrought iron gate. Inside: 1m tall statue of Jesus Sacred Heart, inscription; "en memoria del co. Hector Martinez G sus cos telefonistas" has a telephone dial symbol, 2 floral bouquets, & company logo of telephone company. 2 white crosses w/ red borders White concrete cross 3 white crosses w/ wrought iron fence Gray concrete cross 372 372 373 374 377 377 378 379 380 381 384 387 388 389 392 395 395 397 399 399 405 406 410 412 412 413 413 413 414 415 416 421 421 424 424 427 428 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45W 45W 45W 45W 45W 45W 45W 45W 45W 45W 45W 45W 45W 45W 45W 45W 45W m e m e m m m m m m m m m m e e e w w w s s n n n s n n n s s n s s n n s 432 432 435 436 45W 45W 45W 45W n n n n 325 CH220 CH221 CH222 CH223 CH224 CH225 CH226 CH227 CH228 CH229 CH230 CH231 CH232 CH233 CH234 CH235 CH236 CH237 CH238 CH239 CH240 wB3 wB48 CH328 CH327 CH326 CH325 CH324 CH323 CH322 CH321 CH320 CH319 CH318 CH317 CH316 CH315 Large white cross w/ 2 smaller white crosses on arms 2 white crosses Concrete cross w/ open book White cross White cross, 3m tall On the outskirts of Parral, a 1 x 0.75 x 1m marble tile, gable roofed nicho w/ a 1m tall cross adjacent to it. Inside: 12 x 18cm print of Jesus Sacred Heart, 6 votives, & a strand of red & silver xmas tree garland. White concrete cross w/ sunflower motif 2 white concrete crosses White concrete cross White pipe cross w/ scrolls White wood cross Small white metal cross w/ concrete pedestal White metal cross White concrete cross 2 white concrete crosses on pedestal w/ concrete fence 1 black metal cross 2 white concrete crosses White concrete cross White metal cross White metal cross w/ scrolls Blue pipe cross JL/DG boundary; end L2, Chihuahua US/MX border @ Ojinaga; begin transect W1 White metal cross w/scroll & wreath White metal cross w/ pointed tips & wreath White wood (1x3"), 1m tall cross mounted in concrete w/ white wreath Small wood-lumber cross w/ red flowers Black metal cross atop a road-cut bank Black metal cross w/scroll & a yellow metal cross True grotto, shrine to NSGuad. Inside the cave: 12 of 20 votives are lit, 2 prints of NSGuad & an offering box w/out a lock on it. White metal, 2m tall, cross; scroll, spear-point tips, flowers White metal cross, 20ft above road, w/red flowers Gray metal outline-type cross w/triple-forked tips & scroll White metal cross w/ scroll & flowers White stucco, 3m cubed, shed roof shrine w/gabled facade, wooden cross atop in front, metal door & windows on 2 sides; altar has a 2x3ft print of sacred heart Mary White metal cross w/ scroll Concrete nicho, w/ aluminum gable-roof; inside is a small wooden niche w/ a Jesus sacred heart print on top (in woodburning) was the word "Recuerdo" but I couldn't see any more; in front is a white metal cross w/ pointed tips; up on a 436 437 438 439 440 441 45W 45W 45W 45W 45W 45W s n n n n s 449 449 452 453 454 457 458 458 459 461 462 465 465 466 470 473 0 4 4 5 16 21 26 27 27 30 40 52 56 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 16E 16E 16E 16E 16E 16E 16E 16E 16E 16E 16E 16E 16E w e w e e w w e w w e e e w e n s n n s s n s s s n n n s 64 16E 78 16E 326 CH314 CH313 CH312 CH311 CH310 CH309 CH308 CH307 CH306 CH305 CH304 CH303 CH302 CH301 CH300 CH299 CH298 CH297 CH296 CH295 CH294 CH293 CH292 CH291 CH290 CH289 CH288 CH287 CH286 CH285 CH284 CH283 CH282 CH281 CH280 CH279 CH278 CH277 CH276 CH275 bank above eye level 2 white pipe-crosses w/ flowers White-washed stone & concrete shrine to NSGuad, cross atop front of gable roof; small statue & print of NSGuad Shrine 2 white metal crosses w/ wedge-type pedestals; "MCV, 247-92" & "JDCD, 24-7-92" & 3m away; white granito cross, 1.5m tall; "Jesus Manuel Cepeda Arrigones, 28-7-92" Wood cross w/3 or 4 wreaths White metal cross w/flowers White metal outline-type cross; "FG?" White metal cross, 2m tall White concrete cross w/flowers White concrete cross Black metal cross w/ flowers White concrete cross, 1m tall Large shrine, to St. Jude White metal cross w/flowers White granito nicho & white metal outline cross White concrete cross Brick A-frame nicho, 3ft tall Light blue metal cross; 'Manuel" White metal cross w/wreath White metal cross w/flowers Black cross metal w/ scroll; "Rene" White metal cross w/ scroll White metal cross w/flowers Black metal cross w/forked tips & wreath Black metal cross w/ scroll White metal cross w/wreath; by toll booth White concrete cross In the parking lot of restaurant "Piedra Gorda"; small brick nicho, gable-roofed, 2ft cubed, w/ print of NSGuad inside White brick, 2m cubed, shed-roofed shrine w/arched facade w/ cross centered in front White brick/stucco nicho, 1x0.5x0.75m, flat-roofed w/ arched facade w/metal cross atop front & glass & WI door Black metal cross w/filigrees & scroll Blue metal cross w/ blue & white wreath Black metal cross w/ red wreath White metal cross w/ scroll, red painted inscription Gray metal or wood cross Black pipe-type cross w/ heart-shaped scroll Black pipe-type cross w/ scroll Brick nicho, 2 ft tall Small wooden nicho box w/ a votive candle; in a little cave White concrete; 1m cubed, gabled roof nicho w/ metal cross atop rear w/ 2 nino d atocha prints inside 86 16E 86 16E 96 16E 109 16E 112 113 119 120 121 121 122 123 139 177 178 178 179 181 183 185 188 189 191 192 196 198 202 202 16E 16E 16E 16E 16E 16E 16E 16E 16E 16E 16E 16E 16E 16E 16E 16E 16E 16E 16E 16E 16E 16E 16E 16E 16E 16E 206 207 210 224 226 226 226 229 230 230 16E 16E 16E 16E 16E 16E 16E 16E 16E 16E s s s n n s s s s n s n s s s s s s m s m s s s n n n s s s s n m s n s n s s n 327 CH274 CH273 CH272 CH271 CH270 CH269 CH268 CH267 CH266 CH265 CH264 CH263 CH262 CH261 CH260 CH259 CH258 CH257 CH256 CH255 CH254 CH253 CH252 CH251 CH250 CH249 CH248 CH247 CH246 CH245 4 nichos, all about 5m apart, away from the road & up a hill. Starting nearest the road: concrete, 1m sq x 1.5m tall, gabled tin roof, inside are 2 prints of NSGuad. The second nicho is about 16" tall, made of wood w/ gabled roof that is covered w/ sheet metal. Inside is a nice, h&-made copper cone w/ a cross atop; embedded in the side of the cone is a print of senor del calvario or justo juez, I'm not sure which. Third is an old nicho of stuccoed brick which no longer has a roof; two steps up to it are inlaid w/ inscription plates but my record of these was lost on a bad tape as was the information about the fourth nicho. 6 white crosses; 4 identical pipe-types & 2 identical flat metal White, concrete nicho, 1m cubed, gable-roofed w/ cross atop front & a white metal cross, 1m tall, next to it 2 white metal crosses w/scrolls & wreaths 1 black metal cross w/wreath White concrete cross 2 white pipe-crosses w/ flowers 1 black metal cross w/ scroll 1 black metal cross w/scroll &flowers 2 crosses; 1 green pipe-type cross & 1 white concrete cross, both 1m tall White metal nicho w/ spires & crosses, 1m sq x 2m tall White concrete nicho, metal gable roof & front & back facades, metal cross atop front, black WI gate, 1x1.5x1 Tan metal cross w/ scroll White metal cross w/scroll & filigrees & flowers Brick nicho w/ tin arched roof 1 brick arch-roofed nicho Gray metal cross w/ flowers White metal cross, 2m tall, w/flowers White metal cross w/flowers White wood cross Brick, arched roof, square faade, nicho w/ 2 metal crosses on either corner Faded wood cross White concrete gabled roof nicho; "Sr Juan de Dios Enrique C. apr 30, 1956-dec 28, 1995; abrigame Padre Eterno en tu pecho": cross w/ heart-shaped wreath atop Brick, 1m cubed, nicho, gabled roof (runs perpendicular to opening), black metal cross w/ scroll; "AOG, dec 27, 1998" White metal nicho, .5m sq x 1m tall, green gabled roof & metal cross atop White concrete nicho w/ white metal cross atop front Concrete cross White gable-roofed concrete nicho, 2ft cubed Wood cross set in stone & concrete; just inside El Caracol Turquoise wood cross 230 16E s 231 16E 233 16E 233 236 236 237 239 240 241 16E 16E 16E 16E 16E 16E 16E s n n s n n n n n n s s s s s s n n s n s s s s s s n s n 242 16E 244 16E 247 250 254 254 258 259 259 261 285 16E 16E 16E 16E 16E 16E 16E 16E 16E 288 16E 288 16E 289 16E 292 16E 293 293 298 312 315 16E 16E 16E 16E 16E 328 CH244 CH243 CH242 CH241 wB47 Concrete block nicho w/ plastered tin roof Monument w/ brass plate; "Ramon Chacon, Jesus Potillo, Roberto Molina; descanse en paz" aug 7, 1974; Paviementos SA" & a white cross Wood cross w/concrete platform w/ marble cross inlaid; "Jose Carera B." Rustic wood cross; 1.5m tall; rough sawn, this is timber country CH/SN boundary; end W1, Chihuahua 320 16E 336 16E 341 16E 350 16E 367 16E n s n n 329 Table A4.7: Durango Site # Description wB3 Boundary CH/DG; transect L2 DG01 2 white metal crosses 50m off road on private property DG02 3x2x2.5m white & red brick & stucco nicho w/ gable roof, centered cross, & 1 x 2m locked metal door. Inside: 1m tall statue of Jesus Sacred Heart (broken but pieced together), 2 floral vases on either side. DG03 White metal cross w/ brick wall behind DG04 White pipe cross DG05 2 white pipe crosses DG06 2 white pipe crosses DG07 White concrete cross DG08 3 white pipe crosses DG09 See text. DG10 White pipe cross on private property DG11 Small white open nicho w/ cross inside DG12 Unfinished brick & concrete nicho, 3 x 2 x 3m DG13 Small white open niche nicho DG14 White concrete cross w/ open book DG15 White nicho w/ crucifix DG16 White cross w/ floral wreath DG17 Black pipe cross DG18 White concrete box nicho w/ concrete cross in rear DG19 0.5x0.25x0.25 brick nicho w/ flat concrete roof & centered blue cross. Inside: Print of Nino de Atocha, & a cross w/ initials; "H.B.A." DG20 Black metal cross DG21 5x3x3.5 "Capilla de San Judas" & rest area w/ picnic tables & bridge across an arroyo to the "restroom of the outback" Shrine is white stucco w/ red gabled roof & yellow cross on the roof. Inside: brown tiled floor & walls, wood & glass encased statue of St. Jude w/ 7 cattle, 2 praying males, 1 praying female, 1 child, 1 arm, & 1 leg milagros. 4 fresh floral bouquets & a framed prayer to St. Jude w/ "familia Hernandez Santana febrero de 1993" printed at the bottom; off to the side is a votive shelf w/ 5 of 20 candles burning. DG22 2 white crosses DG23 White concrete cross on pedestal DG24 White concrete cross on pedestal DG25 White metal cross on pedestal DG26 White concrete cross w/ concrete pulpit DG27 Blue pipe cross DG28 0.25x0.5x0.5 white brick nicho w/vaulted roof & centered wire cross. Inside: Jesus Sacred Heart bust fallen over. DG29 Large white metal cross next to a bridge DG30 Black metal cross DG31 White metal cross DG32 4 small white crosses 330 Mile 0 1 1 RteDir 45S 45S 45S Asp w e 2 2 2 2 2 2 7 10 10 13 13 14 14 15 17 21 21 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S w w w w w w e w e w e e e w w w e e w 21 45S 22 45S 27 29 29 30 34 37 39 49 51 56 61 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S w w w w w w e w w e e DG33 DG34 DG35 DG36 DG37 DG38 DG39 DG40 DG41 DG42 DG43 DG44 DG45 DG46 DG47 DG48 DG49 DG50 DG51 DG52 DG53 DG54 DG55 DG56 DG57 DG58 DG59 DG60 DG61 DG62 DG63 DG64 DG65 DG66 DG67 DG68 0.25x0.25x0.5m white granito nicho w/ gable roof & cross atop; black padlocked wrought iron door, & a white metal cross adjacent to the nicho inscribed; "El chocho A.He.G. 21 06 98" outside of the nicho is inscribed; "Arturo Herrera G." Inside: 15cm Nino de Atocha statue, a bunch of dried flowers, & a vase of plastic flowers. White metal cross on pedestal 1 x 1 x 1.5 brick nicho w/ a flower basket hung from the front. Inside is full of votives & plastic flower White concrete nicho w/ beehive roof & centered cross, 1 x 1 x 1m w/WI & glass door. Inside: small Nino de Atocha doll, larger statue of Nuestra Senora de Zalpopan(?), looks like N.S.de San Juan but w/ dark skin, 2 votives. See text. White cross 2 large blue crosses & 2 small blue crosses White concrete cross w/ wrought iron fence Brown wood cross on concrete pedestal White concrete cross w/ black wrought iron fence Turquoise cross w/ turquoise wrought iron fence White metal cross w/ black wrought iron fence Black wrought iron cross & white fence Gray cross w/ black wrought iron fence White concrete cross White metal cross w/ black wrought iron fence White concrete cross Nicho, metal & glass door carved into mountainside on a dangerous curve Blue metal cross w/ concrete pedestal 2 wood crosses on concrete pedestal 2 white wood crosses & 1 green wood cross 3 wood crosses Gray cross w/ brick pedestal & wrought iron fence 0.75 x 0.75 x 0.75m white & green concrete w/ a small Nino de Atocha statue, 4 votives, & 4 floral pots inside. Blue wood cross w/ concrete pedestal White metal cross w/ concrete pedestal White metal cross over a tiny nicho Tiny white cross w/ initials "ASG" on tiny white concrete nicho White metal cross w/ white wrought iron fence Blue metal cross w/ concrete pedestal Blue metal cross w/ concrete pedestal White metal cross on round concrete pedestal White concrete cross 3 blue crosses in front of 3 white nichos 2 large & 1 small green cross "AGO" & "FER" & "ATA" White metal cross w/ scrolls 67 45S e 70 45S 86 45S 99 45S w w w 99 102 109 112 113 115 118 118 120 123 125 131 133 134 148 150 150 152 154 157 158 158 164 165 166 167 168 170 173 173 173 177 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S e w e e w w w w e w w w e w e e e w w e e e e e e w e w e w e w 331 DG69 DG70 DG71 DG72 DG73 DG74 DG75 DG76 DG77 DG78 DG79 DG80 DG81 DG82 DG83 DG84 DG85 DG86 DG87 DG88 DG89 DG90 DG91 DG92 DG93 DG94 DG95 DG96 DG97 DG98 DG99 DG100 DG101 DG102 DG103 DG104 DG105 DG106 DG107 DG108 White nicho on private property White concrete (broken) cross 3x2x2m brick shrine, tiled gable roof, copula w/brown metal cross atop w/ initials "MMR" welded on. Inside: tiled floor, walls, & ceiling; 5 gallon paint bucket full of fresh flowers, & WI & glass door has a rose wreath attached. 2 white metal crosses on concrete slab 2 white metal crosses Small adobe nicho w/ white metal cross White metal cross 2 blue metal crosses on concrete base White concrete cross White metal cross w/ white metal fence 1 white concrete cross "RCP", 1 white metal cross "BGM", 1 white metal cross "CGG" Empty brick nicho, 1x0.5x1m Cross, data lost. White metal cross w/ concrete pedestal Black wrought iron cross White concrete cross w/ pedestal 25m off road on private property White concrete cross on 1m tall pedestal White concrete cross on 1m tall pedestal Large concrete tablet cross w/ brass cross inlaid White concrete cross White metal cross w/ wrought iron White metal cross w/ small beige open niche 2 white metal crosses w/ wrought iron roofed fence made to look like a chapel 3 crosses, 1 blue, 1 black, 1 white metal White concrete cross w/ wrought iron fence Yellow metal cross White concrete cross w/ wrought iron fence White metal cross White concrete cross on pedestal; inscribed "Jesus Hoens(?) S 13-1-80" 3 white metal crosses & marble tablet White metal cross Blue metal cross Large white handmade wood cross White metal cross 3 white metal crosses 4 white metal crosses, 1 lacquered wood, 1 red rock-painted cross 3 white metal crosses; DG104-10 are on a dangerous curve 2 white concrete crucifixes Small wooded cross on a small nicho Broken, white concrete cross 178 45S 178 45S 178 45S w w w 181 181 182 182 187 187 189 189 189 189 192 193 194 194 195 195 196 196 196 198 200 200 201 201 202 202 205 208 210 210 210 210 211 211 211 211 211 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S e e e w w e e w w e e e e e e e w w w e w w e e w e e e w e e e w e e e w 332 DG109 DG110 DG111 DG112 DG113 DG114 DG115 DG116 DG117 DG118 wDG08 DG119 DG120 DG121 DG122 DG123 DG124 DG125 DG126 DG127 DG128 DG129 DG130 DG131 DG132 DG133 DG134 DG135 DG136 DG137 DG138 DG139 DG140 DG141 DG142 DG143 DG144 DG145 DG146 DG147 White wood cross on concrete pedestal w/ a gabled back White metal cross on 3 tiered pedestal w/ chain-link fence Black metal cross w/ flower pot Black metal cross, 1m tall White metal cross 2 x 1.5 x 2m yellow brick & stucco shrine w/ green (stripe?). Inside: 30cm statue & 60 x 90cm print of St. Jude, 7 floral vases, 7 votives- 1 burning. Natural wood cross over black concrete 2 crosses, 1 white & 1 blue metal White concrete cross on pedestal White concrete cross Durango City Yellow metal cross 2 white metal crosses 4 white metal crosses, 1 black metal cross Blue metal cross 2 crosses; 1 white, 1 black metal 4 blue metal crosses Blue metal cross Rusted metal cross 2, 3m tall, blue metal crosses 2 crosses; 1 white, 1 black metal White metal cross White metal cross w/ concrete pedestal Small blue metal cross Blue metal cross 1 x 0.5 x 1m brick nicho w/ flat concrete roof, a white, metal, 2m tall, cross is set in the foundation & extends through the roof; inscribed "6-3-59 + 9-23-85 RPM" White stucco 1x1x1m nicho w/ flat roof & wrought iron arched door. Inside: 10 x 20cm print of Nino de Atocha, palm fan w/ ribbons, & 3 votives. See text. See text. 2 white metal crosses White metal cross w/ red roses (plastic) White metal cross 2 white concrete crosses over nicho 3 white metal crosses White concrete cross on pedestal w/ flower vase Rusted metal cross & a pedestal w/ cross broken off 2 white metal crosses White metal cross w/ 6" open niche 2 white concrete clover crosses on brick pedestal 3 nichos: 1.5x1x1m yellow block w/ red tile gabled roof & centered cross, plaque; "para el Santo Nino de Agripina huiteron de carcao 5-v-1991" Inside: 7x12cm print of 211 211 212 213 214 215 216 216 217 217 218 222 225 227 228 228 228 229 229 230 230 230 231 232 232 232 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S w w e w w w w w e e e w w e e w e w w w e e e w e e w w e w w w w w w w e w w 233 45S 234 235 235 236 237 237 237 238 238 238 240 242 244 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 333 DG148 DG149 DG150 DG151 DG152 DG153 DG154 DG155 DG156 DG157 DG158 DG159 DG160 DG161 DG162 DG163 DG164 DG165 DG166 DG167 DG168 DG169 DG170 DG171 NSGuad, 20x25cm print in gold leaf frame of Nio de Atocha in front of metal bars, behind are 2 glass encased dolls of Nio de Atocha in front of prints of same. 4 votives & 2 flower pots. 1x1.5x1m nicho of the same color & construction. Inside: 15cm statue of Nio de Atocha, 2 flower vases, 4 votives, 1 empty vase & a pack of matches. .75x.5x.75m brick beehive shaped nicho w/ Nio de Atocha dinner plate centered & mortared into the roof. Inside: old-looking, silver w/ turquoise stones, framed Nio de Atocha 7x12cm print. Adjacent to these on the south is a 1m cross. 3x2.5x3m yellow stucco nicho, gable roofed w/ centered cross & white (locked) metal door. Inside: 1m statue of St. Jude w/ bouquets of red roses on either side, & 12 votives. 0.25x0.25x1m marble nicho w/ flat roof, centered cross, & metal gate. Outside inscription; "El Sr. Facundo Ramos Merguia + el 2 de Marzo 1987" Inside: 2 floral bouquets. Next to the nicho is a white metal cross. White metal cross, and a white concrete bas relief tablet White 1 x 0.5 x 0.75m stucco beehive nicho w/centered cross inscribed; "Joaquin Leal V. 24 fbr 59 24 abr 96" Inside: brass crucifix centered into the rear wall, 1 votive, 2 wilted floral bouquets. Blue metal cross White metal cross White metal cross on brick pedestal 2 white metal crosses 10x5m gray marble cross on 5x5x2 stepped pedestal. Metal plate inscription: "Santa Mision RR.PP. Redentoristas Jose Ma. Mayo y Carlos Hernandez Parrago, Lic. Pedro Ordaz A., Nombre de Dios, Dgo. 19-Octubre-1986" 2 flower pots in front, 2 on side. Green wood cross in concrete base 2 crosses; 1 white pipe cross & 1 blue wood clover cross Blue metal cross w/ scrolls 0.25 x 0.5 x 1m gray concrete beehive nicho (see text). Inside: silver-colored pipe cross, inscribed; "Sr. Jesus Telles Ruiz fallicito el 11 nov de 1990 de 32 aos" White metal cross White metal cross White metal cross Blue metal cross White metal cross White concrete cross White concrete cross White metal cross White metal, rusted cross White metal cross w/ red & white wreath White metal cross 245 45S 245 45S e e 246 45S 248 45S w w 248 248 252 252 253 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S e e w e e 253 257 259 261 261 262 262 262 262 264 264 264 265 267 268 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S e e w e e e w w e w e e e w w 334 DG172 DG173 DG174 DG175 DG176 DG177 DG178 wB4 wB49 DG263 DG264 DG265 DG266 DG267 DG268 DG269 DG270 DG271 DG272 DG273 DG274 DG275 DG276 DG277 DG278 DG279 DG280 DG281 DG282 DG283 DG284 DG285 DG286 DG287 DG288 DG289 DG290 DG291 DG292 DG293 DG294 White concrete clover cross 3 white concrete crosses White metal cross White metal cross in yellow open niche, 0.5m tall White concrete cross on pedestal White metal cross White metal cross Durango/Zacatecas boundary; endL2, Durango Boundary CL/DG; transect W2 White metal cross w/filigrees & scroll; "Miguel Angel" Large white granito cross White metal cross 2 white & 1 blue cross White metal cross Concrete gable-roofed nicho, 1m cubed White metal cross w/flowers Cross White metal cross w/ red tips, scroll &flowers Blue metal cross on 2-tiered concrete pedestal White granito nicho 2 white concrete crosses Blue concrete nicho w/ concrete cross atop rear 4 white concrete crosses White concrete cross White concrete, gable-roofed nicho w/ black WI door, .25m sq x 1.5m tall Triple nicho of tan concrete, A-frame; center one has St. Jude print' side ones have candles Red concrete nicho, 1m sq x 2m tall, gabled roof; has been knocked off its foundation; white metal cross atop front. Black metal cross w/filigree & scroll 1 small Shrine, near a restaurant White granito nicho on pedestal, gabled, 1m tall White concrete cross w/ flowers; "Nina" Blue metal cross w/scroll & flowers 3 turquoise metal crosses 6 white concrete crosses White granito crown-type cross White pipe-type cross w/scroll &flowers Metal gable-roofed nicho 2 white granito crown-crosses White concrete cross White concrete box-nicho, 1m cubed w/ white metal & glass doors; inside is a 11x14 print of Christ crucified in center, 1 votive candle burning, 6" tall statue of StJude, a 3" plastic StJude, a Christ crucified, Nino de Atocha, VdSJ print in a brass heart-shaped frame, vase of plastic daisies. White concrete cross 271 276 276 276 277 277 277 277 0 5 8 12 12 12 13 13 15 16 16 17 17 18 18 18 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W e e w e e w e m m s s s s n n n n s s s n s n n n n s s s s n n n n s n n 19 40W 19 40W 19 20 21 23 24 25 25 32 35 36 36 36 37 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 39 40W s 335 DG295 DG296 DG297 DG298 DG299 DG300 DG301 DG302 DG303 DG304 DG305 DG306 DG307 DG308 DG309 DG310 DG311 DG312 DG313 DG314 DG315 DG316 DG317 DG318 DG319 DG320 DG321 DG322 DG323 DG324 DG325 DG326 DG327 2 white concrete crosses; "Jose" "German" White concrete arched roof nicho; "El Chofo" & 2 white metal crosses in front of it White granito arched roof nicho White granito gable-roofed nicho w/ brass door White granito nicho w/ cross atop & flowers 2 white concrete crosses w/1 urn on a pedestal Small shrine, outside restaurant Lucy 2 white concrete crosses in an interchange Sky blue pipe-cross, silver painted tips, scroll; at RR tracks Little shrine to NSGuad, orange w/ green trim & sun-ray cross atop & over top of all is a tarp in a frame White granito nicho w/ white metal cross atop rear, 2m tall White metal cross, pointed tips, reflector in crux, pedestal White metal cross White metal, clover-type cross 2 white metal crosses White concrete cross on pedestal White concrete cross on pedestal, 1m tall Concrete, gable-roofed, open-faced nicho, 2ft tall & 1 white WI & glass, gable-roofed nicho, 1.5n tall & 1m sq, w/ cross atop front. Black metal cross w/filigrees & scroll on pedestal; the cross, including its concrete footing, has been picked up & moved as part of a road-widening project. White concrete cross on bed-type pedestal White granito nicho; 1 wood & 1 concrete cross White concrete cross w/ bouquet of artificial red roses Blue gable-roof nicho, Nino de Atocha; built into road-cut Cross Black metal cross Concrete gable-roofed nicho, 2m cubed Gray metal cross w/filigrees & concrete pedestal White metal cross w/ scroll & flowers 2m cubed, shrine w/cross atop front of gable roof Granito crown-type cross on pedestal, 1m tall White granito cross on trapezoidal pedestal & concrete platform 1m cubed, gable-roofed w/ front pillars & cross atop front; "Gilberto Padilla S. 8-18-58/8-2-98" in the eaves of the gable; "Feline" the centerpiece is an 11x14 photo of this person. There is an open-book; Jesus le dijo, Yo soy la resurrecion y la vida el que crea en mi aunque muera viviera y todo el que vive y crea en mi no mirira para siempre. Juan 11-27 & in front of that is a glass votive box 3 c&les in it, 2urns behind, doric columns & plastic red carnations, nearby a dried up bouquet of flowers & a jug of water. White concrete cross w/red flowers at the crux, behind that is 1 wood cross 336 41 40W 41 40W 41 48 48 54 55 56 56 57 57 58 59 59 63 64 65 66 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W n s n n n s s n s s s s n s s s s n s s s s s n n s s n s s n 67 40W 70 71 72 76 77 77 77 78 79 87 92 96 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 108 40W 109 40W n DG328 DG329 DG330 DG331 DG332 DG333 DG334 DG335 DG336 DG337 DG338 wDG23 DG179 DG180 DG181 DG182 DG183 DG184 DG185 DG186 DG187 DG188 DG189 DG190 DG191 DG192 DG193 DG194 DG195 DG196 DG197 DG198 DG199 DG200 DG201 DG202 DG203 DG204 DG205 DG206 DG207 DG208 DG209 DG210 White concrete cross on concrete pedestal 3 white concrete crosses, urns, wreaths & behind is a 2m tall concrete cross White concrete cross White concrete cross White concrete cross; "Arsenio" Unfinished wood, 1x2 cross w/flowers, mounted in a pile of rocks White concrete cross on concrete pedestal White metal cross Black metal cross w/scroll Cross, covered by blue & white wreath White metal cross w/ scroll Intersection 40W & 45S a Cd. Durango White wood cross on fencepost White wood cross White metal cross w/ filigree Brown metal cross 2 crosses; 1 unpainted wood cross & 1white metal filigree cross 2 crosses, 1 nicho Nicho Cross 2 white metal crosses on a slab 2 white metal crosses White metal cross Lumber cross White concrete cross Black metal filigree cross White concrete nicho White & blue tile nicho, white metal cross 2 white, stone? crosses Nicho Nicho Nicho Burned cross, wreath Nicho w/ 3 gray crosses inside, visitation stones 1x1x2m white metal Shrine, w/ gabled roof & glass windows; san Judas & NSGuad statues & flowers inside White nicho, NSGuad, 2 crosses, flowers White metal cross, flowers Black metal cross Nicho Cross White metal cross Blue metal cross 2 white metal crosses 2 white metal crosses, flowers 110 40W 111 40W 116 118 119 119 120 120 121 123 133 160 161.6 161.9 165.7 165.7 165.7 166 166.9 167.1 167.8 168.3 168.3 169.7 170 171.1 173.6 174.4 174.5 174.8 174.9 175.2 175.3 176.1 176.3 177.8 181.6 182.5 182.7 182.9 186.1 187.5 189.5 190.2 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W n s n n n n n s n n n n n n n n n n n n s s s n s n n n s s n s n n n n s s s s n 337 DG211 DG212 DG213 DG214 DG215 DG216 DG217 DG218 DG219 DG220 DG221 DG222 DG223 DG224 DG225 DG226 DG227 DG228 DG229 DG230 DG231 DG232 DG233 DG234 DG235 DG236 DG237 DG238 DG239 DG240 DG241 DG242 DG243 White concrete cross w/ slab; "Ing. Fco. Alfonso Raigoza Enriquez, 2 X 194? 24 V 1993" White metal cross White metal cross Nicho 2 wood crosses Cross Blue nicho, white metal cross White concrete cross 3 crosses: Roberto Ramirez Tapia, mar 8, 1983 a la edad de 33 anos & Felix Sanchez Zapeda, mar 8, 1983 a la edad de 31 anos Recuerdo de sus esposas, padres y hijos y companeros White metal cross, pointed tips, filigrees, flowers; pedestal Red metal cross w/ filigrees; blue nicho w/ black metal cross & red reflectors "M.A." inside votive candles & flowers. 2 nichos; 1 white concrete nicho & 1 green metal nicho Brown, gable-roofed nicho 2 blue metal crosses, larger looked like pipe-type, smaller was flat metal w/ pointed tips; both had flowers Concrete, gable-roofed nicho, WI door, .25m cubed White metal cross, 1.5m tall, white WI fence, wreath Blue wood cross Cross, on a rock Blue metal nicho w/ blue metal cross & belfries atop White metal cross White metal, gable-roofed nicho Turquoise pipe type cross w/ scroll Wood unpainted cross Yellow metal cross, 1m tall Small, white, arch-roofed nicho; flowers Wood cross w/in a wood plank corral 4, 1' tall, concrete crosses Metal cross Cross, carved into the rock w/inscription, on a road-cut White granito cross, 1.5m tall; "Arelio Artera??" White old, metal cross, on rock & concrete base Brick, gable-roofed nicho Turquoise stuccoed brick shrine, WI & glass windows & door, 3.5square x 3m tall, w/ belfries & trapezoid w/ a cross inside it. Inside, X-mas decorations, niche w/ sacred heart Jesus, 18x36 Nino d Atocha plaque, st. jude statue 1' tall on a niche box shaped like a church & has another small SJ statue & print & San Martin Cabellero print. Nino d Atocha statue, x-mas tree w/ manger scene (Mexican style) ; on the rear wall is a h& carved x-fix. Mary queen of heaven print, 4 tall statue of NSGuad, leather [beautifully made] statue of St Jude that is painted, a string-art 18x24 of NSGuad, VSJdlL print, 6 votive candles, 10 floral bouquets. In the town of 338 40W 190.2 191.7 194 198.2 201.5 202.2 202.8 203.4 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W n n n s s s s n s 204.5 206.3 40W 40W 208.2 208.7 40W 211.8 40W 40W 212 212.9 40W 214 40W 219.2 40W 221.2 40W 221.6 40W 221.6 40W 222.6 40W 222.8 40W 223.7 40W 225.9 40W 228.1 40W 229.2 40W 229.6 40W 229.7 40W 236 40W 241.4 40W 244.9 40W 248.1 40W 40W n s n s s n n s s s s s s s n n s s s n n n n s 248.3 DG244 DG245 DG246 DG247 DG248 DG249 DG250 DG251 DG252 DG253 DG254 DG255 DG256 DG257 DG258 DG259 DG260 DG261 DG262 wB41 Buenas Aires Concrete cross, 2m tall Shrine; brick rear wall, others WI, 2m tall x1.5m square, w/tin roof & gold-painted cross w/ spear-point ends, filagrees. Inside is a ceramic of NSGuad & concrete inscribed; "Santissima Virgin de Guadalupe compremos nuesto promesa por tantos favores recibimos de tu protejion, familia Gulien Cardenas, Culiacan 25 agosto, 1977 Cross, "Israel Chavez", on a rock Cross, 1 w/inscription carved concrete attached to the rock on a road-cut Turquoise metal nicho, 1x1x1.5ft, white metal cross atop Concrete cross w/ inscription & red material draped across arms; "Joven??" 1m square, concrete nicho w/ tin gabled roof & large statue of Jesus sacred heart White concrete arch-roofed nicho w/ cross atop White concrete gable-roofed, arched doorway nicho; nice scenery 3 nichos, behind guard rail, on the edge of a ravine. White metal cross w/ filigrees & scroll; "RIP" Black metal cross w/ filigrees, scrolls & flowers; one had a golden sun-spray in center Cross, w/inscription on a rock "1984" Blue tile on red-painted concrete nicho, cross atop w/ filagrees, inside a WI fence; inside is a concrete arched altar w/ a prefab cross atop the arch, there is a 3x5 print of VdSJdlL, fresh flowers, glass & mirror niche, a cross builtin, 3 Nino d Atocha statues, 1ft tall. At the top is a sign done in little pieces or mirror: Santo Nino de Chorrito below it Esta imagine del santo nino fue installada en este lugar el 8 de agosto 1975 por los Senores Reyes Agilar H. y Refugio Aguirre F. y embocada su bendicion por el Padre signed Ernesto Alvarez to the side is a granito slab inscribed; Recuerdos del Refugio Aguirre y familia y sus amistades que con el visitaron este sagrado lugar Reyes Algilar y familia, Culiacan, Sin. 1975, 8-8 this is interesting because it specifically says that it is a sacred place! Embedded in a rock road-cut, white concrete nicho w/ gable roof; newly built Black metal cross w/ white filigrees & scroll, 8" tall, w/in a fence of branches White concrete nicho, Nino d Atocha, gabled w/ cross atop White wood cross & 1 white metal outline-type Green metal, gable-roofed nicho, 1ft square, w/ red flowers; built into face of granite road-cut Stateline Durango/Sinaloa 252.2 40W 40W n s 252.6 254.2 40W 40W 256.3 258.9 40W 40W 259.3 40W 260.1 261.7 40W 40W 261.9 262.3 40W 263.7 40W 40W 263.9 266.8 40W 40W n n n s n s s s s s n s 267.2 40W 267.6 40W 268.6 270.7 40W 272 40W 40W 275.8 277 40W s n s n n 339 Table A4.8: Zacatecas Site # Description wB4 Durango/Zacatecas border; transect L2 ZT01 White concrete cross ZT02 White concrete cross w/ turquoise floral wreath ZT03 Brick beehive nicho in ruins ZT04 White pipe cross in pink concrete nicho ZT05 White concrete arch, 0.25 x 2 x 1.5m nicho w/ blue metal front & gate. Inside: 2 white metal crosses inscribed: "el Sr. Gustavo Olvera Furaga el 28-feb-99 un recuerdo de su esposa, hijos, madre y hermanos" & "el joven Fco. Javier Olvera Fraga el 28- feb- 99 un recuerdo de sus padres, hnos y familia" ZT06 White concrete nicho ZT07 Concrete tablet cross w/ brass cross inlaid ZT08 White concrete cross ZT09 White concrete cross ZT10 0.25 x 0.5 x 0.5m granito nicho w/gable roof & white metal door. Inside: cross inscribed; "Sra Sandra A. Garay de Campos 6 die 1996 un recuerdo de su esposo e hijos" ZT11 10 x 10 x 10m chapel to Sacred Heart of Jesus. 2m statue of same inside glass doors, 2 blue metal & glass votive shelves outside, 40 votives inside, most lit. ZT12 Green 0.25x0.25x0.5m concrete nicho, flat roof & cross inside. ZT13 2 white concrete crosses, 1 fallen over ZT14 2 white concrete nichos, both w/crosses ZT15 Blue nicho w/ white cross ZT16 White metal cross ZT17 White concrete beehive nicho w/ cross at entrance to town of Sombrette ZT18 Small nicho ZT19 White metal cross w/ red & blue stripes ZT20 Concrete pedestal w/ cross broken off ZT21 White metal cross ZT22 White concrete cross ZT23 White concrete cross ZT24 1x0.5x0.75m white stucco beehive nicho w/ WI door. Inscribed into the concrete is "Un recuerdo de sus padres y hmnos. Grasiela Vasquez Antonio Rodriguez" ZT25 White pipe cross ZT26 White metal cross w/ floral wreath ZT27 Blue metal cross broken off of concrete pedestal ZT28 White metal cross ZT29 White stucco nicho w/ flat roof, 1x1x1.5m w/ wrought iron gate. Inside: cross on back wall, marble tablet on floor inscribed; "Aqui fallecioron Benito Castro F, Antonia Chairez de E., Luisa Castro de L., Manuel Lopez M. y la nia Marta Eugenia Lopez C. Descansen en paz" Mile 0 4 6 7 8 10 RteDir 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S Asp e w w w w 11 13 14 15 15 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S e w w w e w e e e e e w w e w e w w e w e w e w 15 45S 15 45S 15 16 16 16 17 22 22 23 23 25 27 28 29 30 32 32 32 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 340 ZT30 ZT31 ZT32 ZT33 ZT34 ZT35 ZT36 ZT37 ZT38 ZT39 ZT40 ZT41 ZT42 ZT43 ZT44 ZT45 ZT46 ZT47 ZT48 ZT49 ZT50 ZT51 ZT52 ZT53 ZT54 ZT55 ZT56 ZT57 ZT58 ZT59 ZT60 ZT61 I think it is right about here that I got pretty full of taking names & started to only list number of deaths. It was getting to me, emotionally to be at the death sites of so many real people, including children & I felt like I needed to distance myself from the passion & pain that was obvious in these structures. 2 yellow metal crosses Large cross & 1 small white concrete w/ tablet on pedestal White metal cross behind white stucco nicho w/ 2 urns Cross; "Hector Pulido Reyes 11-1-97" White metal cross 0.25 x 0.5 x 1m gray concrete beehive nicho w/ blue wood cross inside. Roof inscribed in the concrete "Ena Serano G Murio el 21 de Mayo de 1986 21 ao de edad, sus padres hejas le dedican este recuerdo y su esposo" Adjacent to it is a green & gray concrete cross inscribed "21 de Mallo 1986 murio el seor Narsizo Muro Cheyaqua Recuerdos de sus padres ijos I esposa" White pipe cross Concrete cross w/ steel cross over it Wood cross, fallen over White metal cross Blue metal cross White metal cross White 0.5 x 0.5 x 1m stucco domed nicho w/ blue cross inside. White concrete cross w/ 2 flower urns White metal cross w/ brick pedestal White concrete cross w/ black metal cross inlaid White concrete cross White concrete cross Brown cross on white nicho Black metal cross 1x1x1m stucco nicho w/ gable roof & centered crucifix. Inside: 30cm statue of St. Jude, 30cm statue & 20x28cm print of Sacred Heart of Jesus, inscription "Jose Alberto Montes Macias 1952-1999" Large brown pipe cross w/ wrought iron fence; 22 May 90 Black metal cross White metal cross 1.5x1x1.5m, granito nicho w/ gable roof, wrought iron gate, crucifix & death tablet inside, 1 male. White concrete cross White concrete cross White metal cross White metal cross White metal cross White concrete Maltese cross 3 white metal crosses on concrete pedestal 341 34 35 41 41 41 42 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S w w w w e e 42 42 45 45 46 47 49 51 55 55 55 56 60 62 62 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S w w e e e w e e w w e w e w e 64 64 65 65 65 66 67 69 69 70 74 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S w w w w w e w e e e e ZT62 ZT63 ZT64 ZT65 ZT66 ZT67 ZT68 ZT69 ZT70 ZT71 ZT72 ZT73 ZT74 ZT75 ZT76 ZT77 ZT78 ZT79 ZT80 ZT81 ZT82 ZT83 ZT84 ZT85 ZT86 ZT87 ZT88 ZT89 ZT90 ZT91 ZT92 ZT93 ZT94 ZT95 ZT96 ZT97 ZT98 ZT99 wZT04 ZT100 ZT101 ZT102 ZT103 ZT104 ZT105 ZT106 ZT107 ZT108 2 white metal crosses White metal cross White concrete cross 9 white crosses on black pedestal White metal cross Black metal cross Black metal cross 3 blue metal crosses White metal cross 5 white metal crosses, 1 white concrete cross Cross & Virgin of ? statue on pedestal; 1 death 3 gray metal crosses White concrete cross White concrete cross White metal cross White metal cross Blue metal cross Black metal cross Black metal cross White concrete cross White metal cross on pedestal White metal cross White concrete cross w/ nicho built into it White concrete clover cross Small stucco nicho w/ cross White metal cross White metal cross 2 white metal crosses w/ beehive nicho White metal cross & 1 brown concrete cross White metal nicho w/ niche box on stilts White concrete nicho White pipe cross White metal cross Black metal cross White metal cross White concrete cross White metal cross White metal cross Zacatecas (altitude 2200m) White metal cross in the city White pipe cross Brown metal cross w/ 1 arm bent upwards Black metal cross centered on purple nicho White metal cross Blue metal cross on blue 1x1x1m nicho White stucco cross w/ pillar beside it 2 white metal crosses White metal cross on concrete pedestal 74 75 75 75 75 75 76 76 77 78 78 78 89 90 90 91 93 94 94 94 98 98 99 99 102 102 103 104 106 108 113 114 115 115 116 116 117 118 119 124 124 126 128 129 129 129 130 130 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S e m m m m m m m m e e e e e e w m m m m m m w w w w m m w e m m w m w m m w m m m w e w w w e 342 ZT109 ZT110 ZT111 ZT112 wZT06 ZT113 ZT114 ZT115 ZT116 ZT117 ZT118 ZT119 ZT120 ZT121 ZT122 ZT123 ZT124 ZT125 ZT126 ZT127 ZT128 ZT129 ZT130 ZT131 ZT132 ZT133 ZT134 ZT135 ZT136 ZT137 ZT138 ZT139 ZT140 ZT141 ZT142 wB5 ZT385 White metal cross White concrete cross 2 white metal crosses White concrete cross w/ white concrete nicho Begin route 49 Black metal cross on concrete pedestal White metal cross on small adobe nicho White concrete cross, 1m tall Black metal cross on white nicho Box nicho w/ green metal Black metal cross 2 white concrete crosses on pedestal w/ open book Black metal cross on adobe pedestal White concrete cross on pedestal White metal cross on tiered pedestal 3 white concrete crosses on single pedestal 2 white metal crosses on single pedestal 2 white concrete crosses Good example of the cross/nicho type that became common yesterday. 0.5 x 0.5 x 1m adobe nicho w/ blue wrought iron cross, nothing inside. 5 white, 7 black, 1 blue metal cross in a cluster Broken metal cross White concrete cross on pedestal w/ heart-shaped wreath Small white stucco nicho Stucco nicho w/ 1 white metal w/floral wreath 4 deaths; 3 white pipe crosses for 1 adult & 2 children, & 1 brown metal cross for 1 adult. 7 x 12cm print of NS de Fatima & 2 votives in a small niche box. White metal cross on concrete pedestal 2 white metal crosses on a large (0.5 x 2 x 1m) stepped wedge base w/ an open book centered. Old green wooden crosses & car parts in front. 4.5m tall monument topped by Sacred Heart of Jesus statue w/ a small open nicho built into it. Inside: Metal crucifix, 6 pebbles. 2 more pebbles on outer ledge- 1 death. White metal cross on concrete pedestal 2 white metal crosses on concrete pedestal 1 x 1 x 1m turquoise, flat roofed nicho w/ locked yellow metal door & centered yellow metal cross. Inside: 12 x 18cm Nio de Atocha print in fancy metal frame. Black cross & 1 white metal cross White tile open nicho w/ centered cross White metal cross on blue & white tiered pedestal White stylized cross w/ 4 arch dome Zacatecas/SanLuis Potosi boundary White & black adobe nicho w/ gray cross (0.25 x 0.25 x 0.5m) gray cross on a 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.5m pedestal 2 black 132 132 134 137 138 139 140 140 141 141 141 142 143 144 144 147 147 147 152 152 152 152 152 152 153 45S 45S 45S 45S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S e w w w e e e e w e w w w w w e w w e w e w w w w w w w w w e e e e w 153 49S 154 49S 154 49S 155 49S 155 49S 156 49S 158 160 160 161 163 165 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 343 ZT386 ZT387 ZT388 ZT389 ZT390 ZT391 ZT392 ZT393 ZT394 ZT395 ZT396 ZT397 ZT398 wB7 wB24 ZT143 ZT144 ZT145 ZT146 ZT147 ZT148 ZT399 ZT149 ZT150 crosses blue cross on a brick nicho blue pipe cross on 0.5 x 0.25 x 0.5 blue brick nicho, & 2m long horizontal cross/monument w/ sloped wall behind, both on a 1m tall block pedestal Blue metal cross on 3 tiered pedestal 5 gray, 5 white metal crosses on single pedestal Blue pipe cross White metal cross on turquoise nicho 3 black metal crosses on separate pedestals White metal cross Yellow metal & glass nicho w/ gable roof & initial "A" etched on the glass sides, brown wooden cross inside w/ death inscription for 1 person & bunch of wilted flowers 2 white concrete crosses, 1 white crucifix Black metal cross on concrete pedestal Concrete nicho w/yellow metal cross Concrete nicho w/white metal cross White metal cross w/ 2 tiered pedestal Black metal cross 2nd ZT/SL boundary; end L2, Zacatecas CL/ZT boundary; transect W3 White & blue tile nicho w/ white concrete cross atop, on a hard curve White concrete nicho w/ green wood cross centered in top White concrete nicho w/ black pipe cross atop White concrete cross, "Paz Luisa Ma. junio 12 1997, recuerdo de sus hijos" Granito nicho w/white concrete cross atop 2 red and a blue cross "Sr. Renaldo Lopez de la Torre, fui un rey del camino ahore soy un testigo silencio con sus oracions, descanso en paz, Gracias" "Agrademos a todas las personas que en alguna forma ayudaron en su ultimo viaje a nuestro hijo atentuamente data lost. 3m cubed, white concrete shrine w/ black metal outline cross atop gabled roof & red tile cross above door Nicho, inscribed: "El nino Alfredo Congorra fallecio a la edad de 16 anos el 26 de octobre de 1960, su madre Petra Garcia Vda. de Congorra y hermanos dedican esta recuerdo, R. en Paz". 10 crosses, 1st 2 are blue, others are white. All are wood spindle-types set in the soil and have center name plates, and are home-made. 1st "Andreas Retile Ayalina Solin, oct 4, 1998" 2nd "Lucina Virginia Alberto Agoule, same date" 3rd "Raphaela Gloria Nicolosa same date" 4th has floral wreath in front "? Ascencio Beltran Vergilio same date" 5th "Jose Francisco Rosas Retillo same date" 6th "Ignacio Melitone Flores same date" 7th "Reynaldo Rosas Flores same date" 8th "Melgurio Cenebes ?" 9th "Alberto Beltran Retillo 10 meses nino" 10th "Ramiro Rosas Retillo 6 anos" 5 adult males, 3 165 167 167 168 169 169 171 171 172 174 174 175 176 179 0 1 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 54S 54S e e w w w w e w w w w w w w e w 1 54S 2 54S 2 54S 3 54S 4 54S 4 54S 4 54S 9 54S e 344 ZT151 ZT152 ZT153 ZT154 ZT155 ZT156 ZT157 ZT158 ZT159 ZT160 ZT161 ZT162 ZT163 ZT164 ZT165 ZT166 ZT167 ZT168 ZT169 ZT170 adult females, 2 children (blue crosses) surrounding the site are broken auto parts and windshield fragments, a shoe. This is obviously EXACTLY the place where these people died. 1m tall white concrete crucifix on pedestal White nicho w/ white metal cross White concrete cross White metal cross; junction of cross is dominated by nameplate; "Juan Antonio Diaz Lopez 28 Dec 1997" Silver metal cross on concrete pedestal, at an intersection White concrete nicho w/white concrete cross. 18" tall, built into a road-cut Small pink, gable-roofed nicho w/ white cross atop Small, open nicho w/ Roman cross & pedestal atop, inscribed: "Bartola Laredo Sanchez el 10 de mayo 1992" in front is another Roman cross of a slightly different design, also on a pedestal, inscribed "Sra. Navidad Jerimillo el 10 de mayo 1992" behind these is a rather grandiose (4x3x3m) double arch memorial w/ a stylized cross inside & flowers and the base is inscribed "Salvador Sanchez sacradote 10 mayo 1992" on one side; on the other side "mazapil y concepcion del oro te recuerdo" 2 ladies and a priest White metal cross on concrete pedestal White metal cross on concrete pedestal White metal cross on concrete pedestal Brown metal cross on white concrete pedestal behind a brown wooden cross w/ rocks around it; both delineated by whitewashed stones. On top of a road-cut, brown metal cross on a concrete pedestal 4 silver pipe crosses: From left-to-right they read: "El 23 de diciembre de 1980 fallacio el Sr. Ishmael Salsido Reones edad 36 anos, sus padres Decidiero Salcido Lopez y Maria Guadalupe Reones de Salcedo" "23 de diciembre de 1980 fallecio el nino Miguel A Salcido Cardenas edad 3 anos, sus abuelitos Decidiero Salcido Lopez y Maria Guadalupe Reones de Salcedo" "23 de diciembre de 1980 fallacio la nina Gabriela Salcido Cardenas edad 4 anos sus abuelitos Decidiero Salcido Lopez y Maria Guadalupe Reones de Salcedo" "23 de diciembre de 1980 fallacio Sra. Gloria H. Cardenas de Salcido edad 25 anos sus suegros, Decidiero Salcido Lopez y Maria Guadalupe Reones de Salcido" White concrete cross White concrete cross w/ white metal fence surrounding & flowers & the name "Jesus ??" 2 yellow (maybe tan?) metal crosses, inscriptions no longer readable White concrete cross White concrete cross 2 silver or white metal crosses 10 11 11 12 54S 54S 54S 54S w w e w w w 13 54S 17 54S 17 54S 19 54S 22 22 23 25 54S 54S 54S 54S w e w w w w 25 54S 32 54S 36 54S 36 54S 38 54S 39 54S 40 54S 40 54S w w e w e w 345 ZT171 ZT172 ZT173 ZT174 ZT175 ZT176 ZT177 ZT178 ZT179 ZT180 ZT181 ZT182 ZT183 ZT184 ZT185 ZT186 ZT187 ZT188 ZT189 ZT190 ZT191 ZT192 ZT193 White concrete cross on pedestal Small home-made nicho on pedestal w/ lots of floral wreaths & visitation pebbles w/white wooden cross Light blue cross & white cross on tile foundation White concrete crucifix "Jose Luis Mercado Salas Oct4, 68Jan17,99 Recuerdo de su familia" w/ red wooden X w/prints of Christ child & San Martin Caballero hanging on it & auto parts in front. White metal cross "Norma A.A. Lugo 17-9-85, 7-1-58" Large cross, more than 1m tall, light blue metal "Berta Olivia Ramirez Arroyo RIP 30Dec 1993" White concrete cross, "nino Alan Ulyssus Carion Perez" VdeGuad, Nino deA, and Juan Diego ?, Mary & Joseph, St. Francis of Assisi. 5x2x2m white concrete Shrine, w/cross centered atop. 5 white metal crosses Large monument w/ a crucifix in the middle & a small cross beside it White & bronze metal cross w/ a white & bronze metal fence around it White metal cross, "Chemel" Large white concrete cross over a small nicho w/ 2 urns. Inscription: "Sr. Manuel Ortega M., julio 4 de 1996, edad 62 anos; Recuerdo de su esposa y hijos. Has sun-burst & silvercolored crucifix in the middle of the cross. Blue metal cross w/ blue & white flowers Double arch w/ stylized cross, exactly like the one a ways back, & this is another priest; "Antonio Sandoval, sacradote. Murio aqui el trece de julio de 1968" on the left. "lo recuerda Mazapile" on the right. The site is in 2 parts: there is a (1m+) granito monument w/ crucifix centered & 4 urns (2 on either side on steps) has a lengthy inscription that is illegible. Next to it is a small tan, arch-roofed nicho w/ black centered cross inscribed: "Javier Fernandez G. 1944-1989" the only word legible on the larger monument is the name Javier, so I assume this is the site of one death w/ two memorials to the same person. .5x.5x1m blue concrete Nicho, w/ blue cross atop & yellow flowers White metal cross on concrete pedestal; surrounded by auto parts. "Abel Salazar Oviedo; 3-4-62, 15-7-95". 3 silver metal crosses: "Luis Espinosa" "Jesus Pallido" "G.A.M." White concrete cross w/2 urns & draped cloth design. "Nino Rapheal Quevas 1995 a la edad de 12 anos". White cross & gray centered inscription plate, both of metal; less than .25m tall 2 black metal crosses 2m+ monument, Sacred Heart of Christ statue on a pillar, 41 54S 42 54S 45 54S 45 54S e w w 45 54S 46 54S 58 54S 60 54S 61 54S 61 54S 62 54S 65 54S 65 54S w w e w e w e w 66 54S 67 54S w w 68 54S e 73 54S 75 54S 76 54S 76 54S 81 54S 84 54S 89 54S w w w w e e w 346 ZT194 ZT195 ZT196 ZT197 ZT198 ZT199 ZT200 ZT201 ZT202 ZT203 ZT204 ZT205 ZT206 ZT207 ZT208 ZT209 ZT210 ZT211 ZT212 ZT213 ZT214 wZT08 ZT215 ZT216 ZT217 ZT218 ZT219 ZT220 ZT221 ZT222 ZT223 ZT224 ZT225 ZT226 ZT227 ZT228 ZT229 inscribed: "Sra. Maria A. Cruz Odine, Nina Claudia Madragal Cruz; 31 Oct 80; A su recuerdo eterno" next to it are 2 white concrete crosses w/ the same names on them; & next to those is a white metal cross that's [? Bad tape]. White concrete crucifix on a pedestal Pink concrete cross on pedestal Green metal outline-type cross Blue nicho about 1.52 & 2m tall, w/ a statue of the Sacred Heart Jesus inside about a 1m tall, a small crucifix at its foot, there is a votive box on the outside & its chained & locked. White metal cross on a pedestal White metal cross on a pedestal, red flowers on the cross Blue metal cross w/ white flowers Black metal cross & 1 lavender concrete cross on pedestal White brick, gable-roofed nicho w/blue cross centered in the rear White metal cross w/white & lavender wreath Light blue pipe-type cross on concrete pedestal White metal cross w/center scroll on concrete pedestal White metal cross w/ center inscription plate White metal cross w/ center inscription plate White [?] metal cross w/ wreath White metal cross Black pipe-type cross on concrete pedestal Aluminum cross (maybe siding material), set in concrete White concrete cross: "Sra. Yolanda Avila Carlos, dec 20, 1986" 2 white metal crosses on a concrete pedestal w/ name plates Blue tile, dome-roofed nicho, fallen over Tropic of cancer monument 2 gray metal crosses White metal cross w/ square center scroll Concrete bee-hive nicho w/ white metal cross centered in the middle Small, natural wood cross atop a pile of rocks Small nicho, 2m tall, w/white concrete granito crucifix over it Black metal cross w/red wreath White metal cross on concrete pedestal Monument, 2m tall statue of Sacred Heart of Christ w/ death inscription beneath Black pipe-type cross on a brown concrete pedestal White metal cross on concrete pedestal White concrete cross on pedestal 1m tall 2, identical, white concrete crosses, 5m apart, 25m off road Granito, gable-roofed, open-faced nicho. 3m below & 10 off the road Black metal cross on concrete pedestal Small granito, tan nicho w/2 urns. "Joven Martin del Rio 93 96 97 97 99 99 101 102 103 105 105 109 112 112 114 114 115 116 117 118 124 124 125 127 129 131 132 138 138 141 143 143 143 145 148 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S e e w e e e w e e w e e e w e e w e e w e e w e w e e e w e e e e w w w 150 54S 151 54S 347 ZT230 ZT231 ZT232 ZT233 ZT234 ZT235 ZT236 ZT237 ZT238 ZT239 ZT240 ZT241 ZT242 ZT243 ZT244 wZT10 wZT14 ZT283 ZT284 ZT285 ZT286 ZT287 ZT288 ZT289 ZT290 ZT291 ZT292 ZT293 ZT294 ZT295 Perez, 27-12-92, Dedican sus padres y hermanos." next to it is a white metal cross: "Hector Manuel Bocanegra Caballero 2812-92" next to that, same date "Hugo Bocanegra Caballero". Brick nicho w/ white metal cross behind & a lavender tablet in front (about 5m away) w/ a crucifix on it 3 crosses: first is a green cross over a nicho "Estaban Guerrero; edad 28; 21junio [?]viean Torres; y su cann[?] tormento mi vida fue aqui vencipia la paz aqui por fin descanse"; second green cross is "Sr. Jesus Cortes Parra; 28 junio; recuerdo du sus padres"; third green cross is "Sr. Juan M. L.; recuerdo de sus familia" all have same date. White concrete cross Turquoise outline cross Gray metal outline-type cross, covered w/ red flowers Nicho & cross; the cross has an inscription but I can't get to it because of the wreath that is firmly attached White concrete nicho w/ white concrete cross atop Small white granito nicho; NSGuad painted on inside White outline cross, painted w/ red & green like the flag White metal cross White granito nicho w/ 2 spires & centered cross White metal outline cross Monument, 1 wedge-type monument White metal outline cross White metal cross on concrete pedestal W3 splits at jct 54S & 49S Jct 45S/54W at Zacatecas; begin W3a Turquoise concrete 3-tiered, nicho, w/cross & flowers White metal outline cross on white concrete pedestal w/ flowers White concrete cross on black tile pedestal White metal cross w/ filigree 2 black metal crosses w/ scroll & flowers, identical White granito cross on concrete pedestal Black metal cross w/slanted pointed tips, scroll, flowers, in black WI fence White concrete, gabled roof nicho w/metal & glass door 2 black metal & 2 white metal crosses on concrete pedestal White concrete cross White concrete, arched roof nicho on a 2-tiered concrete pedestal; "Jesus Rezindez Soticio, el joven" 4 white granito crosses, w/ visitation pebbles;"Jesus Carranza" "Valentine Carranza" "Padre Valentine Carranza, 24-aug-1996" "Francisco Carranza" one cross is slightly larger so this was probably a father & his 3 sons. Photo w/ sunrise. 7 crosses; 2 conc: "Joven Eduardo Nava Salizar, jan-978/aug-24-96" & has visitation pebbles; "Joven Jose Antonio Quevas Flores, jun-2-78/aug-24-96" & has rosary beads, 151 54S 153 54S e e 156 156 158 160 161 161 163 165 165 166 167 169 169 174 0 1 1 2 2 2 3 4 4 4 6 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54W 54W 54W 54W 54W 54W 54W 54W 54W 54W 54W 54W e w e w e w w e e w e s n n s n s n s s s n s 7 54W 7 54W n 348 ZT296 ZT297 ZT298 ZT299 ZT300 ZT301 ZT302 ZT303 ZT304 ZT305 ZT306 ZT307 ZT308 ZT309 ZT310 ZT311 ZT312 ZT313 ZT314 ZT315 ZT316 ZT317 ZT318 ZT319 ZT320 ZT321 ZT322 ZT323 ZT324 flowers & visitation pebbles. 1st metal is for Eduardo; 2nd is for, Lovis Barancento? the 3rd is for Jose Antonio, the 4th is for Miguel Angel ?, joven has rosary beads hanging from it, & the 5th is for Joven Poririo Orientos Granito nicho on 1m cube white concrete pedestal; cross inlaid Tan granito nicho w/ metal cross atop rear, on large concrete pedestal White metal cross w/red wreath White metal cross White concrete cross Black metal cross on 2-tierd concrete pedestal w/wreath Rusted pipe cross on concrete pedestal White, 2.5m tall, pipe cross, 2-tiered pedestal, red flowers White pipe cross w/flowers & 1 black metal outline White metal cross w/ scroll White metal cross w/filigree Concrete, gable-roof nicho w/visitation pebbles w/ white metal cross atop rear, on 1m cube concrete pedestal White metal nicho w/filigree, scroll on 2-tiered pedestal Large cross, covered in wreath & inside chain-link cage, 2m tall & 1m sq Triple white granito nicho, on tall pedestal Nicho Nicho Large black metal cross on concrete pedestal w/flowers, 1.5m tall Large cross on 2-tiered pedestal 1.5m sq, on a hill, lots of wreath, X 2.5m tall Brick & stucco nicho, 1m sq x 2m tall Unusual cross, looks like there was 2 urns, there is a tree planted next to it. The inscription under the cross that is inlaid in a large curved trapezoidal pedestal reads; Los cerros podran querer de movarse las lomas mas yo no retirare me amor ni se rompera a me alianza de paz contigo, dice El Senor; Dios quizo recargor al Ingenero Enrique Mercardo Estrada, aquel que fuera una existosa persona, un excellente companero, un gr& amigo y sobre todo un buen hijo por tus ansias de triunfo, siempre te recoramos hermano. Departmento de Invasado Arch-roof nicho w/cross atop rear White granitoNicho, 1 w/ 2 steeples on concrete pedestal White arched-roof nicho; "Juan Hernandez" in red on face of arch; on concrete pedestal White metal cross 3 white metal crosses, turquoise concrete pedestal; wreaths White granito, arched-roof nicho w/cross missing White concrete cross on granito pedestal, 2.5m tall White metal cross w/filigree, broken 7 54W 8 54W 10 10 10 11 11 12 13 14 14 15 54W 54W 54W 54W 54W 54W 54W 54W 54W 54W n n n s n n s s s s s s n n s s s n s n n 17 54W 19 54W 21 21 21 24 54W 54W 54W 54W 26 54W 26 54W 27 54W 28 54W 28 54W 29 54W 30 31 31 33 36 54W 54W 54W 54W 54W n n n n s n s s 349 ZT325 ZT326 ZT327 ZT328 ZT329 ZT330 ZT331 ZT332 ZT333 ZT334 ZT335 ZT336 ZT337 ZT338 ZT339 ZT340 ZT341 ZT342 ZT343 ZT344 ZT345 ZT346 White concrete cross 3 white concrete crucifixes on a granito pedestal Large wood cross made of doubled 2x6s, 4m tall on a 3-tiered concrete pedestal 1.5m tall, village cross of ? de Cristo; flowers on it White granito nicho w/ white concrete cross inside, gableroofed, open-faced White concrete crucifix; Francisco Javier?" Unpainted, concrete, arched-roof nicho White granito, gable-roofed nicho w/black WI door Brown metal cross w/scroll & flor d lis tips White & gray granito cross w/ 2 urns Monument, white granito w/ cross & 2 urns White granito crucifix on granito pedestal, atop concrete pedestal White metal cross w/ filigrees & gray metal cross on concrete pedestal, lots of flowers 3 shrines (all are 4m deep x 3m wide x 4m tall, w/ crosses centered on arched roofs, excepting the middle one has a Xfix) that have a metal arch spanning them & it reads; Virgin de Guadalupe bendice nuestro camino From the right or east, 1st shrine, door is locked; central figure is a large (5 ft tall) real marble statue of StJoseph & Christ child, 2 marble urns & 6 unlit votives. 2nd shrines central figure is a 5 ft tall marble statue of NSGuad w/ JD kneeling to the right, between them are silk flowers and there are more in 2 urns on a lower step, 12 unlit votives. The 3rd shrines central figure is St. Anthony of Padua (statue depicts him holding a lily in one hand and the Christ child, seated on a book, in the other), again it is a 5ft tall marble statue, there artificial flowers and 12 unlit votives. This is quite a large rest area and the shrines appear to be fairly old and to have gone through a series of renovations, including the addition of the metal arch. There is no indication anywhere about who built and maintains this. Several old campfire rings indicate that this place is used a lot. The footings for the arch have 29-nov-91 scratched into them and the word Noriega White concrete cross White concrete nicho w/ white concrete cross atop rear, 2tiered, 1m sq base White metal cross, 1 w/scroll; 'Francisco' 2 large white granito crosses, 2m tall, maybe nichos in base, in WI fence Concrete, gabled-roof, open-faced nicho w/ cross inside Black metal cross w/filigree, scroll, & 2-tiered pedestal White concrete cross on 2-tiered pedestal, lots of visitation pebbles White concrete nicho w/granito cross atop An old wooden cross laying in front of the angel that seems to 36 54W 37 54W 39 54W 39 54W 41 42 42 45 49 49 51 54W 54W 54W 54W 54W 54W 54W s n s n s n s n n s s n 56 54W 58 54W 58 54W 58 54W 60 54W 61 54W 64 54W 65 54W 68 54W 71 54W 72 54W s s s n n s n s n 350 ZT347 ZT348 ZT349 ZT350 ZT351 ZT352 ZT353 ZT354 ZT355 ZT356 ZT357 ZT358 ZT359 ZT360 ZT361 ZT362 ZT363 ZT364 ZT365 ZT366 ZT367 ZT368 ZT369 ZT370 be fairly new, a bunch of visitation pebbles, & a wood cross above it is handmade of 2x4s, inscribed, stained & varnished at one time, it reads: Lupe Hernandez, nacio 1966 fallacio enero 23 de 1985 An angel for a 19 year-old, hmmm, evidently she was unmarried & considered to be a virgin. This nicho appears to be much older than the other & older than the death date; implying that it is being re-used. This nicho has special little niche built into the brick-work in the base for visitation pebbles. The granito cross, that used to be a crucifix, reads: Aqui fallecieron Ramon Y Lidia, Vera, Olga Esperanza Cervantes y Maria Guadalupe Hernandez; enero-23-1985, recuerdo de sus familiares, DEP There are fresh cement bags laying around indicating that someone was here this year freshening things up. White concrete nicho & cross Monument, white arched-roof granito w/crucifix inside & 2 urns, 1m tall Concrete arched-roof nicho w/gray-blue metal cross atop rear, 1.5ft tall White granito crucifix on granito pedestal, atop concrete pedestal Blue concrete, box-type nicho, 2-tiered w/granito cross atop; "Jorge Martinez" 2m tall, blue concrete, arched-roof, open-faced nicho w/ 1m cross w/ white metal, sun-rays Large shrine to NSGuad, gate locked White concrete crucifix on wedge pedestal White concrete cross on pedestal Arched-roof nicho w/ white metal cross inside w/ filigree Shrine: Central figure is a resurrected Christ holding a female doll w/ a white dress (Virgin of Jalpa?) & a ribbon on the doll w/ 12 metal milagros on it. The bounded area is 6m square, the shrine is 2m tall. White concrete, gabled-roof nicho w/cross inside. Next to it is a cross White concrete crucifix Shrine, 5 ft tall statue of Christ the king atop a road-cut White concrete clover cross Metal cross White metal cross w/filigree White metal cross White concrete cross on concrete pedestal w/dozens of visitation pebbles Black metal cross w/filigree & scroll Black metal cross White concrete cross & 1 white & black metal White marble nicho; "Anthony Espinosa Anaya, 7-sept-76/ 25-jun-94" on turquoise concrete pedestal; blue sheet metal roof & rebar posts 72 54W n 72 54W 76 54W 78 54W 79 54W 81 54W 82 54W 83 85 86 86 86 54W 54W 54W 54W 54W n s s s n n n n s n 89 54W 89 90 91 91 91 91 97 101 101 103 107 54W 54W 54W 54W 54W 54W 54W 54W 54W 54W 54W n n n n s n s n n n n n 351 ZT371 ZT372 ZT373 ZT374 ZT375 ZT376 ZT377 ZT378 ZT379 ZT380 ZT381 ZT382 ZT383 ZT384 wB50 wZT11 ZT245 ZT246 ZT247 2 white concrete crosses w/ flowers White concrete cross White concrete cross White metal cross w/filigree on 2-tiered pedestal Large nicho w/NSGuad White metal cross White metal cross White metal cross w/filigree & scroll Concrete, arched-roof, open-faced nicho, w/concrete cross inside A really special photo [that did not survive the developing process!]; a family was in the process of building the brick base of the cross for a man who died on x-mas day. The father was laying the brick and the brother, 2 sisters (or a sister and wife) and mother were watching. A car with DF plates was just pulling away when I stopped and a man with a camera had just gotten in, so it was a very delicate situation! The response was the typical we do this because it is our tradition; i.e. they do it because they do it. It was interesting to talk with them and see they were engaging in an action that gave them a way to grieve. It was obvious that the women were quite shook-up and the men were no less hurt but were fully absorbed in doing the work necessary to make the brick pedestal. The brother said that they live in the next village down the road; confirming the idea that, at least some of these recuerdos, are close to where the families live. Theyre local folks. He was hesitant to speak his brothers name (and didnt!). I think his dates were 1981-1999, but Im not sure. I also asked if they had permission from the municipio and the brother said: No, anyone who is Mexican can do this in Mexico. It is an understood thing like the left turn signal to pass or other rules of the road, part of the unwritten common knowledge. The skid marks were still very prominent on the road! Moyahua is likely where that family is from. (1/9/00): Im just remembering something from the day before yesterday when I was talking to that guy. The brother of the deceased man specifically said that as soon as they put a cross there the place became sacred because that symbolizes Jesus Christ. I thought that was an interesting note that, Im sure, applies to crosses in general for Christians. White concrete cross White granito cross on concrete pedestal; "mario 1979" White concrete cross; "Pedro sisneros" Concrete arched-roof nicho Boundary ZT/JL 22.45.01/102.29.61 Guadalupe, ZT; begin transect W3b Dark blue, arch roof nicho Light blue concrete box-nicho w/ white metal cross centered in the rear. 1m square w/ a real small opening. White pipe-type cross 352 108 109 113 114 117 117 120 120 122 54W 54W 54W 54W 54W 54W 54W 54W 54W n s n s n s s s n 125 54W 128 130 131 146 148 0 1 1 54W 54W 54W 54W 54W 45S 45S 45S s n n n w w e 5 45S ZT248 ZT249 ZT250 ZT251 ZT252 ZT253 ZT254 ZT255 ZT256 ZT257 ZT258 ZT259 ZT260 ZT261 ZT262 ZT263 ZT264 ZT265 ZT266 ZT267 ZT268 ZT269 ZT270 ZT271 ZT272 ZT273 ZT274 ZT275 ZT276 ZT277 ZT278 ZT279 ZT280 ZT281 Large (more than 1m tall) white concrete Roman cross on a pedestal. "Jesus Sanchez" 2 white metal crosses (both the same) White metal roof-type cross 3 black/2 white metal crosses White concrete, church steeple-type nicho White concrete cross on pedestal; 1m tall Blue pipe-type cross 2 white concrete Roman crosses; "Angela" on one of them White metal cross 1m tall white metal cross; black metal; white metal. latter 2 were 2ft. tall, a bit smaller than the first Homemade concrete nicho w/ a black metal cross centered in the rear. "Nikolas Rosales Lopez 6-12-64, 14-08-98" White metal cross w/wreath White homemade nicho w/ white metal cross centered in the rear White metal outline-type cross Concrete nicho, w/ black metal cross centered in the rear Bronze-colored metal cross on concrete pedestal 4 white concrete crown crosses inside a black WI fence White concrete Roman cross White metal cross White metal outline-type cross; on the outskirts of Ojo Caliente, ZT Nicho w/2 urns/ cross atop; 0.5 mile south of Ojo Calientes White granito pillar cross, looks like it had a cross on it but is broken off now leaving only a 1m tall pedestal Green box-nicho,5m deep& 1m sq. w/blue metal cross centered in rear. "Roberto Garcia Maldonaldo fallicito el 27 de junio de 19??" the rest of the date is obliterated by the top of the nicho, indicating that it was a later addition. Many pebbles. Homemade adobe nicho w/black cross centered in the rear White concrete nicho w/ blue metal cross centered in the rear Brick nicho Light blue metal cross w/ center scroll on a 3-tiered concrete pedestal Pink granito nicho in front of a blue metal cross Double sky-blue nicho w/ 2 blue metal crosses centered in the rear, lots of visitation pebbles; pretty dicey location to get out of the car. Black metal cross w/ visitation stones on horizontal arm. Blue nicho w/ blue pipe cross atop. "el nino Raul Valdez volo al cielo el 10-8-65" about 25m from the entrance to a grade school. White concrete crown-type cross 3-tiered box nicho w/black metal cross atop White outline-type cross on a brick pedestal 353 5 45S 6 7 9 9 9 13 14 15 16 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S w w e w w w e e e w E w w e e w w e w w e w W 16 45S 17 45S 17 45S 18 18 19 19 20 21 21 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 24 45S 25 45S 25 45S 26 26 27 27 45S 45S 45S 45S w w e w e w E e e e 27 45S 28 45S 30 45S 32 45S 32 45S 32 45S 33 45S ZT282 wB25 White concrete Roman cross on a 3-tiered pedestal; white structure about 2m tall Boundary Zacatecas & Aguascalientes 33 45S 35 45S w 354 Table A4.9: Coahuila Site # Description wB64 Boundary CL/NL; transect B3 CL202 White granito cross w/ blue & white wreath, .5m tall CL201 White granito cross on 3-tiered pedestal w/ red wreath CL200 This is an incredible work of art. The 2 front corners are cam shafts, there are gears and valves, welded, crosses made of bearings and of valves, there is a double arch of gears, somebody spent a lot of time making this! There is no death inscription but the mans photo is attached to the inside of one of the glass doors, which are locked. That white paint is not just any paint, I wouldnt be surprised if it was powdercoat. No doubt in my mind that this guy was a mechanic, or at least a motor head. The lock on it was pretty new-looking. CL199 2 white granito crown-crosses w/ wreaths enclosed within a sky-blue WI fence CL198 White, gable-roofed, concrete shrine, 5m sq x 4m tall. Inside; 2-step altar w/ 40 votives & 2 bouquets of fresh flowers and juniper. On the top step is 18 tall StJude statue, black metal cross w/ filigrees & scroll; RML, fl 11-df-1978 a la edad de 31 anos next to that is a 24x36 framed print of Jesus sacred heart that reads; Jesus, yo confio enti next to that is a 36 x 48 print of San Martin Caballero, 6 votive candles (3 lit), a bouquet of imitation flowers, an 8x12 print of StJude, a 4 tall statue of StJude, & a 2x3 print of StChristopher. The shrine is well kept and it obviously experiences daily visitation. In this case it is hard to classify this structure; evidently this was originally a recuerdo but since the death date (1978) is so long ago it has quite likely become a shrine of piety. CL197 Wood, broken & faded cross in a pile of rocks w/ wreath CL196 White granito cross on pedestal w/ red flowers CL195 White granito crown-type cross on a tomb-like pedestal CL194 3 black pipe-crosses w/scrolls & filigrees CL193 2 white metal crosses and 2 small crosses on horizontal member and a homemade concrete cross; "Felix Jimenez, Amor eterno" all w/ flowers. CL192 Faded wood cross w/flowers CL191 White metal cross w/flowers CL190 White pipe-type cross w/scroll & flowers CL189 White metal cross w/flowers CL188 Pipe-type cross w/flowers CL187 White metal cross w/scroll, filigrees, pointed tips &flowers CL186 Yellow pipe-type cross w/scroll CL185 Blue metal cross with 4 smaller crosses on horizontal member & 2 wreaths CL184 Handmade wood clover-cross, 1x4, "norberto FC 69-91" fresh wreath CL183 White granito cross w/silver-colored Christ attached, flowers Mile 0 24 50 67 RteDir 2S 2S 2S 2S Asp e e e 68 2S 72 2S e w 86 86 87 88 88 90 91 94 95 95 97 97 103 2S 2S 2S 2S 2S 2S 2S 2S 2S 2S 2S 2S 2S w e e w e e e w e w e e e w w 125 2S 125 2S 355 CL182 CL181 wCL17 wCL23 CL59 CL60 CL61 CL62 CL63 CL64 CL65 CL66 CL67 CL68 CL69 CL70 CL71 CL72 CL73 CL74 CL75 CL76 CL77 CL78 CL79 CL80 CL81 CL82 CL83 CL84 CL85 CL86 CL87 CL88 CL89 CL90 White metal cross w/scroll &flowers 2 white concrete nichos, 1m sq x 2m tall; 1 w/ arched roof, other w/flat roof w/ front facade; both w/crosses centered in front. Cd. Acuna; end transect B3 Piedras Negras; 28.38.68/100.33.46; begin transect W2 Small shrine to St. Jude Large pink nicho w/ cross atop front w/ NSGuad tile image on rear wall, 1.5m sq x 2m tall White granito, arch-roofed nicho w/tiled Jesus sacred heart & 2 urns w/ flowers Tall gray metal cross; 2.5m, w/ filigrees & scroll and 1 cross covered w/flowers in front; 1.5 foot tall White metal cross w/ spear-point tips & wreath, 1m tall White granito nicho, arched roof, 1.5m tall, on pedestal w/ painted statue of NSGuad, 2 urns & in front a black metal cross. Flat-roofed, white concrete nicho, 1m cubed, inside painted turquoise, w/ white metal cross atop rear White metal cross w/ spear-point tips & red & yellow wreath 2 white metal outline-crosses White metal cross w/ lots of flowers & white WI fence White metal cross within white WI fence Blue pipe-type cross w/wreath Metal, gabled nicho w/wire mesh walls, cross & flowers inside White metal cross w/flowers Gable roofed nicho w/ glass & WI door atop a box-type, (2 niche openings or a 'double-decker'); 1m sq x 2m tall 2 black metal crosses on a wedge pedestal White concrete cross w/wreath 2m sq x 3m tall shrine within WI fence 2 white metal outline-type crosses w/ wreaths White cross w/wreath Small black metal cross w/red wreath White concrete cross w/ wreath at RR tracks/road jct White concrete cross on pedestal White pipe-type cross w/ filigrees & scroll 2 white, 1 pink, 1 blue metal crosses; end ones were white, maybe 2 adults & a boy and a girl White concrete cross w/ wreath Concrete, arch-roofed nicho, .25m sq x 2m tall, w/statue of Jesus sacred heart behind it is a cross White cross attached to a fence Red metal cross Large, 1m cubed, pedestal w/ 2 urns & a fallen over cross White concrete cross, 1m tall, on pedestal w/red flowers Red metal cross w/ scroll and 1 white concrete w/ 2 urns 133 2S 134 2S 142 0 1 6 2S 57W 57W 57W e e n s s s s n s n s s n n s n n n n s n s s s n n n n n s s s s n 7 57W 19 57W 20 57W 21 57W 24 57W 28 44 46 50 57 59 57W 57W 57W 57W 57W 57W 60 57W 65 57W 66 71 71 71 72 76 77 79 83 85 57W 57W 57W 57W 57W 57W 57W 57W 57W 57W 92 57W 92 57W 93 57W 97 57W 97 57W 57W 100 57W 356 CL91 CL92 CL93 CL94 CL95 CL96 CL97 CL98 CL99 CL100 CL101 CL102 CL103 CL104 CL105 CL106 CL107 CL108 CL109 CL110 CL111 CL112 CL113 CL114 CL115 CL116 CL117 CL118 CL119 CL120 CL121 CL122 CL123 CL124 Large shrine just inside private property of rancho de santa cruz, but the barbed wire fence such that one can easily access the shrine. It is 3m deep x 2m wide & high, made of concrete with a silver-colored cross centered in the front of the flat roof. Inside the central image is a Nino de Atocha 24x 36 framed print; just to its left is a slightly smaller print of same; to the right is a print of Jesus Sacred Heart (the side ones are about 18x30); these are on the top-most step of a 3tiered altar, and there are also 6 votive candles, 1 lit. On the next step down is a VdeSJ, on the bottom tier is a bouquet of flowers. It has an unlocked padlock on the door. White concrete cross, 1m tall White metal w/ pointed tips & white granito Maltese-cross Metal nicho w/ open sides & gabled roof, the sides have filagrees; there is a white metal cross centered in the rear, flowers inside; 25m off road, just behind the pp fence. .5m deep x .25m wide x .5m tall 2 white metal crosses, one w/flowers White concrete cross, 1.5m tall w/members 5" wide; wreath Small white metal cross w/scroll & balls on the tips, 8" tall 3 white metal crosses w/filigrees & scrolls White metal cross w/ scroll 2 white metal crosses White tile cross White granito arch-roofed nicho w/ cross in rear White concrete cross on pedestal White concrete cross Cross covered w/ flowers St Jude shrine White concrete cross 2 white pipe-type crosses 3 white metal crosses 5 black metal crosses w/flowers White concrete cross w/flowers 2 white metal crosses & 3 identical outline-crosses; all w/wreaths Rusted pipe-type cross White concrete cross on pedestal 2 black metal crosses w/wreaths Rock painting shrine to Vde SJ Shrine w/lots of candles lit Cross covered by wreath Black metal cross w/filigrees, scroll & flowers White metal cross w/wreath, inside a white WI fence Black metal cross w/ scroll 2 crosses covered with wreaths; one was on a brick pedestal White wood (2 or 4x4 lumber) cross; 1.5m tall; atop a rock 7m above road level, next to a rest area & hard curve Granito barbed cross on concrete pedestal 357 102 57W n 107 57W 108 57W 121 57W s n n 122 125 130 142 142 149 149 149 150 150 150 153 158 158 158 159 161 162 163 167 167 167 168 170 174 175 175 177 178 57W 57W 57W 57W 57W 30W 30W 30W 30W 30W 30W 30W 30W 30W 30W 30W 30W 30W 30W 30W 30W 30W 30W 30W 30W 30W 30W 30W 30W n n s n m n s n n n s n s n s n n s n n n s s s n s n s s n 179 30W CL125 CL126 CL127 CL128 CL129 CL130 CL131 CL132 CL133 CL134 CL135 CL136 CL137 CL138 CL139 CL140 CL141 CL142 CL143 CL144 CL145 CL146 CL147 CL148 CL149 CL150 CL151 CL152 CL153 CL154 White concrete cross; next to RR tracks; "Cesar Falcon" Double granito crucifix on a pedestal; "Pedro Adelberto San Miguel, 1973-1995" "Cristobel ? San Miguel, 1974-1995": both have fresh flowers Concrete cross w/ flared ends White arch-roofed nicho on 2-tiered triangular pedestal (w/ apex in back) inside statue of StJude & 2 white pipe crosses w/ filigrees; "Cesar Pena 1974-1994" "Gerardo Guerrero, 1972-1994". White metal cross w/wreath White metal cross w/wreath White concrete cross w/wreath; "Israel" White concrete cross w/flowers inside WI fence; "Jose" Gray metal cross w/filigrees & wreath Metal cross w/wreath 2-tiered granito pedestal w/ cross broken off & inscription on the kick plate of 2nd tier White pipe-type cross on concrete pedestal White concrete cross w/red flowers White metal cross w/ wreath Blue concrete block shrine w/shed roof & 3-tiered front facade w/white metal cross w/filigrees centered in front. inside;NSGuad hand-painted on canvas, 20 votives, most lit. A NSGuad print, a VdeSJ print in a gilt oval frame, a Nino de Atocha print in a rectangular gilt frame. 3 pairs of baby booties, a plaque w/ the Lords prayer in English, a picture frame with 4 photos, 3 bouquets of flowers. 1m tall cross painted on a rock; due to the location, this a death memorial although I didn't see an inscription. 2 white metal crosses w/ flowers White pipe-type cross w/ pointed tips White metal cross w/filigrees White concrete cross w/ urn in front White concrete cross w/barbed ends, 4" thick arms "Marcos" Monument, tablet-type marker, 20m off road Turquoise concrete nicho, 2m sq, flat-roofed w/ front facade & white metal centered in front; in of a little rest stop called 'Tanque Nuevo.' central figure NSGuad. Metal cross 2 white metal crosses w/scrolls & wreaths; identical Silver-colored metal cross w/ pointed tips, filigrees & yellow wreath; concrete pedestal; "Pena" Green metal cross w/a small 'x' at the crux, on concrete pedestal, 1m tall White concrete crucifix w/ 2 urns, flowers;"Alfredo Arce Lindoro, 15-nov-1986" and there are quite a few visitation pebbles; at the base;"Un recuerdo de sus amigos". Concrete nicho w/ granito cross in rear Cross, 1, no description on tape 182 30W 182 30W 182 30W 187 30W s 188 188 190 190 194 195 196 197 200 201 202 30W 30W 30W 30W 30W 30W 30W 30W 30W 30W 30W n s n s n s s s s 202 30W 206 206 206 206 209 214 222 30W 30W 30W 30W 30W 30W 30W n s n s s n n s n n n s n s s 225 30W 226 30W 228 30W 229 30W 236 30W 257 30W 259 30W 358 CL155 CL156 CL157 CL158 CL159 CL160 CL161 CL162 CL163 CL164 CL165 CL166 CL167 CL168 CL169 CL170 CL171 CL172 CL173 CL174 CL175 CL176 CL177 CL178 CL179 CL180 wB49 wB23 CL01 CL02 CL03 CL04 CL05 CL06 CL07 CL08 CL09 Cross, 1, no description on tape Yellow wood cross set in rocks White concrete cross White concrete cross, 1ft tall Blue metal cross w/ pointed tips & wreath, 1m tall Blue metal cross w/filigrees & wreath & fresh bouquet;"Sr Gregorio Vela Romeras, fallacio 10-sept-99 a la edad de 41, recuerdo de su esposa, hijos y familiares" and 1 gray metal, smaller w/ wreath & fresh bouquet. 2 white pipe-type crosses w/scrolls "Jorge" and "Lalo" White concrete cross "Carmen Paz Echartea, mar 2, 1991" White pipe-type cross w/filigrees White pipe-type cross w/blue tips Faded wood cross Blue metal cross w/ gold fleur-d-lis points Blue wood cross, 1m tall on concrete pedestal Brick nicho, 1.5m sq x 1.5m tall, w/gabled concrete whitepainted roof & St Jude statue inside & 1 bouquet of artificial flowers, 2 votives, 1 lit. Small shrine to Nino de Atocha Cross in a pile of rocks, completely cover w/wreath Rusted metal cross White metal cross White concrete cross 2 lime green crosses Blue metal cross, 3ft tall White metal cross w/ filigrees Blue metal cross w/white flowers Gray metal cross w/scroll & flowers White metal cross w/flowers and 1 faded wood White concrete cross, 1m tall; "Juan Alberto Padilla Garza, nov-23-1966, originario de Gomez Palacio; Juana Soledad Islas Padilla, sept-29-1970, originara de Nuevo Laredo, x 18 1978" next to it is a small gray crown cross w/ angel heads in the crux. Boundary CL/DG; end W2, Coahuila NL/CL; transect W3 Tan gable-roofed nicho w/ white cross centered in rear Yellow pipe-type cross Large white concrete cross w/red, white & green flowers: about 50m off the road White metal cross White concrete cross X-fix w/2 urns Small concrete, gable-roofed nicho White concrete cross Bright yellow brick nicho w/ 'beehive' roof & yellow metal X centered in rear Gray pipe cross 259 259 260 266 275 277 30W 30W 30W 30W 30W 30W n s s n n n 296 296 300 303 303 304 305 305 319 324 327 328 329 330 330 331 334 336 336 339 30W 30W 30W 30W 30W 30W 30W 30W 30W 30W 30W 30W 30W 30W 30W 30W 30W 30W 30W 30W n n n n n s s s s s s n n m n m s m n n 345 0 1 1 2 2 2 5 5 40 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 54S m m m s s n e 41 54S 359 CL10 CL11 CL12 CL13 CL14 CL15 CL16 CL17 CL18 CL19 CL20 CL21 CL22 CL23 CL24 CL25 CL26 CL27 CL28 CL29 CL30 CL31 CL32 CL33 CL34 CL35 CL36 CL37 CL38 CL39 CL40 CL41 White concrete cross White metal cross White concrete cross & a small white gable-roofed nicho Large shrine, actually a death memorial, locked; 3m3, opensided with white wrought iron grills and plexiglass sides. Inside: 1m tall statue of Sacred Heart of Jesus below a small crucifix, in front of the statue is a white concrete cross "Sr. Jeronimo Garcia Garcia 8-1-89" flanked by 2 urns with fresh and imitation flowers. White concrete cross on a pedestal White metal cross Reddish-brown concrete, flat roofed nicho w/ facade & white cross atop White & brown brick nicho built into the road-cut; has 12 crosses on top. It is a whole family. "Marzo 26 19?2 familia Valdez M." White metal cross on concrete pedestal (fucking dangerous place, why am I stopping here?) White concrete cross w/ flowers on it 2 silver metal crosses Light green concrete cross on a concrete pedestal 2 black metal crosses White concrete cross 2 black metal crosses Pedestal and some flowers that used to have a cross Small white concrete clover-cross w/ X-fix on a pedestal Green wood cross w/ flowers Black metal cross w/ pointed tips on a marble pedestal White metal cross on brick pedestal with center sun-burst 2 silver metal, cross, rear one has 2 smaller crosses on the side arms and the initials "JMC" & "?MC" "11 enero 1987" Yellow brick nicho, trapezoidal-shaped, 1.5m tall, with light green, triangular wrought iron door and cross of same color and material centered in front. Small plaque of Virgin of Guadalupe inside, flowers; no death information. 50m south of CL30. White concrete cross Black wood cross in a pile of rocks Black metal w/ pointed tips & a white metal Roman-cross 5m off the road on a dangerous curve, down off the road about 10 feet below road level. A white concrete crucifix with silk flowers; "Srta. Sandra Mera Silva Rodriguez enero 10 de 1966- julio 1o de 1983 recuerdo de tus padres y hermanos" White pipe-cross w/ center name plate on concrete pedestal 2 black metal crosses 2 white metal crosses on a bank above a road-cut White concrete crown cross on a pedestal White concrete X-fix on a brick pedestal Cross, no data 360 41 43 43 44 54S 54S 54S 54S e w w 44 54S 44 54S 45 54S 45 54S 45 54S 46 48 48 50 50 51 56 58 59 59 59 59 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S w w e w w e w w w e e w e w 59 54S 61 61 61 65 54S 54S 54S 54S w w e w 61 67 69 71 71 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S w e w e e CL42 CL43 CL44 CL45 CL46 CL47 CL48 CL49 CL50 CL51 CL52 CL53 CL54 CL55 CL56 CL57 CL58 CL59 wB24 White concrete nicho built into road-cut w/ arched facade White metal cross 2 turquoise Cross, on a brick pedestal Turquoise & white shrine, 5mcubed, w/ gabled roof, white cross centered in front. Inside; white arched altar/niche w/ a square altar-box beneath. Top altar/niche is padlocked & has white metal & glass door inscribed "Espiritu Santo" has real pretty, hand carved wood cross 1m tall with a bird & a halo in the center of the cross & a passport-type photo of a young male is tacked onto it just above the bird. To the left of the cross is a 1' tall statue of NSGuad; to the right of the cross is 1' tall Jesus Sacred Heart statue, w/ small print of the VdeSJ in a gold-leaf frame to the left. On either side of the above collection are two large arrays of artificial flowers in pots. In front are 9 votive candles, 2 are electric & on to give the appearance of burning candles. There is a small, round framed print of the Virgin of Guadalupe w/ the Mexican flag. The little altar in front has a little stained glass cross, 7 votive candles, 2 are burning, and 2 styrofoam cups with fresh juniper branches in them. White concrete cross, 1m tall, surrounded by a fence that has been damaged "Arturo Sanchez A. 3 marzo 1982, Recuerdo de su tio, Alberto Sanchez". Green metal cross "Estanaslada Alvarez Fuentes 20 Oct 1987" Gray metal cross " Ing. Ruben Gonzalez" Tan concrete cross "J. Sanchez ?", 1m tall, 3m below road level White metal cross on a pedestal Turquoise metal cross on a turquoise concrete pedestal Large silver metal cross on a concrete pedestal w/ red flowers on it; over 1m tall White concrete cross on pedestal "sra. Hortencia V. Rdz. De Acosta 5-5-20, 7-7-83" good photo w/Joshua Trees! White metal cross "Antonio Granados Ortega 12 feb 1979" Gray wood cross on a pile of rocks, hand carved inscription reads: "El senor Mariano Fermin V. fallacio el dia 20 de diciembre de 1991, a la edad de 78 anos See Notes White concrete roman-style cross White metal cross "Concepcion Lumbreras T. 12-8-37, 2-1091" on concrete tomb-like pedestal Box-type nicho w/ brown metal cross behind CL / ZT boundary; end W3, Coahuila 71 73 77 78 54S 54S 54S 54S e e 79 54S 79 54S 79 54S 79 54S 80 54S 82 54S 83 54S 86 54S 87 54S 87 54S 87 54S 88 54S 88 54S 89 54S 89 54S e w w w w e e w e w e w e 361 Table A4.10: Nuevo Len Site # Description Mile wB63 Boundary NL/TM; transect B3 0 NL58 White granito clover-cross 1 5 NL57 3x4x5m yellow concrete shrine w/ ornate tiles around the entry & "Capilla San Judas Tadeo" painted on the outside, has a white concrete cross atop w/x-mas star on it. Inside; floor & altar are tiled, 2 benches, one full with votive candles, 12 of 35 are lit. In tile on the right, at eye height, is image of NSGuad, opposite it is a similar tile image of Virgin of SJ. The central altar has a framed image, 2x3ft, of Jesus at Gethsemane, and a 2 vases of flowers in front; next to Jesus are 2 busts; one of Christ scourged and Jesus sacred heart. Above them is a 3ft tall statue of StJude w/ a 2x3ft print of Jesus sacred heart w/ caption in the corner Quinta conmigo next to SJ. There are 5x7s around these of SJ and guardian angel, captioned; angel de mi guarda mi dulce compana, no me desampares ni de noche ni de dia. There are 2 more holy card-sized prints of SJ, 2 lit votives, an 18 tall ceramic bust of an angel, an 18 tall statue of St. Francis Assisi, a 24 tall statue of NSGuad, 4 votive candles burning in front of that, 2 more 8 tall SJ statues, a statue of Mary queen of heaven. Hanging from the wall is a tiny sombrero, a 3 across. There is another 3 ft tall SJ statue on a separate altar. There is a ceramic of a girl praying. There is a x-mas tree in the corner. There is an offering lock-box and a basket on the floor with about 20 US pennies in it. wB64 Boundary CL/NL; end B3, Nuevo Len 8 wB22 TM/NL boundary; transect W3 0 NL01 Silver metal cross 3 NL02 2 silver-colored metal crosses on a concrete pedestal 3 NL03 2 white metal crosses w/pointed ends & center scrolls 9 NL04 Brown wood cross 9 NL05 White metal cross w/ pointed end & center scroll 10 NL06 Blue metal cross 13 NL07 White concrete cross w/ an urn in front 14 NL08 1 black metal outline-cross, 1 large white concrete crucifix, 1 20 white concrete cross NL09 White concrete cross w/ urn and red flowers on a pedestal 21 NL10 White concrete clover cross w/ red outline painted 23 NL11 White concrete cross 23 NL12 2 silver metal crosses w/ red flowers affixed 24 NL13 White concrete cross w/ an urn 29 NL14 White metal pipe-cross w/ filigrees 30 36 NL15 Shrine about 5m cubed with a mission facade & a Roman cross centered atop. The concrete of the shrine and the cross have artistic etchings. Gray wrought-iron grate is locked with plastic flowers attached. Interior: the central object is a statue of the Virgin of SJ in a glass and aluminum cabinet. To the RteDir 2S 2S 2S Asp w w 2S 85S 85S 85S 85S 85S 85S 85S 85S 85S 85S 85S 85S 85S 85S 85S 85S m w w m m m e w w w e w e w w 362 NL16 NL17 NL18 NL19 NL20 NL21 NL22 NL23 NL24 NL25 NL26 NL27 NL28 NL29 NL30 right are prints of Jesus Sacred Heart, and V de Guad. In the corner is a 12" statue of NS Guad in a home-made wooden case, next to that is another statue of the Sacred Heart of Jesus. On the other side of the central object is another NS Guad print, and an unidentified statue. On the floor is print of the V de SJ, a dozen votive candles- none lit, and a couple baskets of wilted flowers. Shrine to NS Guad, 4x3x3m, concrete w/ split rock facade. Interior: 2 red kneelers. Painted on the wall "Aqui a acmes? No estoy yo quisoy tu madre" Behind a white wrought-iron altar is a brick and tile niche w/ yellow aluminum & glass door and a hand-made framed image 2x3 feet (real beautiful wood frame), 9 floral bouquets, 4 votive candles. White concrete cross 2 white concrete crosses, 1m tall, a few meters apart White concrete cross in front of a raised top pedestal w/ an open book inscription in the rear White concrete cross on a small pedestal inscribed "Humberto Gallego E. 22 Abril 1951- 11 Agosto 1974" Cross 1x .5x 1m nicho, w/ green, white and red caution tape on 2 front pillars that support a gabled roof with wings. Behind it is a wooden cross which has pretty much the same information as the front slab which is inscribed: "Augustin Badillo C. 15 feb 53- 8 oct 98, Recuerdo de tus companeros de TCM gov ATI" and at the bottom "El Gitano" Inside: a silver colored crucifix, a whole bunch of plastic and silk flowers, and a St. Jude votive candle. In front of the whole thing are built-in urns; this is kind of a combination of homemade and pre-fab. The urns and the slab are granito, but the roof is put together from granito slabs and the pillars are actually 3" diameter PVC pipe. 4 white crosses with the names on the front and the death date, which 23-8-91. "Santos Fresas Reseno" "Eliaser Garza Camacho" "Patricia Campos Alvarado" "Bertha Eschavarra Godinez" all of the crosses have flowers on them, and are on a concrete pedestal that has a cross laying down. Eliaser's cross small statue of the Virgin de Guad and Juan Diego; and all of them have a fairly large pile of visitation pebbles. White concrete cross w/ red flowers Small nicho w/ white cross White metal cross w/ white metal fence surrounding White concrete cross w/ 2 urns was a X-fix that is broken White concrete cross w/ white WI grill behind & red & white plastic flowers Broken concrete cross @ Sabinas Hidalgo Just outside of the town of Sabinas. A small open nicho for "Sr. Miguel Loza Silva 3-9-1963, 5-1-1990" a white concrete pre-fab nicho with 2 urns inside and another small nicho on top of it. It is just in front of a bridge, which probably had 363 37 85S e 41 85S 41 85S 43 85S 45 85S 85S 47 85S w w w w w 49 85S e 49 49 50 50 50 85S 85S 85S 85S 85S e e e w w e e 51 85S 57 85S NL31 NL32 NL33 NL34 NL35 NL36 NL37 NL38 NL39 NL40 NL41 NL42 something to do with the accident that resulted in his death. Cross 3 crosses and an angel. The first cross is inscribed: Angel Eduardo Arango Ramirez a la edad de diez y siete anos" with the styrofoam remains of a wreath tied onto the front; the second: "Alonzo Serna Garza, 25-10-38, 15-10-1992" and has an urn in front with pink flowers in it; the third is an angel and the base is inscribed "Nino Anabel Morales Cerna 11-12-88, 15-10-92 and has a similar urn and flowers as the previous; the fourth artifact is a cross inscribed: "Astra Alberta Garza de Rodriguez 6-10-32, 15-10-92" and has the Styrofoam remains of a wreath tied to it. All are granito white concrete crosses. 2m tall concrete cross and the horizontal member is inscribed "Blanca Estrella Lozano de G. 7-6-56, 4-6-94" It is on a pedestal that has a wedge at the bottom of the cross that is inscribed "Y en memoria a todos las personas fallacidos D.E.P." and there is a large blue and white wreath above the wedge. Next to it is a small white metal cross inscribed "Oscar Escobar 27 anos, nacio 4 de oct 67, fallacia 4 de junio 94 D.E.P." A few meters away from that is a black metal cross inscribed " 4 VI 94, S.P.P. , Q.E.P.D." 3 deaths and 3 crosses 2 gray metal cross w/ pink & white wreath Shrine, to VdeGuad @ PEMEX station Tan concrete cross built into a road cut 3 crosses, 1m tall Small tablet monument built into a road cut on a vertical cliff White arch-roofed nicho w/ glass door & 2 white metal crosses on either side of the nicho White concrete X-fix w/ 2 urns on either side & wooden X w/ angled ends, reflectors and the word "Monro" behind the cross and side urns are granito, the inscription is "Roberto Cavazos Silva, sep 7, 1994; recuerdo de su esposa y hijos Q.E.P.D." It is a rather large construction of blocks and concrete and has a third urn at the bottom. Sacred Heart of Jesus statue with 2 side urns and an open book inscription: "C.P. Alfonso Alvarado P. 10 may 1960, 18 ene 1991; Recuerdo de su esposa e hijo" on left half, the right half reads "Ponchin. Te fuiste de nuestro lado. Pero nunca de nuestra corazon y viviras en nuestro recuerdo" also; "S.C. y F." with a logo of a running person and the name "Alfonso" are inscribed in a vertical panel next to the open niche that contains a 2/3 empty Corona beer bottle. 6 concrete crucifixes w/urns & gray metal fence between. "Norberto Angel ? 6/71-7/90" "Miguel Angel ? 6/54-7/90" next to a bridge, from left to right: Sr Jose Aguilar Moncayo" "Sr Francisco J. Mendoza Torres" "Sr Ramiro Pena Garcia" Sr Ramrio Pena Trevino" Sr Juan A. Contraras Fernandez" "Sr Heriberto Ramos Sanchez" and the date is inscribed in 85S 59 85S 60 85S e 63 64 66 68 71 72 85S 85S 85S 85S 85S 85S w w e w w e 74 85S 76 85S e 78 85S e 364 NL43 NL44 NL45 NL46 wNL01 NL47 NL48 NL49 NL50 NL51 NL52 NL53 NL54 NL55 NL56 wB23 large letters on the wedge pedestal below "Junio 6 de 1985" and to the right it reads: "SUTERM en Laredo" (maybe a company name) on the left it reads; "Creo Senor que por se hombre tuviste muchos amigos el don de la amistad con que no has favoracido quere plasmado eternamente con quienes aqui si encontraron contigo para ellos nuestro reconociamiento y gratitud por sus afines y desvelos y para ti nuestro agradaciemiento por consedernos su amistad" White concrete cross Shrine attached to a commercial complex. 3x3x3m, white concrete with red tiled gable roof and a 5-stepped facade that culminates in an arch with a cross atop and a bell hung from the apex. Inside: the central figure is a large crucifix, to the left is a St. Francis Assisi statue, and to the right is a Sta. Clara de Asis statue. And the door is padlocked, so you couldn't make a donation here is you wanted to! Small concrete nicho w/white cross atop White concrete cross on the bank by a bridge Intersection of 85S & 40W Granito concrete nicho; 2 crosses & 2 small niches. "Marcelo Jaime Garcia Diaz 10/17/97" "Guadalupe Aguirre Rodriguez 10/17/97". Blue & white tile pedestal nicho w/ statue of Jesus Sacred Heart. 1 black metal & 1 white metal cross beside the statue. White concrete nicho "Chele" White concrete cross White & red nicho, below road level about 20m from road White concrete cross White metal cross 2 white concrete nicho & 1 white metal cross White metal cross Large yellow nicho built into road-cut; arch-roofed & black metal door; 1x 0.5x1.5m NL/CL; end W3, Nuevo Len 79 85S 85 85S w e 90 94 100 122 85S 85S 85S 40W e w n s s n n m m m m n 123 40W 125 127 128 129 131 132 132 134 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 40W 136 40W 365 Table A4.11: Tamaulipas Site # Description wTM21 Matamoros (25.51.14/97.30.31); begin transect B3 TM256 Black metal cross w/heart-shaped center nameplate TM257 2 white concrete, 2 metal crosses TM258 Yellow pipe-cross w/center nameplate TM259 Pipe-cross TM260 White concrete crown-type cross w/wreath TM261 2 white metal crosses, fresh, on same pedestal, center nameplates, no writing & wreaths TM262 Nicho, 2 urns & cross covered by wreath and several wreaths TM263 Brown cross w/ wreath TM264 White metal cross, w/center nameplate, @ Reynosa city limits TM265 Cross covered by wreath TM266 White concrete nicho w/2 urns and cross, wreath TM267 White granito crucifix w/2 urns in front, wreath; Reynosa TM268 White granito crucifix, on pedestal w/2 urns TM269 Shed roofed, white concrete nicho TM270 Granito nicho and a cross next to it TM271 White concrete crucifix TM272 White concrete crucifix, w/ yellow WI fence TM273 2 crosses TM274 Nicho TM275 Nicho TM276 Cross w/ wreath TM277 Nicho with 2 crosses TM278 Nicho, 2 Jesus Sacred Heart statues, 4 urns & a bridge across a gully to access it TM279 White concrete cross w/ WI fence around TM280 Cross TM281 Cross TM282 Blue, concrete, gable-roofed, open-faced nicho, w/cross centered in rear TM283 Cross TM284 Cross w/ wreath TM285 White concrete cross TM286 Cross w/ wreath TM287 White concrete cross, wreath TM288 Cross TM289 Cross TM290 Cross TM291 Cross TM292 Cross TM293 Cross w/ wreath TM294 White concrete arch-roofed nicho TM295 White cross w/ wreath & WI fence, TM296 White concrete cross w/ 2 urns Mile 0 1 6 6 8 11 14 RteDir 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W Asp m N N N S S m m m m N N S S S N N N S N N S S S N S N N S N N N N N S N S N N N S 30 2W 30 2W 54 2W 55 60 60 61 64 64 65 65 67 70 76 80 82 82 83 86 86 87 91 91 94 94 99 100 100 104 105 105 107 108 110 114 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 366 TM297 TM298 TM299 TM300 TM301 TM302 TM303 TM304 TM305 TM306 TM307 TM308 TM309 TM310 TM311 TM312 TM313 TM314 TM315 TM255 TM254 TM253 TM252 TM251 TM250 TM249 TM248 TM247 TM246 wB63 wB39 TM84 TM83 TM82 TM81 TM80 TM79 TM78 TM77 TM76 TM75 TM74 White concrete cross w/ 2 urns White concrete cross w/ 2 urns 2 white concrete crosses, each w/ 2 urns & 3 white concrete cross on same pedestal Cross Cross Cross w/ wreath Cross w/ urns & wreath Nicho Cross Cross w/ wreath Cross 2 crosses on same pedestal Cross w/ wreath Nicho White concrete, arch-roofed shrine; 2m cube, faced west Metal cross White concrete cross White concrete cross Blue arch-roofed nicho w/black metal cross atop rear, .5m sq x 2m tall 2 white granito crucifixes, 10m apart, identical & on tomblike platforms White metal outline-type cross w/pointed tips w/ wreath & a vase of flowers in front Cross, data lost Cross, data lost Cross, data lost 6 crosses; 2 Srs., 2 Sras. and 2ninas. All died aug 10- 99 3 white metal cross w/ pointed tips; identical & on a concrete pedestal White metal cross w/filigrees, scroll & wreath White granito nicho w/ 2 urns in front an angel inside Boundary NL/TM US/Mex border @ Matamoros; begin transect L1 Cross Black metal cross w/ large lavender wreath White wood cross w/ pointed tips White granito cross on pedestal & wreath White granito crown-type cross on concrete pedestal, 1m tall; in front of an older white metal cross White granito cross w/ round tips; on a pedestal White granito crown-type cross White concrete cross, covered by wreath Tan metal cross w/ pointed tips w/ wreath around it; on concrete pedestal White granito nicho w/ crown-cross atop Granito clover-cross 116 116 116 118 119 120 121 123 124 124 125 129 138 138 143 173 175 182 195 197 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2W 2S N S S N S S N S S N N N N S S S S N N w e 198 2S 201 2S 2S 2S 2S 204 2S 204 2S 205 205 207 0 9 9 9 9 10 12 14 28 35 2S 2S 2S 180N 180N 180N 180N 180N 180N 180N 180N 180N 180N e e w w e e w w e e w e e e e w 40 180N 50 180N 367 TM73 TM72 TM71 TM70 TM69 TM68 TM67 TM66 TM65 TM64 TM63 TM62 TM61 TM60 TM59 TM58 TM57 TM56 TM55 TM54 TM53 TM52 TM51 TM50 TM49 TM48 TM47 TM46 TM45 TM44 TM43 TM42 TM41 TM40 TM39 TM38 Weathered nicho and Roman cross White granito clover-cross Granito nicho w/ roman cross atop inside white WI fence Granito crown-type cross White granito crown-type cross White arch-roofed, granito nicho w/ roman cross atop Turquoise metal cross on concrete pedestal; w/ red & white bouquet White metal cross w/ red tips & blue bouquet; in white WI fence White granito cross w/ blue bouquet 2 white granito crosses w/ red bouquets White granito roman-style cross White granito clover-type cross Red metal cross w/ white tips on concrete pedestal; had red bouquet on it White granito cross on pedestal 4 white granito clover-type crosses White granito clover-type cross White granito nicho w/ roman cross atop, enclosed by a fence & faced parallel to road Concrete cross, 2' tall inside a red WI fence Shrine, central figure is 1m tall statue of St Jude, on ether side are 24x36 prints of NSGuad; also 2 crucifixes, StJoseph statue, BVM statue, another crucifix, VdSJdlL print, StJude print, artificial & fresh flowers, many votives & money box and several milagros White concrete, gable-roofed, open-faced nicho w/ 3 wreaths 2 white concrete, 2 black metal crosses Large wood cross on concrete pedestal; 1.5m tall White roman cross w/ 2 urns White metal cross w/ 2 urns & brightly colored flowers, enclosed in white WI fence White granito clover-type cross on pedestal w/ 2 urns White granito crown-type cross on pedestal; 1m tall White granito cross on concrete platform w/ 2 urns Wood cross w/ scroll in concrete White concrete cross w/ red floral bouquet 5 granito clover-type crosses w/ a fence; 3 men & 2 women Shrine, to Virgin de Consolacion 2 white concrete crosses White concrete nicho w/ white metal cross atop enclosed w/ white WI fence;"Sr. Juan ??" Concrete slab w/ a cross design inscribed in it, fenced in w/ chain-link; granito Tan metal cross within chain-link & metal post cage Wedge-shaped monument w/ 1 urn w/ timber posts supporting a corrugated metal roof over the monument. 50 53 57 58 60 61 62 180N 180N 180N 180N 180N 180N 180N e e w e e e w e e e w e e w e w w w e 64 180N 67 69 70 70 91 95 98 100 100 180N 180N 180N 180N 180N 180N 180N 180N 180N 103 180N 106 180N 108 108 109 113 115 115 122 128 146 150 152 154 156 163 180N 180N 180N 180N 180N 180N 180N 180N 180N 180N 180N 180N 180N 180N e e e e e e w e w e w w e e w e 166 180N 167 180N 170 180N 368 TM37 TM36 TM35 TM34 TM33 TM32 TM31 TM30 TM29 TM28 TM27 TM26 TM25 TM24 TM23 TM22 TM21 TM20 TM19 TM18 TM17 TM16 TM15 TM14 TM13 TM12 TM11 TM10 TM09 TM08 TM08 TM07 TM06 TM05 TM04 White granito nicho w/ 2 urns, large clover cross atop; "Jose" White granito nicho on a raised-tomb-type slab, trapezoidalshaped w/ roman cross atop & 2 urns White concrete cross w/ red & green paper flowers; inside silver-colored WI fence 3 white concrete crosses Weathered concrete box- nicho type w/ roman cross atop 1m cubed, white concrete, gable-roofed nicho w/ glass door White concrete cross White concrete, gable-roofed, open-faced nicho, 1m cubed, w/ 2 white crosses atop front White granito crown-cross on concrete pedestal, 1m tall White granito crown-cross w/ scroll; on concrete pedestal White metal cross w/spiked tips & scroll Light blue metal cross w/ filigrees & wreath Concrete block box-nicho w/ white metal cross atop; cross has filigrees & scroll; nicho is 1m tall & cross is 1m tall. Its on a hard curve. Black metal cross w/ spear-point tips & scroll Blue wood cross w/ red wreath White metal cross w/ scroll White granito nicho on a pedestal w/ 2 urns & roman cross centered on rear White granito crown-cross on a small nicho; this is typical of the local style; a 6" tall nicho w/ a 1m tall cross atop. Cross, covered w/ artificial flowers Box-type nicho, 6" tall, w/white metal cross atop; faced parallel to road & cross has reflection tape on it 6 white metal pipe-crosses w/ center scrolls & filigrees; all identical & on separate concrete pedestals White metal cross 2 red metal crosses 2 white metal, 1 white granito cross Light blue metal cross, 1m tall, 10m off road against fence Metal cross on concrete pedestal; pedestal & cross up to the horizontal arms are painted dark blue & upper part of cross is white; total of 1m tall. 2 white metal crosses w/ black scrolls inscribed in white White wood cross /w bouquet; mounted in concrete White wood cross w/ pointed tips & bouquet in center 2 white wood crosses Black metal cross w/ blue ribbon tied to it; on a concrete pedestal; total 1m tall White granito, 6" tall, nicho w/ white crown-type cross atop; cross 1m tall Red wood cross, nailed to utility pole White concrete, gable-roofed, open-faced nicho w/ white concrete cross centered on rear White concrete cross 369 171 180N 179 180N 183 180N 185 192 196 213 213 219 233 242 245 249 253 257 258 258 180N 180N 180N 180N 180N 180N 180N 180N 180N 180N 180N 180N 180N 180N e w w w e e e w e w e w w e w w w e e e e e e e e w w w e e m e e e w 260 180N 261 180N 263 180N 264 180N 267 267 267 268 269 272 272 273 273 278 180N 180N 180N 180N 180N 180N 180N 180N 180N 180N 279 180N 280 180N 284 180N 284 180N TM03 TM02 TM01 wTM01 wB65a TM85 TM86 TM87 TM88 TM89 TM90 TM91 TM92 TM93 TM94 TM95 Rusted metal cross White granito clover-type cross White wood cross Altamira/Tampico; end L1, Tamaulipas Nuevo Laredo (27.29.79/99.30.16); begin transect W3 White metal cross White concrete cross on concrete pedestal. "Rueben Pena Pampa 20 dec 57- 21 nov 98" red silk roses tied to cross White metal outline-type cross White concrete cross on a pedestal Rusted white metal cross Rusted metal cross White concrete crucifix White concrete cross Large St. Jude shrine w/ Tejano landscape scene painted on the front, 8x5x3m with a church-type facade and a yellow spear-point cross centered atop. Below that is the name "Omar Rubio Junior, La mission Colombiana" also the artist signed the exterior artwork "Juan Maria Moran + his phone number" Interior: 3 small white prayer benches and 2 larger single kneelers. On the left is a statue of SJ without the head, a print of NS de SJ in a gilded frame, there is a bit of graffiti on the walls, a hand-beaded print of SJ 2x3', in front of a wood hand-carved crucifix, a 1m tall SJ statue with the head off in the first of 4 front cubicles that have metal barriers around them, the second has another SJ statue the same as the first except intact, the third has a brass SJ statue that is slightly smaller, the fourth has the same statue as the first two plus a Jesus Sacred Heart statue that is broken. In front of these are votive racks with a lot of candles burning, and a basket of fresh flowers. There is a side niche with another SJ statue and a Jesus statue. On the south wall there is handpainted SJ scene, a poster that gives fiesta dates for SJ, an offering box, a holy water font and a Lamb of God. There is a picture of a guy and his truck, picture of a little boy, picture of a little girl, a Pablo Ortega baseball card, 3 more little boy pictures, 3 business cards, notes, a wedding photo, scattered photos around a second side niche but without the wroughtiron barrier. Across the freeway, on the other side is another shrine- looks similar to this one. Broken pillar monument on pedestal w/ open book in front, inscribed "Juan Diego Garcia Valdez 1936-1989; Las semillas que sombraste abase de amor honoradez y trabajo estan rendiento su fruto marvilloso estoy orgullosa de mis hijos gracias a Dios a ti, te recordaremos siempre con carino, tu esposa y hijos" Sacred Heart of Jesus statue flanked by 2 urns and a coat of arms-type pedestal which is inscribed: "Transportes del Norte" below that, at the base of the pedestal "Sr. Lazaro Rivera Zuniga dec 31, 1989, Que nos fuiste para siempre 370 291 291 291 296 0 4 11 13 22 22 22 23 23 180N 180N 180N 180N 85S 85S 85S 85S 85S 85S 85S 85S 85S 85S e w e m e w m m w w e 26 85S w 26 85S TM96 wB22 wTM19 TM97 TM98 TM99 TM100 TM101 TM102 TM103 TM104 TM105 TM106 TM107 TM108 TM109 TM110 TM111 TM112 TM113 TM114 TM115 TM116 TM117 TM118 TM119 TM120 TM121 dejandonos onda arrida pero para nuestros corazones viviras todo la vida un carinoso recuerdo de tus companeros" Unusual cross, about a meter tall with the face of Jesus in the center, there is no inscription. The concrete pad it is on is inscribed "oct 5, 1972" there is a visitation pebble on one of the horizontal members. TM/NL boundary(27.07.63/99.41.49); end W3, Tamaulipas jct. 101N/180N; begin transect W4 Cross, covered w/ wreaths 4 white granito crown-crosses on one pedestal; w/ wreaths White concrete crucifix White metal cross w/ red tips in a white WI fence+N166 2 white granito crown- crosses w/ scrolls & blue metal on blue concrete pedestal White concrete cross White granito crown-type cross w/ 2 urns in front Lime green, hipped roof concrete nicho, 1m cubed White concrete cross w/ 2 urns in front & arch-shaped (pointed on top) tablet behind White concrete, gable-roofed, open-faced nicho w/ cross centered on rear, 2m cubed White granito clover-type cross within white WI fence White concrete, gable-roofed, open-faced nicho w/ red metal door, 2 crosses inside & wreath Cross, covered w/wreaths within WI fence White granito cross White concrete cross w/ wreath White granito cross Wood spindle cross w/ wood scroll on concrete pedestal, very faded but had wreath White concrete cross within WI fence White granito clover-type cross 2 white granito crown-crosses Brick, gable-roofed nicho w/ white granito crown-type cross inside & loads of wreaths, 3x2x2ft White concrete, 6ft cubed, gable-roofed shrine, white WI door. Inside is a marble tablet inscribed;"CP Mateas F. Molina Munoz 2-mar-48/16-apr-88; que corta vida para ensenar la virtuo que como amigo y companero nos marcoste pero que dificile de sigir, Comte Educativo Sindacato Boro Consa Regionale Noresta, esposa y hijos. There is also a plaque inside a marble box w/a crucifix over it. In front of that is a wreath on a wooden spindle cross that used to be on a post. The plaque was like an award, on maple-looking wood with a brass plate on it. 2 white metal & 1 white concrete cross; one metal & the concrete are in a WI fence 2 white wood crosses White granito clover-type cross 85S 29 0 1 3 10 11 15 17 18 18 22 85S 101N 101N 101N 101N 101N 101N 101N 101N 101N 101N e w e w w w w w e w e w e w e e w w e w w w 26 101N 28 101N 28 101N 33 34 35 35 36 36 37 39 42 101N 101N 101N 101N 101N 101N 101N 101N 101N 43 101N 44 101N 44 101N 45 101N e w w 371 TM122 TM123 TM124 TM125 TM126 TM127 TM128 TM129 TM130 TM131 TM132 TM133 TM134 TM135 TM136 TM137 TM138 TM139 TM140 TM141 TM142 TM143 TM144 TM145 TM146 TM147 TM148 TM149 TM150 TM151 TM152 TM153 TM154 TM155 TM156 TM157 TM158 White granito clover-type cross 2 white granito clover-crosses on a pedestal, in WI fence Concrete cross White concrete crucifix 2 white wood cross Black metal cross, covered by wreath Gray wood cross, 2x2, 1ft tall Cross Yellow metal cross w/ 3 crosses on the horizontal arm and the upper vertical arm is crossed; granito clover- cross behind; all enclosed in a WI fence. White metal cross w/ wreath White concrete gable-roofed, open-faced nicho w/ 2 white granito clover-type crosses inside, roof is turquoise, there is an image of NSGuad and DODF, 2m tall & 1m square. This shrine is really good because it shows very explicitly the color symbolism. The tri-color above w/ an image of NSGuad, below that it is blue-white-blue and in that niche is VdSJdLL. Beautiful! 5ft square & 12 ft tall. There are votive candles, but none are burning. Wood spindle-type cross w/ wreath White granito clover-type cross 1 white granito clover-type cross on wedge pedestal and 1 white metal; both w/ wreath White granito cross within WI fence White granito cross w/ 2 urns & wreath White granito cross 3 brown metal crosses w/ wreath White granito cross w/ 2 urns & open-book wedge pedestal Black metal cross within WI fence White granito nicho Black metal cross on wedge pedestal & white concrete cross White granito clover-type cross White granito clover-type cross Shrine to NSGuad, tricolor wall 10'x15' w/ a niche in it White concrete cross Concrete cross w/ wreath 4 white pipe-crosses w/ scrolls Concrete, gable-roofed nicho, white on sides & turquoise in front, 4' square & 5' tall, w/ yellow gate 2 white granito clover-crosses; one w/ wreath 3 white concrete crosses; the middle one is smaller and is inscribed; "Nina??" White granito clover-type cross w/ wreath on pedestal Cross covered by wreath Brown pipe-type cross White concrete cross, 3' tall White granito clover-type cross 45 47 47 47 50 52 58 59 59 101N 101N 101N 101N 101N 101N 101N 101N 101N e w e w e w e w e e w e 60 101N 61 101N 64 101N 64 101N 65 101N 66 101N 66 68 72 72 72 73 73 73 73 75 75 80 80 80 80 101N 101N 101N 101N 101N 101N 101N 101N 101N 101N 101N 101N 101N 101N 101N e w w e w e w e e e e w w e m m m m e m e w e w e 80 101N 82 85N 86 86 86 89 90 85N 85N 85N 85N 85N 372 TM159 TM160 TM161 TM162 TM163 TM164 TM165 TM166 TM167 TM168 TM169 TM170 TM171 TM172 TM173 TM174 TM175 TM176 TM177 TM178 TM179 TM180 TM181 TM182 TM183 TM184 TM185 TM186 Tan concrete, flat-roofed, 2m square, concrete shrine to St Jude, with a 3-step facade & cross, plastic flowers everywhere. 3ft tall statue of St Jude. 2 black metal crosses w/ white scroll & sun-burst; another covered w/ wreath White granito nicho w/ 2 urns & white metal outline-type cross atop, fresh wreath; on a pedestal 2 white metal crosses w/ filigrees & scrolls 2 concrete crosses 2 white metal crosses Box-type nicho w/ 2 crosses & wreaths 1 white granito clover-type & 1 roman-style cross White concrete cross Turquoise shrine to StJude, 2m deep, 3m wide & tall, gabled roof with clover cross atop. Inscribed Capilla el conductor and has a St. Jude statue inside. Black metal cross w/ scroll White granito clover-type cross White granito clover-cross & wreath in 1m sq WI fence White concrete cross w/ wreath and another cross behind White metal cross w/wreath White concrete cross 3 granito crown- crosses on a pedestal, the middle one was smaller. In front are 2 urns w/ fresh flowers 3 granito clover-crosses & 1 granito roman-style White granito clover-type cross on turquoise concrete pedestal, edges of cross were painted turquoise, wreath 2 white granito crosses, both w/ rosary beads hanging from upright arm, wreath, and had pointed tips White granito clover-cross on a beige concrete nicho/pedestal w/ wreath Tan & reddish brown concrete, arch-roofed, open-faced nicho w/ white concrete cross centered atop; central image is VdSJ White concrete cross, 4' tall White concrete cross w/ wreath White & purple concrete shrine to NSGuad. A sign in front says; "virgincita de guadalupe en este dia te damos las gracias por permitirnos llegar hasta este lugar para gozar de tu santa presencia y dediste[?] nos accompanias en nuestro viaje con tu bendicion and at the bottom it says tus hijos the shrine is about 3m deep, 5m wide & 4m tall, and the central figure is NSGuad. 40 votive candles [20 burning], several vases of formerly fresh flowers, some potted plants. White granito, broken pillar monument, 3m tall; seems old Concrete, gable-roofed, open faced nicho, 2' cubed. Behind it is a blue metal cross w/ filigrees & scroll; 3' tall Black metal cross w/ filigrees, scroll & red wreath; just before a narrow bridge 93 85N 85N 96 85N 98 98 98 98 99 99 99 99 100 101 101 101 102 103 85N 85N 85N 85N 85N 85N 85N 85N 85N 85N 85N 85N 85N 85N e w w e e e w w e w e e w e w e e e w e w w e e e 105 85N 85N 108 85N 109 85N 109 85N 109 85N 110 85N 85N 113 85N 114 85N 115 85N e e e 373 TM187 TM188 TM189 TM190 TM191 TM192 TM193 TM194 TM195 TM196 TM197 TM198 TM199 TM200 TM201 TM202 TM203 TM204 TM205 TM206 TM207 TM208 TM209 TM210 TM211 TM212 TM213 TM214 TM215 TM216 TM217 TM218 TM219 TM220 TM221 TM222 TM223 TM224 TM225 TM226 TM227 TM228 White concrete, gable-roofed, open-faced nicho, no cross, has rusted metal door; 2' square x 3' tall White granito crown-type cross White granito nicho w/ 2urns & cross atop 3 crosses and an open nicho, gabled roof w/ 4 posts; 3' tall x 2' square. 2 of the crosses were granito clover-types Forest green concrete, gable-roofed, open-faced nicho w/ wreath atop & NSGuad inside; 15m off road Light blue wood cross White metal outline-type cross w/ wreath Faded blue wood cross; 1m tall Blue metal cross w/ wreath & 1 white pipe-type w/ wreath 4 white concrete crosses; 2' tall Blue pipe-type cross w/ wreath White granito clover-type cross; in disrepair White granito cross White metal cross w/ filigrees & scroll and 1 white wood w/ pointed tips (mitered from both edges) Light blue metal cross w/ filigrees & wreath Black metal cross Concrete, gable-roofed, open-faced nicho; 2' tall. Behind it a concrete cross; 1m tall White concrete cross White granito clover-type cross w/ wreath White concrete cross; 2' tall Dark blue concrete cross; 2' tall White granito crown-type cross White pipe-type cross w/ scroll; fallen over White metal cross w/ wreath White granito cross w/ urn in front, wreath & wreath White granito clover-type cross on concrete pedestal White granito clover-type cross w/ wreath 2 concrete crosses w/ face of Jesus in the crux White granito nicho w/ 2 urns & crucifix, 1m tall; and another cross in front of it White metal cross w/ wreath Pink tile, gable-roofed nicho w/ wings White granito cross 3 crosses on a tree w/ fresh wreaths Blue metal cross w/ filigrees & scroll White granito cross Granito clover-type cross w/ 2 urns wreath 2 concrete crosses on same pedestal & w/wreath Cross, covered by wreath 2 white granito crown-crosses White metal cross, wreath White granito clover-type cross w/ wreath Black metal cross w/scroll & wreath 118 85N 119 85N 125 85N 125 85N 127 85N 129 129 131 133 134 135 135 136 136 85N 85N 85N 85N 85N 85N 85N 85N 85N w e w w e w e e e w e e e e w e e e e w e e w w e e w w w e w e e w w w w w w e w 137 85N 137 85N 139 85N 140 140 141 142 143 145 145 147 147 148 148 149 149 150 153 153 153 153 156 156 157 157 157 157 157 85N 85N 85N 85N 85N 85N 85N 85N 85N 85N 85N 85N 85N 85N 85N 85N 85N 85N 85N 85N 85N 85N 85N 85N 85N 374 TM229 TM230 TM231 TM232 TM233 TM234 TM235 TM236 TM237 TM238 TM239 TM240 TM241 TM242 TM243 TM244 TM245 wB62 Black metal cross w/ diamond-shaped filigrees & scroll 2 black metal crosses w/ filigrees & scrolls; mounted oneabove the other Red metal cross on red concrete pedestal White pipe-type cross w/ scroll White metal cross w/ scroll White granito clover-cross & 1 white metal outline-cross White granito nicho, built into base of large cross Concrete box-type nicho w/homemade concrete cross atop, 10m off road facing parallel Brick, gable-roofed, open-faced nicho w/ black metal cross atop, 1m tall White granito nicho w/ cross atop; fresh wreath Concrete cross, fallen over 3 white granito nichos w/ little box nichos in front; all on one pedestal White granito clover-type cross w/ fresh wreath Blue wood cross (3x3 lumber) wreath Wood cross behind a granito nicho and 1 urn Tan, gable-roofed nicho/shrine, open in front & back, 2x3x6ft, cross inside; Francisco J. Luna Tomares, 25 jan 668 april 93, there is a double inscription plate below: Paco, vive en nuestro corozon, tus padres y hermanos y familiares below that; Tu recuerdo nos acompanada por siempre, camino verdad de vida el que mi siga no morira, tu hermana Lorena Lopez C. y familia on the south wall is a V of SJDLL 12 tile image. Next to that is a concrete cross with DODO; Carlos Fermin Galvan, 8-4-93 Concrete, homemade cross; 1m tall TM/SL boundary; end W4, Tamaulipas 159 85N 160 85N 160 160 160 160 162 164 85N 85N 85N 85N 85N 85N w w e w e e e e w w e w e w e w 165 85N 165 85N 166 85N 167 85N 177 179 181 182 85N 85N 85N 85N 182 85N 188 85N w 375 Table A4.12: San Luis Potosi Site # Description wB5 ZT/SLP boundary; begin L2 SL01 White concrete or white stucco nicho SL02 Small black metal nicho with tree limb cross SL03 Brown wood cross on rock & concrete pedestal SL04 White metal cross SL05 Blue metal cross SL06 3 marble crosses on pedestal w/ black WI fence, 6 wreaths SL07 White metal cross on concrete pedestal SL08 White concrete cross on 3 tiered pedestal SL09 Black pipe cross, & white concrete cross w/ 3-tiered pedestal & pebbles left on ledges SL10 White metal cross on 2 tiered pedestal; lots of pebbles SL11 Blue, .25x1x.25m, double nicho w/ centered black metal cross inscribed "FGM" and white metal cross to one side inscribed "EGP". A dozen or so pebbles lying on the nicho. SL12 Black metal cross w/ marble heart; lots of pebbles SL13 White metal cross on 2 tiered pedestal SL14 See text. SL15 2 black metal crosses w/ "A" logo between them SL16 Black metal cross on stone & mortar pedestal SL17 See text. SL18 2 black wood crosses; on dangerous curve SL19 White metal cross SL20 White metal cross w/ a branch attached to it SL21 2 black metal crosses on concrete pedestal SL22 White metal cross on 2 tiered pedestal SL23 Black metal nicho w/ 3 white crosses SL24 White wood cross SL25 White metal cross SL26 Black metal cross SL27 Black metal cross SL28 Blue pyramid nicho w/ cross wB6 1st border ZT/SLP; break L2 wB7 2nd border ZT/SLP; resume L2 SL29 White metal cross on beige stucco niche SL30 3 black metal crosses SL31 Black metal cross SL32 2x1x0.5m open book w/ cross SL33 1 black metal, 1 brown concrete, 1 white concrete cross SL34 Black metal cross on pedestal of rocks & mortar SL35 Black metal cross on 2 tiered brick pedestal SL36 Nicho, 0.25x0.25x0.5m on dangerous curve SL37 White metal cross SL38 Brown metal cross SL39 Small open white nicho w/ blue cross SL40 White metal cross Mile 0 0 2 6 6 6 8 9 9 9 RteDir 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S Asp e e w w w e w w w e w w w w w w w w w w e w w w w w w e 11 49S 13 49S 13 13 13 16 16 16 18 18 19 19 20 20 20 20 20 22 23 24 0 1 2 2 2 3 4 6 8 11 11 14 14 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S w e e w w w e e e e w w 376 SL41 SL42 SL43 SL44 SL45 SL46 SL47 SL48 SL49 SL50 SL51 SL52 SL53 SL54 SL55 SL56 SL57 SL58 SL59 SL60 SL61 SL62 SL63 SL64 SL65 SL66 SL67 SL68 SL69 SL70 SL71 SL72 SL73 SL74 SL75 SL76 SL77 SL78 SL79 SL80 SL81 SL82 SL83 SL84 SL85 SL86 White concrete cross w/ cross broken off pedestal Blue wood cross Blue, 5 white metal crosses White concrete nicho w/ white concrete cross White concrete cross White concrete cross White concrete cross w/ open niche NSGuad image inside 1 x 1 x 1.5m stone nicho with arch roof, empty. 1 blue metal and 1 white concrete cross, and 1 x 1 x 2 triple cross on concrete nicho and pedestal; nicho is empty. White metal cross White metal cross White concrete cross Gray metal cross White concrete cross w/ Mobil oil can attached Small concrete tablet w/ crucifix in San Luis Potosi White metal cross White metal cross Gray metal cross White metal cross Black metal cross White concrete cross on 1m pedestal White metal cross White pipe & 1 white concrete cross Blue pipe cross 3 white metal crosses White pipe cross 2 black crosses with wrought iron fence 2 white concrete crosses with small open niche White metal cross 3 white pipe crosses Red metal cross White metal cross Black metal cross White concrete cross with urn on 1m x 2m pedestal White concrete open nicho with 4 pillars and a cross 4 brown metal crosses White metal cross White metal cross on nicho box with a white WI fence 2 white concrete crosses on a concrete pedestal White wood cross White metal, 1 blue metal cross White concrete cross White concrete cross on a pedestal with a 1/4 length gable White concrete cross over open book tablet, & 1 blue metal on open empty nicho White metal outline cross Turquoise concrete open niche with a death cross inside 15 19 20 24 24 24 25 25 26 27 27 28 29 29 30 48 48 48 48 50 50 54 55 56 56 57 57 59 60 60 61 61 61 63 64 64 64 64 64 65 66 66 67 68 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 49S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S e w e w e w w w e w e e e w e w w e w w w m m m w m m w e m m m m w e m m e e m w w w w w w 68 57S 69 57S 377 SL87 SL88 SL89 SL90 SL91 SL92 SL93 SL94 SL95 SL96 SL97 SL98 SL99 SL100 SL101 SL102 SL103 SL104 SL105 SL106 SL107 SL108 SL109 SL110 SL111 SL112 SL113 SL114 SL115 wB8 wB62 SL167 SL166 SL165 SL164 SL163 SL162 wSL15 wSL14 SL161 SL160 SL159 SL158 SL157 Blue 2m tall cross on 2 x 2 x2m on white concrete base with small built-in nicho 3 black metal crosses White metal cross in blue scallop-shaped niche Small wooden cross White metal cross White metal cross Black metal cross 1 black metal, 1 black wood cross White cross White cross 2 white concrete crosses on open niche w/ 4 domed pillars White metal cross 2 white metal, 2 black metal crosses White concrete cross on a pedestal 1m sq. pedestal with a truck on top and 4 urns on the base White metal cross 2m tall crucifix on a 2m square pedestal with 2 side urns Partially destroyed open nicho with 2 concrete crosses White concrete cross on open nicho pedestal 1m tall Broken concrete cross in partially destroyed nicho White metal cross White metal cross Black metal cross 3 black metal crosses 1 black metal, 1 black wood cross 2 silver crosses on 1m square concrete pedestal with an urn 1m concrete cross with a plastic Jesus affixed Red metal cross on brick pedestal White metal cross SL/GT: end L2 SL/TM; begin W4 White concrete cross w/ large concrete cross White pipe-type cross w/ scroll White granito clover-type cross on pedestal, 2' tall White concrete, arch-roofed, open-faced nicho, 12" tall, w/ homemade white concrete cross, 2' tall, centered behind White concrete, gable-roofed, open-faced shrine, 3m tall, central figure StJude. Has a patio of a flat tin roof supported by fence posts. Brown metal cross w/ scroll Jct. 85N/70E at CdValles Cd. Valles; intersection of 85 and 70 Concrete open-faced, gable-roofed nicho w/ blue cross atop Concrete open-faced, gable-roofed, 3x2x2ft nicho 1 nicho and 1 cross Nicho White granito cross in a metal gable-roofed shelter 72 57S 72 73 73 74 75 75 77 78 78 79 79 79 80 81 81 81 81 82 83 83 83 83 83 84 84 87 88 89 92 0 22 23 24 29 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 85N 85N 85N 85N 85N w m w m w m w w w e m m m w m m m w w w m w w m m w w w m e w w w e e 29 85N 30 31 0 1 1 2 2 2 85N 85N 85N 85N 85N 85N 85N 85N w e e w w 378 SL156 SL155 SL154 SL153 SL152 SL151 SL150 SL149 SL148 SL147 SL146 SL145 SL144 SL143 SL141 SL142 SL140 SL139 SL138 SL137 SL136 SL135 SL134 SL133 SL131 SL132 SL130 SL129 SL128 SL127 SL126 White granito nicho w/ large clover cross atop rear, 2 urns & fresh flowers White concrete clover-cross w/ 2 urns & fresh flowers White concrete nicho w/ cross atop, 2 urns & fresh flowers White granito crown-type cross w/ 2 urns, fresh flowers Large (2.5m tall) granito nicho White metal cross; "Salvador Saldana Garcia, 27-01-72, 27-07-97" 2 concrete crosses w/ fresh wreath White concrete nicho, 6x18x18", w/ white concrete cross atop flat roof & fresh flowers Black wood lumber clover cross w/ wreath & white painted inscription Concrete cross w/ pointed tips on concrete pedestal Under shelter; handmade turquoise wood cross, and a concrete cross inscribed; "Fallacio el 22-10-91 Nicanor Andreas Hndez." and there is a votive candle & fresh DODO: both under a tin roof. The wood cross has the same info plus the age of 10 years. Concrete nicho w/ cross atop rear of arched roof; 1m tall White granito fletched-type cross w/ flowers White granito clover cross White concrete nicho w/ cross atop rear Unpainted wood lumber cross 2 white granito crosses w/rounded arrows tips & wreath White granito cross w/ rounded arrow tips White granito fletched-type cross w/ wreath White concrete cross w/ arrow-tips (fletched?) White concrete roman-style cross White granito clover-type cross on concrete pedestal; about 5ft tall White granito clover-type cross w/ fresh flowers White granito clover-type cross Large (1.5m cubed) concrete gabled NICHO Concrete, 3x2x2m shrine, open on 3 sides w/ posts in front Small (6" tall) gable-roofed nicho w/ large (3' tall) clover cross centered in rear Stone shrine to NSGuad w/ green & red streamers outside, frsh flowers; 2m deep x 1m wide x 3m tall. "Antorcha Guadalupana" in metal work above the door. Lots of both fresh and planted flowers inside & 2 white cast-iron double park-type benches outside. 2 identical granito, gable-roofed, open-faced nichos w/ clover crosses behind; nichos are 6-8 inches tall, crosses are about 4 ft tall. Small granito nicho w/ a crown cross Inscribed; "Guillermo Gonzales V. 15 agosto 1988, sus hijos y familia"; mounted on a bridge abutment. Concrete, open-faced nicho w/ cross atop gabled roof, fresh 3 85N 5 6 7 8 8 85N 85N 85N 85N 85N w e e e w e e e e e n 8 85N 14 85N 15 85N 15 85N 19 85N 20 22 27 28 28 29 29 31 33 33 33 34 34 37 37 38 85N 85N 85N 85N 85N 85N 85N 85N 85N 85N 85N 85N 85N 85N 85N 85N w e e e e e e w w w w e w w w w w 38 85N 41 85N 43 120E 43 120E w s n 379 SL125 SL124 SL123 SL122 SL121 SL120 SL119 SL118 SL117 SL116 wB54 flowers inside Concrete flat roofed nicho w/ concrete cross inside; built into a road-cut White concrete, 1m cubed, nicho w/ slightly arched roof w/ wings White concrete, open-faced nicho, 3ft square x 4ft tall, with gable roof 3 nichos and 3 crosses. The furthest west nicho is yellow concrete nicho w/ broken NSGuad statue, 2 plain roman crosses leaning up against the front, one with the initials; R.M.M. 11 sept 1986 the other A.V.V. 11 sept 1986. Inside is a heart-shaped wreath and has an 8x10 image of a sleeping baby and a cross & crown of thorns on the vertical arm, implying that one of these persons was a child. Between the 2 crosses lies another wreath and a print of St. Francis of Assisi helping Christ down from the cross with 2 angels in the background. To the side is a granito crown cross inscribed; Sr. Rufino Morales, 11 sept 1986 Next to that is a concrete double nicho containing 3 spindle-type crosses, one in each niche and one in the middle. They are all hand-carved with names & dates, but are no longer legible. In the middle is a blue concrete cross with a small crucifix at the junction; Ave Maria Purissima The third nicho is a metal box-type w/ a wooden spindlecross inside & a wreath and wilted marigolds, a very nice stylized center scroll which is no longer legible. Behind this nicho is a blue wooden cross that is also illegible. Black metal cross w/ wreath; there are cement bags laying about the area, quite possibly a very recent recuerdo "Cristobal E. Vasquez Gutierrez, 4 oct 1969, 20enero 1993" on a large granito clover cross inside of a white concrete, gable-roofed open nicho with corner pillars supporting the roof; 1.5m tall. Outside of the police station in Ahuacatlan; an open shrine to NSGuad. It is white & blue concrete w/ cross atop flat roof, has flowers on the 4 pillars which support the roof and covers a 5 tall statue of NSGuad. There is a plaque which reads: Recuerdo de ano jubilar mariano monumento construido con per. ecles. Y sed. exmo. Sr. Obispo Juvancio Gonzales parroccio de esta lugar federigo shmit y legion de maria, Ahuacatlan de J., SLP, 31-7-88 There are 6 wilted bouquets beneath the plaque. Concrete box-type nicho w/ cross centered on rear Turquoise concrete cross on large concrete pedestal (1m square x 0.5m tall) Concrete 2-tiered box-type nicho w/ cross w/ wreath atop QT/SL; end W4 44 120E 44 120E 46 120E 48 120E n s s s 53 120E 58 120E s s 60 120E s 60 120E 61 120E 64 120E 66 120E n n n 380 APPENDIX B CENTRAL MEXICO DATA TABLES 381 Table B7.1: Jalisco Site # Description wB29 NT/JL boundary; transect L3 JL31 White concrete cross attached to a fence JL32 2 white concrete nichos JL33 White metal outline-type cross w/ filigrees on a brick pedestal built into a brick wall at roadside overlook JL34 Pink concrete, box- nicho facing the sea at 45 degree angle to road JL35 2 white concrete crosses JL36 Natural concrete nicho, 18" cubed, gable-roofed w/ ridge flattened w/ black metal cross w/ red flowers on it centered in the rear. JL37 White concrete Maltese style cross on pedestal JL38 White concrete, arch-roofed, open-faced nicho w/ white concrete cross atop JL39 3 white concrete crosses w/ 2 urns on the outside of them; all on a single pedestal JL40 White concrete cross JL41 Complex of three nichos and four crosses. Cross: "Jesus Salas Rodriguez, murio aug 1, 1982; recuerdo de sus familiares, companeros" Next cross: name unclear but the date is the same. Third cross:"?? Gonzales". Fourth cross:" Hector del ? Valdez, aug 1, 1982" JL42 White concrete cross "J. Alfredo Davilas" on a brick pedestal that is moldy JL43 Small white concrete cross "Ezequiel Lopez" JL44 White concrete clover-cross; next to a bridge on the outskirts of El Tuito JL45 White concrete cross w/ 2 urns, many visitation pebbles "Manuel"; had black WI fence around it JL46 3 concrete crown-type crosses on a pedestal JL47 4 white concrete crosses JL48 2 white concrete crown-type crosses JL49 Rusted metal cross JL50 White concrete cross JL51 Black metal outline-type cross, inter-arm filigrees, center name plate, on pedestal JL52 Large sea shell shaped nicho w/ black WI gate "Juan ?" 1m sq at base & 2m tall JL53 White concrete cross JL54 White A-frame nicho, 1' tall, w/ white concrete cross behind that is 3' tall JL55 White concrete cross w/ 2 urns on blue tile base JL56 Rusted metal cross with oval-shaped arms JL57 White concrete cross "Jose" JL58 White concrete cross "Jesus Hernandez" JL59 Red metal cross "Jose ?" JL60 3 white concrete crosses 382 Mile 0 3 10 11 RteDir 200S 200S 200S 200S Asp w e w 11 200S 13 200S 17 200S 20 200S 22 200S 29 200S 32 200S 34 200S w e w w e w e 34 200S 34 200S 35 200S 36 200S 38 42 45 49 49 51 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S e w e e w e e w w w e w w w e w w e e 59 200S 60 200S 60 200S 61 61 63 67 67 68 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S JL61 JL62 JL63 JL64 JL65 JL66 JL67 JL68 JL69 JL70 JL71 JL72 JL73 JL74 JL75 JL76 JL77 JL78 JL79 JL80 JL81 JL82 JL83 JL84 JL85 JL86 JL87 JL88 JL89 JL90 JL91 JL92 JL93 JL94 JL95 JL96 wB30 wB50 JL97 White concrete cross, partially buried in an earth slump White concrete nicho w/cross White concrete nicho w/cross Wood cross Natural concrete, gable-roofed nicho w/ wood cross behind it. No dimension larger than 1m Blue wood cross White concrete, home-made cross 2 white concrete, home-made crosses White metal outline-type cross on white concrete pedestal Small concrete, gable-roofed, open-faced nicho w/ 1m metal cross behind it & directly in front of it another small wood cross. Concrete arch-roofed nicho w/ white cross atop & visitation pebbles atop the nicho & on cross arms White granito cross White concrete gable-roofed, open-faced nicho w/ white cross centered in rear White concrete cross Cross covered by disintegrated wreath Natural wood cross, 1m tall Concrete flat-roofed nicho w/ 1m tall black wooden cross behind & red & white wreath on the cross Black metal outline-type cross on pedestal Natural wood cross, 1m tall Yellow tile cross, 1m tall, on concrete pedestal White wood cross, set in concrete White concrete cross Small brick, flat-roofed & concrete nicho w/ concrete & blue tile cross centered in rear 2 concrete box-type nichos w/ crosses centered in rear 2 concrete nichos w/crosses White granito nicho w/ roman style cross centered in rear White concrete cross on pedestal, 1m+ Nicho w/cross; 1.5m tall Natural wood cross, 0.5m tall on concrete base White metal cross on large pedestal, cross hard to see because of floral wreath White concrete roman style cross on a pedestal Concrete nicho w/ cross in rear & covered with flowers White wood cross on pedestal White wood cross on pedestal 3m tall white metal outline-type cross on concrete pedestal Concrete cross (natural) on pedestal Boundary Jalisco/Colima; end L3, Jalisco Boundary ZT/JL; transect W3a Pink shrine with white columns on each corner, has a blue tiled facade with a concrete crucifix atop; and is just inside a 383 75 81 81 83 85 85 89 92 92 94 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S e w w e e w w e w w e e e w w w w e w w w w e w w w e w e w e e w e 106 200S 108 200S 117 200S 118 118 122 128 130 131 132 135 135 135 138 138 139 140 140 141 142 142 145 145 145 145 145 147 0 0 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 54W 54W s JL98 JL99 JL100 JL101 JL102 JL103 JL104 JL105 JL106 JL107 JL108 JL109 JL110 JL111 JL112 JL113 JL114 JL115 JL116 JL117 JL118 JL119 JL120 JL121 JL122 JL123 JL124 JL125 black volcanic rock fence which marks the private property line. The central figure is a 4 foot tall statue of Virgin of Guadalupe. It is very clean, totally tiled on the inside; there is a Mexican flag in one corner, are identical vases and flowers on either side of the statue and a bouquet of yellow roses (artificial) in a homemade holder of rough-cut wood with the bark on it, and 2 votive candles, unlit. There are places to pull over on both sides of the road, and whoever owns the property has arranged the fence in such a way that at the end of the well-worn trail there is a way to step over it. 4 white concrete crosses on a 2-step pedestal White concrete cross White metal cross White metal outline type cross Tan concrete, gable-roofed nicho w/concrete cross center in rear, 1m sq x 2m tall Stone & concrete, box-type nicho w/ white metal cross centered in rear White granito cross on 3-tiered concrete pedestal White metal cross on concrete pedestal Blue & white tile nicho, 1m cubed, w/ blue tiled pedestal & a white tiled beehive nicho w/ white concrete cross, centered in the rear. Arch-roof, concrete nicho w/white metal cross centered on rear faced away from road White metal cross w/scroll & white granito nicho & wedge pedestal & crucifix;"Sr Rosaldo Lopez Mayorale, aug 29, 37/oct 23, 83, DEP, en este lugar quedo tu cuerpo dios guarda tu alma y nosotros tu recuerdo, tus hijos y hermanos" on the sides are 2 urns, visitation pebbles & all are inside a WI fence. White metal nicho w/cross on concrete arch-roof White metal cross; "Freddy" White concrete cross on concrete pedestal Gabled-roof nicho w/2m tall cross White wood cross White metal cross on brick pillar White metal cross on concrete pillar with filigree and scroll Black metal cross w/ wreath Brick nicho w/black cross & visitation pebbles; "ISF" White metal cross w/ wreath; on a bridge White metal cross w/ wreath; on a bridge White metal outline type cross w/ "F" in crux, filigree, wreath White metal cross White metal cross w/black tips 2 white metal crosses w/scrolls 2 white metal crosses w/ wreaths Marble (?) nicho "Aqui fallacio" 384 2 3 5 5 11 54W 54W 54W 54W 54W s s s n s s n s s 14 54W 15 54W 15 54W 16 54W 17 54W 19 54W s 19 20 21 22 25 27 27 27 28 29 29 31 36 37 38 38 39 54W 54W 54W 54W 54W 54W 54W 54W 54W 54W 54W 54W 54W 54W 54W 54W 54W s s s n s s s n n n s n n s s n n JL126 JL127 JL128 JL129 JL130 JL131 JL132 JL133 JL134 JL135 JL136 JL26 JL27 JL28 JL29 JL30 wB27 wB26 JL01 JL02 JL03 JL04 JL05 JL06 JL07 JL08 JL09 JL10 JL11 JL12 JL13 White concrete cross White concrete cross on concrete pedestal Black metal cross w/filigree & scroll White concrete cross 1 silver cross and 1 white concrete cross White metal cross w/scroll Blue nicho White metal cross White metal cross w/scroll Black metal cross w/ wreath Unpainted metal cross w/scroll Black metal outline type cross White concrete roman-type cross Blue tile, gable-roofed nicho 2.5x2x2.5m white concrete shrine, gabled tile roof & black metal locked door. On the outside of the window there is an oracion al nino de los palomitos, inside is a wood & glass cabinet containing a St. Jude statue, above it is an oval wood framed image of NS Guadalupe, to its right is another Virgin with a crown & crowned Christ child and images of people burning & angels lifting them out of the flames. On the other wall is an 8x10 Jesus Sacred Heart print with wood frame. 6 vases full of imitation flowers, large floral wreath, 7 votive candles (2 are lit). Dome-shaped, red-white & green brick nicho w/red WI gate & hand-made image of NSGuad & 6 cans of artificial flowers. It is next to a bar/restaurant, at jct. of the free road & toll road to Tepic. Boundary Jalisco/Nayarit; end W3a, Jalisco Boundary Aguascalietes /Jalisco; transect W3b Small white concrete, open-faced nicho w/ white cross inside. On the free road just south of the toll road and free road split White concrete cross White concrete cross on brick pedestal 3 white concrete clover-type crosses White concrete clover-cross & white concrete roman-cross 2 white concrete crosses on a pedestal White metal outline-type cross White concrete roman-type cross 3 crosses all white concrete 2 white concrete crosses 3 white metal crosses Large brick and concrete shrine to NS Guadalupe. 2m tall statue of same with tri-color backdrop, florescent lighting, silk flower arrangements, 4 milagros. Padlocked & has small niche outside for votive candles White metal cross w/large diamond-shaped name plate. "Maria Magdelena Gallardo nacio 1973 murio 1984" 385 39 39 39 40 40 41 41 41 42 42 43 46 46 50 51 54W 54W 54W 54W 54W 54W 54W 54W 54W 54W 54W 15N 15N 15N 15N s n s s n n s n s s n e e e E 51 15N E 101 15N 0 45S 0 45S 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 6 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S e w w e e w e w e w e W 6 45S w JL14 JL15 wJL02 JL16 JL17 JL18 JL19 JL20 JL21 JL22 JL23 JL24 JL25 wJL15a JL137 JL138 JL139 JL140 JL141 JL142 JL143 JL144 JL145 JL146 JL147 JL148 JL149 JL150 JL151 JL152 JL153 JL154 JL155 JL156 JL157 JL158 JL159 JL160 JL161 JL162 JL163 White metal outline-type cross on concrete pedestal White concrete roman-type crucifix on pedestal Intersection 45S & 80W to San Juan de los Lagos Black metal cross w/ center plate "William" ? White metal outline-cross on concrete pedestal 2m tall bronze-colored cross w/prefabricated arch behind White metal cross on concrete pedestal. "Issac" White concrete nicho w/ white cross atop. "Jamie Guzman M. 6-7-69, 25-6-95, recuerdo de la familia Guzman Marquez" lots of visitation pebbles White metal outline-cross, painted green, white & red, mounted on the top of a fence on the outskirts of San Juan 2 white concrete crosses on pedestals Green metal cross w/center name plate White concrete, open-faced, arch-roofed nicho w/crucifix inside with a stylized Christ figure White concrete, open-faced, arch-roofed nicho and 2 white concrete crosses. At the end of the autopista (80) & at the beginning of Rte.90 @ Zapotlanejo Guadalajara Concrete cross Black metal cross w/large wreath 2 white metal crosses w/filigrees & scrolls White metal cross w/scroll Double white granito nicho White granito nicho w/cross Large white granito cross on pedestal w/brass plate White concrete cross on pedestal Brick nicho w/ 2 white metal crosses Cross w/ wreath 5 crosses w/ wreaths 2 white pipe crosses w/ wreaths White concrete nicho w/ NSGuad plaque White metal cross White concrete cross on brick pedestal Green and white cross w/wreath Shrine White concrete cross on pedestal White concrete cross Blue nicho w/white cross White granito cross White concrete cross White concrete cross on wedge pedestal w/photo of a young male 2 white concrete crosses White metal outline-cross White granito nicho w/cross atop White granito cross 386 7 7 8 9 10 11 16 16 45S 45S 80W 80W 80W 80W 80W 80W w e n s s n n s s w w w 25 80W 25 80W 34 80S 43 80S 96 80S 96 111 111 111 113 113 114 114 115 116 116 116 117 117 118 120 121 123 123 125 127 127 129 130 132 133 137 137 54W 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S w m m m w w m e w w e w e m e e w w w e w m m m m w m JL164 JL165 JL166 JL167 JL168 JL169 JL170 JL171 JL172 JL173 JL174 JL175 JL176 JL177 JL178 JL179 JL180 JL181 JL182 JL183 JL184 JL185 JL186 JL187 JL188 JL189 JL190 JL191 JL192 JL193 JL194 JL195 JL196 JL197 JL198 JL199 JL200 JL201 JL202 wB51 1 white concrete cross and 1 white metal cross 2 white concrete crosses on concrete pedestal White concrete cross and 1 white metal cross White granito nicho w/cross atop White concrete cross w/white WI fence White granito nicho w/cross atop White concrete cross White granito nicho w/cross & 2 urns White granito cross and a nicho White concrete cross 2 white metal crosses White concrete cross: "Jose" mounted in a pile of red volcanic rocks (the rocks dont match anything around here, had to have been brought in from elsewhere) Cross, data lost Cross, data lost White concrete cross White concrete cross White granito, crown-type cross Brown metal cross w/scroll White granito cross on pedestal w/wreath 1 white metal outline cross, 1 white granito cross White concrete cross White granito cross 3m tall gray metal cross on stone & concrete pedestal 5 white metal crosses, one smaller, otherwise all identical White concrete cross in white WI fence 3 white concrete crosses 2 white granito crosses & 2 urns & wreath White concrete cross White granito nicho w/large cross atop White pipe cross w/scroll White concrete cross w/white WI fence White concrete cross 3 white metal crosses White concrete gabled-roof nicho and 2 white metal crosses w/scrolls on either side White concrete cross on pedestal Cross covered by wreath White granito cross White concrete cross on pedestal w/corporate logo Gray metal nicho with cross in front Border JL/CO; end W3b, Jalisco 137 137 138 138 141 141 141 141 142 149 149 150 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S 54S m e m w m m m m m w m m 153 153 154 157 157 162 162 162 164 165 167 167 170 172 176 177 178 178 179 179 185 188 189 190 196 202 m m m m m e m m w e w e w e w e w e e e w w e e w 387 Table B7.2: Michoacn Site # Description wB31 Boundary CO/MC; transect L3 MC01 White metal cross w/ wreath @ jct of road to Coahuayana MC02 White concrete cross w/ wreath MC03 Blue tile nicho, looks like it used to have a cross atop MC04 Black metal cross w/ wreath MC05 White concrete nicho & cross, 1m tall MC06 Brick shrine about 3x2x3m w/ white cross centered in front & plate under: "Virgin Santissima del Rosario de Talpa, Jalisco acompaname en me camino con tu bendicion haste me tapa con los enios defendinos te lo suplico por tu hijo Amado Ruega por nuestros, Amen te increemos" Inside is a brass and glass framed print of the Virgin of Talpa about 18x24"; there are 9 votive candles and some silk flowers. MC07 White concrete cross w/ light blue wreath MC08 Tan metal cross on 1m tall concrete pedestal MC09 Light blue homemade concrete cross MC10 Blue metal cross MC11 5.m tall cross on a 1.5m tall pedestal MC12 White, homemade concrete cross MC13 Pink, concrete A-frame nicho, 1ft. tall w/ pink cross behind MC14 White concrete cross w/ purple & white wreath "Emilio" MC15 A shrine up on a bluff over the Pacific Ocean. White with dark blue & a red gabled roof with a white cross centered in the middle. To the Virgin of Guadalupe, one print is new with a beautiful wood frame. There's a Jesus Sacred Heart with the head missing, and a small print of the virgin and child, about a dozen votive candles and one is burning. Looks like there's a pile of pesos there as well, some dried up flowers. Beautiful spot. MC16 Turquoise nicho, 2ft tall, white cross in rear, about 2m tall MC17 White concrete cross MC18 Blue nicho w/ 4 blue metal crosses atop, 2m tall & 1m sq. MC19 3 blue wood crosses, 1m+ tall MC20 Natural wood cross; 1m+ tall MC21 Silver-colored metal cross on pedestal w/ old white wreath MC22 White wood cross on a pedestal w/ multi-colored wreath MC23 Small metal & glass nicho box w/ NSGuad image & lots of flowers. Under it is an oven liner that is now a votive box and has several candles burning. MC24 Natural wood cross on concrete pedestal MC25 2 sky blue wood crosses on concrete pedestals MC26 White metal cross on concrete pedestal MC27 Next to a restaurant (great seafood!) is a small shrine on a bluff overlooking the ocean. Inside is a print of the Virgin Mary & Christ child, and 2 saints that I do not recognize. Great ocean view! MC28 Natural wood cross made of stakes 388 Mile 0 0 1 2 3 5 6 RteDir 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S Asp w w w e w e 7 9 9 9 9 9 10 11 13 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S e w w e w w w w 17 18 19 28 29 29 61 62 63 72 81 83 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S e w w e e w w w w e w 88 200S w MC29 MC30 MC31 MC32 MC33 MC34 MC35 MC36 MC37 MC38 MC39 MC40 MC41 MC42 MC43 MC44 MC45 MC46 MC47 MC48 MC49 MC50 MC51 MC52 MC53 MC54 MC55 MC56 MC57 MC58 MC59 MC60 MC61 MC62 MC63 MC64 MC65 MC66 MC67 MC68 MC69 wMC05 MC70 MC71 MC72 Built into a road cut on a hard curve; concrete gable-roofed, open-faced nicho w/ white concrete cross, centered in rear. Wood cross on concrete pedestal; 1m tall 1x1x1 shed-roofed shrine to NSGuad Turquoise wood cross White concrete cross; "Moises" Natural wood cross White metal cross; "Joven Eugenio" White concrete cross White concrete cross Natural wood cross Gray metal nicho up on a bank White concrete cross, attached to a bridge Blue metal cross on concrete pedestal w/ red flowers 2 black wood crosses White concrete, Maltese-style cross Blue pipe-type cross w/ wreath Natural homemade concrete cross White concrete cross White concrete cross w/ wreath Turquoise metal cross square tubular type metal 3 white concrete crosses White concrete 1m+ tall cross that is fallen over White concrete cross White concrete cross; "Lorenzo" White wooden 2x4 type cross 1 brown & 1 white wooden cross White concrete cross, urns on sides; cross has fallen over White concrete, Maltese-style cross Concrete, 2.5m tall, roman-style cross on a pedestal White concrete, roman-style cross 2m tall Roman cross laying down, w/urns on either side, enclosed in silver-colored WI fence w/ tin shed roof on posts White concrete cross Blue concrete cross under a shed roof w/ WI fence Black metal cross Light blue metal cross w/ center name plate Black metal cross w/ center name scroll Black metal cross w/ center scroll & inter-arm filigrees White metal cross w/ center name scroll on concrete pad 2 white concrete crosses w/ red WI fence around them Small white metal cross w/ WI fence around it 1 white concrete & 1 white pipe-type cross Lazaro Cardenas Large (1m+) white granito Roman cross, curved; stylized w/ relief Black metal cross w/ center name plate White metal cross w/ pointed tips & square name plate 389 89 200S 92 96 101 103 106 107 107 107 108 108 109 112 116 121 122 123 124 124 124 126 126 127 129 130 131 131 136 136 137 138 140 140 141 141 141 141 142 143 144 144 149 174 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S 200S e w e e w w w e e w w w e w e e e w w w e e e w w w w e e w w e e e e w w w w w w w e 175 200S 176 200S wB32 wB52 MC301 MC300 MC299 MC298 MC297 MC296 MC295 MC294 MC293 MC292 MC291 MC289 MC290 MC288 MC287 MC286 MC285 MC284 MC283 MC282 MC281 MC280 MC279 MC278 MC277 MC276 MC275 MC274 MC273 MC272 MC271 MC270 MC269 MC268 MC267 MC266 MC265 MC264 MC263 MC262 MC261 MC260 MC259 MC/GR; end transect L3, Michoacn Boundary GT/MC; transect W4 White granito cross w/ solid sun-ray around the crux White metal cross w/ center scroll Black metal cross w/ blue wreath Black metal cross on a pedestal Black metal cross w/ roofed center scroll White metal cross w/ blue & white wreath White metal cross w/ blue & white wreath Black metal cross w/ wreath White metal cross w/ roof & wreath White granito clover-type cross w/ wreath 2 crosses one atop the other, both w/ wreath White metal cross Cross, w/ wreath Cross, w/ wreath White metal cross w/ wreath & prickly pear plantings Large unpainted concrete nicho w/ 3 crosses atop, wreaths hanging from each one, 1m square & 2m tall Black metal cross w/ wreath Light blue metal cross w/ white wreath White concrete cross w/ white wreath 2 white metal crosses w/ wreaths White metal cross & large granito wedge monument Light blue metal cross w/ diamond-shaped center scroll 4 black metal crosses covered by wreaths, 2nd pair were 10m east of the 1st pair Cross, covered by large wreath White metal cross w/ red wreath Large white concrete village cross w/ flowers on it Black metal cross w/ roofed diamond-shaped center scroll 3 black metal crosses, 1 covered with red wreath Cross, covered by blue & white wreath 8 crosses, each w/ wreaths, 7 black and 1 white Black metal cross w/ center scroll & filigrees Blue & white metal pole nicho, gable-roofed, 1ft cubed White metal cross w/ black center scroll inscribed in white White metal outline-type cross; covered w/ wreaths White wood gable-roofed nicho White pipe-type cross w/center scroll White metal cross w/wreath; in Morelia urban area Gray pipe-type cross w/ center scroll Black metal cross w/ center scroll; "R.I.P." White metal cross w/ center scroll & filigrees 3 black metal crosses, 2 identical & 3rd slightly White concrete cross w/ blue Christ figure on it, 2m tall w/yellow WI fence 2 black metal cross 390 178 0 3 4 6 6 7 8 9 9 10 12 12 12 12 12 13 14 16 16 17 18 18 18 19 19 19 20 21 21 22 23 24 25 28 32 33 34 35 43 45 45 46 47 200S 120E 120E 120E 120E 120E 120E 51N 51N 51N 126E 126E 126E 126E 126E 126E 126E 126E 126E 126E 126E 126E 126E 126E 126E 126E 126E 126E 126E 126E 126E 126E 126E 126E 126E 126E 126E 126E 126E 14E 14E 14E 14E 14E n s s s s e e e s s n n s n s s s s s n n n n n s s s s s n s n s n n m s s m s n s 49 14E MC258 MC257 MC256 MC255 MC254 MC253 MC252 MC251 MC250 MC249 MC248 MC247 MC246 MC245 MC244 MC243 MC242 MC241 MC240 MC239 MC238 MC237 MC236 MC235 MC234 MC232 MC233 MC231 MC230 MC229 MC228 MC227 MC226 MC225 MC224 MC223 MC222 MC221 MC220 MC219 MC218 MC217 MC216 Black metal cross Red pipe-type cross w/ center scroll w/ fresh wreath White metal cross w/ roofed center scroll White concrete cross Black metal cross w/ blue wreath 2 white concrete crosses (?) both covered with wreaths White granito crown-type cross w/ wreath Black metal cross w/ wreath 3 identical black metal crosses w/ center scrolls & filigrees Black pipe-type cross w/ center scroll & wreath White metal cross; center scroll & filigrees 2 white metal crosses, stacked, w/scrolls, filigrees Cross, w/ wreath White metal cross w/ pointed tips Cross, covered by wreath White concrete cross, fallen over Black metal cross White concrete cross White metal cross White metal outline-type cross Black metal cross w/ center scroll & wreath Cross covered by blue & white wreath White metal cross White concrete cross w/ pointed tips Gray metal cross w/ center scroll Cross White concrete cross Black metal cross White metal cross w/ center scroll, the tops & ends of the horizontal arms have doves on them White metal cross w/ center scroll & wreath Shrine, built into a stone wall, a small niche w/ a print of the Virgin de Salud (of Patzcuaro) 2 white metal crosses about 5m apart, one w/ center scroll White metal cross w/ center scroll & wreath White metal, 2 wood, & 1 white concrete cross Black metal cross w/ center scroll, filigrees & fresh wreath White concrete cross 2 white metal crosses w/ center scrolls Cross covered by large wreath White metal cross w/ filigrees & center scroll Large blue A-frame shrine to NSGuad; 5m x 3m x 4m tall. 2 white metal crosses & 2 black metal crosses. The white crosses are to 2 ninas; a 10 year-old & one almost a year old. The black crosses are for 2 adult males, 50 years old and unknown. All died Aug 2, 1998. White metal cross w/ center scroll Shrine in a village where 14 goes off to Huiramangaro. 391 49 50 51 52 52 53 57 58 58 60 60 61 62 63 63 65 65 65 66 66 66 68 68 69 69 70 70 70 71 14E 14E 14E 14E 14E 14E 14E 14E 14E 14E 14E 14E 14E 14E 14E 14E 14E 14E 14E 14E 14E 14E 14E 14E 14E 14E 14E 14E 14E s s m s m s m s m m s s m m s s s s m m s s s m n m m m s n n s n n n s n n 72 14E 73 14E 74 74 75 76 77 78 81 82 84 84 14E 14E 14E 14E 14E 14E 14E 14E 14E 14E 86 14E 86 14E n n MC215 MC213 MC214 MC212 MC211 MC210 MC209 MC208 MC206 MC207 MC205 MC204 MC203 MC202 MC201 MC200 MC199 MC198 MC197 MC196 MC195 MC194 MC193 MC192 Inside is a Virgin of Guadalupe, glass & metal cabinet about 4 feet tall; to the left of that is a Christ crucified which reads, Senor, perdonalos porque no saben lo que hacen. In front of the Virgin of Guadalupe image is an 8x10 print of same, in front of that is glass encased black Christ crucified; next to that is another Virgin, Virgin del ?tahal; and next to that is a rock-art thing featuring the Virgin of Guadalupe. Then theres an altar table and a mans picture and it reads, Senor Antonio Servin H. nacio 10 junio 1926, murio 8 de enero 1996, aunque tu tefuiste de este mundo siempre tu recuerdo viviera en nuestos corozons, esposo y padre recuerda de tu esposa, hijas, familiars y amigos. Above the door is a hand-carved wooden portal header. This is 21km from Patzcuaro. Concrete A-frame nicho w/ black metal cross in rear White granito cross White granito cross & 2 black metal crosses White metal cross w/ center scroll Gray metal cross w/ scroll & white granito cross w/ vase Gray metal cross w/ filigrees, center scroll 2 black metal crosses w/ diamond-shaped, roofed scrolls; identical & both w/ wreaths Black metal cross w/ scroll, roof over the upright arm & wreath White metal cross w/ wreath White concrete, arch-roofed nicho w/ cross atop, metal & glass door and inside of a WI fence 3 identical white metal crosses, 1 gold-painted cross, and another white metal (unlike the other 3). All 5 have fresh wreaths. Turquoise 1x2 finished wood cross 2m tall concrete cross on a 3-tiered pedestal. The pedestal is 1m cubed. Inside of a wood post & thatched roof shelter. White metal cross w/ center scroll Black metal cross w/ center scroll & wreath Metal & glass, 1m cubed shrine to NSGuad Stylized granito cross w/ nicho box in the base, the cross part had twisted & bent arm; wreath White granito nicho w/ cross atop; and a black metal cross w/ center scroll 6" tall, arch-roofed concrete nicho w/ black metal cross behind it & large wreath White metal cross w/ center scroll & large wreath Open-faced shrine to NSGuad, facing opposite direction Large concrete cross w/ flared tips & 4" thick arms & 1 small blue metal cross; both covered by wreaths Metal nicho w/ green cross atop front with reflectors on it, arched roof & has a very large wreath White metal cross w/ blue wreath 392 86 87 87 87 88 89 91 14E 14E 14E 14E 14E 14E 14E s s n n s n n s s s s s s n s n n n s s s s n s 93 14E 93 14E 93 14E 95 14E 96 14E 96 14E 97 97 97 99 14E 14E 14E 14E 100 14E 101 14E 102 14E 103 14E 103 14E 104 14E 104 14E MC191 MC190 MC189 MC188 MC187 MC186 MC185 MC184 MC183 MC182 MC181 MC180 MC179 MC178 MC177 MC176 MC175 MC174 MC173 MC172 MC171 MC170 MC169 MC168 MC167 MC166 MC165 MC164 4 white metal crosses on a pedestal w/ scrolls & filigrees Nicho roughly made of concrete and a piece of corrugated metal bent into an arched roof over a blue metal cross. Open-faced, unpainted concrete, arch-roofed nicho w/ black metal cross atop rear, 1m cubed; wreath Black metal cross; "Juan" 2 white metal crosses White granito nicho w/ pillars in front, gabled roof Cross, covered by 2 wreaths White metal cross w/ blue & white wreath White metal cross w/ wreath Black metal cross w/ wreath 2 white metal crosses w/ center scrolls, identical w/ black hand-painted inscriptions; one read, "Joven something" White metal cross w/ center scroll & wreath Green metal cross w/ center scroll & wreath White granito nicho, 2ft tall, on pedestal w/ black metal & glass door; inside is a statue of an angel. (child death?) Black metal cross w/ center scroll & wreath Black metal cross w/ scroll & wreath hung on the top arm Metal nicho nailed to a tree Blue metal cross w/ red wreath Homemade concrete cross w/ arms 4" thick, mounted in concrete base & built into a road cut on a hard curve, 2m tall. Shrine, 10m deep, 5m wide & 12m tall w/ a copula atop a flat roof & a large metal cross atop the copula. "1984[?]1984 ano santo de la redencion". Inside is a framed tile image of Christ crucified, NSGuad, Satan, an angel and a child. This site is alongside of the road, near a house. White granito cross Black metal cross w/ red & white DODO Concrete, flat-roofed nicho w/ concrete cross center atop front; inside is a San Judas image Metal nicho, 1ft square & 1ft tall w/ gabled roof, sides have crosses of reflective tape; inside is NSGuad print Black pipe-type cross w/ center scroll & pointed tips Blue metal cross w/ scroll in WI fence w/ WI top covering. 3 nichos: a pole nicho featuring San Ramon along w/ a votive candle. Theres a 2-part shrine; the top part is a nicho that reads: Sanchez across the arch of the nicho & on the base it reads; Recuerdo de familia Solis; there is a very white Virgin Mary, w/ blonde hair, standing on a globe with rays coming out of her hand. On the bottom is a second nicho. In it is a dark Virgin w/ a crown & halo and a baby Christ superimposed on her white veil, she wears a red dress. To the right of that is a 5x7 of NSGuad. The other is an 8x10 & they both have brass frames & there are 4 votive candles lit. Next to the whole complex is a spring. 2 black metal & 1 white granito cross 393 105 14E 105 14E 106 14E 106 106 106 108 109 109 109 111 14E 14E 14E 14E 14E 14E 14E 37E s s n n n n s s s n n n n n s s n s s s 112 37E 112 37E 114 37E 115 115 115 116 116 37E 37E 37E 37E 37E 117 37E 117 37E 118 37E 119 37E 119 37E 120 37E 122 37E 123 37E s n n n n s s 123 37E n MC163 MC162 MC161 MC159 MC160 MC158 MC157 MC156 MC155 MC154 MC153 MC152 MC151 MC150 MC149 MC148 MC147 MC146 MC145 MC144 MC143 MC142 MC141 MC140 MC139 MC138 MC137 MC136 MC134 MC135 MC133 MC131 MC132 MC130 MC129 MC127 MC128 MC126 MC125 MC124 White pipe- cross, 20m off road mounted atop a large rock White granito cross Box nicho w/ wreath Cross, covered w/ wreaths Cross, covered w/ wreaths Yellow finished 2x2 wood cross, fresh wreath Black metal cross; "Jesus Zamorra Allobar, 24 sept 1990"; fresh wreath Open shrine built around tree, Mexican tri-color background, probably to NSGuad 2 black metal crosses; both w/ wreaths 2 black metal crosses, one smaller than the other, larger had a roof over the vertical arm Cross, covered w/ wreath 3 granito crosses; identical & on same concrete footing Black metal cross Nicho White granito cross, partially deteriorated w/ rebar showing White brick nicho w/open front & top w/white granito clover-cross inside, wreath 2 white metal crosses w/ wreaths Large white pipe- cross, 2" diameter & 1m tall, scroll Gray metal cross w/ center scroll Black metal cross w/center scroll & wreath White granito cross Black metal cross w/center scroll & wreath White metal cross w/ center scroll Blue & white shrine to NSGuad Black metal cross w/red & white wreath Brick nicho w/ black metal outline-cross centered atop rear of flat roof, 1.5ft cubed White metal cross w/ filigrees & center scroll White granito nicho w/crosses on either side, 2 urns in front & enclosed in WI fence 2 black metal crosses covered by wreaths White metal cross w/ center scroll, pointed tips, filigrees Blue metal cross covered by wreath White metal outline-type cross w/ wreath White granito cross w/ wreaths Cross, covered w/ wreath Concrete, gable-roofed, open-faced nicho w/ cross, centered atop rear w/ fresh flowers & wreaths; unpainted. Cross; "Joven Oswaldo Garcia Vasquez, recuerdo de su padres" enclosed in WI fence 1m tall & square. 4 black metal crosses, all w/ fresh wreaths Black metal cross w/filigrees, center scroll White granito cross Cross, covered w/ wreaths & another made of sticks 394 124 124 124 125 125 126 126 37E 37E 37E 37E 37E 37E 37E n n n s s s s s n n n s n s s n n n s s s s s n n s s s n s s n s n n s s s s s 127 37E 127 37E 127 37E 129 131 131 131 131 135 136 137 138 138 139 140 140 140 141 142 37E 37E 37E 37E 37E 37E 37E 37E 37E 37E 37E 37E 37E 37E 37E 37E 145 37E 145 37E 150 150 150 151 151 151 151 37E 37E 37E 37E 37E 37E 37E 151 37E 151 155 156 157 37E 37E 37E 37E MC123 MC122 MC121 MC120 MC119 MC118 MC117 MC116 MC115 MC114 MC113 MC112 MC111 MC110 MC109 MC108 MC107 MC106 MC105 MC104 MC103 MC102 MC101 MC100 MC99 MC98 MC97 MC96 MC95 MC94 MC92 MC93 MC91 Black metal cross w/ blue center scroll & filigrees Black metal cross w/ center scroll & filigrees Cross, covered by wreath Gray metal cross w/ center scroll, angled ends & wreath White metal cross w/ center scroll & fresh wreath White metal cross w/ center scroll Cross covered w/ wreaths; about 1m away a 1' cubed, blue flat roofed brick nicho White pipe-type cross w/center scroll Gray metal & rusted metal crosses, both w/center scrolls Black metal cross w/rays, center scroll & 3-step pedestal White granito nicho w/ 5 crosses atop, fresh wreath, enclosed in 1m tall white WI fence White metal cross w/ scroll & red reflector tape on the arms Blue metal cross w/ filigrees & center scroll White metal outline-type cross w/filigrees White metal cross w/ center scroll White metal cross w/ center scroll White granito nicho w/ arched roof, cross centered atop front, large wreath on a wire stand leaning against it Black wood cross w/ arrowhead tips painted blue, 4' tall; made of tree limb-type wood Cross, 8" tall looked like re-bar 1 tree limb cross and 1 white granito cross, both w/ wreaths Black metal outline-type cross w/ center scroll White metal cross w/ filigrees & scroll; a male name Faded wood, lumber, cross 2 white metal (identical) crosses w/ filigrees around diamond-shaped center plate; "Sub-delagada de Prosipias Ing. Laura A. Bolgar Garcia, 6-8-98" and "Inspector de Procipia Ing. Luis Manuel Rubio Lepe, 6-8-98". White metal cross w/ center scroll Black metal outline- cross w/ filigrees & center scroll White granito nicho w/ gabled roof & 2 crosses atop the roof at the same slope as the roof Brown metal cross w/ fresh wreath, enclosed in light blue WI fence White granito cross Light blue pipe-type cross w/ center scroll Nicho inscribed: Capilla Trailros Mafuco. Inside are 3 crosses one of them says Viga, Alnulfo Ramirez M. 12-797 there is another blue wooden cross and a white wooden cross. There is crucifix, made of 2x4s, the Christ figure is of welded metal. In the left-hand corner is a San Judas and it says in the welding work; Memoria Arnulfo Ramirez Wood cross with the same person's name as MC92 Small shrine hollowed out of a tree root. There is a San Judas and 2 Christ crucified prints, and 3 votive candles burning. This is unique and looks as though it has been here for a long 395 157 157 158 158 158 159 163 163 167 176 179 179 179 180 183 186 189 37E 37E 37E 37E 37E 37E 37E 37E 37E 37E 37E 37E 37E 37E 37E 37E 37E s s n s n s n s s s s n n s s s s s s s s s s s 189 37E 190 192 193 195 201 206 37E 37E 37E 37E 37E 37E 206 37E 207 37E 208 37E 210 37E 210 37E 212 37E 212 37E n s s s s s s 212 37E 215 37E s n MC90 MC89 MC88 MC87 MC86 MC85 MC84 MC83 MC82 MC81 time. There is candle wax built up in the soil beneath the little shrine, indicating some longevity. This is the first artifact that involved no construction. Black pipe-type cross w/ scroll & fresh wreath Rusted metal cross w/ center scroll 4 crosses; white (rusted) metal w/ scroll: Sr. Victor Manuel Sanchez Z., nacio 23 dic. 1958 muere 11 de abril 1988; granito crucifix on pedestal: Victor Manuel Sanchez same date Recuerdo de sus companeros y amigos de ATG grupo Busel; black metal w/ scroll & roof: Manuel Aguillon Salazar, 19-8-90, white metal w/ scroll, roof, logo of Comission Nacional de Emergencia: Jose Marin Salazar, 12-8-90 White metal cross w/ fresh wreath White granito cross; "Sra. Consuela Rangel a la edad de 53 anos" w/ 2 urns, wreath, & enclosed in 1m tall WI fence. White metal cross w/ center scroll & pointed tips Nicho 1; about 1m deep, m wide, 1.5m tall with gabled roof and a metal cross, centered in the front. It has 3 stepracks with votive candleholders, a 8x10 print of NSGuad is centered on the rear inside wall, Im not sure of who the other image is, looks a bit like the Virgin of Juquila. Shes a standing virgin with a gold crown, holding a Christ child with a gold flat hat, she has red robe and golden aura around her head. In between the two is what used to be a nicho; it has candle wax running down from it and burnt marks on the rock. So this was probably the original sacred site, built into the rock; Im guessing that the one on the left, or the western-most nicho [described above] is a replacement for the central one. Nicho 2; An open prefabricated nicho with 3 crosses built into it and three urns; it is inscribed: Isadoro Padilla Diaz, Luis Abarca Villaneuva, Juan Carlos Arced Naranjos; junio 7, 1989, recuerdo de sus familiars y companeros de Autotransportes Galiana The central cross is a crucifix and there is a decal on it that reads: El Senor de los Milagros sedenera in San Juan Nuevo, Michoacan and the 2 other crosses have little stickers on them that show the Angel de la Guardia, and then on the left one that shows the pope and a crucifix and some sort of a church, it reads: Santuario del Senor Crucifactado, Mexico. Black pipe-type cross w/ scroll Black metal cross w/ WI fence around it, fresh wreath & flowers, both fresh & paper; death date 1997 In the village of El Paguazal is a purple shrine to the Virgin of Guadalupe. This is in a pullover, there is a restaurant next to it. The arch is of pieces of bent wood and there are concrete steps up to it; the shrine itself is about 4m deep, 2m across, made of concrete with a gabled roof about 1.5m tall. Inside it is glass & wood cabinet with a 4.5 tall, very nice, 396 215 37E 218 37E 224 37E n s n 230 37E 231 37E 237 37E 239 37E n n s n 239 37E 243 37E 249 37E n s s MC80 MC79 MC78 MC77 MC76 MC75 MC74 MC73 wMC07 statue of the Virgin of Guadalupe; it has Xmas lights around it, a small crucifix at the bottom, another in a corner, an 8x10 print of NSGuad and a votive candle with a Xmas light in it. Outside of the cabinet, there is Xmas tinsel and lights and bouquets of roses on either side. Granito nicho inscribed; "Sr. Jose Maria Castillo Pestajos[?] Padrisco" has center steeple, 3-tiered w/ cross atop, 2 urns atop flat roof. Visitation pebbles on every level including the cross arms. Died sept 19, 1997. Inside is a small bust of Jesus Sacred Heart, door is locked. A banner that reads: El Senor mi Dios juzgara el mundo con justica y a los pueblos con rectitude Beside the nicho there are 2 wooden crosses and a wreath; no inscription on either. 1 white granito cross & 1 black metal cross White granito cross White granito cross, 2m tall, w/ blue stripes across the arms & blue/white wreath White granito cross w/4" thick arms, 18" tall on pedestal; hand inscribed in red & blue: "Charo M1" there is a symbol that looks like the postal logo; "Pablo Penalosa Basurto, fallacio el 28 de marzo 1999, alcones de la costa" has fresh wreaths. Light blue concrete shrine; in wrought iron over the faade of the flat roofed patio portion; Bendice me Virgincita The main portion is darker blue w/ steeple, red gable roof w/ metal cross centered in the front. There are about 50 candles burning. Inside the locked wrought iron grating is an unpainted, white plaster wall plaque of the Virgin of Guadalupe, 3 ft tall, and silk and paper floral bouquets. Painted on the side in red is respeta el lugar There are 2 wooden benches and a large parking area. White granito cross W/ red wreath on top like a crown Cross, covered w/ wreath; attached to a bridge End W4 at jct. 37E/200S, La Mira 250 37E s 250 37E 251 37E 256 37E 263 37E s n s s 266 37E s 268 37E 269 37E 270 37E s s 397 Table B7.3: Aguascalientes Site # Description WB25 AG/ZT boundary AG01 White granito cross with black WI fence around it AG02 White metal cross, 1.5m tall; "Recuerdo de tus padres, hermanos y familiares." White concrete cross w/ pebbles "Geraldo Antonio Valesquez Gonzales julio 16, 1969-julio 14, 1991" same name on both crosses AG03 Large granito crucifix on wedge pedestal: "Rogilio Galvan Torres 27-10-40, 25-11-96 recuerdo de su esposa y hijos. El senor lo gui con la luz por el camino de la verda para que se fue a su divina presiencia y que con el comparta el reino de los cielos por toda la eternidad" familia Galvan M. in front are 2 faded turquoise urns. In a 1.5m high WI fence. AG04 A large concrete block with the remains of a white wooden cross on it. Concrete is inscribed: "? J. Feliz dec.3 JFLZ" AG05 Large cross; 1m+ on pedestal enclosed in a white WI fence AG06 White concrete cross on homemade concrete pedestal AG07 Small box-nicho on a pedestal w/ white concrete cross atop AG08 1m cubed white concrete nicho w/aluminum shed roof, w/ white pipe cross atop, auto parts strewn to the side rear AG09 White concrete, open-faced, gable-roofed nicho, w/white cross inside at an intersection AG10 White metal outline-type cross AG11 Black metal cross AG12 Black metal cross w/circular name plate, on a pedestal AG13 White concrete cross AG14 White metal cross w/ white WI fence around it AG15 3-tiered pedestal that used to have a cross atop, w/WI fence AG16 Black metal cross AG17 White concrete cross w/white WI fence around it & 1 small nicho box sitting up on the back of the fence AG18 Large white concrete cross AG19 2 white concrete crosses w/white WI fence around them AG20 2m tall rusted metal cross AG21 2 white metal crosses w/ white WI fence around them AG22 3m tall brass-colored cross (1m cross, 2m pedestal) AG23 White concrete cross w/urns on either side AG24 Off to the side in a cloverleaf overpass, a green, white and red shrine mounted up on the side of the overpass, probably to Virgin of Guadalupe AG25 White concrete nicho, faced the other direction so I couldn't see anything else about it AG26 Black metal cross w/ scroll, just outside Cd. Aguascalientes AG27 Black metal cross w/ center scroll & red artificial flowers AG28 White concrete cross on pedestal AG29 Cross, couldn't see anything but the wreath that covered it AG30 Blue nicho w/white metal cross; black metal cross& concrete crucifix behind 398 Mile 0 1 1 RteDir 45S 45S 45S Asp e 2 45S w 2 45S 4 5 5 5 45S 45S 45S 45S w w w w e e e e e e w w e e e w w w e e e w w w w e 6 45S 7 7 7 8 8 9 9 9 17 19 19 19 21 22 24 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 25 45S 30 31 31 31 32 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S AG31 AG32 AG33 AG34 AG35 AG36 AG37 AG38 AG39 AG40 AG41 AG42 AG43 AG44 AG45 AG46 AG47 AG48 AG49 AG40 AG51 WB26 Large black metal cross w/ blue wreath Silver-colored metal cross w/wreath White metal cross w/diamond-shaped name plate White concrete cross, road has a median now Black pipe-type cross White metal cross Black metal cross Blue metal cross White concrete cross on pedestal, just outside Aguascalientes Black pipe-type cross w/center scroll White concrete cross on pedestal White concrete, open-faced, gable-roofed nicho w/ white concrete cross, centered in the rear. Inside; 18" tall statue of Jesus Sacred Heart. Surrounded by white WI fence. White pipe-type cross Cross, covered with flowers 3m tall white wood cross on concrete pedestal. "Jose Luis Lopez" 2 black metal crosses w/ center scrolls Silver-colored metal outline-type cross, 1.5m tall White metal outline-type cross White concrete cross on pedestal. "Fco." Black pipe-type cross w/ center scroll White metal cross w/ center scroll AG/JL boundary 32 32 32 33 34 35 35 35 45 46 46 47 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S w w w e w m m m w w w e w m w e e e w w w 47 45S 47 45S 49 45S 50 51 51 52 56 56 58 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 45S 399 Table B7.4: Guanajuato Site # Description wB8 Boundary SL/GT; transect L2 GT01 White concrete cross on open brick nicho GT02 White pipe cross GT03 White pipe cross GT04 Black metal cross with black wrought iron fence GT05 Black metal cross GT06 2 white concrete crosses on open niches with a wrought iron fence around them GT07 White concrete cross GT08 2 white concrete open niches; good example of built-in, prefabricated nicho/cross. Left one has Sacred Heart Jesus bust and votive; right one has a votive and a cigarette. GT09 White wood cross GT10 White concrete cross on 2-tiered pedestal GT11 White concrete clover cross on pedestal GT12 Cathedral-like nicho of concrete 1 x 2 x 3m with black wrought iron and glass door. Interior; NS Guadalupe, 2 votives, 2 floral bouquets, and an electric light. GT13 Concrete, 1x2x2.5m, pedestal w/ open book and broken centered crucifix GT14 White concrete clover cross GT15 White concrete cross with white wrought iron fence GT16 Black metal cross GT17 Brown wood cross GT18 2 white concrete crosses with small open niche/pedestal GT19 Black metal cross on concrete pedestal with white concrete niche behind GT20 White metal cross, black metal cross, small brick nicho GT21 2 black metal 'roofed' crosses GT22 2 white metal crosses GT23 Black metal cross on 2-tiered pedestal GT24 White concrete cross in the middle of a pile of rocks GT25 Black metal roof-type cross GT26 White concrete cross with inscribed concrete wedge and wrought iron fence GT27 Black metal cross on concrete pedestal GT28 Black pipe cross GT29 Brown concrete cross GT30 White concrete cross over nicho GT31 Blue NS Guadalupe shrine next to a restaurant GT32 2 black metal crosses w/ hearts in front of a concrete wedge with a black metal cross in back GT33 Black metal cross GT34 Black metal cross GT35 Black metal roof-type cross GT36 White metal cross with wreath Mile 0 2 5 18 20 20 20 RteDir 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S Asp w m m e w w m w m w w w w m w m m e w w m m m w w m m w w w w w m m m m 21 57S 21 57S 21 25 26 27 57S 57S 57S 57S 27 57S 29 31 31 32 34 34 35 43 44 45 45 48 48 49 56 56 56 59 60 61 61 62 64 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 400 GT37 wB9 wB53 GT101 GT100 GT98 GT99 GT97 GT96 GT95 GT94 GT92 GT93 GT91 GT90 GT89 GT88 GT87 GT86 GT85 GT84 GT83 GT82 GT81 wGT12 GT79 GT80 GT78 GT77 GT76 GT75 GT74 GT73 GT72 GT71 GT70 Black metal cross Boundary GT/QT, end L2, Guanajuato Boundary GT/QT, transect W4 Concrete cross on 3-tiered pedestal w/ wreath & white metal cross w/ center scroll White granito clover-type cross Column w/nicho at base & a Sacred Heart statue at the top 2 black metal crosses w/wreaths & 1 white pipe-type w/ center scroll 2 concrete crosses Large nicho w/ cherub atop & 2 urns 2 white metal crosses, one w/ wreaths Blue concrete cross on pedestal w/ 2 urns in front & wreath See text. See text. Light blue concrete cross on brick pedestal; all homemade Small arch-roofed concrete nicho w/ white metal cross & wreath White metal cross w/ wreaths Small wood cross stuck into some rocks w/ large wreath Black metal cross w/ 2 wreaths Black metal cross w/ center scroll & filigrees; "descanso en paz, Margarito Soto, recuerdo de sus nietos" wreath Concrete, 1m cubed pedestal w/ granito nicho, urns, flatroofed w/ statue of St. Francis of Assisi inside; "Humberto Moreno Arreola, 14 dic 87". White pipe-cross, 6" tall White granito nicho w/ 2 urns, cross atop & Jesus Sacred Heart statue inside the nicho; 2m tall White metal cross, blue concrete pedestal, scroll & filigrees Black metal cross w/ center scroll & filigrees Acambaro Black metal cross w/ center scroll 3 concrete, home-made, crosses; partially deteriorated White metal cross Black metal cross w/ wreath Purple shrine to Christ crucified, on both sides is painted "Bendiceme camino padre = Jesus": Inside is a 1 ft tall print carrying the crucifix & fallen to his knees, the gate is locked & several vases a full of fresh flowers. White concrete cross w/ wreath, on concrete pedestal; lots of visitation pebbles 2 white concrete crosses w/ wreaths Pink, 1x1x 2m tall shrine, to NSGuad; gabled roof & door Small shrine, to NSGuad attached to a fence White concrete cross w/ 2 urns & fence 3 white metal crosses w/ center scrolls & filigrees within a 3m square, 1m tall white WI fence w/ wreaths 64 67 0 3 57S 57S 120E 120E m n s s n n s n s s s s n s s n s s n s s s w e e e w 8 120E 9 120E 9 120E 12 14 25 29 29 29 30 32 33 33 37 37 120E 120E 120E 120E 120E 120E 120E 120E 120E 120E 120E 120E 40 120E 42 120E 44 120E 45 46 47 52 52 53 57 57 120E 120E 120E SR?S SR?S SR?S SR?S SR?S 58 SR?S 60 60 62 63 63 SR?S SR?S SR?S SR?S SR?S e w w w 401 GT69 GT68 GT67 GT66 GT65 GT64 GT63 GT62 GT61 GT60 GT59 GT58 GT57 GT56 GT55 GT54 GT52 GT53 GT51 GT50 GT49 GT48 GT47 GT45 GT46 GT44 GT43 GT42 White metal cross on concrete pedestal Cross w/ wreath on 1m cubed concrete pedestal White granito cross w/ 2 urns White concrete cross w/ 2 urns; on concrete pedestal Small niche shrine built into a stone wall, to NSGuad White concrete cross White granito clover-type cross White metal cross nailed onto a tree; wreath White granito cross w/ 2 urns, on a 2m tall brick pedestal White granito cross on concrete pedestal that has been knocked off its base This is the site where the bus & tanker truck collided. A terrible mass of rubble, but only two black crosses. One is Benjamin Cardenas, nacio 26 dic 1977- fallacio 13 dic 1999; recuerdo de Cristal Ponce and the other reads; R.I.P. Leopoldo Morin Acevedo, 26-8-56, 13-12-99 the numbers arent even completely painted in yet and there are wilting fresh flowers on both crosses. Kind of an interesting nongrandiose site considering that 31 people died in that wreck. I guess this gives some kind of indication that what one sees on the highway, in terms of recuerdos, isnt always a direct reflection of what actually occurred. White granito cross w/ 2 urns & wreath Black metal cross White granito crown-type cross White concrete cross Cross w/ wreath Dome-roofed, 2m square shrine, to Virgin of Guadalupe 5 crosses; 1 black metal w/ diamond-shaped scroll & pointed tips w/ blue hand-painted inscription-"Sra. Concepcion", 1 white metal w/ pointed tips & roofed square scroll-"Srta. Carolinia", 1 black metal outline-type w/ roofed diamondshaped scroll & star-shaped fancy work-"Sra.", 1 black pipetype w/ filigrees & scroll, 1 white concrete w/ pointed tips"Rosa". Large granito cross w/small nicho box in the base & 2 urns, 1.5m tall; fresh wreaths 3 large concrete crosses w/ wreaths White granito cross on 3-tiered pedestal; a crown-type w/ a square at the crux. There was a circular attachment in the center that would have been the death info/inscription. Concrete, arch-roofed nicho w/ white metal cross atop rear, front pedestal 0.5m tall, 1m long; nicho approx. 1/4 as large. White granito crown-type cross; 1m tall 2 white metal crosses White granito cross White metal cross White metal cross on concrete pedestal 2 white metal crosses w/ center scroll & filigrees on pedestal 402 66 66 67 67 68 70 70 71 73 75 SR?S SR?S SR?S SR?S SR?S SR?E SR?E SR?E SR?E 51N w e w w w n s s n w w 75 51N 75 78 81 83 86 88 88 51N 51N 51N 51N 51N 51N 51N e e e w e w e 89 51N 91 51N 93 51N 95 51N 95 107 107 108 108 109 51N 120E 120E 120E 120E 120E e w e e s s s s s GT41 GT40 GT39 GT38 wB52 White concrete cross White metal cross Black metal cross on concrete pedestal w/ 2 wreaths White metal cross w/ red wreath Boundary GT/MC; end W4, Guanajuato 109 110 112 114 114 120E 120E 120E 120E 120E s s n s 403 Table B7.5: Quertaro Site # Description wB9 Boundary GT/QT; transect L2 QT01 2 black metal roof-type cross and white metal roof-type cross QT02 2 white metal roof -type crosses QT03 White metal cross with wood roof QT04 White metal cross QT05 White concrete clover-type cross QT06 Black wood cross QT07 Small shrine next to a store QT08 White 1 x 1 x 1m concrete nicho QT09 Black metal cross QT10 White metal cross QT11 Cross, covered with flowers QT12 Green metal cross on 2m tall concrete pedestal; 75m off road on private property QT13 White metal cross on white nicho in interchange median QT14 White concrete cross on pedestal w/ 4 posts & domed roof QT15 White concrete cross with urn QT16 White metal cross QT17 Concrete open arch nicho with a square back, two steps, concrete cross, metal cross, floral wreath and two votives. QT18 .5x.5x.5 square nicho w/a cross on a dome roof. Inside; 7x 14 NSGuad print, 5x7 prints of NS de San Juan & St. Jude. QT19 Black metal cross QT20 At village entrance, 1m tall cross QT21 Black metal cross QT22 2 white marble crosses inside 1 x 1 x 2m nicho with flat roof and black metal gate; concrete QT23 White metal cross QT24 Crucifix on an arch on concrete pedestal QT25 1x1x1m white concrete arch nicho w/ square back, two steps. Interior; marble cross inscribed for one death, 12 x 22cm Sacred Heart Jesus print, three cans of plastic flowers. "Ruben Bamba Osornio, fall. 2-nov.- 1996. rdo de sus papas, hnos, pnos" QT26 Black metal cross with a pile of rocks QT27 White concrete cross on 3 x 2 x 2m concrete pedestal QT28 Black metal cross on 2-tiered gray pedestal QT29 Black metal cross QT30 Black metal, 1 white metal cross QT31 White pipe cross QT32 White pipe cross QT33 2 white rock paintings of crosses QT34 3m tall cross on pedestal at a town entrance QT35 4x9x6m shrine to NSGuad between Amealco & San Idelfonso Tultepec, Queretero w/ 60x120cm print of NSGuad, Juan Diego statue & crucifix, 2 cans of fresh flowers, altar and two Mile 0 2 4 5 27 33 34 36 37 37 39 39 40 42 43 43 44 46 RteDir 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S SR? Asp w w w m m m w m m w m w w m m m w e e e w e e e w 46 SR? 47 48 49 51 SR? SR? SR? SR? 53 SR? 54 SR? 55 SR? 55 60 62 62 65 66 66 67 69 73 SR? SR? SR? SR? SR? SR? SR? SR? SR? SR? e w e w n n s n n n 404 QT36 QT37 QT38 QT39 QT40 QT41 QT42 QT43 QT44 wB10 wB54 QT165 QT164 QT163 QT162 QT161 QT160 QT159 QT158 QT157 QT156 QT155 QT154 QT153 QT152 QT151 votive boxes. White metal cross 1 black metal, 1 white metal cross 1.5x1x2m white concrete and blue & white tile flat-roofed nicho w/ centered cross, NSGuad 45cm tall statue & 20x 25cm print, 40x60cm 3D framed image of Juan Diego scenes, 3 flower baskets, 1 votive, & Christmas garland. On a dangerous curve between Amealco and El Lindero White stucco, gable-roofed nicho, 1.5 x 0.5 x 0.5m Black metal cross with flowers White pipe cross 100m into town Concrete, 3m tall cross, off highway White concrete open niche with NSGuad statue 2 x 2 x 4m open arched brick niche QT/MX boundary: end L2, Quertaro SL/QT boundary; transect W4 Concrete nicho w/ black metal cross w/ filigrees & center scroll atop rear of dome-roof Concrete, open-faced nicho w/ white granito cross atop rear of gabled roof; 1ft tall Typical of eastern Sierra Gorda; green wooden cross on a post, fresh wreath, hand-carved into vertical arm: "Madeleno Perez, 20 enero 1980". Nicho under construction, inside is a granito crown cross: "Rene Perez Blas, nacio 19 oct 1974, fallacio 22 julio 1999" fresh wreath & 3 vases of paper flowers, an older wreath, votive candle. Being built into the rock face that is the roadside. White concrete crucifix on a pedestal White cross painted on the rocks on the side of the road Brick nicho (back & face) w/ WI & glass opening; flat-roofed w/ 2 fresh bouquets Wood cross w/ wreath mounted on a post 2 crosses of finished lumber, one atop the other; covered by wreaths Un-painted brick & concrete nicho w/ green painted gable roof; on a pedestal. Flowers & crucifix inside; 1m square, 1.5m tall. White granito nicho w/cross atop front, black WI gate; 2m tall Blue flat-ridged gable roofed, concrete open-faced nicho w/ cross atop rear & fresh wreath Green wood cross w/ wreath mounted on a post; 1m tall 2-tiered concrete, gabled roof, 1m wide x 2m tall nicho; the lower opening is open-faced & 6" square, the upper is set back 6", have a rusted black WI & glass door and flowers inside. Yellow gable-roofed, open-faced nicho w/ green cross atop rear & on rear interior wall a print of NSGuad & a photo of a child in a double frame w/ 2 ovals showing the 2 images. 405 84 SR? 86 SR? 88 SR? e e w 89 92 94 124 125 130 133 0 2 SR? SR? SR? 57S 57S 57S 57S 120E 120E w w e w m m s n n s 4 120E 6 120E 8 120E 10 120E 12 120E 12 120E 13 120E 14 120E 18 120E 18 120E 21 120E 21 120E 22 120E n s n s s s n n s n 23 120E s QT150 QT149 QT148 QT147 QT146 QT145 QT144 QT143 QT142 QT141 QT140 QT139 QT138 QT137 QT136 QT135 QT134 QT133 QT132 QT131 QT130 QT129 QT128 Blue wood cross mounted a post that is also painted blue Brick & stucco shrine to NSGuad; hip roof, 3ft tall statue of the Virgin, red, white & green bunting and flags. 2m tall, 1m square. Three 4x4 wood crosses. Middle one is about 8 feet tall; others are 6 feet tall. There are small paint pails full of wilted flowers, but no inscriptions. 1m square, 3m tall shrine. Blue domed roof on a pink concrete structure on a yellow foundation, w/ blue steps and white interior; has blue & white streamers strung out from it. Central figure is 1 ft tall statue of the Virgin of San Juan, 3 votive candles- 2 lit, 1 bouquet of wilted marigolds, pink wreath. Next to it is a 3ft tall x 2.5 ft wide wood w/ glass doors shrine nailed to a tree; a little porch-like part in front for the votives. There is also a metal & glass votive candleholder on one side with several candles lit. This one has both the Virgin of S.J. (8 tall statue) and NSGuad (8x10 print in a brass frame), wilted flowers in plastic coke bottles that are nailed to the tree. A sign above reads: No tirar basura en esta lugar, Grupo Ecologico S.G. White granito arch-roofed nicho w/ cross atop, 2 urns on brick pedestal; 1.5m tall 1ft tall, open-faced, gable-roofed nicho w/ cross atop rear Concrete arch-roofed nicho w/ cross atop, 1.5m tall White concrete cross White concrete, hip-roof nicho & white concrete cross w/ blue circles on tips; interior was blue matching the cross. White concrete nicho w/ black metal door Black metal cross w/ center scroll Concrete A-frame nicho on concrete pedestal w/ black metal cross w/ center scroll & filigrees atop; 1.5m tall White granito arch-roofed, open-faced nicho w/ cross atop, 1m tall on concrete pedestal White concrete arch-roofed, 3ft tall, nicho w/ white metal cross atop rear White concrete, gable roofed nicho; built into road-cut Cross, covered with wreath Blue, 1m tall, cross mounted on a pile of concrete & whitewashed rocks; total 3m tall White concrete nicho w/ blue pipe cross atop gable roof, open faced; interior is blue Green concrete, gable roofed nicho, white interior; built into road-cut White concrete, flat roofed nicho w/ red door Small wooden cross Very large open shrine outdoor shrine to NSGuad White concrete nicho built into road-cut w/ white metal cross w/ filigrees atop front of gabled roof 406 23 120E 23 120E 24 120E 25 120E s n s s 29 120E 30 30 32 33 120E 120E 120E 120E n n s s n n n s s s s s s 34 120E 34 120E 35 120E 35 120E 36 120E 40 120E 43 120E 45 120E 46 120E 46 120E 47 48 48 51 120E 120E 120E 120E n s s n n QT127 QT126 QT125 QT124 QT123 QT122 QT121 QT120 QT119 QT118 QT117 QT116 QT115 QT114 QT113 QT112 QT111 QT109 QT110 QT108 QT107 QT106 QT105 QT104 QT103 Brick nicho w/ white granito cross atop front; 2m tall, 1m square Yellow concrete nicho & cross atop front of gabled roof Concrete open-faced, gable-roofed nicho built into side of the road-cut w/ concrete cross inlaid into rear wall Shrine on a road-cut (100ft above road) w/ steps up to it. 1 black metal cross w/ center scroll White concrete nicho w/ black metal cross has 4 smaller crosses on the horizontal arms on top of an arched roof. Concrete gable roofed shrine to NSGuad, about 3m cubed; inside are lots of Xmas decorations. Right next to the fire fighters station. White concrete nicho w/ 2 crosses atop gabled roof; on a brick pedestal Rusted metal cross on 2-tiered concrete pedestal Turquoise concrete nicho w/ white metal concrete cross atop rear of gabled roof; 3'x2'x2' Brick nicho w/ black metal cross atop front of gabled roof; faced parallel to road Brick, 1.5 tall, nicho w/ black metal cross atop gabled roof White metal cross w/ roofed diamond-shaped center scroll Black metal cross Black metal cross White concrete flat-roofed nicho w/ cross & wreath 2 concrete nichos; 1 is arch-roofed & 6" tall, other is gableroofed w/ white metal cross atop front & is 3ft square White gable-roofed (w/ some damage to it) nicho & 2 black crosses behind the nicho White concrete gable-roofed nicho w/ black cross atop rear Brick & stucco nicho, 1m cubed, flat-roofed w/ wreath. Inside is a black metal cross w/ filigrees & scroll reading: "Sr. J. Luis Barbailon Morales, fallacio 8 mayo 1996, recuerdo de su esposa, hijos y hijas, familiares, amigos, companeros de Transportes Cadereyta, Qto" there are rosary beads hanging from the top arm. the roof is partially broken & a tree is planted in front. Concrete & brick nicho w/ black metal cross atop rear White concrete nicho w/ cross atop rear w/ wreath White concrete, gable-roofed nicho w/white cross atop Concrete, 2-tiered nicho, w/ cross atop rear of arched roof Large shrine, painted at the top: Maria puerta del Cielo yellow with a domed roof with 2 copulas, both with outline crosses atop. It has electricity from what looks like used to be, a settlement here. The central figure is the Virgin of Guadalupe on an altar built of rocks and concrete and decorated with a combination of potted, silk and live flowers. There is an altar in front with a dozen, out of 30, candles burning, a small [4x2ft] votive box in the corner with another dozen candles burning. Quite impressive actually, considering 407 52 120E 52 120E 52 120E 53 120E 55 120E 56 120E 66 120E 67 120E 68 120E 71 120E 73 120E 74 74 74 75 76 77 120E 120E 120E 120E 120E 120E n n s s s s s n s s s s s s s s s s s 81 120E 81 120E 84 120E 86 86 89 90 91 120E 120E 120E 120E 120E s s n s s QT102 QT101 QT100 QT99 QT98 QT97 QT96 QT95 QT93 QT94 QT92 QT91 QT90 QT89 QT88 QT87 QT86 QT84 QT85 QT83 QT82 QT81 QT79 QT80 QT78 QT77 QT76 QT75 QT74 that this is really a remote location, and there are a lot of fresh flowers here, a lot! A pickup truck just passed by with a little boy hanging out the window, and he looked back at the shrine and crossed himself. At the bottom of a very steep decline; shrine is to NSGuad. 2-tiered concrete gable-roofed nicho, black outline cross atop rear w/ center scroll Black pipe-type cross w/ center scroll & wreath White concrete 3-tiered nicho w/ cross atop w/ wreath White concrete, 1ft tall, gable-roofed, open-faced nicho Turquoise concrete, gable-roofed shrine w/ cross atop front; 3m deep, 2m wide & tall White granito, gable roofed, open-faced nicho w/ black metal cross atop rear w/ center scroll & filigrees Large monument w/St. Joseph & Christ child atop; 20ft tall White concrete nicho w/ cross atop rear w/ wreath Black metal cross Blue concrete arch-roofed nicho, 2ft tall White concrete gable-roofed nicho w/ cross atop rear w/ wreath; 1m tall White concrete gable-roofed nicho w/ cross atop rear w/ wreath; and, as is customary around here, it has rocks piled in front Black metal cross w/ center scroll White concrete nicho w/ cross atop rear w/ wreath White concrete gable-roofed nicho, 1ft tall Gray concrete arch-roofed nicho w/ black WI gate & fresh wreath atop White concrete A-frame nicho w/ cross atop rear Small arch-roofed nicho w/ cross atop rear Turquoise concrete nicho w/ black metal cross atop rear White concrete nicho White concrete nicho. Scratched into the concrete in front; dia ? ? fallacio el joven Lom?ano de 1982 has fresh flowers on top and inside which is tiled & has a cross inside. What is interesting about this is that the death was 18 years ago; longer ago than the boy probably lived. This on is a good example of the type of nicho that is popular in this area where the pedestal extends out farther than the nicho. White concrete, 2ft square, flat roofed nicho Gabled nicho concrete roof w/ black metal cross atop front White concrete nicho, 1m square & 2m tall, w/ cross, wreath Brick flat-roofed nicho, 2ft cubed, w/ small niche opening & cross atop w/ wreath Black metal cross on concrete pedestal Open domed roof nicho on 4 columns w/ cross inside; all of concrete on concrete pedestal, 1m tall Black metal cross w/ center scroll & filigrees 408 95 120E 97 120E 99 99 101 101 120E 120E 120E 120E s s s s n n n s s s s n n n n n n s n s s s 102 120E 104 108 108 109 110 120E 120E 120E 120E 120E 111 120E 111 114 114 115 115 115 115 115 116 120E 120E 120E 120E 120E 120E 120E 120E 120E 116 116 117 117 120E 120E 120E 120E s s s s n n s 118 120E 119 120E 120 120E QT73 QT72 QT71 QT70 QT69 QT68 QT67 QT66 QT65 QT64 QT63 QT62 QT61 QT60 QT59 QT58 QT57 QT56 QT55 QT54 QT53 QT52 QT51 QT50 QT49 QT46 QT47 QT48 QT45 wB53 Brick, flat-roofed w/ a copula shrine to NSGuad; 2m tall Cross, covered by wreath Concrete arch-roofed nicho w/ black door & cross atop w/ wreath; 1m tall Black metal cross on concrete 2-tiered pedestal w/ fresh wreath and behind it 1 gray metal Large white cross, up on a hill above the road about 50m; & a small shrine White concrete A-frame nicho w/ white concrete cross atop rear; on a concrete pedestal White metal cross w/ center scroll & fresh wreath Black metal cross on concrete pedestal w/ wilted wreath Black metal cross w/ center scroll & wreaths Open shrine to NSGuad at a crazy intersection White concrete, open-faced, arch-roofed nicho w/ square rear faade; lots of fresh wreath Black metal cross w/ center scroll White granito nicho w/ 2 niches; 1.5m tall w/ gabled roof, open faced White metal cross w/ roofed diamond-shaped center scroll & fresh wreath Black metal cross w/ center scroll & filigrees White pipe-type cross w/ black center scroll mounted in a pile of red rocks & concrete Wood 1x4 lumber cross, w/ center scroll White concrete cross on white concrete pedestal w/ rear faade Black metal cross w/ roofed diamond-shaped center scroll & white concrete pedestal Nicho on a pillar w/ Christ statue atop White granito nicho White concrete cross Black metal cross w/ diamond-shaped center scroll White metal cross w/ sun rays on a 3-tiered pedestal, 2 urns & fresh wreath Rusted metal cross w/ center scroll Large granito nicho w/ 3 silver-colored pipe-crosses atop White metal cross w/ center scroll, faces away from road Black metal cross w/ roofed diamond-shaped center scroll & fresh gladiolas lain at the base Brick, stucco nicho w/ black cross atop rear of arched roof; on a platform-type pedestal QT/GT boundary; end W4, Quertaro 121 120E 121 120E 124 120E 125 120E 132 120E 133 120E 134 141 141 149 152 120E 120E 120E 120E 120E s n s s s s s n s s n s s s s s s n n n n s n n n n n s n 153 120E 157 120E 159 120E 161 120E 161 120E 165 120E 166 120E 170 120E 170 171 171 172 176 180 181 181 181 120E 120E 120E 120E 120E 120E 120E 120E 120E 182 120E 183 120E 409 Table B7.6: Mxico Site # Description wB10 Leave QT enter MX; transect L2 MX01 White metal cross with flowers MX02 Black metal cross MX03 White concrete cross MX04 Wooden roof-type cross MX05 Blue open niche with cross on top MX06 1 blue metal cross, 1 white concrete cross & 1 black metal cross MX07 Black metal roof-type cross MX08 2 white metal crosses wB11 MX/HD wB12 HD/MX MX09 White pipe cross with scroll MX10 White metal cross MX11 White pipe cross with scroll MX12 White crown cross with floral wreath MX13 Black metal roof-type cross with scroll MX14 4 x 4 x 8m shrine at PEMEX plant wMX01 Tepozitlan MX15 Yellow tile nicho, 0.5 x 0.5 x 1m, with black WI cross MX16 Black plywood nicho with black wrought iron cross MX17 Black cross MX18 Black metal cross and black metal cross with scroll MX19 Black metal cross with scroll MX20 Black metal cross MX21 White metal cross and a small niche MX22 Black metal cross with scroll on a pedestal MX23 Black metal roof-type cross MX24 1 black metal & 2 white metal crosses; all with scrolls MX25 2 white pipe crosses with scrolls MX26 White metal cross MX27 White concrete crown cross MX28 Black metal roof-type cross MX29 Nicho, built into road cut MX30 Black metal cross MX31 White metal cross MX32 White metal cross wMX03 Tepexpan; break and split transect L2 wMX06 Begin L2a: jct autopista to MexCity/road to Chalco MX78 Black metal cross w/ center scroll & filigrees MX77 Concrete gable-roofed, open-faced nicho w/ black metal cross centered on rear MX76 White metal cross w/ center scroll & filigrees MX75 Concrete gable-roofed, open-faced nicho w/ black metal cross inside MX74 White metal cross 410 Mile 0 2 3 10 23 24 25 26 31 35 80 82 86 86 88 89 90 93 95 95 96 97 97 98 98 99 100 100 100 101 101 101 105 177 180 180 186 186 190 190 RteDir 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 57S 132E 132E 132E 132E 150DW 150DW Asp m m m m w m m m e w e e e w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w n s n s s n n n 193 150DW 193 150DW 196 150DW MX73 MX72 MX71 wB66 wB13 MX70 MX69 MX68 MX67 MX66 MX65 MX64 MX63 MX62 MX61 MX60 MX59 MX58 MX57 MX56 MX55 MX54 MX53 MX52 MX51 MX50 MX49 MX48 MX47 MX46 MX45 MX44 MX43 MX42 MX41 MX40 MX39 Cross, covered w/ wreath; 20m off pavement Heavily weathered concrete, gable-roof, open-face nicho 4 crosses; 3 black metal (2 identical), 1 white metal, same design as 2 of the blacks MX/TX; end L2a, Mxico HD/MX; transect W5 .25x.5x1m white granito nicho white glass door and black metal cross White metal cross Black metal cross with white concrete name plate White metal cross Blue metal cross 0.25 x 0.5 x 1m granito nicho with gable roof, wrought iron gate and cross on top 2 crosses, 1 white & 1 black metal on same pedestal White concrete crown-type cross White metal cross with heart in center White outline cross Black metal cross with center scroll 4 x 4 x 6m shrine. Turquoise with a modernistic 2m tall statue of Sacred Heart Jesus in the center, 1m statue of same on rear altar, 0.5m statue of NSGuad, votive box w/ 20 votives, & 2 flower pots. Black metal cross 1 black metal cross & 1 small white metal cross w/flowers Box or outline cross White metal cross 4 white metal crosses with an open A-frame and crucifix 0.5 x 1 x 2m nicho 2 white concrete crosses on pedestals 1 white concrete cross & 1 black metal cross 5 white concrete clover crosses 0.5 x 1 x 2m white concrete nicho/shrine with cross with death inscription and flowers. White concrete nicho/cross (pedestal has a built-in nicho), and a black metal cross Black metal roof-type cross Black metal roof-type cross w/ scroll, candle & flowers 2 white crosses and 3 black crosses 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.5m with glass walls, gabled roof nicho, 0.5m statue of SHJesus & 2 black metal crosses Black metal roof-type cross with scroll Gray metal roof-type cross with scroll Black metal roof-type cross with scroll 30 x 30 x 60cm white granito with wood nicho w/ glass door with a cross carved out of it. Interior; black stylized crucifix and a pot of flowers next to a concrete cross. 2 white metal crosses with scrolls 197 150DW 204 150DW 204 150DW 205 150DW 0 2 132E 4 4 4 4 4 4 7 7 8 12 12 132E 132E 132E 132E 132E 132E 132E 132E 132E 132E 132E n n n s s s s s s s m s m s n 12 14 15 17 17 19 19 20 20 20 132E 132E 132E 132E 132E 132E 132E 132E 132E 132E m s s n s n n s s s n n n s n s n n n n 21 132E 22 24 24 25 27 27 27 27 132E 132E 132E 132E 132E 132E 132E 132E 28 132E 411 MX38 MX37 MX36 MX34 MX33 wMX03 wMX07 MX79 MX80 MX81 MX82 MX83 MX84 MX85 MX86 MX87 MX88 MX89 MX90 MX91 MX92 MX93 MX94 MX95 MX96 MX97 MX98 MX99 MX100 MX101 MX102 MX103 MX104 MX105 MX106 MX107 MX108 MX109 MX110 MX111 MX112 MX113 MX114 MX115 MX116 MX117 MX118 MX119 Black metal cross with scroll Concrete nicho with glass and metal door and crucifix White metal cross 0.25 x 0.25 x 0.25m nicho White metal cross Tepexpan; break in transect Resume W5:jct autopista to MxCity/road to Chalco Black metal cross w/ center scroll & filigrees Black metal cross White concrete, gable roofed nicho w/ 2 black metal crosses Black metal cross 3 black metal crosses Black metal roof-type cross w/ center scroll White concrete nicho w/ 2 wooden spindle-crosses atop Black metal roof-type cross w/ scroll & white lettering White granito nicho w/ cross atop Cross 4 crosses Black pipe-type cross Black metal cross White concrete, gabled nicho White metal cross w/ center scroll & filigrees White metal roof-type cross w/ center scroll White pipe-type cross w/arm-roof & center scroll White concrete gable roofed nicho Cross White metal cross White metal cross 6 crosses; and 2 nichos Nicho 3 white metal roof-type crosses w/ center scrolls Purple metal cross w/ center scroll White granito nicho w/ white metal cross atop White metal cross 2 black & 3 white metal crosses Black metal cross Black metal cross w/ center scroll & pointed tips White concrete, arch-roofed nicho White granito nicho Metal nicho, tied onto a tree White granito nicho w/ cross atop Black metal cross White granito nicho Cross, covered by wreath 2m tall blue arch-roofed nicho w/ cross centered atop Brick nicho w/ black metal cross atop; parallel to road Black metal roof-type cross w/ center scroll White pipe-type cross tied to a tree 412 28 39 39 34 40 48 48 51 51 51 51 51 51 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 55 55 55 55 56 56 56 56 56 56 57 132E 132E 132E 132E 132E 132E 150S 150S 150S 150S 150S 150S 150S 150S 150S 150S 150S 150S 150S 150S 150S 150S 150S 150S 150S 150S 150S 150S 150S 150S 150S 150S 150S 150S 150S 150S 150S 150S 150S 150S 150S 150S 150S 150S 150S 150S 150S n s n n n w w m m w w w w w e e e w e w e e w e w w w w e e e e e e e e e e w w e e e w w w MX120 MX121 MX122 MX123 MX124 MX125 MX126 MX127 MX128 MX129 MX130 MX131 MX132 MX133 MX134 MX135 MX136 MX137 MX138 MX139 MX140 MX141 MX142 MX143 MX144 MX145 MX146 MX147 wMX09 White granito, & light blue granito nichos; white pipe cross Black metal nicho w/ black metal cross atop; in a road-cut Silver-colored pipe/roof-type cross w/ center scroll Gray metal roof-type cross w/ center scroll 2 white metal crosses w/ center scrolls Black metal cross w/ center scroll Large yellow concrete, gable-roofed, open-faced nicho w/ 3 white metal crosses inside White metal cross Brick, arch-roofed, open-faced nicho Cross covered by flowers White granito crown-type cross 2x3x2m shrine facing away from road White metal roof-type cross w/ center scroll & filigrees White granito cross, 1m tall, "Sra. Angelita?" White metal cross 4 pipe-type crosses w/ arm-roofs Black metal cross w/ center scroll 7 crosses near to a tree Black metal cross Black metal roof-type cross w/ center scroll' nailed onto a tree Light blue tile nicho, 1m cubed, flat-roofed w/ dome, belfries & 3 black metal crosses atop 2 black metal crosses w/ floral bouquet on a small wedgetype monument between them Cross, nailed to a tree Purple shrine to NSGuad, 0.5x1x2m, w/ altar top and metal & glass gabled roof over a 24x36 print of NSGuad; right at a collectivo stand. White metal cross nailed to a utility pole 2 black metal crosses White metal cross White granito gable-roofed nicho Boundary MX/MR; end W5, Mxico 57 58 58 59 59 60 60 61 61 61 61 64 65 65 65 66 67 67 67 67 150S 150S 150S 150S 150S 150S 150S 150S 150S 150S 150S 150S 150S 150S 150S 150S 150S 150S 150S 150S w e w w w w w w e w w w w w w w e e w e w w w w e w w e 67 150S 68 150S 69 150S 71 150S 71 72 74 75 76 150S 150S 150S 150S 150S 413 Table B7.7: Morelos Site # Description wMR02a Begin transect L2b; jct 160W/95S at Cuernavaca MR29 White pipe-type cross w/ center scroll MR28 Concrete A-frame, open-faced nicho MR27 Concrete, 12" tall, gable-roofed nicho w/ a cluster of crosses leaning against a tree next to it MR26 White concrete arch-roofed nicho, painted pink inside w/ fresh flowers MR25 White metal outline-type cross w/ center scroll MR24 Pink concrete flat roofed nicho and 1 white concrete, red tile gabled roof nicho; both about 1m cubed MR23 4 wooden crosses nailed to a stanchion of an over-pass MR22 6" tall A-frame nicho and 3m tall concrete cross behind and 2 black metal crosses, one to either side MR21 Black metal cross MR20 Concrete gable roofed w/wings nicho w/ wood spindle-type cross behind wMR01a Break transect L2b; jct 150S/160W, near Cuautla MR42 Resume L2b; South of Cuautla MR43 Cross MR44 Nicho MR45 3 crosses wB37 MR/PB boundary MR01 Transect W5, 50m south of MX/MR boundary; large white granito, arched roof nicho w/ cross atop & 2 urns in front; Sacred Heart Jesus statue inside. MR02 Black metal cross w/ spear point tips & center scroll MR03 White metal cross w/semi-circu...

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