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Bs, 22 4 lower than B
49 A or A-
Talk on sex differences
Classical conditioning What is it? When used? How useful to know about it?
(both operant and classical)
Relatively permanent change in behavior resulting from temporal conjunction of 2 or more events. Now saying it again in umteen ways
Associate a stimulus (US) that evokes a response (UR) with a second stimulus (CS) that does not normally evoke this response.
aka S-R learning, Pavlovian conditioning, respondent conditioning. E.g. Pavlov's dogs are the prototype of associative learning Pavlov, 1927.
It was an accidental discovery. (He also invented the term synapse!)
Characteristics of Pavlovian conditioning
1. A learned response R is made specific to any arbitrarily selected stimulus S in the animals repertoire.
2. the product of a previous association between a S and R.
Classical (Pavlovian) conditioning. What is it?
How one learns about and responds to signals for important events.
(Operant=how to bring on or get away from these events).
US (Unconditioned Stimulus) - a stimulus that elicits a reflex response. CS (Conditioned Stimulus) - a stimulus that elicits a physiological response. UR (Unconditioned Response) a natural physiological response to an unconditioned stimulus. CR (Conditioned Response) a physiological response elicited by a conditioned stimulus. NS (Neutral Stimulus) - a stimulus that elicits no response.
UR US UR
US alone CS alone Random=make sure not a consistent relationship Explicitly unpaired control=make sure no relationship
OR- orienting reflex
an investigation of a novel stimulus. It typically habituates.
The orienting responsephysiological changes (old brain)
Typical OR include dilation of the blood vessels to the brain Slowing of heart, constriction of blood vessels to major muscle groups. Alpha waves blocked for a few seconds. The brain focuses attention on gathering more information while the rest of the body quiets.
Music in conditioning
Usefulness of knowing about CC.
Our TV habits.
Scientists studied whether features of television (cuts, zooms, pans etc) activate the OR by watching effect on brain waves. Found that Heart rate changes increasing frequency of edits improved memory recognition etc.
Conditioning in horror films
Law of Contiguity
Associative connection between events only if occurred together in time and space. Secondary laws play a role on strength of the association:
frequency, duration, intensity, # times, similarity, emotional state, etc.
Classical conditioning is the process by which a neutral stimulus comes to elicit a response by the result of what?
*Repeated pairing Memory of the stimulus Unconscious thoughts The Boogie Man
The rate of conditioning is affected by the degree to which the US is ___the occurrence of the CS.
A. bi-pendant on B. contracted to C. *contingent D. ipsilateral to
In general, the more intense a US, the ___.
A. *faster conditioning proceeds B. slower conditioning proceeds C. more intense the CS D. less intense the CS
Prior conditioning plays a big role. Present asthma patients with jar filled with plastic rose to smell =asthmatic attack can be triggered
Synchronized firing => Stronger synaptic connection! Desynchronized firing => Weaker synaptic connection!
Hebb: neurons that fire together, wire together
Hebb: fire together, wire together
(Squire et al, 2003)
Hebb: fire together, wire together
(Squire et al, 2003)
(Squire et al, 2003)
And now who you can thank for your flatworm in lab.
Eric Kandel (1929-present)
Made a name for himself studying sea slugs.
Undergraduate honors thesis was entitled:
"TheAttitudeToward NationalSocialismofThree GermanWriters:CarlZuckmayer, HansCarossa,andErnstJunger" Iswearingabowtieinalmostevery pictureever!
Mechanisms of plasticity
Make new stuff Tweak what youve already got
Thetrickishavingsynapses stableenoughtolasta lifetimeyetsufficiently plastictochangewith experience* Ishouldknow.Iwon theNoblePrize.
*I only really said whats in quotation marks
Present CS alone for a number of trials.
If someone blows a puff of air into your eye, you will reflexively blink. The puff of air is a(n)__; the eyeblink is a(n)__.
CR; CS CS; CR UR;US *US; UR
After extinction, reintroduce CSUS presentation.
Change temporal relationship CS and US
Delayed conditioning Trace conditioning Backward conditioning Temporal conditioning
CS goes off before the US is presented US before CS
US at regular intervals
Higher order conditioning
A CR to a CS that was never presented with the US.
Experiment in which a dog learns to salivate at the sight of a black square after it had been paired with a CS for salivating is an example of ____ conditioning.
A. second-tier B.* higher-order C. signal D. second-signal
Recent research suggests that poor conditioning in elderly people may signal the early stages of ___.
A. Parkinsons Disease B.* dementia C. brain cancer D. terminal illness
Conditioned emotional responses
Little Albert- white rat presented to Albert, he reached for it (OR), As he touched it, loud noise. Repeated. He soon cried when rat was presented.
Little Albert has grown up and sees a therapist for treatment of his fear of laboratory rats and other white furry things. The therapist is most likely to treat him by repeatedly pairing a piece of white fur with a _____
a. loud noise b. piece of brown fur c. blast of air in his eye d. *short piece of Alberts favorite music
CS= something neutral
(e.g., tone, light)
stimulus (loud noise, shock
Indices: Changes in
heart rate, skin conductance.
Music taps into the `old brain (probably the amygdala) music
Fear in our lives
See a snake and you are afraid. The neural pathways: Visual stimuli to thalamus. Sends info the amygdala = activates sympathetic system = heart rate and blood pressure increase, muscles contract (or not). Also sends info to cortex which determines that it is a snake (or not).
CS=sound ----- UCS=shock UCR=fear Soon CS = UCR(fear) Examples on our lives?
Brain part= the amygdala. Lesion it and the rats blood pressure didnt rise and the rat didnt freeze.
I had a student who worked on part of auditory system
(caudal MG) connected to limbic system (mediating fear response)
(rostral MG) connected to cortex.
Old brain- unconscious and innate
Amygdala receives info from thalamus = respond to threat quickly Amygdala receives info from visual cortex. Details and specific info but response takes at least twice as long.
New brain- conscious and rational
Two pathways of learning
Sound goes to MG and to the amygdala. Remove auditory cortexanimals learn fine Remove auditory thalamus (MG) -cant learn. Remove amygdala - cant learn
Emotional vs declarative + procedural memories.
alarm sent to brainstem- freezing response
Explicit or declarative memories
Next: Classical conditioning terminology
Rescorla-Wagner law Some neurobiology
There are 5 main predictors of significant events in CC
1.Salience of stimuli -relevance
stand out from background
one stimulus overpowers others. with CS in another context- slows rate of conditioning = CS pre-exposure inference based on experience that 2 events are unrelated.
5. Learned irrelevance
The salience of a stimulus is determined by:
A. the physical attributes of that stimulus B. the situation in which the stimulus occurs C. the knowledge a subject has already acquired D.*all of the above
All other things being equal, which is probably higher in salience?
A. 20-decibel tone B. SMALL WHITE LIGHT C. FAMILIAR SMELL D.* a 100- DECIBEL TONE
The behavior occurs in one situation (to a red light) but not in other situations (to a green light). The opposite of generalization
Types of discrimination
followed by US when feature is present. (Eat when light turns on) Feature negative= CS followed by US when feature is not present. (Smoke when mom leaves) Simultaneous discrimination =feature and CS at same time. (Eat only at the table) Serial discrimination = feature precedes the CS. (Eat when dad gets home)
Feature positive discrimination= CS
One stimulus overpowers another in relevance There may be no CR (but this
may not mean conditioning did not occur. We still process less salient info). (Forget to say hi to your uncle when handsome guy) walks by).
You go on a blind double date with your best friend. Your friends date is so very attractive that you only pay attention to that person and not your own blind date. The next day, asked, when you can only remember your friends dates name. This is A. *Overshadowing B. secondary inhibitory conditioning C. CS-pre-exposure effect D. a bi-directional response
4. Prior experience
Experience can make us more susceptible or resistant to future conditioning.
schooling makes us more susceptible to learning. Difficult relationship might make us resistant to future relationship
5. Learned irrelevance
Learn that 2 events are unrelated.
Child might think darkness brings out a monster. The parent can counter-condition the child.
Dr. Abel tried to get his subject rats
to approach their food dish when a tone sounded. However, his rats were already familiar with the tone he chose and did not readily acquire a CR, probably due to ___.
A. overshadowing B. Blocking C.*The CS pre-exposure effect D. the US pre-exposure effect
The most recent variation of counterconditioning involves___
A. programmed texts B. psychoactive drugs C.* virtual reality D. sleep conditioning
In __ therapy, a stimulus that elicits an inappropriate response is paired with an aversive stimulus such as shock. (Clockwork orange)
A. Counter B. adversive C. *aversion D. shock
Broader definition of Classical Conditioning
The study of the relations among stimuli in the environment.
Controls are important: a bright light used as a CS also can have UCS properties.
a reflexive blink, increased heart rate, respiration, etc.
Occurs with a surprise occurrence of US Rescorla and Wagner formed a model.
Rescorla and Wagner model =A Mathematical Model of factors in CC.
It is based on the salience of the CS and how surprised the individual is at the occurrence of the US.
(Useful at Disneyland events!)
Rescorla and Wagner model Salience X Surprise = Learning
Salience and surprise combine in a multiplicative fashion to determine how much the individual learns about the CSUS relationship. Learning = change in associative strength between a CS and US.
Now some Neurobiology: Forms and Functions of CRs part of the old brain
1. Behaviors 2. Survival 3. Autonomic NS
Conditioned drug reaction Feeding Changes in value and preference Conditioned emotional reactions
2. Survival of self and species (amygdala)
Defense of self and territory Reproduction Nurture young
3. Autonomic NS.
Sympathetic and parasympathetic compete for attention at every organ
Neurobiology of learning
The neural pathways of CC have been traced out. Helpful for knowledge of training your flatworm in lab
An invertebrate model system
A snail (i.e., a very primitive system CS=light (move toward light source) US=rotation (elicits clinging=UR) CS-US pairings=take longer to move toward the light (The conditioned clinging can be extinguished)
Snail (cont). The circuit for the CC response
One photoreceptor causes inhibition of another photoreceptor. It synapses on an interneuron which also gets input from a hair cell (rotation detection) interneuron synapses on a motoneuron (for foot contraction).
On a chemical level
The pairing leads to an increase in intracellular calcium.
is an enzyme that is calciumsensitive= PKC (protein kinase C).
PKC reduces potassium ion flow in the cell membrane= increases membrane excitability. PKC is found especially in the hippocampus and cerebellum
Calexcitin (a protein)
Undergoes a chemical change (phosphorylation) only during classical conditioning procedures. Required for synaptic modification during learning (Alkon et al 1998). Increases turnover of mRNA (+ therefore learning related proteins)
We covered the basics of CC including
salience, discriminability overshadowing prior
experience learned irrelevance The Rescorla-Wagner model the neurobiology of learning.
See you next time
An endogenous ligand necessary for calcium release. (Therefore it is a signaling molecule). With learning, transmitters initiate second messengers. (Calcium is one of these). Calcium is necessary for learning to take place.
Conditioning in a vertebrate
Rabbit eye blink/nictating membrane response (NMR). CS=tone US=air puff The synaptic circuitry has also been worked out for this response. It includes many parts of the brain. (see Thompson, 1986 showing the role of hippocampus and cerebellum in learning).
Simple systems: invertebrate models of learning
Some species used: Cockroaches, flies, bees, leeches, nematodes, the squid.
Advantages: small nervous system, large neurons, identifiable circuits, simple genetics.
The sea slug = Aplysia californica
Squirt water onto its siphon, the gill will retract. The gill-withdrawal reflex habituates Biological circuit. Sensory to motor neuron (one synapse= monosynaptic).
Imaging studies of learning
Fixed tissue=animal studies Vivo functional imaging=humans
Control groups necessary to make sure the changes are due only to learning. ( see Uttal, 2001).
2DG =oxidative energy metabolism C-fos=expression of immediate early gene Imaging learning specific cellular processes
Glucose is used by mitochondria of the cell. Glucose metabolism to index neural activity Radioactively label it and make sure not metabolized =2DG
(Nudo=it shows + and neural activity).
Put my 2DG here
An external signal activates this gene (an immediate early gene) which in turn modifies other genes. Shows brain metabolism. (Dr. Houpt in Biology uses this technique. Effects of magnetism on the brain and behavior).
Slide of cfos
Human studies: Classical conditioning in our lives
MRI Pet Scans Fear conditioning Eyelid conditioning
Functional imaging in humans
Cerebral activity Blood flow
Intravenous injection of radioisotope. Gamma ray positrons, resolution of 6-8 mm
Uses intrinsic magnetic properties of blood and tissue. H nucleus responds to radio frequency pulses by emitting a detectable radio wave.
Increased Oxygen during neural activity Oxygen content of venous blood increases BOLD contrast fMRI subtracts deoxygenated blood signal from oxygenated blood signal. Time series of images correlated with neural activity
Review of fMRI and PET .
See Cabeza and Nyberg, 2000.
(275 articles, 200 on learning and memory)
Done in clinical populations e.g., Alzheimers, Korsakoffs, Parkinsonian, and cerebellar lesion patients.
In imaging studies
Can modify the Classical conditioning technique Introduce a second stimulus (different frequency etc) interspersed among paired presentations (=differential conditioning=not just any tone will do) Conditioning specific Results =cerebellum motor cortex and hippocampus
Modified CC technique
Or omit the US on some trials=to assess expectancy, error correction etc. Results = changes in cerebellum and somatosensory cortex.
PET scan of leg Flexion conditioning
CS=tone UCS= electrical stimulation of plantar nerve UCR=leg flexion Brain areas activated: cerebellum, hippocampus, frontal cortex Activation depended on the level of conditioning.
Pet scan of jaw-opening conditioning
Brain areas activated: cerebellum, temporal lobe, frontal lobe and thalamus.
Search continues for biological basis of learning and memory. They can be imaged Several brain structures are involved:
Different results from different paradigms. Need controls.
For years, Sally swam in a lake with lots of fish. One time she hit her head and nearly drowned. Since then she has a fear of water and of fish. This is probably due to A. higher-order conditioning B. transitive inference C. stimulus generalization D. *sensory preconditioning
If 2 CSs are presented together and predict a US, subjects usually: A.*Only condition to one CS B.Condition equally to both CSs C. cannot be conditioned at all D. none of the above
If a person sneezes after coming close to a realistic-looking artificial flower, you can be pretty sure that he or she is ____.
A. allergic to plastic B.* allergic to pollen C. faking D. near-sighted
Each of two stimuli fully predicts the presentation of a food pellet when presented alone. When the two stimuli are presented together followed by a food pellet, the associative value of A. both stimuli increase B.* Both stimuli decrease C. both stimuli stays the same D. one stimuli decreases while the other increases
Conditioned Inhibition =
Predicting the absence of the US. The learned antagonistic response
excitatory stimulus=CS+ Conditioned inhibitory stimulus=CS-.
When you are with both of your parents, your fathers smoking cigarettes if followed by a lecture on smoking by your mom. Your dad is a:
A. feature B.* CS C. US D. none of above
When you drink alcohol on an empty stomach, you generally get sick. This does not happen if you eat first. In this case, Food can be considered a __ and alcohol can be thought of as the ___.
A. *feature: CS b. CS; feature c. US;CS d. CS; US