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Course Number: SCHOLARSPA 10125, Fall 1989

College/University: Hawaii

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HAWAII AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION of the UNIVERSITY OF HAWAll BULLETIN No. 84 TARO VARIETIES IN HAWAII by LEO D. WHITNEY, Assistant Agronomist F. A. 1. M. BOWERS, Principal Agricultural Aide Junior Agronomist TAKAHASHI, CONTENTS PAGE Introduction Historical Review Botany Present Investigation Key to Taro Varieties Descriptions of Classified Varieties Descriptions of Unclassified Varieties Appendix...

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AGRICULTURAL HAWAII EXPERIMENT STATION of the UNIVERSITY OF HAWAll BULLETIN No. 84 TARO VARIETIES IN HAWAII by LEO D. WHITNEY, Assistant Agronomist F. A. 1. M. BOWERS, Principal Agricultural Aide Junior Agronomist TAKAHASHI, CONTENTS PAGE Introduction Historical Review Botany Present Investigation Key to Taro Varieties Descriptions of Classified Varieties Descriptions of Unclassified Varieties Appendix Finding Lists , 5 6 7 9 14 19 65 71 73 79 81 Illustrated Glossary of Botanical Terms Glossary of Hawaiian Terms Literature Cited Index 83 85 4 5 INTRODUCTION Taro, one of the oldest cultivated crops in the world, has long been a staple food of the natives of all the Polynesian islands as well as in the West Indies and the Orient. Since taro is propagated almost exclusively by vegetative means, each locality has tended to perpetuate its own forms, or "horticultural varieties."l Some of these forms have remained localized; others have spread, and many of them have been given new names. In the past, the valuation of the various taros in Hawaii has been based on their quality as cooked table taro or for making poi. A few are raised primarily for their leaves, used for luau,2 and the old Hawaiians had varieties for medicinal purposes and for offerings to the gods. The two types of taro culture common in Hawaii have formed another basis for segregating varieties: wetland varieties (submerged culture), all of which are good for poi; and upland varieties (nonsuhmerged culture), which are used primarily as table taro, only a few of them being suitable for poi. Within recent years, numerous scientific investigations (6, 10)3 have indicated the superiority of taro over other starchy crops (particularly polished rice) which are staple foods in the Pacific regions. The emphasis on this fact by local physicians and nutritionists has led to an increased demand for taro and a new interest in the cultivation of the crop. With commercial development, a need has arisen for varieties particularly adapted to the production of taro flour, beverage powders, and other dried taro products. In addition, the problems involved in wetland culture-particularly the menace of disease-and the necessity of extending plantings by utilizing new lands have made important the selection of varieties which will grow well in the moist, cool uplands. Experiments have recently been conducted by this station on selection and development of desirable varieties through cross-pollination (4, 7) as well as through natural vegetative mutation (4). Systematic work along these lines must, however, be preceded by a classification of the many varieties present in Hawaii. In 1914, MacCaughey and Emerson (8) listed about 300 varietal names of taro in Hawaii, 1 The term "variety" will be used througbout tbis bulletin to signify "horticultural variety.u For do/inition of Hawaiian expressions (italic) used throughout this bulletin, see p. 81. Reference is made by number (italic) to Literature Cited, p. 83. 6 Bulletin 84, Hawaii Experitl'tent Station approximately half of which they estimated to be synonyms. The confusion which has resulted from the large number of varieties and synonymous names has made evident the 'need of a taxonomic key for grouping and describing the taros in terms of their distinguishing characters. The present study includes such a key, on the basis of vegetative characters, and descriptions of the varieties which the writers have been able to find in Hawaii, with all available information as to origin, distribution, and use. HISTORICAL REVIEW Taro was mentioned in Chinese books as early as 100 B.C. It was evidently thriving in Egypt at the beginning of the Christian era, as Pliny (23-79 A.D.) refers to it as one of the established food plants of the country. The accounts of the early European navigators tell of the cultivation of this crop in Japan and the western Pacific islands as far south as New Zealand. Taro has long been intimately identified with the south Pacific islands, but nowhere has it attained so much importance as in the Hawaiian group. Like other food crops with wide distribution, the plant has been known by various names in different parts of the world. European botanists first knew it in Egypt under the name culcas, and it was thought to have been introduced from India or Ceylon. In Ceylon the wild plant is named gahala. The Malay names are kelady, tallies, or laloes, from which may come the better-known Polynesian namestallo, tarro, or darro in Fiji, ta'0 in the Marquesas, tala in Samoa, and taro or kalo in Hawaii, Tahiti, the Cook Islands, and New Zealand. The Philippine name is gam. The plant is known in various parts of the West Indies as eddo, coco, and 11wlanga,o one of the East African names is malombo,o the Japanese call it intO. The numerous varieties found in Hawaii today seem conclusive evidence that taro has been cultivated in these islands for many centuries. When white men first came, in the latter part of the eighteenth century, taro was flourishing. As the "staff of life" of the early Hawaiians, it was no doubt taken with them as they moved from place to place. It is assumed that taro was brought by the first Polynesians who migrated to Hawaii, and some ethnologists feel that the study of this crop may yield interesting clues as to the origin of the Hawaiian race. All through Hawaiian history is woven the story of taro: to no other plant is so much native sentiment attached. Taro Varieties in Hawaii 7 There are no authentic records as to the total acreage planted to taro in the early Hawaiian period or even during the past century. As one of the principal foods of an early population estimated at 300,000 (3), the crop must have covered many thousands of acres. With the advent of other races, changes in modes of living, and the rapid dwindling of the native population, taro plantings have so decreased that the present estimate of commercial cultivation is only about 1,200 acres (9). In earlier days taro plantings in upland, nonirrigated areas were probably as important as in the low-lying, irrigated valleys. In the latter part of the last century, profound change took place in the growing and processing of taro. Soon after the heavy influx of immigrants from the Orient, the Chinese commercialized the making of poi and, not long thereafter, took up the growing of taro to a large extent. It was found that taro was weli adapted to the type of submerged culture used by the Chinese for rice, and commercial production became centered in low-lying, alluvial flats and small valleys where the land could be diked and running water led into the paddies. There remain, however, small taro patches tended by the old Ha~aiians. The favored locations are cool, moist uplands, where the taro edges the fresh waters of a spring or is planted in patches in very humid areas. In the commercial plantings only a few varieties are cultivated, and almost the entire crop is used for poi. In the upland patches are found many forms from the early Hawaiian period, each serving a special purpose. The different poi taros, table taros, luau taros (the leaves of which are used for greens), early- and late-maturing and drought-resistant taros, medicinal taros, and taros used for fishing and for various ceremonials are all represented. BOTANY Taro is a member of the Arum family, Araceae, which contains about 100 genera and 1,500 species, most of which are subtropical or tropical. They tend to be aquatic, but some are epiphytic. Among the more familiar plants in this family are the calla lily, the anthurium, and the ornamental caladiums. Taro belongs to the genus Colocasia, a word which has been connected through the Greek with the ancient Egyptian name of taro, culcas. The scientific name of taro is Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott. 8 Bltlletl~1t 84} Hawa.ii Experil1tent Station All of the numerous and diverse types of cultivated taros seem to be varieties or forms of the one species.! The many forms of dasheens are also included in this species, under the botanical variety globulifcra; they have distinctive characteristics which set them apart from the other taros. Following is a taxonomic description of taro: Extremely variable, succulent, glabrous herb, 4 to 18 dm. tall. Stem a subterranean corm with scaly outer bark and thin, usually highly colored cortex, single or branching from the apex, with conspicuous leaf-scar rings, producing cormels (aha) or rhizomes as offshoots. Petioles 4 to 18 dm. long, erect or spreading, sheathing at base with sinus to about midway, uniformly light or dark green to variously highly colored, striped, or flecked. Blades 25 to 85 cm. long, 20 to 60 cm. wide, usually peltate, ovate to more or less sagittate, the apex acuminate, a dark-colored spot known as pika on the upper surface at the point of junction with petiole. Inflorescences 2 to 5 together in the leafaxils, the peduncles 15 to 50 cm. long, each spadix enclosed within a spathe. Spathes oblong-Ianceolate, divided by a transverse constriction into two unequal parts, the lower part 3 to 5 cm. long, loosely or tightly convolute, more or less fleshy, tubular, the upper part 15 to 35 cm. long, usually tightly but sometimes loosely convolute, lanceolate. Spadix 6 to 14 cm. long, with female flowers at the base, consisting of a few obovoid or ellipsoid ovaries 0.5 to 1.5 mm. in diameter, the stigma sessile, capitate ; constricted above the female flowers and beset over a length of 2 to 5 cm. with light yellow sterile flowers; above the sterile flowers and over a Icngth of 2 to 4 CIII. beset with malef1owers ,consisting of 2 to 6 sessile anthers which are fused into an obconical synandrium; with yellow constricted, obtuse or acute sterile appendage at apex. Fruit a berry, 3 to 5 mm. across, ellipsoid. Sced 1.2 to 1.5 mm. long, 0.7 to 1 mm. wide, hard, ovoid. The taros are closely related to the yautias, or taniers (Xanthosoma spp.), and the alocasias (Alocasia spp.), as well as to the dasheens. In the literature dealing with the edible aroids, there has been considerable confusion in the identification of these groups. As far as the writers can determine, there is no apparent difference between the taros and dasheens in morphology of the petioles and blades. Except for the Pika taros, all forms of both have peltate leaves. The corms of the dasheens can be stored for 2 to 6 1110nths after harvesting without appreciable deterioration in quality whereas the Polynesian taros almost invariably rot or become inedible within 1 Eight botanical varieties-nearly all of them considered as distinct species at times in the past--of Colocasia escu/cnta, besides the variety typica, have recently been published (5). They arc as follows: var. ny",phaeifolia (Vent.) A. F. Hill comb. nov. var. globll/ifera (Eng!. & Krause) Young. var. aquati/is Hasskar!. var. acris (R. Dr.) A. F. Hill com". nov. ,ar. antiquor ..", (Schott) Hubbard & Rehder. var. eltcltlora (C. Koch & Sella) A. F. Hill com". nov. var. fontanesii (Schott) A. F. Hill comb. nov. var. illustris (Dull) A. F. Hill comb. nov. Ta1'o Varieties in Hawaii 9 a month after harvesting. The corm texture of the two groups is distinctly different: dasheens have crisp texture and are easy to cut; the taros, on the other hand, have a somewhat tough, spongy texture with numerous fibers. Corms of dasheens cannot be made into poi; they bec~me mealy and flaky rather than viscous during the poi-making process. Dasheens almost invariably produce greater numbers of oha, and as 'many as six successive generations may be found in a single mature hill 8 months old. In these respects, the three Japanese taros growing in Hawaii (Alwdo, Tsurulloko, and Miyako) and one variety of unknown origin (Iliuaua) more closely resemble the dasheens than the native taros. Barrett (1) calls the dasheens "tuberous-rooted taros, usually of dwarfish habit." Yautias are differentiated from the dasheens and taros in several respects. The yautias, in general, make ranker growth, the plants are thicker-set, and the parent plants live longer than either the taros or dasheens. The sinus between the basal lobes of the leaf is always clearly cut to the petiole, as in the Piko group of taros, and, in the yautias, the primary veins of the basal lobes are exposed dire"ctly to the sinus for a distance of about one-fourth to one-half inch from the piko. The petioles of the yautias are nearly always covered with a certain amount of bloom, while the taros and dasheens are without this bloom. Except for two varieties (Tsurulloko and Iliuaua) , the edges of the taro petiole are more or less convergent along the groove or sinus except at the portion clasping the younger petioles, while those of the yautias are distinctly divergent. The starch grains of yautias are many times larger than those of taros or dasheens. PRESENT INVESTIGAnON SOURCES OF MATERIALS Collections of taro varieties in Hawaii have been made from time to time by various individuals and institutions. Since maintenance of taro involves considerable care, frequent replantings, and changes in location to reduce losses by disease, nursery collections have not been consistently maintained. With the waning in importance and diversity of uses of taro, nursery collections have decreased in size and number, and some of the rarer varieties have gone out of existence. Others are to be found only occasionally, usually as mixtures with the more common forms. The lesser-known 10 Bulletin 84, Hawaii Experiment Station varieties are mostly in rem?te horne plantings of the old Hawaiians or growing wild in the wooded uplands and moist valleys. In the present investigation every known source of material was used. Upland varieties were collected chiefly from the districts of Kona, Puna, and Honokaa on the island of Hawaii, and Makawao, Keanae, and Olowalu, on Maui. The commercial wetland areas, principally on Oahu and Maui, were surveyed, and plants showing distinct morphological differences were secured. Through the courtesy of E. S. C. Handy of the Bishop Museum, a collection of 86 varieties was received in 1934-35. Twenty-five of these were new additions to the station nursery; the remainder were either duplications or synonyms. Sixteen varieties of South Sea taros, collected by G. P. Wilder during an extended exploration of that area in 1927, were received in 1928. From all sources a little over 200 accessions were made. This number was reduced to 84 distinct forms, including 69 native varieties, 10 from the South Seas, 3 Japanese, 1 Chinese, and 1 of unknown but presumably Asiatic origin. Only 74 varieties have persisted in the station collection until the completion of the study. Reference to the previously cited list of varieties compiled by MacCaughey and Emerson makes evident the fact that many are missing from the present collection. Accepting their estimate of about 50 percent synonymy among the 300 varietal names listed, the old Hawaiian recognized 150 to 175 distinguishable forms. Because of vague, fragmentary, and often contradictory descriptions, it is not always possible to determine when synonymy occurs in the list. However, there is ample evidence that many varieties have become extinct or at least do not exist in present collections or cultivated areas. For example, the 25 group names listed were all recognized by old Hawaiians; in the station collection, only 8 groups are found .. Groups occurring in their list with as many as five varieties are now represented by a single form-they list five forms of Piialii and five of Apuwai whereas only one of each is now available. These were important groups and the uses of the different forms were apparently well known. In other groups, such as Ahe, Eulu, and Lau, none of the varieties has been found. With the development of a system of classification, further collections and identifications will be greatly simplified, and a resurvey of the areas already covered as well as long-abandoned sections may Taro Varieties in Hawaii 11 disclose other varieties. The present collection, however, undoubtedly represents most if not all of the varieties now under active cultivation. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS DESCRIBED Before attempting to set up a system of classification, a careful description was made of specimens of each variety grown at the Pensacola Branch Station for from one to three generations. After each harvest, those forms showing marked similarity were grouped together, and in cases of suspected synonymy the forms were grown side by side and carefully checked before eliminations were made. The following data, when available, were taken on from 5 to 50 plants of each horticultural variety: General characters: Height, position, rigidity, maturity, reproduction, and distinguishing characters. Petiole: Length and coloring, including special markings throughout, at the edge, the apex, and the base. Leaf blade: Size, shape, texture, color, and special characteristics of pika, veins, margins, lobes, and sinus. "Corm: Color of flesh, fibers, and skin. Inflorescence: Length, coloring, and shape of peduncle, spathe, spadix, and sterile appendage. A key has been prepared which classifies only the 74 varieties which have persisted in the station collection. The 10 varieties which have not been continuously propagated are described from previously recorded data but, due to inability to check distinguishing characters, are not classified. Since many varieties of taro seldom, if ever, produce inflorescences, the classification system is based on vegetative characters. Marked changes occur in the plant during its growth, especially as regards quantitative characters. The succeeding leaves and petioles increase in size to a maximum which occurs about 6 months after planting; from this stage to full maturity they decrease markedly. In addition, the color and markings of petioles and of corm flesh, the development of aha and rhizomes, and branching of corms depend upon stage of maturity to some extent. Extremes of fertility, moisture, and sunlight affect both quantitative and qualitative characters. It is important that observations and measurements be made on plants grown under normal conditions and not far removed from the period 12 Bulletin 84, Hawaii Experiment Station of maximum top growth. Depending somewhat on growing conditions and the variety of taro, this period would generally range between 4 and 8 months of age. The taro plant is very succulent and loses its turgor soon after being pulled. Observations should, therefore, be made in the field as to open or upright position of petioles, texture, surface characteristics, and position of leaf blades. The key for the classification of taro is admittedly open to criticism from many standpoints. In any vegetative key exact measuremcnts, although helpful, are not reliable; this is particularly true of taro with its distinct cyclic growth. Color is, likewise, a somewhat variable attribute, but by and large it is the most stable of the characters used in the key. The characters used for subdivisions often group varieties which have little else in common. Such imperfections in a system of classification are not limited to taro-they occur with most plants in which a large number of forms or varieties have developed through vegetative propagation. In this category may be listed the sweetpotato, sugarcane, and banana. Despite the obvious limitations, it is believed that the key as worked out is a distinct advance over previous attempts to list and describe large numbers of taro varieties with no grouping of related varieties or elimination of synonyms. SYSTEM OF NOMENCLATURE The old Hawaiian was an unusually keen observer of nature. He quickly noted small differences between plant forms, and there are few species which have existed in Hawaii for any appreciable length of time which do not have Hawaiian names. This is particularly true with respect to varieties of taro. In general, the names pertain to some obvious growth feature, a special use, or a specific locality. That the Hawaiian recognized definite groupings of varieties is also evident from the names. In the system of classification herein used, it has been found possible to maintain, to a large extent, the groupings used by the Hawaiians. With few exceptions, the variety names have been re':' tained, and from them considerable information can often be obtained as to origin, use, or growth characters. Such groupings as Mana and Pilw were based on very obvious and constant charactcrs which aid materially in identifying the varieties. In order to retain the Hawaiian nomenclature to the maximum Taro Varieties in Hawaii 13 and at the same time make evident the grouping, the following system has been adopted: A single-word name indicates that the variety does not belong to a recognized group; for example, Elepaio, Olle, and Akada. A binomial name has been used where the variety is included in a group, the first word being the group name and the seconu generally a descriptive word. Thus, in Pilw Eleele, Pika indicates that the variety belongs to the group having the sinus cut to the piko; and Eleele is the descriptive name. Pikoele, being a single name, indicates that the variety does not belong to the Piko group. 'When a variety not belonging to any recognized group originally had a double name, the two words were hyphenated to indicate that the first was not a group name-as in KuJ1tu-eleele. Occasionally a variety within a group had a three-word name. To maintain the binomial system, the last two words were hyphenated-as in Lauloa Palakea-keokeo. In giving the names of varieties, it is customary to consiuer priority of nomenclature, but this has not been possible in some instances. Where synonymy has been definitely established for two or more varietal names, the one in most general use was adopted and the others were listed as synonyms. In a few cases, a group name was placed before the common name to indicate that the variety possessed the group attributes. The varieties introduced recently from the South Seas were usually given the names of their places of origin; for a few forms entirely new Hawaiian names have been adopted. 14 KEY TO TARO VARIETIES Parent corms small (usually less than 10 em. in diameter), producing numerous oha (rarely less than 20) which seldom develop shoots until the plants are mature (Japanese varieties). b Petiole sinus divergent 1. Tsurunoko bb Petiole sinus not divergent. c Petioles greenish-bronze shading into reddish-purple at apex and 2. Akado base cc Petioles dark green, slightly diffused with reddish-brown at apex 3. Miyako and near base, light pink at base aa Parent corms not small, producing fewer oha. b Parent corms large (usually over 15 em. in diameter) ; petiole sinus conspicuously divergent 4. Iliuaua bb Parent corms intermediate in size (usually from 10 to 15 cm. in diameter) ; petiole sinus not divergent. c Corms with conspicuous purple fibers in white flesh S. Bun-long cc Corms without purple fibers in white flesh (Polynesian varieties). d Parent corms producing rhizomes. e Rhizomes long (10 to 70 cm.), slender 6. Aweu ee Rhizomes short (6 to 15 cm.), thick. 7. Kakakura-ula dd Parent corms not producing rhizomes. e Parent corms branching at apex (Group Mana). f Corm flesh yellow. g Petioles pink or reddish at base. h Young petioles pink throughout, at maturity yellowishgreen except at base 8. Mana Ulu hh P~tioles chiefly pale green, prominently flecked with reddish-brown or purplish, especially near base ............................................................................9. Mana Opelu gg Petioles white at base. 11 Petioles dark green with conspicuous, broad blackish edges 10. Mana Weo "" Petioles dark green with broad pinkish edges..ll. Mana UUuli f f Corm flesh whitish tinged with pink at apex or chalky white. g Corm flesh whitish tinged with pink at apex; petioles tinged or flecked with purple. h Petioles flecked with purplish-red, almost lacking in green 12. Mana Ulaula "" Petioles dark green tinged with brownish-purple, dark 13. Mana Lauloa brownish-purple on basal third gg Corm flesh chalky white; petioles chiefly green. h Petioles dark green with distinct pinkish-red edges ......................................................................14. Mana Keokeo /all Petioles pale green, pink at edges 1S. Mana Kukuluhema (J Taro Varieties in Hawaii ee Parent corms not branching at apex. 15 f Blades with sinus cut to the petioles; petioles with conspicuous ridge above sinus (Group Pika). g Corm flesh lilac-purple. h Blades with outgrowths of dark, crinkled tissue on lower surface ..................................................................................16. Piko Lehua-apei hh Blades without outgrowths of crinkled tissue 17. Piko Ulaula gg Corm flesh whitish. h Petioles light green, usually with dark green blotches adjacent to edges. i Petioles pink at base 18. Piko Kea ii Petioles white at base 19. Piko Keokeo hh Petioles dark green or reddish-brown to purplish. i Petioles dark green. j Petioles pink at base.......................................................20. Piko Uaua j j Petioles white at base 21. Piko Uliuli ii Petioles reddish-brown to purplish, especially on lower half ......................................................................................22. Piko Eleele f f Blades not cut to the piko; petioles without conspicuous ridge above smus. g Blades distinctly variegated. h Blades mottled over entire surface. i Blades mottled green and white 23. Elepaio ii Blades mottled green and purple 24. Uahiapele hh Blades with purplish-black splotching around piko, running into primary veins. Petioles dark green with distinct whitish edges 2S. Manapiko u Petioles yellowish-green with indistinct pinkish to whitish 26. Tahitian edges gg Blades not distinctly variegated. h Blades concave and pendant, the margins with numerous fine undulations; petioles slender, widely spreading (Group Kai)l i Petioles diffused with light reddish-brown 27. Kai Uliuli u Petioles light yellowish-green to whitish. j Petioles white at base 28. Kai Ala j j Petioles pink at base 29. Kai Kea hh Blades and petioles not combining all of the above characters. i Petioles short, usually less than one and one-half times the width of the blades. j Blades cup-shaped and crinkled. k Blades conspicuously cup-shaped; piko noticeably depressed 30. Apuwai kk Blades only slightly cup-shaped. 1 The Kai group may readily be identified in the field, although it is difficult to evaluate the distinguishing vegetative characters. Probably tbe slenderness of the petioles, which causes them to curve perceptibly, and the pendant position of the leaf blades give the group its characteristic appearance. 16 Bulletin 84, Hawa,ii Experiment Station I Corm flesh white II Corm flesh lilac-purple 31. Apu 32. Piialii J J Blades crinkled but not cup-shaped. k Petioles very dark green with distinct, narrow reddish edges 33. Paakai . kk Petioles light green with inconspicuous, light greenish edges 34. Moana 11 Petioles not short, usually more than one and one-half times the width of the blades. J Petioles tall, usually more than three times the width of the blades. Il Blades conspicuously concave; lobes overlapping 35. Akuugawai I,ll Blades slightly concave; margins with a few large undulations (Group LaItIoa). Petioles purplish-black or dark green suffused with purplishblack almost throughout. 111 Petioles purplish-black throughout. n Petioles with greenish edges 36. Lauioa Eleele-omao 1111 Petioles with pinkish edges 37. Lauloa Eleele-uta 1II11l Petioles dark green heavily suffused with purplish-black. n Petioles white at base. o Petioles with blackish edges 38. Lauloa Palakea-eleele 00 Petioles with reddish-pink to almost whitish edges.......... ............................................................39. Lauloa Palakea-ula 1111 Petioles pink at base .40. Lauloa Palakea-papamu II Petioles not purplish-black or heavily suffused with purplishblack. til Petioles dark green with needle-like black streaks . ............................................................41. Lauloa Palakea-keokeo 1/l1ll Petioles medium green tinged with reddish-purple at apex.... ............................................................................42. Lauloa Keokeo j j Petioles intermediate in height, usually from two to two and one-half times the width of the blades. k Petioles highly colored over three-fourths their length. I Petioles with blackish hue. 111 Corm flesh lilac-purple (Group Eleele). Il Petioles with narrow reddish edges .43. Eleele Makoko 1111 Petioles with narrow brownish to greenish edges . ............................................................................44. Eleele Naioea II1I1l Corm flesh white. 11 Petioles with inconspicuous yellowish-green to light pinkish 45. Manini-owali stripes nn Petioles without stripes. o Petioles blackish almost throughout with indistinct edges .......................................................................... 46. Kumu-eleele 00 Petioles purplish-black shading into yellowish-green at apex, red at edges ,47. Nawao :ig-. 2.-Types of leaf hlades-Upper left: Sag-ittatc leaf hlade of Malla/>i!.{). with narrow sinlls and splotched pilm; upper right: Narrowly sagittate leaf hlade of Malia Ulillii; lower left: Broadly ovate leaf blade of Ilil/alla, with shallow wide sinus; lower right: Ovate leaf blade of Uiallla KIUlHI. l'ig. 2.-Types of leaf blades (continued)-Upper leit: Narrowly sagittate leai blade of l,illIloa Palahl'a-papalllll. with a few large undulations; upper right: Sagittate leaf blade of a yautia variety, with the characteristic Y -shaped sinus; lower left: Sagittate leaf blade of I.chlla Mao/i .. lower right: Ovate leaf blade of Pilw Ufill/i, with sinus cut to the pilw. Ta.ro Varieties in Hawaii 17 II Petioles with reddish hue. m Petioles pink at base (Group Ulaula). Il Petioles brilliant light red .4!!. Ulaula Kumu 1lI~ Petioles deeper red, with inconspicuous stripes. a Petioles dark reddish-purple with lighter red stripes . ....................................................................................49. Ulaula Poni 00 Petioles red to reddish-purple with yellowish-green stripes.... ................................................................................50. Ulaula Moano 111m Petioles white at base 51. Niue-ulaula H Petioles not highly colored over three-fourths their length. l Petioles prominently striped or streaked. 111 Petioles with green and highly colored stripes or streaks. n Petioles green with reddish-purple or purplish-black stripes. a Corm flesh lilac-purple 52. Oopukai 00 Corm flesh white (Group M anini). p Petioles dark green with broad purplish-black stripes, especially near base 53. Manini Uliuli pp Petioles light green with narrow stripes. q Petioles with interrupted reddish-purple stripes, more prominent toward base 54. Manini Kca qq Petioles with profuse purplish-black stripes . ..................................................................55. Manini Toretore m~ Petioles streaked with pink or red and green on certain portions only. a Petioles dark green brilliantly streaked with red at apex and at base 56. Papakolea-koae 00 Petioles nearly solid pink at base with narrow green stripes, green above 57. Ula 111m Petioles with light and dark green stripes. 1~ Petioles conspicuously purplish-black at edges S8. Nihopuu 1lI~ Petioles light pinkish at edges. a Petioles strongly tinged with reddish-purple on upper third ................................................................................ 59. Manini-opelu 00 Petioles only slightly tinged with purple on upper half..60. Hinupuaa II Petioles not prominently striped or streaked. III Petioles colored over about half of length. n Petioles dark green shaded with reddish-brown, purplish at apex 61. Niue-uliuli 111I Petioles light green tinged with reddish-brown on lower half..62. Ohe 111m Petioles predominantly green. n Corm flesh lilac-purple (Group Lehua). a Petioles spreading, light green. p Petioles with pinkish-lilac edges 63. Lehua Maoli pp Petioles with broad purplish-black edges 64. LellUa Keokeo 18 00 Bulletin 84, Hawaii Experiment Station Petioles erect, dark green. p Petioles with narrow, dark reddish to purplish-black edges . .............................................................................................65. Lehua Eleele pp Petioles with indistinct reddish to whitish edges 66. Lehua Palaii ,m Corm flesh white. o Petioles pink at base. p Petioles with flecking near base. q Petioles flecked with light reddish-brown near base, greenish to light purplish near apex 67. Apowale qq Petioles with dark purplish tinge on lower third, with dark reddish-brown flecks ncar base, reddish at point of attachment to leaf blade 68. Wehiwa pp Petioles without flecking. q Petioles with distinct, broad whitish edges 69. Papapueo qq Petioles with indistinct, narrow pink edges 70. Kuoho 00 Petioles white at base. p Petioles with flecking near base. q Petioles with yellowish-green blotches adjacent to narrow red71. Leo dish edges qq Petioles with conspicuous, broad whitish edges 12. Maea f>P Petioles practically self-green. q Petioles erect; blades ovate 73. Haokea qq Petioles spreading; blades sagittate 74. Kalalau 19 DESCRIPTIONS OF CLASSIFIED VARIETIES 20 21 DESCRIPTIONS OF CLASSIFIED VARIETIES JAPANESE VARIETIES The Japanese taros are probably of Asiatic origin, having been introduced, presumably during the latter part of the last century, by early immigrants from Japan. They are characterized by symmetrically ovoid corms which produce as many as 20 or more cormels, or aha. The aha begin to develop early in the life of the mother plant, several generations having developed by the time the plant is mature. Except for a few of the oldest ones, the cormels remain dormant, and these dormant cormels are marketed. The Japanese taros differ markedly from the Polynesian taros, more closely resembling the dasheens. They are generally more hardy and disease-resistant, earlier maturing, and heavier yielding; yields of 15 to 20 tons per acre of salable cormels in 6 to 10 months are not unusual. They have better keeping qualities, remaining in excellent condition after 2 or more months of storage. Japanese taros are grown almost entirely under non submerged culture, but they are usually irrigated. The dormant aha are used for planting material whereas with the Polynesian varieties the huli are used almost exclusively. The Japanese varieties are not adapted to poi making but are used almost entirely as table taro. The plant is usually less acrid l than the Polynesian taros, and the petioles of the young leaves are often cooked as a vegetable. There are three Japanese varieties in the Territory. 1. Tsurunoko (Aminto) General characteristics: Short, spreading, moderately stocky, often maturing within 6 months, producing as many as 40 olla, mostly dormant; distinguished by light green petioles and divergent petiole sinus. Petiole: 55 to 80 cm. long, light green with slight light brown flecking near base, white to greenish-white at base, reddishApurple at apex, with inconspicuous reddish edge; sinus widely divergent. Leaf blade: 35 to 50 cm. long, 25 to 40 cm. wide, 30 to 45 cm. from tip to base of sinus, narrowly ovate, firm-chartaceous, light green with bluish cast; margins finely undulate, the marginal veins often purplish; piko yellowish to light purple; lobes obtuse to slightly acute with shallow, wide sinus. 1 All parts of tbe taro plant contain small needle-like crystals of calcium oxalate which cause irritation of the tbroat unless thoroughly cooked. They occur to a marked degree in some varieties but to only a negligible extent in others. 22 Bulletin 84, Hawait: Experiment Station Corm: Flesh white with yellowish fibers; skin white; cormels about 3 to 5 cm. in diameter. Origin, and derivation of name: Probably native of Japan; TSltnmoko refers to the prolific production of aha. Distribution: Most important Japanese variety in Hawaii, grown throughout the islands, almost exclusively under upland culture by Japanese gardeners, usually under irrigation alongside other vegetable crops. Use: Mainly as table taro; to a certain extent for taro sprouts. Remarks: Parent corms are discarded because of their pronounced acridity. The aha are much smaller than those of the other Japanese varieties and are the only ones which cause irritation. They are pared under water to prevent itching hands. If the cormels develop top growth, they become acrid and are discarded. The popularity of this variety is due primarily to the excellent keeping quality. 2. Akado (Ekaella) General characteristics: Medium in height to tall, stiffly erect, stocky, maturing within 10 months, producing more than 20 aha which remain dormant for several weeks; outstanding among the Japanese taros because of the vivid petiole coloring. Petiole: 60 to 90 cm. long, greenish-bronze shading into dark reddish-purple at base and apex, indistinctly edged, curved abruptly at apex so that blade hangs more or less vertically. Leaf blade: 40 to 55 cm. long, 30 to 40 cm. wide, 35 to 45 cm. from tip to base of sinus, broadly ovate, firm-chartaceous, dark green with bluish cast, often tinged with purple on lower surface when young, with conspicuous purple veins on lower surface; pika prominent, purple; lobes acute with shallow, wide sinus. Corm: Flesh white with yellowish fibers; skin purple; aha usually 4 to 6 cm. in diameter. Origin, and derivation of name: Probably native of Japan; called A lwdo because of coloring of petioles. Ekaeka, meaning "dirty reddish," is the name given by the Hawaiians, probably also referring to the petiole coloring. Distribution: Grown sparingly, almost entirely by Japanese gardeners in small patches, usually under upland culture. Use: Oha used principally as table taro; petiole stalks sometimes sold as greens; sprouts from small aha grown in darkness sold in limited amount. Remarks: The parent corms are edible but an aversion to them exists because of their extreme acridity. This variety is highly resistant to disease. It has the largest aha of the Japanese taros and probably has the best quality but is grown only to a limited extent because of its comparatively poor keeping quality. 3. Miyako General characteristics: Short to medium in height, stiffly erect, moderately stocky, maturing in less than 10 1110nths, producing more than 20 aha Taro Varieties in Hawaii 23 which remain dormant for several weeks; distinguished by dark green petioles diffused with reddish brown. Petiole: 55 to 70 em. long, dark green slightly diffused with reddish-brown near base and at apex, reddish-brown at edge, a pink ring at base with paler pink for about 3 em. above, curved at apex so that blade hangs almost vertically. Leaf blade: 35 to 50 em. long, 25 to 35 em. wide, 30 to 40 em. from tip to base of sinus, ovate, firm-ehartaceous, dark green with bluish cast; pillO light to dark purple; lobes wide and obtuse with shallow, wide sinus. Corm: Flesh white with yellowish fibers; skin white; eormel about 4 to 6 em. in diameter. Origin, and derivation of name: Probably native of Japan; the derivation of the name is unknown. Distribution: Grown in limited amount throl1ghout islands, usually under upland culture. Use: Chiefly as table taro; stalks and sprouts excellent as greens. Remarks: Similar in quality and texture to Akado. 4. Iliuaua (Palu) General characteristics: Medium in height to tall, well spreading, stocky, maturing within 9 to 12 months, producing from 5 to 10 olza which may remain dormant for several weeks; identified by exceedingly large leaf blades, very thick and firm in texture, and conspicuously divergent petiole sinus. Petiole: 80 to 100 em. long, light green shading to yellowish on upper third, usually brown or light reddish-purple at apcx, indistinctly reddish to whitish at edge, a pink ring at base with lighter pink for 3 to 5 em. above; sinus distinctly divergent. Leaf blade: 65 to 80 em. long, 45 to 60 em. wide, 55 to 70 em. from tip to base of sinus, broadly ovate, firm-chartaceous, drooping and often resting on the ground, light green; margins somewhat undulate; piko yellowish; veins brown or light reddish-purple on lower surface; lobes obtuse with shallow, very wide sinus. Corm: Very large, usually weighing over 2 pounds; flcsh white faintly tinged with pink, especially near the apex, the fibers yellowish; skin pale pink. Origin, and derivation of name: Unknown origin; it has been named lIillallo because of the firm tough leaf blades. In Kona, Hawaii, it is somctimes called Pake, which means "Chinese." Distribution: Limited; well adapted to upland culture. Use: Good table taro; the leaves are esteemed highly for luolt. Remarks: It is an outstandingly high yielding variety and is very hardy but because it cannot be made into poi, it is seldom grown. It is apparently more closely related to the Japanese varieties than the Polynesian varieties, especially as regards the corm characters. 24 Bulletin 84, Hawaii Experiment Station 5. Bun-long (Bun-lang-woo, Chinese) General characteristics: Tall, well spreading, stocky, maturing within 9 to 12 months, producing from 15 to 20 aha; identified by purple corm fibers. conspicuous against whitish corm flesh. Petiole: 75 to 110 em. long, dark green slightly tinged with reddish-purple on upper half, conspicuously purple at apex, indistinctly reddish at edge, usually an indistinct pinkish or purplish ring at base with white for 3 to 4 em. above. Leaf blade: 50 to 60 em. long, 35 to 45 em. wide, 35 to 50 em. from tip to base of sinus, ovate, drooping, dark green; margins slightly undulate; pika large, purple; veins light purple on lower surface; lobes acute with shallow, narrow sinus. Corm: Flesh white with conspicuous purple fibers; skin cream-colored, occasionally purple along leaf-scar rings. Origin, and derivation of name: Introduced from China; the Chinese name has been retained. Distribution: Grown rather widely, primarily under wetland culture, but of little commercial importance. Use: At the present time a large part of the luau sold in the market comes from this variety. The young leaves are considered desirable for lflall because of their large size, tenderness, and comparative l1onacridity. The corms are used as a table taro. Remarks: This variety has the same corm coloring as Trinidad dasheen. RHIZOME- PRODUCING TARO VARIETIES There are two varieties in this category but, aside from the fact that both produce rhizomes, they are apparently not related. The rhizomes are short and thick in one variety' and long and slender in the other, but in either case the aha are produced by the parent corm at the end of uniform, horizontal, underground stems. In the short-rhizome variety, the rhizomes are 1 to 1.5 cm. in diameter and 6 to 15 cm. long; the long rhizomes are 15 to 70 cm. long but only 0.3 to 0.5 cm. in diameter. Commercially, these are the least important of all the taros. They are planted in small areas in only a few localities, as the rhizomes increase the difficulty of cultivation and harvesting without damage to the parent corm or aha. The parent corms are also usually smaller than in other Polynesian varieties. Taro Varieties in Hawaii 6. Aweu (Aweo, Aweoweo, Aweuweu, J.1amauweo, Maauweo) 25 General characteristics: Medium in height to tall, moderately spreading, maturing within 9 to 12 months, producing from 10 to 15 long, slender rhizomes; distinguished by length of rhizomes. Petiole: 70 to 105 cm. long, light green often inconspicuously flecked with dark green near base, white at base, with narrow, light purplish to indistinct edge, curved sharply at apex so that blade hangs vertically. Leaf blade: 40 to 65 cm. long, 25 to 45 em. wide, 35 to 55 cm. from tip to base of sinus, narrowly ovate, thin in texture, light green; margins slightly undulate; pika greenish to faintly purple; lobes acute with shallow, narrow sinus. Corm: Flesh white with yellowish fibers; skin cream-colored, t1sually with pink or purple along leaf-scar rings, the outer skin shaggy and flbrolls. Origin, and derivation of name: Native variety; derives its name frolll shaggy outer skin of corm. Distribution: Formerly widely distributed in wild state, now scattered along streams and in forests in the mountains. Use: Good as poi, but not used at present because the corms are usually small; the leaves arc used for lllalt. Remarks: This variety was used by the old Hawaiians for poi only when other food was scarce. The corms are too acrid to be used as table taro unless cooked for a long time. Aweu is often called wild taro because of its frequent occurrence in the wild state. The rhizomes, sometimes as long as 70 cm., come so close to the surface that they appear like creeping stolons. 7. Kakakura-ula (Kakakura) General characteristics: Medium in height to tall, moderately spreading, maturing within 9 to 12 months, producing very early from 6 to 12 short, thick rhizomes; distinguishable by brilliant reddish-purpl~ coloration overlying light and dark green striping on petioles. Petiole: 75 to 95 cm. long, dark and light green-striped with strong tinge of reddish-purple almost obscuring stripes, indistinctly edged, white at base, curved at apex so that blade hangs almost vertically. Leaf biade: 45 to 60 cm. long, 30 to 35 cm. wide, 35 to 50 em. from tip to base of sinus, sagittate, firm-chartaceous, dark green with bluish cast; veins reddish on lower surface; pika purple; lobes acute with shallow, wide sinus. Corm: Flesh white with yellowish fibers; skin cream-colored to white. Inflorescence: Peduncle striped pink and light brown; spathe 24 to 32 em. long, the lower tubular portion 4 to 5 cm. long, whitish, flecked or indistinctly striped with pink and light brown, with reddish-purple margins, the upper portion orange with reddish margins, abruptly acute at apex but loosely convolute below, sometimes open near constriction at 26 Bulletin 84, Hawaii Experiment Station maturity; spadix 9 to 11 cm. long, the sterile appendage 7 to 13 mm. long, noticeably constricted, conspicuously acute. Origin, and derivation of name: Introduced from South Seas; since four varieties were received under the name Kakakttra., the descriptive suffix "ula" has been added to indicate a red Kakakl/.Ya.. Distribution: Limited; the variety has done well at Pensacola Street Station under upland culture. Use: Primarily as table taro. Remarks: This variety is one of the most beautiful of atl the taros. The predominating impression given by the plant is of the brilliant dark pinkish-red color; on closer examination almost every color of the rainbow may be found on the petiole. This taro might well be propagated as an ornamental plant. GROUP MANA The word mana means "branching" and refers to the habit of division of the parent corm, which is characteristic of this group. A single parent conn of Mana Uliuli may produce seven or more mana., or branches; the usual number for the other Mana is two or three. Branching takes place with most varieties only when the corms are fairly well matured; under some conditions of growth only a small percentage of the plants produce branches. Probably because of the branching habit, olza are produced sparingly and much later than in other taros. The petioles of the Mana are curved sharply at the apex, causing the blade to hang almost vertically. The blades are very narrow, and the primary veins are oblique, giving the impression that they are much more numerous than in the other groups although actually the number is practically the same in all taros. The coloring of the pi/co is also rather unusual in that color splotching extends along the midrib and the main veins of the basal lobes, forming a more or less distinct Y. The Mana are usually quite upright in growth, with rather stiffly erect petioles. The corms of the Mana taros have a somewhat dry, mealy, flaky texture when cooked. They are excellent as table taro but usually make very poor poi. The shape of the corms is irregular because of the branching. Most varieties are fairly heavy producers and mature comparatively early, in from 7 to 12 months. The M Gna are usually planted under upland culture. They are grown fairly extensively on the island of Hawaii, especially in Kana, Puna, and Kau. Mana Keokeo and MQ.11a Ulu are the two most popular varieties in this group. Taro Varieties in Hawaii 27 The Mana group is one of the largest; eight varIetIes are represented in the station's plantings, and descriptions of at least two others have been recorded. Commercially, the group is not important since it is little used for poi, but it is probably the most popular taro for the home gardens because of its excellent quality as table taro. The]"'1alU/. and the Lauloa taros are used in preference to all others for making the Hawaiian pudding liulolo} a conlbination of grated taro and coconut mille 8. Mana Ulu (Mana Owene) General characteristics: Medium in height, slender, erect, maturing within 7 to 12 months, producing two or three branches; distinguished by pinkishrose color of petioles. Petiole: 50 to 85 cm. long, pink when young, changing to yellow-green except near base, with narrow, indistinct, light pinkish edge. Leaf blade: 30 to 50 cm. long, 20 to 30 cm. wide, 20 to 40 cm. from tip to base of sinus, sagittate, vertical, firm-chartaceous, dark green or with bluish cast; pilw pink or yellowish, the color extending into the main yeins of the lobes; lobes acute with deep sinus. Corm: Flesh yellow with light yellowish fibers; skin yellow. Origin, and derivation of name: Native variety; called Ulu because of the resemblance of the flesh of the corm to the poi made from breadfruit. Distribution: Found extensively under upland culture in Kona, Puna, and Kau, Hawaii; does well under wetland culture on Kauai. Use: Mainly as table taro. Remarks: The orange-yellow flesh of the cooked taro IS much more attractive than that of most varieties. 9. Mana Opelu (Ala Pipika) General characteristics: Medium in height, erect, moderately stocky, maturing within 7 to 12 months, producing two or three branches; distinguished by the yellow corm flesh and heavy reddish-brown flecking Oil the lower portion of the petiole. Petiole: 60 to 90 cm. long, pale green prominently flecked with reddishbrown to purplish on the lower portion, with fairly distinct broad pinkish edge, pale pink at base with white ring. Leaf blade: 20 to 50 cm. long, 20 to 30 cm. wide, 20 to 40 cm. from tip to base of sinus, sagittate, chartaceous, dark green or with bluish cast; pika yellowish to reddish; lobes acute with deep sinus. Corm: Flesh yellow with yellowish fibers; skin cream-colored, occasionally purple along leaf-scar rings. Origin, and derivation of name: Native variety; named after the fish, OPeltl, because the Hawaiians used the corms as bait. 28 Bulletin 84, Hawa.ii Experiment Station Distribution: Planted in a few scattered localities on Hawaii and Maui, nearly always under upland culture. Use: Sparingly as a table taro. Remarks: According to the old Hawaiians, the fish bait was prepared by cooking and pounding the taro until it could be broken in small pieces. The pounded taro was placed in a small net bag and lowered into the water directly above a large net, previously laid. The taro was released from the bag by a sudden jerk of a cord, and as soon as the school of Opelll was within the large net, the net ,vas hoisted to the surface. 10. Mana Weo (WeD) General characteristics: Medium in height to tall, slender, stiffly erect, maturing within 9 to 12 months, producing two or three branches; distinguished from other Mana by conspicuous, dark purplish petiole edges. Petiole: 75 to 105 cm. long, slender, dark green with conspicuous dark purplish edge, particularly near base, white at base. Leaf blade: 35 to 50 cm. long, 20 to 30 cm. wide, 25 to 40 cm. from tip to base of sinus, narrowly sagittate, firm-chartaceous, medium green; pika yellow; lobes acute with shallow, wide sinus. Corm: Flesh yellow with light yellowish fibers; skin cream-colored, purple along leaf-scar rings. Origin, and derivation of name: Introduced from South Seas under the name of Wea,. having been classed as a Alana, the group name was placed before the common name. Distribution: Limited; little is known as to its adaptability. Use: A fair table taro. 11. Mana Uliuli (Yellow) General characteristics: Medium in height, erect, moderately stocky, maturing within 9 to 12 months; the most striking character is prolific branching, as many as ten branches often being produced. Petiole: 70 to 9S cm. long, olive-green tinged with reddish-brown and pink, the latter pronounced near base, lilac-purple at apex, with a broad, light pink to whitish edge, white at base with lilac-pink for 1 to 2 Clll. above. Leaf blade: 35 to 45 cm. long, 20 to 30 cm. wide, 25 to 35 cm. frolll tip to base of sinus, vertical, firm-chartaceous, sagittate, dark green; pika yellowish; lobes acute with wide sinus. Corm: Flesh yellow with light yellowish fibers; skin cream-colored, dark purple along leaf-scar rings. Inflorescence: Produced rather profusely; peduncle light green flecked with reddish-brown; spathe small, delicate, narrow, 12 to 16 cm. long, the lower tubular portion 2 to 2.5 cm. long, light green, the upper portion tightly rolled, light yellow; spadix rather delicate, 6 to 9 Clll. long, the sterile appendage 4 to 8 mm. long. Taro Varieties in Hawaii 29 Origin, and derivation of name: Introduced from South Seas under the name "Yellow," which referred to the color of the corm flesh; it has since been classified as a Mali-a taro and given the descriptive name Ulillli because of the dark olive-green petioles. Distribution: Limited; grown primarily under upland culture. Use: Makes good poi of distinctly yellow color. Remarks: Because of excessive branching, the shape of the corms is very irregular. This is probably the only South Sea introduction desirable for poi. The corms are similar to those of the Kai group, being tough and rubbery when cooked. 12. Mana Ulaula (Mana Ha Ulaula) General characteristics: Medium in height to tall, slender, erect, maturing within 9 to 12 months, producing two or three branches; readily identified by purplish-red flecking along the entire petiole, with almost complete absence of green coloration. Petiole: 70 to 90 cm. tall, slender, slightly curved at apex, flecked with purplish-red, almost lacking in green, with narrow reddish edge, a dark reddish-purple ring at base with lilac-pink for about 3 cm. above. Leaf blade: 40 to 50 cm. long, 30 to 35 cm. wide, 35 to 45 cm. from tip to base of sinus, ovate, thin in texture, light green; margins slightly undulate; pika small, purple; veins purplish on lower surface of lobes; lobes acute with narrow sinus. Corm: Flesh white tinged with pink, especially near apex, with yellowish fibers; skin dark lilac-pink. Inflorescence: Peduncle light purplish flecked with dark reddish-purple areas at base and above constriction; spathe 14 to 17 cm. long, the lower tubular portion about 3 cm. long, light purplish flecked with dark reddishpurple at base and at constriction, the upper portion yellow, tightly rolled; spadix 4 to 5 cm. long, slender, the sterile appendage 5 to 6 mm. long. Origin and derivation of name: Native variety; Ulatt/a refers to purplish-redflecked petioles: Distribution: Comparatively rare; planted in a few scattered localities on Hawaii and Maui, nearly always under upland culture. Use: Mainly as table taro for home use. 13. Mana Lauloa General characteristics: Medium in height to tall, stiffly erect, maturing within 9 to 12 months, producing two or three branches; characterized by large, somewhat ovate leaf blades and dark green petioles with dark brownish-purple on lower portion. Petiole: 80 to 90 cm. long, dark green tinged with brownish-purple, dark brownish-purple on basal third, fairly broadly edged with pink to whitish, a dark reddish-purple ring at base with lilac-pink-flecked area for 1 to 3 em. above. Leaf blade: 45 to 50 cm. long, 35 to 40 cm. wide, 35 to 45 cm. from tip to 30 Bulletin 84} Hawaii Experiment Station base of sinus, ovate, thin in texture, medium green; margins undulate; pika purplish; lobes obtuse, sometimes overlapping, with narrow sinus. Corm: Flesh white with pink apex and yellowish fibers; skin pinkish-lilac to purple. Origin, and derivation of name: Native variety; Lal/loa refers to large leaves. Distribution: Limited; grown primarily under upland culture. Use: Chiefly as table taro. 14. Mana Keokeo (Malla Ken) General characteristics: Medium in height, erect, maturing within 7 to 12 months, producing two or three branches; characterized by dark green petioles with distinct pinkish-red edges. Petiole: 60 to 85 cm. long, dark green, distinctly pinkish-red at edge, white at base. Leaf blade: 40 to 55 cm. long, 20 to 40 cm. wide, 30 to 40 cm. from tip to base of sinus, ovate, thin in texture, medium green; margins undulate; pilw small, yellowish; lobes obtuse, often overlapping, with narrow sinus. Corm: Flesh chalky white with yellowish fibers; skin white, light lilac-pink to purple at leaf scars. Origin, and derivation of name: Native variety; Keokeo refers to white corm flesh and white color at base of petiole. Distribution: Grown extensively at Kana, Hawaii, almost exclusively under upland culture. Use: Mainly as table taro; one of the favorite varieties for making !mlolo. Remarks: This is probably the most popular of the Malia, due to its large corms and ability to produce good yields even under adverse conditions. 15. Mana Kukuluhema (Ma1llla) General characteristics: Short to medium in height, moderately spreading, maturing within 9 to 12 months, producing two or threc branches; di fferentiated from Malia Keokeo by lighter petioles and whitish rather than light lilac-pink or purple leaf-scar rings of corms. Petiole: 50 to 70 cm. long, pale green, oftcn with light brownish fleckings near base and along margins, pink at edge, purplish at apex, whilc at base. Leaf blade: 40 to 45 cm. long, 30 to 35 cm. wide, 30 to 35 cm. frolll tip to base of sinus, ovate, firm-chartaceous, medium green; margins slightly revolute; pilw yellowish to light purple; lobes acute with narrow sinus. Corm: Flesh chalky white with conspicuous ycllow fibers; skin white. Inflorescence: Peduncle whitish; spathe 21 to 24 cm. long, the lower tubular portion 3 to 4 cm. long, light green, the upper portion yellow, tightly rolled; spadix 7 to 8 cm. long, the sterile appendage 4 to 5 mm. long. Origin, and derivation of name: Introduced from Samoa under the name 1'.1alllla. Because of the close similari ty between 111alia and 1'.1allII a, the Hawaiian K uklllllhcma, meaning "south," has been substituted for AIa1/.11(1.. Distribution: Very little known. Use: A fair table taro. Taro Varieties in Hawaii GROUP PIKO 31 The group Piko is comprised of seven varieties, in all of which the sinus of the leaf blade is cut to the point of attachment to the petiole. this point of juncture being called the piko, or navel, of the taro. Another unusual feature. of the Pilw taros is the presence of a persistent ridge on the inner surface of the petiole above its sinus. These two characters are found only in this group and seem to be consistently linked. The plants are medium in height, erect, and COlllpact in growth, with stiffly erect petioles and more or less horizontal blades. The leaves are comparatively small and usually ovate in shape. The group produces oha more freely than most other varieties. This is the most natural grouping of the taros as all the memhers exhibit close relationship. Most are rather late maturing, being harvested usually about 12 to 15 or sometimes as long as 18 months after planting. They are the hardiest group and, at the present time. are the most common of the so-called wetland taros. They make their best growth in the cooler sections of the islands with an abulldance of fresh cool mountain water for flooding the taro patches. They are by all odds the most important of the commercial taros and their popularity is steadily increasing, prohably due more to their comparative resistance to root rot than to any other single factor. All are known to make good poi. They are grown extensively throughout the islands, but are especially popular on the island 0 r Oah u. Pilw K ca and Piko Uliuli are the two most important varietie~ in this group. 16. Pika Lehua-apei (L('!zuG Apei) General characteristics: Medium in height, erect, moderately stocky, maturing within 9 to 12 months, producing from 5 to 10 oha; distinguished from other Pika varieties by outgrowths of dark green crinkled tissue 011 lower surface of leaf blade. Petiole: 60 to 95 cm. long, yellowish green with faint pinkish cast, usually faintly red at edge, a pink ring at base with pale pink for 3 to 4 cm. above. Leaf blade: 40 to 60 cm. long, 25 to 35 cm. wide, 25 to 40 cm. from tip to base of sinus, sagittate, tapering to a sharp point, concave, firm-chartaceous. dark green with pinkish cast when young; margins decidedly undulate: lobes acute with outgrowths of dark green crinkled tissues on lower surface, the sinus deep and wide. Corm: Flesh lilac-purple with light purple fibers; skin pink. 32 Bulletin 84, Hawaii Experiment Station Origin, and derivation of name: Native variety; generally known as LeIma Apei because of lilac corm flesh, but as the basal lobes are clearly cut to the pilw it has been grouped with the Pika varieties and the name Pika Lelmaapei has been adopted. Distribution: Found occasionally in wetland patches with Pilw Kea and Pika Ulillii. Use: Popular for red poi, some of the so-called LeIma red poi being made from this variety, especially on Oahu; the leaves are good for lllall. 17. Piko Ulaula (Haehae Ulaula) General characteristics: Medium in height, erect, moderately stocky, maturing within 12 to 15 months, producing from 5 to 10 aha; distinguished from Pika Lelwa-apei by lack of crinkled tissue on leaf blade and from other Pilw varieties by the lilac-purple corm flesh. Petiole: 75 to 100 cm. long, dark green with dark brown shading near base and a narrow reddish-purple edge, a dark reddish-purple ring at base with lighter reddish-purple-flecked area for 3 to 5 cm. above. Leaf blade: 35 to 50 cm. long, 25 to 35 cm. wide, 25 to 40 cm. from tip to base of sinus, sagittate, chartaceous, dark green with bluish cast; lobes acute with narrow sinus. Corm: Flesh lilac-purple with dark lilac-purple fibers; skin dark lilac-pink. Origin, and derivation of name: Native variety; Ulallla, meaning reddish, refers to pink corms which make "red" poi. Distribution: Apparently rare; has done well at Pensacola Branch Station under upland culture. Use: Makes red poi of good quality. 18. Piko Kea General characteristics: Medium in height, erect, moderately stocky, maturing within 15 to 18 months, producing from 5 to 10 aha,' distinguished by light green petioles and pinkish base. Petiole: 60 to 100 cm. long, light green, pinkish-red at edge, usually with adjac'ent dark green blotches especially near base, a pink ring at base with light pink for 3 to 4 cm. above. Leaf blade: 30 to 45 cm. long, 25 to 35 cm. wide, 20 to 35 cm. from base of sinus to tip, ovate, nearly horizontal, light to dark green; pika whitish; lobes narroYl and obtuse with narrow sinus. Corm: Flesh white with pinkish apex and yellowish fibers; skin pale pink. Inflorescence: Peduncle green; spathe 15 to 20 cm. long, the lower tubular constricted portion 3 to 4.5 cm. long, green, usually tinged with red at base, usually partially opened exposing ovaries, the upper portion deep yellow; spadix 5 to 6 cm. long, the sterile appendage about 4 111111. long. Origin, and derivation of name: Native variety; Kea refers to the light green coloring of the petioles. Fig. 4.-Top: A general view of commercial taro grown under wetland culture (note the embankments used for flooding the petioles; middle: flit/aua, a variety of taro with unusually large leaf blades and corms which, although the best yielder, is seldom grown because it cannot be made into poi; lower left: Lauloa Palakea-eleele, with large, long leaf blades with a few large undulations and the tall, erect petioles characteristic of the group Lauloa; lower right: Apuwai, characterized by short, stocky growth and more or less horizontal leaf blades which are crinkled and cup-shaped. Taro Varieties in Ha.waii 33 Distribution: Widely planted on all the islands, almost exclusively in wetland patches; although grown extensively in the lowlands, it appears to thrive better up toward the mountains where the water is cooler. Use: A very important poi taro, particularly on Oahu. Remarks: The corms have fairly firm texture and will absorb more water, in the preparation of paiai/ than most varieties. The poi is light bluish-grey in color and of very good quality. 19. Piko Keokeo (Haehae Keokeo, Uaua Keolzeo) General characteristics: Closely resembles Pika ](ea, but maturing within 12 to 15 months; differs in having white petiole base and chalky white corm flesh. Petiole: 60 to 95 em. long, light green, pinkish red at edge, usually with adjacent dark green blotches especialIy near base, white at base. Leaf blade: 30 to 45 em. long, 25 to' 35 em. wide, 20 to 35 em. from tip to base of sinus, ovate, pendant, light to dark green; pilw whitish; lobes narrow and obtuse with narrow sinus. Corm: Flesh chalky white with light yellow fibers; skin cream-colored. Origin, and derivation of name: Native variety; Kcohea, meaning light or white, refers to the corm flesh. Distribution: Mainly as a mixture among other Pika varieties. Use: Makes fairly good poi. 20. Piko Uaua (Valla-Piko) General characteristics: Medium in height, erect, moderately stocky, maturing in 12 to 15 months, producing from 5 to 10 aha; distinguished from other Pilw by dark green petioles and pinkish base. Petiole: 65 to 100 em. long, dark green, usually edged narrowly with dark pink or red, light pink at base with pink ring. Leaf blade: 30 to 45 em. long, 25 to 35 em. wide, 20 to 35 em. from tip to base of sinus, ovate, nearly horizontal, chartaceous, light to dark green; pika whitish; lobes obtuse with narrow sinus. Corm: Flesh white with slight pinkish tinge near apex and yellowish fibers; skin cream-colored. Origin, and derivation of name: Native variety; the descriptive name Ualla, meaning "tough," indicates that the extensive root system makes this variety difficult to pull under wetland culture. Distribution: Throughout the islands under both upland and wetland cultures; grown most extensively in Waipio Valley, Hawaii, under wetland culture. Use: Makes poi of good quality. Remarks: This is one of the hardiest of the Pilw taros, and probably the only one grown to any extent under upland culture. 1 In the mass the older resulting upon tbe the production of paiai, the cooked corms are ground and water is added to bring to a certain consistency. Tougb. rubbery, cooked taro, while difficult to pound under methods of preparation, is regarded as desirable because of tbe good quality of the poi. The yields of paiai and of poi, which is simply a diluted form of l'aiai, depend amount of water the taro will absorb during grinding and that added later. 34 Bulletin 84, Hawaii E:-cperiment Station 21. Piko Uliuli (Haehae) Pika Uli} Waianae) General characteristics: Medium in height, erect, moderately stocky, maturing within 12 to 15 months, producing from 5 to 10 aha}' resembles Pika Uaua very closely, but the petiole is white at base rather than pink. Petiole: 60 to 100 em. long, dark green, usually edged narrowly with dark pink or red, white at base. Leaf blade: 30 to 45 em. long, 25 to 35 em. wide, 20 to 35 em. from tip to base of sinus, ovate, nearly horizontal, firm-chartaceous, light to dark green; pika whi tish; lobes obtuse with narrow sinus. Corm: Flesh chalky white with yellowish fibers; skin cream-colored. Inflorescence: Peduncle green; spathe 15 to 20 em. long, the lower tubular constricted portion 3 to 4.5 em. long, green, usually tinged with red at base, usually open partially exposing the ovaries, the upper portion deep yellow; spadix 5 to 6 em. long, the sterile appendage about 4 mm. long. Origin, and derivation of name: Native variety; derives descriptive name, Uliuli, from dark green petioles. Distribution: Widely planted on all the islands, especially Oahu, almost exclusively under wetland culture. Use: A very important commercial poi taro. Remarks: This variety used to be grown extensively at Kaanapali, Maui, a region of strong winds, which caused the leaves to be torn-hence the local name Haehae. It is considered hardier than Pika Kea and shows less rot, especially in the lowlands where the irrigation water is warmer. 22. Piko Eleele (Haehae Eleele) Helemauna} Ipuolono} Makaopio) General characteristics: Medium in height, erect, moderately stocky, maturing within 12 to 15 months, producing from 5 to 10 aha; distinguished from other Pika taros by dark purplish petioles. Petiole: 55 to 85 em. long, reddish-brown to purplish, especially on lower half, with indistinct or narrow reddish edge and usually with adjacent dark green blotches, particularly near the base, a brilliant dark pink ring at base with light pink area flecked with light reddish-brown for 3 to 4 em. above. Leaf blade: 35 to 45 em. long, 20 to 30 em. wide, 20 to 30 em. from tip to base of sinus, horizontal, broadly sagittate tapering abruptly to sharp point, fairly firm in texture, dark green; pika light green to light pinkish; lobes obtuse with narrow sinus. Corm: Flesh white with pinkish tinge, especially near apex, and yellowish fibers; skin pale salmon-pink, often purple along leaf-scar rings. Inflorescence: Peduncle reddish-purple; spathe 15 to 20 em. long, the lower tubular constricted portion 3 to 4.5 em. long, green, tinged with red at base, usually partially open exposing the ovaries, the upper portion deep yellow; spadix 5 to 6 em. long, the sterile appendage about 4 mm. long. Taro Varieties in Ha:-&aii 3S Origin, and derivation of name: Native variety; called Eleele because of its dark petioles. Distribution: Grown either as wetland or upland taro; planted quite extensively at Kona, Hawaii, under upland culture. Use: A common poi taro; also considered an excellent table variety, and the leaves are popular for luau.. . Remarks: Piko Eleele does better in the upper valley areas where rainfall is abundant and the water cool; at low elevations in water which has become warm by passing through several paddies a soft starch is produced which rots readily. The name Piko Eleele is sometimes confused with Pikoele; the latter is not a Piko taro. 23. Elepaio General characteristics: Short to medium in height, moderately spreading, stocky, maturing within 7 to 12 months, producing from 5 to 10 0"(1; readily identified by green- and white-mottled leaves. Petiole: 50 to 75 em, long, fairly rigid, green- and white-striped, often slightly tinged with reddish-brown, especially on lower half, yellowish at apex, pink at edge, a pale pink ring at base with white for 3 to 4 em. above. Leaf blade: 35 to 50 em. long, 25 to 35 em. wide, 30 to 40 em. from tip to base of sinus, ovate, fairly firm in texture, slightly concave, green- and whitemottled; margins undulate; piko small, yellowish; lobes acute with very narrow sinus. Corm: Flesh white with yellowish fibers; skin cream-colored. Inflorescence: Peduncle green- and white-mottled; spathe 17.5 to 18 em. long, the lower tubular portion about 2.5' em. long, green-and white-mottled, the upper portion yellow mottled with white, slightly open near constriction; spadix 6 cm. long, the sterile appendage 7 to 8 mm. long. Origin, and derivation of name: Native variety; according to some natives it grew wild near the forest where the bird Elepaio made its home, but others maintain that this taro was formerly planted at dawn when the Elepaio was singing. Distribution: Found mainly on Hawaii in small patches, principally under upland culture; of little importance because of its low yield. Use: Makes good poi of a light gray color. Remarks: This variety displays true variegation, and the striking green and white mottling of the leaves makes the plant very attractive. The amount of white area varies to a certain extent, according to environmental conditions. 24. Uahiapele (Hiwa) Pau 0 Hiiaka} Ualehu} Uwahiapelc) General characteristics: Medium in height, slender, moderately spreading, maturing in about 12 months, producing fairly numerous oha (usually over 10); readily identified by mottled green and purplish leaf blades. Petiole: 70 to 85 cm. long, slender, lilac-purple flecked with streaks of purplish-black especially on lower half, distinctly purplish-black at edge, 36 Bulletin 84, Hawaii Experiment Station white at base, the apex whitish on outer surface and reddish-purple on inner. Leaf blade: 40 to 50 cm. long, 25 to 35 cm. wide, 30 to 40 cm. from tip to base of sinus, sagittate, fairly concave, conspicuously mottled with green and dark purple especially on lower surface; margins quite undulate; pika purple; veins light reddish-purple on lower surface of lobes; lobes obtuse to slightly acute with deep, narrow sinus. Corm: Flesh white with yellowish fibers; skin white with pink or light to dark purple leaf-scar rings. Inflorescence: Peduncle lilac-purple with occasional dark purple streaks; spathe 18 to 24 cm. long, the lower tubular portion 3 to 4 cm. long, green with lilac-purple flecks and a few purple streaks, the upper portion yellow, tightly rolled or sometimes open near constriction; spadix 6 cm. long, the sterile appendage 6 mm. long. Origin, and derivation of name: Native variety; called Uahiapclc, or "smoke of Pcle" because of smoky appearance of purplish- and green-mottled leaves and smoky gray poi made from the corms. Distribution: Formerly grown to some extent at Ewa, Oahu, under wetland culture, but at present found most commonly on Hawaii and occasionally on Kauai, under upland culture. Use: Makes a high-quality smoky-gray poi; formerly highly prized for medicinal purposes and as an offering to the gods. Remarks: This variety has many of the characteristics of the Kai group, in particular the tough, rubbery consistency of the cooked corm. 25. Manapiko General characteristics: Medium in height, erect, stocky, maturing within 12 to 15 months, producing from 2 to 5 aha,. recognized by purplish blotching on pika extending along midrib and on primary veins of the lobes, forming'a more or less distinct Y. Petiole: 65 to 80 cm. long, dark green, conspicuously whitish at edge, dark reddish-purple at apex, white for 3 to 4 em. above base, abruptly curved at apex. Leaf blade: 35 to 50 em. long, 25 to 35 cm. wide, 25 to 40 cm. from tip to base of sinus, sagittate, vertical, dark green with bluish cast, a dark purple streak on lower surface running from base of sinus to pika,. margins slightly undulate; pika conspicuously dark purple, blotched, the color extending along midrib and veins of lobes; lobes acute with narrow sinus. Corm: Flesh white with yellowish fibers; skin cream-colored, occasionally faintly pink along leaf-scar rings. Origin, and derivation of name: Native variety; the name lI1anapil;:o refers to the branching coloration of the pilw. Distribution: Rare variety. Use: Fair table taro. Remarks: This variety does not belong to either the Mana or the Pika group as the name might imply. Taro Varieties in Hawaii 26. Tahitian 37 General characteristics: Medium in height, moderately spreading, stocky, maturing within 9 to 12 months, producing from 2 to 5 aha; similar to M anapika but with much lighter petioles and leaf blades. Petiole: 70 to 85 em. long, rigid, light yellowish-green, indistinctly pale pinkish to whitish at edge, light reddish-purple at apex, white for 3 to 4 em. above base, abruptly curved at apex. Leaf blade: 45 to 55 em. long, 30 to 35 em. wide, 35 to 40 em. from tip to base of sinus, sagittate, vertical, light green; margins slightly undulate; pika conspicuously blotched with dark purple, running into veins; veins reddish on lower surface of lobes; lobes acute with deep, wide sinus. Corm: Flesh white with yellowish fibers; skin cream-colored. Inflorescence: Peduncle light green; spathe ;I.bout 30 em. long, the lower tubular portion about 5 em. long, light green with purplish area at base, the upper portion yellow, rather widely open at base upon maturity. Origin, and derivation of name: Introduced by Wilder from Tahiti; no name has been found for this variety so it has merely been called "Tahitian." Distribution: Little-known variety of limited distribution. Use: Mainly as a table taro. GROUP KAI This group, comprising three varieties, is distinguished by the concave, pendant blades with distinct, finely undulating margins, and by the tough rubbery texture of the cooked corms. The time of cooking is often twice as long as for other varieties-. A fragrant odor (ala) is usually emitted when the corms are cooked: hence the name Ala is sometimes used, instead of Kai} for this group. It is difficult to make poi from the Kai taros by the old Hawaiian method of hand pounding the cooked corms on a poi board, and even in the commercial poi factories, where machines are used for grinding the corms, the Kai taros generally must be run through the machine twice before the poi is satisfactory. However, they give a high yield of paiai. The Kai} the Pilw} and the Leltua are the three most important groups of commercial taros. They are used almost exclusively for poi making, and are almost invariably grown under wetland culture. The Kai are very popular on Kallai and are planted in several localities on Oahu. Observations seem to indicate that they are more tolerant of alkaline conditions than any other group, and of stagnant water. They are also tolerant of deep or soft patches whereas most varieties require a firm, relatively shallow soil, and there is evidence that Kai are more resistant to soft rot. 38 Bulletin 84, Hawaii Experiment Station Although this group is widely planted and the corms have important and characteristic qualities, the Kai have no outstanding surface characters by which they may be readily identified, especially if the specimen to be identified has been pulled from the field. Yet any experienced taro grower can readily recognize a Kai as he walks through a planting. The most outstanding feature seems to be the pendant position of the leaves. This apparently results from the slenderness of the petiole, especially above the petiole sinus, which causes the petiole to curve perceptibly and gives to the plant a generally widespread appearance. 27. Kai Uliuli (Kai Eleele) General characteristics: Medium in height, well spreading, maturing within 8 to 12 months, producing from 5 to 10 aha; identified by light reddishbrown tinge of petioles. Petiole: 70 to 85 em. long, diffused with light reddish-brown, conspicuously whitish to yellowish at edge, a dark reddish-purple ring at base with light pink for about 3 em. above. Leaf blade: 45 to S5 em. long, 30 to 40 em. wide, 35 to 45 em. from tip to base of sinus, narrowly ovate, concave, pendant, giving the impression of being slightly wilted, dark green; margins with numerous fine undulations; pika light green to faint purplish; veins light green on upper surface, usually light reddish-purple on lower; lobes obtuse to slightly acute with wide, fairly deep sinus. Corm: Flesh white tinged with lilac-pink, especially near apex; skin pale pinkish-lilac. Inflorescence: Peduncle yellowish flecked profusely with purple; spathe 18 to 20 em. long, the lower tubular portion about 4 em. long, yellowish-green with slight purplish tinge, the upper portion deep yellow, open near con.striction at maturity and tightly rolled above; spadix 7 to 8 em. long, the sterile appendage 4 mm. long. Origin, and derivation of name: Native variety; the name Ulillii refers to the darkish color of the petioles. Distribution: Well-known and distributed throughout the Territory, particularly on Oahu and Kauai. It is usually grown in areas which are inclined to be swampy or in deep patches. Use: Almost exclusively for commercial poi; the poi is dark bluish-gray and is of excellent quality. 28. Kai Ala (Ala, Ala Keoluro) General characteristics: Medium in height, well spreading, maturing within 8 to 12 months, producing from 5 to 10 aha; identified by widely spreading, light yellowish-green to almost whitish petioles. Taro Va1'ieties in Hawaii 39 Petiole: 75 to 90 em. long, light yellowish-green to whitish, distinctly reddish at edge, brownish at apex, a white or faint cream-colored ring at base with white for about 3 em. above. Leaf blade: 45 to 55 cm. long, 30 to 40 cm. wide, 35 to 45 cm. from tip to base of sinus, ovate, concave, pendant, light green; margins with numerous fine undulations, the marginal veins hard and crisp in texture; pika yellowish to light brownish; lobes obtuse with narrow sinus. Corm: Flesh white with yellowish fibers; skin cream-colored. Inflorescence: Peduncle whitish; spathe 19 to 22 em. long, the lower constricted portion 3 to 4 em. long, light green, the upper portion light yellow, somewhat open; spadix 7 to 9 cm. long, the sterile appendage 7 to 10 mm. long. Origin, and derivation of name: Native variety; the name A/a refers to the fragrant odor of the cooked corms, a characteristic common to all varieties of Kai. Distribution: Found only occasionally, almost exclusively under wetland culture, usually associated with Kai Kea. Use: Makes poi of good quality. 29. Kai Kea (Ala Kea) General characteristics: Medium in height, well spreading, maturing within 8 to 12 months, producing from 5 to 10 aha; except for the pinkish flush near the petiole base, it is very similar to Kai Ala. Petiole: 70 to 90 cm. long, light yellowish-green with pink flush particularly conspicuous near base, distinctly reddish at edge, light reddish-purple at apex, a reddish-purple ring at base with lilac-pinlt for 3 to 5 cm. above. Leaf blade: 45 to 55 cm. long, 30 to 40 em. wide, 35 to 45 cm. from tip to base of sinus, ovate, concave, pendant, dark green; margins with numerous fine undulations; veins light green on upper surface, usually light reddishpurple on lower; pika small, reddish-purple; lobes obtuse to slightly acute, quite undulate, with fairly deep, narrow sinus. Corm: Flesh white with pink tinge particularly conspicuous at apex; skin light pink. Inflorescence: Peduncle light yellowish-green; spathe 18 to 23 cm. long, the lower tubular portion 3 to 4 cm. long, yellowish-green usually with pink tinge and reddish area at base, loosely rolled and occasionally somewhat open, the upper portion yellow, loosely rolled and open near constriction; spadix 6 to 9 cm. long, the sterile appendage 7 to 11 mm. long. Origin, and derivation of name: Native variety; the name Kea refers to the light-colored petioles. Distribution: Most widely planted variety of the Kai, grown throughout the islands but particularly on Kauai and at Waialua, Oahu. Except in a few scattered localities in Hawaii, this taro is grown under wetland culture. Use: The poi is of excellent quality and was highly esteemed by the Hawaiian chiefs. 40 Bulletin 84, Hawaii Experil1tent Station 30. Apuwai General characteristics: Short, moderately spreading, very stocky, maturing within 6 to 9 months, producing from 5 to 10 aha; rcadily identified by the cup-shaped, definitely crinkled blades and light self-green petioles. Petiole: 35 to 50 cm. long, broad at base, thick and rigid, light green with white for 3 to 5 cm. above base. Leaf blade: 35 to 40 cm. long, 25 to 35 cm. wide, 25 to 30 cm. from tip to base of sinus, horizontal, very crinkled and conspicuously cupped, medium green; pilla and veins light green; lobes obtuse, distinctly overlapping, with deep, narrow sinus. Corm: Flesh white with indistinct, yelJowish fibers; skin cream-colored. Inflorescence: Peduncle light green; spathe usually loosely enclosing spadix to base of plant, light green on lower tubular portion, the upper portion 20 to 25 cm. long, light yellow, usually open and ordinarily rolled only at the tip; spadix usually 17 to 20 cm. long, a spongy naked base with the ovulate portion extcnding along about 8 to 9 cm. and ovaries sparsely arranged on the lower part, the sterile appendage about 1 cm. long. Origin, and derivation of name: Native variety; it derives its name from the fact that its leaves are shaped like a cup (aplt) and hold water (wai) in the form of dew and rain. Distribution: Essentially a wetland taro although it is found in a few scattered localities in Kana under upland culture. Formerly it was widely planted, especially in Kohala, Hawaii. It is now sometimes found growing wild in wet places near the woods. Use: This variety is now grown mainly for its leaves which are highly prized for luau. The corm makes good poi of very light color, soft in consistency, and easy to pound and prepare, and also serves as a good table taro. 31. Apu (Oapu) General characteristics: Short, moderately spreading, stocky, maturing within 6 to 9 months, producing from 10 to 15 aha; resembles Apltwai very closely, the latter having a more crinkled leaf blade and a deeper-set pika. Petiole: 40 to 60 cm. long, rigid, light green with inconspicuous greenish edge, white at base. Leaf blade: 45 to 55 cm. long, 35 to 40 cm. wide, 35 to 40 em. from tip to base of sinus, horizontal, ovate, somewhat cupped, light green; pi/w light green; lobes obtuse, frequently overlapping, with deep, narrow sinus. Corm: Flesh chalky white with inconspicuous yellowish fibers; skin creamcolored. Origin, and derivation of name: Native variety; it derives its name from the fact that the leaves are somewhat cup-shaped. Distribution: A little-known taro at the present time; the only planting found was on Maui. Use: Sparingly as a table taro. Taro Vmoieties in Hawaii 41 32. Piialii (Ahapii, Moiula, Molwlze) General characteristics: Short, erect, stocky, maturing within 8 to 12 months, producing from 2 to 5 aha; easily distinguished by broad, crinkly blades and short, stocky, dark green petioles tinged with pink. Petiole: 45 to 65 cm. long, fairly thick and rigid, dark green with pinkish tinge and conspicuous narrow red edge, a reddish-purple ring at base with lilac-pink for 3 4 to cm. above. Leaf blade: 45 to 55 cm. long, 30 to 35 cm. wide, 40 to 45 cm. from tip to base of sinus, horizontal, ovate, slightly cupped, crinkled, dark green with light pinkish cast on lower surface; pika small, light pinkish to greenish; marginal veins often tinged with red; lobes obtuse with shallow, wide sinus. Corm: Flesh lilac-purple with darker purple fibers; skin brilliant reddishpurple. Inflorescence: Peduncle yellowish-green; spathe 26 to 33 cm. long, the lower tubular portion usually 4.5 to 6 cm. or sometimes as much as 9 cm. long, yellowish-green, often tinged with red, the upper portion yellow, usually rather open or loosely rolled; spadix 9 to 12 cm. long, the sterile append" age 1.2 to 2 cm. long. Origin, and derivation of name: Native variety; the name Piialii means "ascending from the alii," and refers to the high esteem in which it was held by the chiefs. Distribution: Essentially a wetland taro although grown to some extent under upland culture in Kona, where it goes under the name fl.I01:/lla. This variety is one of the most important of the wetland poi taros, and is planted extensively on the windward side of Oahu. Use: Makes a red poi that is highly prized for flavor and quality. Remarks: This is one of the oldest varieties grown in the islands, known in the early days of Hawaiian history as one of the royal taros. It was considered particularly desirable as an offering to the gods. The Chinese generally harvest this taro at 12 to 14 months, the Hawaiian growers at 8 to 10 months when the quality is considered b,etter although the total yield is not so great. 33. Paakai (Launui Paalwi) General characteristics: Short, moderately spreading, stocky, maturing within 9 to 12 months, producing from 5 to 10 aha; distinguished by short, stocky growth and dark green petioles with distinct, narrow reddish edges. Petiole: 45 to 60 cm. long, very dark green with a distinct, narrow reddish edge, white at base. Leaf blade: 35 to 45 cm. long, 25 to 30 cm. wide, 25 to 35 cm. from tip to base of sinus, narrowly ovate, slightly concave, fairly crinkled, dark green; pilw light yellowish; lobes acute with wide sinus. Corm: Flesh white with yellowish fibers; skin cream-colored, sometimes reddish-purple along the leaf-scar rings. 42 Bulletin 84} Hawaii Experiment Station Inflorescence: Peduncle light green; spathe 21 to 24 em. long, the lower tubular portion 3 to 4 em. long, loosely rolled, light green with tinge of purple at base, the upper portion deep yellow, open near constriction even when young; spadix 7 to 8 em. long, the sterile appendage 8 to 9 mm.long. Origin, and derivation of name: Native variety; Paakai, meaning "salt," probably tefers to the somewhat salty taste of the poi. Distribution: Found occasionally on Kauai and in South Kona, Hawaii, usually under upland culture. Use: Chiefly for poi. 34. Moana (Mauna) General characteristics: Short, stiffly erect, stocky, maturing within 9 to 12 months, producing from S to 10 aha; characterized by short, stocky growth, broad, horizontal, crinkled leaves, and light self-green coloring of the petioles. Petiole: 40 to S5 em. long, light green with inconspicuous, light greenish edge, a white area for 3 to S em. above base. Leaf blade: 35 to 50 em. long, 30 to 40 em. wide, 30 to 40 em. from tip to base of sinus, broadly ovate, almost horizontal, somewhat crinkled but not cupped, dark green; pika yellowish; lobes acute and usually overlapping, with medium-cut sinus. Corm: Flesh white with yellowish fibers; skin white to cream-colored. Inflorescence: Peduncle light green; spathe 22 to 25 em. long, the lower tubular portion 4 to 5 em. long, light green, the upper portion light yellow, rather tightly rolled. Origin, and derivation of name: Native variety; M oall,a, meaning "broad" in Hawaiian, probably refers to the broad, ovate leaf blades. Distribution: A little-known variety, found in home plots on MauL Use: Table taro of excellent quality. 35. Akuugawai General characteristics: Tall, erect, stocky, maturing within 9 to 12 months, producing from 2 to 5 aha; identified by tall, upright, dark green petioles with distinct blackish edges, and horizontal leaf blades. Petiole: 80 to 9S em. long, very dark green with indistinct, light green streaks, often slightly tinged with purple, conspicuously blackish at edge, white or greenish-white at base. Leaf blade: 35 to 4S em. long, 25 to 30 em. wide, 3S to 40 em. from tip to base of sinus, narrowly sagittate, conspicuously concave, horizontal, dark green; pika purple; lobes obtuse, overlapping, with narrow sinus. Corm: Flesh white with yellowish fibers; skin whitish. Inflorescence: Peduncle dark green with brown flecking at base; spathe 26 to 28 em. long, the lower tubular portion 4 to 4.5 em. long, dark green with purple at base and at constriction and sometimes along margins, the upper portion dark yellow; spadix 8.5 to 9 em. long, the sterile Taro Varieties in Hawaii 43 appendage about 1 em. long, orange as contrasted to the yellow staminate portion. Origin, and derivation of name: Introduced from the South Seas by \Vilder; the name Akuugawai, under which it was introduced, has been retained. Distribution: Little-known variety of limited distribution. Use: Good table taro but makes very poor poi. Remarks: The rank, erect habit of growth is similar to that of the Lalllaa group. GROUP LAULOA The group Lauloa is characterized by long petioles and long, sagittate, usually quite undulate blades: hence the name Lauloa, meaning large or long leaf. The varieties within this group are nearly identical as to length of petiole and size and shape of the blade. The plants are tall with an erect, compact habit of growth and are the most vigorous of all the taros. They produce oha sparingly and mature usually in from 8 to 12 months. The group is represented by seven varieties in the station's plantings, and an eighth has been described from previously recorded data. The Lauloa taros are planted almost exclusively under upland culture, most extensively in Kana, Hawaii, where they make excellent growth, and also in Puna and Kau. They are comparatively nonacrid and, probably for this reason, were used by the early Hawaiians for medicinal purposes, chiefly in pulmonary disorders. They are now popular principally as table taros a1though they are still used to a limited degree for poi. The Lauloa group is somewhat unstable, the different forms producing occasional somatic mutations (4). 36. Lauloa Eleele-omao (Lauloa. Eleele, Lauloa H a Eleele) General characteristics: Tall, erect, stocky, maturing within 9 to 12 months, producing from 5 to 10 aha; recognized by purplish marginal veins on leaves and greenish edges of purplish-black petioles. Petiole: 100 to 140 em. long, purplish-black with fairly distinct light green edge, a dark red ring at base with light pink for 1 to 2 em. above. Leaf blade: 40 to 60 em. long, 30 to 40 em. wide, 35 to 45 em. from tip to base of sinus, sagittate, slightly concave, dark green; margins with a few large updulations, the marginal veins purple; pika small, purplish; lobes obtuse with narrow sinus. Corm: Flesh white, tinged with pink especially near the apex, with yellowish fibers; skin light to brilliant dark pink and occasionally purple along leaf-scar rings. 44 Bulletin 84, I-IaWllii Experiment Station Inflorescence: Peduncle purplish-black; spathe 30 to 35 em. long, usually curved and drooping, the lower tubular portion 5.5 to 6 cm. long, dark reddish-purple, the upper portion orange with reddish-purple margins, usually tightly rolled but sometimes slightly open near constriction. Origin, and derivation of name: Native variety; the descriptive name Eleele refers to the purplish-black color of the petioles and the suffix 01llUO to the light green edges. Distribution: Planted fairly extensively in the uplands throughout the islands but especially so in KQna, Hawaii. Use: Mainly as a table taro. Remarks: This variety resembles LauToa Eleele-uTa so closely that at times it is practically impossible to distinguish the two. Although the outward appearance is almost identical, the quality of poi made from Lauloa Eleeleula is far superior to that from this variety. The two varieties may be differentiated by the greenish edge and continuance of the petiole color into the leaf veins of Lauloa Eleele-omao in contrast to the more pinkish edge and the changing of the dark petiole color to a yetiow green just below the apex of LUI/loa El('ele-1I1u.. 37. Lauloa Eleele-ula (Eleele Lauloa.) General characteristics: Tall, ered, stocky, maturing within 9 to 12 months, producing from 2 to 5 oha; recognized by purplish-black petioles with pinkish edges. Petiole: 100 to 140 cm. long, purplish-black with pinkish edge, light green at apex, a dark red ring at base with pink for 1 to 2 cm. above. Leaf blade: 40 to 60 cm. long, 30 to 40 cm. wide, 35 to 45 cm. from tip to base of sinus, sagittate, slightly concave, dark green; margins with a few large undulations, the marginal veins purple; pilw small, purplish; lobes obtuse with narrow sinus. Corm: Flesh white tinged with pink, especially ncar the apex, with yellowish fibers; skin light to brilliant dark pink and occasionally purple along leaf-scar rings. Origin, and derivation of name: Native variety; the suffix ula refers to the pinkish color of the edges. Distribution: Planted somewhat extensively in the uplands throughout the islands, particularly in Kona. Use: Grown mainly for home use as poi taro. Remarks: Although in vegetative characters this variety is very similar to the other Luuloa, and it has occurred as a mutant forlll, in corm texture and quality of poi it is more closely related to the Eleele group. 38. Lauloa Palakea-eleele (Palakea., Lauloa Pala/zea) General characteristics: Tatl, erect, stocky, maturing within 8 to 12 months, producing from 5 to 10 aha; the conspicuous black edge is a distinguishing feature. Taro Varieties in Hawaii 45 Petiole: 100 to 140 cm. long, dark green heavily suffused with dark reddishpurple especially on upper half, dark purplish at apex, white at base, conspicuously blackish at edge. Leaf blade: 45 to 65 cm. long, 30 to 40 cm. wide, 35 to 50 cm. from tip to base of sinus, sagittate, slightly concave, dark green; margins with a few large undulations; piko purplish; veins dark purplish on lower surface of lobes; lobes obtuse with narrow sinus. Corm: Flesh chalky white with yellowish fibers; skin white or yellowish. Inflorescence: Peduncle yellowish-green with faint brownish tinge, often reddish-purple at apex; spathe 32 to 37 cm. long, the lower tubular portion 5 to 6 cm. long, reddish-purple, the upper portion dark yellow with reddish-purple margins, bent and drooping, usually tightly folded but sometimes slightly open near constriction; spadix about 11 cm. long, the sterile appendage conspicuous, about 13 mm. long. Origin, and derivation of name: Native variety; four members of the Lauloa group have the descriptive name Palallea, which refers to the soft, white consistency of the cooked corm. The distinguishing suffix, eleele, indicates the black edge of this form of Lauloa Pola/~ea. Distribution: Grown quite extensively in Kona, Hawaii, almost exclusively as upland taro. Use: Used primarily as a table taro, being considered superior to both Lallloa Palakea-Ileokeo and Lort/oa Palakea-lIla although the poi is considered inferior to that of any of the standard poi taros; highly favored as a medicinal taro by the early Hawaiians. Remarks: This variety is one of the hardiest of the taros, withstanding adverse weather conditions under which other varieties will not survive. Under favorable conditions it yields well and is con.lparatively early maturing. It is less acrid than most taros; hence its popularity for medicinal purposes. 39. Lauloa Palakea-ula General characteristics: Tall, erect, maturing within 9 to 12 months, producing from 5 to 10 010.; characterized by pinkish edge and white base of petiole. Petiole: 100 to 140 cm. long, dark green heavily suffused with dark reddishpurple especially on upper half, purplish at apex, white at base, with distinct reddish-pink to almost \vhitish edge. Leaf blade: 45 to 65 em. long, 30 to 40 em. wide, 35 to 50 cm. from tip to base of sinus, sagittate, slightly concave, dark green; margins with a few largl' undulations; piko purplish; veins dark purplish on lower surface of lobes; lobes obtuse with narrow sinus. Corm: Flesh chalky white with light yellowish fibers; skin yellowish. Origin, and derivation of name: Native variety of comparatively recent origin, probably arising through somatic mutation from LOIl/oo Palake(leleele; given the suffix lila because of the distinguishing pink edge. Distribution: Found occasionally among plantings of Lall/oa Palokea-elecle. It is considered inferior in quality and is usually rogued out. Use: Primarily as a table taro. 46 Bulletin 84, Hawaii ExperiHtent Station 40. Lauloa Palakea-papamu (Papamu, Lauloa Papaniu) General characteristics: Tall, erect, maturing within 9 to 12 months, producing from 5 to 10 oha; closely resembles Lauloa Palakea-elcele and Lallloa Palakea-ltla but differentiated by the pink petiole base. Petiole: 100 to 140 em. long, dark green heavily suffused with dark reddishpurple to blackish, especially on upper portion, purplish at apex, a brilliant pink ring at base, distinctly reddish-pink to almost whitish at edge. Leaf blade: 45 to 65 em. long, 30 to 40 cm. wide, 35 to 50 em. from tip to base of sinus, sagittate, slightly concave, dark green; margins with a few large undulations; piko purplish; veins purplish on lower surface of lobes; lobes obtuse with narrow sinus. Corm: Flesh white except for light pinkish tinge, especially near apex, the fibers yellowish; skin pink. Inflorescence: Peduncle yellowish, flecked with green and purple; spathe 20 to 24 em. long, the lower tubular portion about 4 em. long, light purplish, the upper portion medium yellow with reddish edge; spadix 8 to 10 em. long, the sterile appendage 11 mm. long. Origin, and derivation of name: Native variety of comparatively recent origin, probably originating through somatic mutation; the derivation of the descriptive suffix is unknown. Distribution: Found only occasionally among the other forms of Lallloa Palakea. Use: Chiefly as table taro. 41. Lauloa Palakea-keokeo (Lauloa Onionio) General characteristics: Tall, erect, stocky, maturing within 9 to 12 months, producing from 5- to 10 aha; identified by needle-like black streaks 011 dark green petioles. Petiole: 100 to 140 cm. long, dark green with a few short blackish streaks, tinged with reddish-purple at apex and often near edge, indistinctly reddish at edge, a brilliant pink ring at base with light pink for 2 to 3 em. above. Leaf blade: 45 to 65 cm. long, 30 to 40 cm. wide, 35 to 50 cm. from tip to base of sinus, narrowly sagittate, slightly concave, dark green with bluish cast; margins with a few large undulations; pika purplish; lobes aClltc with narrow sinus. Corm: Flesh white with pinkish tinge, especially near apex, and yellowish fibers; skin brilliant pink. Inflorescence: Peduncle green with black streaks, reddish-purple at apex; spathe 30 to 35 cm. long, the lower tubular portion 5.5 to 6 em. long, yellowish-green with reddish-purple at constriction, the upper portion yellow, curved and drooping, usually tightly rolled bnt sometimes open near constriction; spadix 12 em. long, the sterile appendage 12 to 17 nUll. long. Taro Varieties in Hawaii 47 Origin, and derivation of name: Native variety of probably rather recent origin produced through somatic mutation; this variety has much lighter petioles than the other Lauloa PaIallea-hence the suffix keolleo. Distribution: Found exclusively under upland culture, occasionally as a mutation from Lauloa Palallea-eleele; it is usually rogued out as it is considered inferior. Use: Sparingly as a table taro. Remarks: Four forms of Lauloa PaIakea are commonly known, all characterized by soft, white corms, anei distinguished from each other by some coloring on the petioles. Lauloa Palakea-lleokeo is the most easily distinguished, as the other three varieties are dark green heavily suffused with reddishpurple. The black streaking on the petiole of this variety is extremely narrow, most of the streaks being scarcely wider than the thickness of a needle and of uniform thickness for their entire length. 42. Lauloa Keokeo (Lauloa Ha Keoheo) Genera.l characteristics: Tall, erect, stocky, maturing within 9 to 12 months, producing from 3 to 10 oha; distinguished by practically self-green petioles. Petiole: 100 to 140 cm. long, medium green slightly tinged with reddishpurple at apex, pinkish-red at edge, a red ring at base with light pink for 3 to 4 em. above. Leaf blade: 45 to 60 cm. long, 30 to 40 em. wide, 35 to 45 em. from tip to base of sinus, narrowly sagittate, slightly concave, medium green; margins with a few large undulations; piko small, light purplish; lobes obtuse with medium-cut to fairly deep sinus. Corm: Flesh white with pinkish tinge, especially near apex, and yellowish fibers; skin light to dark pink. Inflorescence: Peduncle light green; spathe green on lower tubular portion with faint purp,Ie areas at base and at constriction, the upper portion yellow. Origin, and derivation of name: Native variety; this is the lightest colored of the Lallloa; hence the name Keolleo. Distribution: Widely distributed throughout the islands, almost exclusively in the uplands, but especially common in Kana, Puna, and Kau, Hawaii. This variety is probably the most important of the Lauloa. Use: Used primarily as a table taro. GROUP ELEELE This group, comprising two varieties, is characterized by a blackish or reddish-brown petiole with a dark reddish-purple ring at the base, a dark lilac-purple area for 3 to 4 cm. above the ring, and by the light lilac-purple corm flesh. The varieties in this group constituted the so-called "royal black taros" of the early Hawaiians. They 48 Bulletin 84, Hawaii E.1:periment Station mature usually within 8 months and are fairly high producers. The corms must be harvested soon after maturity as they begin to rot very quickly. Even the huH deteriorate if held over for any length of time after harvesting. They are grown primarily under upland culture and are especially popular in Kona where they are made into red poi of excellent quality. 43. Eleele Makoko (Nohu, M akoko ) General characteristics: Medium in height, well spreading, maturing within 8 to 12 months, producing from 5 to 10 oha; characterized by light purplishblack petioles shading into yellowish-green at apex and light lilac-purple corm flesh. Petiole: 60 to 85 em. long, drooping, light purplish-black on lower part shading into yellowish-green at apex, with an inconspicuous, narrow reddish edge, a dark reddish-purple ring at base with dark lilac-purple for 3 to 4 em. above. Leaf blade: 35 to 4S em. long, 25 to 3S em. wide, 25 to 35 em. from tip to base of sinus, sagittate, medium green; margins undulate; piko light brownish; lobes acute with medium-cut sinus. Corm: Flesh light lilac-purple; skin light reddish-purple. Inflorescence: Peduncle blackish; spathe 22 to 25 cm. long, the lower tubular portion 3.5 to 4.5 em. long, yellowish-green tinged with brown, with purplish areas at base and at constriction, the upper portion yellowish, slightly open at maturity; spadix 7 to 9 cm. long, the sterile appendage 6 to 7 mm. long. Origin, and derivation of name: Native variety; makoko is a reddish fish. Distribution: Not planted as widely as Eleele Naioea but its distribution is quite general; chiefly under upland culture. Use: Makes light red poi of good quality; although not important commercially, it is grown fairly extensively for home use. 44. Eleele Naioea (NtMoea, Eleele) General characteristics: Medium in height, well spreading, maturing within 8 to 12 months, producing from 5 to 10 oha; characterized by blackish petioles, similar to those of Kltmu-eleele, Lauloa Eleele-omao, and L01l10a Eleele-ula, and by dark purplish-lilac corm flesh. Petiole: 65 to 90 em. long, blackish with inconspicuous narrow brownish to greenish edge, yellowish-green at apex, a dark reddish-purple ring at base with dark lilac-purple for 3 to 4 em. above. Leaf blade: 40 to 50 em. long, 25 to 3S CII1. wide, 30 to 40 em. from tip to base of sinus, sagittate, drooping, slightly undulate, dark green, often with pinkish cast when young; pika inconspicuous, light reddish-brown; lobes acute with wide sinus. 48a Fig. 5.-Upper right: Mal/a U/i1lIi, characterized by branching" parent COrlll allll pendant leaf blades; LIpper left: M Ollila, with short, stocky growth alld slightly crillkled, horizontal leaf blades; middle left: Pilw Utill/i, one of the Ieadillg wetland varieties, with sillus cut to poillt of attachment with the petiole; middle right: lI.[lIlJ.ini 1'Ol'c(OI'(!, with slriped petioles; lower left: J:lc/1I/.io, a picturesque variely with mottled green and white leaf hlades; lower right: /1'1('<'11, one of the few varieties of taro prodllcillg rhizomes. Nple the slender rhizomes 011 the foreground. Taro Varieties in H aWl.lii 49 Corm: Flesh lilac-purple with conspicuous darker purple fibers; skin dark reddish-purple. Inflorescence: Peduncle black; spathe 24 to 26 cm. long, the lower tubular portion 3.5 to 4.5 cm. long, yellowish-green tinged with brown, with purplish areas at base and constriction, the upper portion yellow, slightly open at maturity; spadix 8 to 9 cm. long, the sterile appendage 6 to 7 mm. long. Origin, and derivation of name: Native variety; the derivation of the descriptive name is unknown. Distribution: Very popular upland taro cultivated extensively in Kona, Kau, and Puna, Hawaii. Use: The lilac-purple corms produce red poi that is highly prized. 45. Manini-owali General characteristics: Medium in height to tall, moderately spreading, maturing within 9 to 12 months, producing from 2 to 5 oha; identified by yellowish-green to light red stripes on dark purplish background. Petiole: 80 to 100 cm. long, broad at base tapering to a narrow, often curved apex, dark purple with yellowish green, light red, or sometimes quite indistinct stripes, pink to whitish at edge, a brilliant reddish-purple ring at base with lilac-pink for 1 to 2 cm. above. Leaf blade: SO to 60 cm. long, 35 to 40 cm. wide, 40 to 45 cm. from tip to base of sinus, sagittate, firm-chartaceous, dark green with bluish cast; margins undulate; pilw purple; veins purple on lower surface; lobes acute with deep, narrow sinus. Corm: Flesh white with pinkish tinge especially near apex, the fibers yellowish; skin lilac-pink with purple along leaf scars. Inflorescence: Peduncle purplish-black or striped with purplish-black and yellowish-green or light red; spathe 26 to 30 em. long, the lower tubular portion 4.5 to 5.5 em. long, striped light green and purple with reddishpurple at base and constrictiun, the upper portion deep yellow or orange, sometimes with purplish margins, tightly rolled, open near constriction at maturity; spadix 10 to 11 em. long, the sterile appendage 11 to 12 mm. long. Origin, and derivation of name: Native variety; mallini is a small striped Hawaiian fish, while o'Wuli means weakness. Distribution: Comparatively rare; grown under upland or wetland culture. Use: Primarily as a table taro. 46. Kumu-eleele General characteristics: Medium in height, slender, erect, maturing within 9 to 12 months, producing from 2 to 5 oha; recognized by its blackish petioles with inconspicuous narrow reddish edges. Petiole: 70 to 90 cm. long, blackish, with inconspicuous narrow reddish edges, greenish at apex, a dark pink ring at base with light pink for 2 to 3 cm. above. 50 Bulletin 84 Hawaii Expe1'imellt Stati01i J Leaf blade: 45 to 60 em. long, 30 to 40 em. wide, 35 to 45 em. from tip to base of sinus, sagittate, drooping, thin in texture, dark green with bluish cast; margins slightly undulate; pika small, purple; lobes obtuse to slightly acute with medium-cut to deep, narrow sinus. Corm: Flesh white with lilac at apex, the fibers yellowish; skin lilac-pink, often dark purple along leaf-scar rings. Origin, and derivation of name: Native variety; KIt7I1U refers to dark pinkish tinge of corm, similar to color of the Hawaiian fish, and eleele refers to blackish color of the petioles. Distribution: Rare; collected by Dr. E. S. C. Handy from Olowalu, Maui. Use: Chiefly as table taro. 47. Nawao General characteristics: Short to medium in height, moderately spreading, maturing within 9 to 12 months, producing from 5 to 10 oha; characterized by whitish corm flesh and purplish-black petioles shading into yellowish-green at apex, with red edges. Petiole: 55 to 75 em. long, purplish-black shading into yellowish-green at apex, red at edge, a dark pink ring at base with light pink for 3 to 4 em. above. Leaf blade: 35 to 45 em. long, 30 to 35 em. wide, 30 to 35 em. from tip to base of sinus, subovate, fairly firm in texture, dark green; piko light yellowish to light brownish; lobes acute with deep, wide sinus. Corm: Flesh white with light pinkish tinge, especially near apex, and yellowish fibers; skin pink. Inflorescence: Peduncle light yellowish-green with brownish flecking at base; spathe 18 to 23 em. long, the lower tubular portion 3 to 4 em. long, light green tinged with purple at base, loosely rolled and sometimes slightly open, the upper portion clear deep yellow, open near constriction. Origin, and derivation of name: Native variety; nawao means "that which is bad" and may indicate that this variety had a poor reputation as a poi taro among the Hawaiians. Distribution: Found occasionally under upland culture in Puna, Hawaii. Use: A fair table taro. GROUP ULAULA This group, comprised of three varieties, is characterized by conspicuously red or purplish petioles, comparatively small, ovate blades, and reddish-tinged flowers. These taros produce aha rather freely. They are grown under either upland or wetland culture and are used both for poi and as table taro. Although found in many localities, the varieties are grown in small patches, chiefly for home consumption, and the group is of very little commercial importance. Taro Varieties in Hawaii 48. U1au1a Kumu (KU1nu) Sl General characteristics: Medium in height to tall, moderately spreading, maturing within 8 to 12 months, producing from 5 to 10 aha; identified by the brilliant light red petioles. Petiole: 75 to 100 cm. long, brilliant light red occasionally faintly diffused with yellowish-green, indistinctly dark reddish at edge, a dark red ring at base with dark pink for 3 to 5 cm. above. Leaf blade: 35 to 45 cm. long, 25 to 35 cm. wide, 25 to 35 cm. from tip to base of sinus, ovate, dark glossy green with bluish cast; pika conspicuous, purple; veins reddish on lower surface; lobes obtuse, undulate on margins, with narrow sinus. Corm: Flesh white with pinkish tinge, especially near apex, the fibers yellowish; skin pinkish-lilac. Inflorescence: Peduncle light red; spathe 21 to 23 cm. long, the lower tubular portion 3 to 4 cm. long, dark reddish-purple, tightly rolled, the upper portion dark yellow with tinge of red throughout, dark red with dark red streaks at margins, light red inside, partially open near constriction at maturity; spadix about 7 cm. long, the sterile appendage 4 to 5 mm. long, not clearly differentiated from staminate portion. Origin, and derivation of name: Native variety; named after the brilliant red Hawaiian fish, kllmu, because of the brilliant reddish color of the petioles. Distribution: Found scattered throughout the islands in small patches under both wetland and upland cultures. Use: Both as poi and as table taro, principally for home consumption; formerly this variety was used as an offering to the gods. Remarks: This is one of the most brilliantly colored of the taros. 49. U1aula Poni (Poni Ulaula) General characteristics: Medium in height to tall, moderately spreading, maturing within 8 to 10 months, producing from 5 to 10 aha; recognized by the dark reddish-pu;ple petioles, inconspicuously striped with lighter color, with bright reddish edges. Petiole: 75 to 100 cm. long, dark reddish-purple shading to purplish-lilac on upper third, inconspicuously striped with lighter color, distinctly bright reddish at edge, a purple ring at base with narrow, bright red area for 2 to 4 cm. above. Leaf blade: 35 to 45 cm. long, 25 to 35 cm. wide, 25 to 35 cm. from tip to base of sinus, ovate, dark glossy green with bluish cast; pika conspicuous, purple; veins bright reddish on lower surface; lobes obtuse, undulate on margins, with narrow sinus. Corm: Flesh white with pinkish apex, the fibers yellowish; skin brilliant lilac-pink, often dark purple along leaf-scar rings. Origin, and derivation of name: Native variety; palli, meaning "purple," refers to the petiole coloring. 52 Bulletin 84, H a'looii Experimellt Station Distribution: Often found associated with the other Vlallla, usually in the uplands. Use: Occasionatly as a table taro; in early times a purple pigment was extracted from the petioles and used by the natives for dyeing tapa, straw hats, etc. 50. Ulaula Moano (Ieie, law) General characteristics: Medium in height, moderately spreading, maturing within 8 to 10 months, producing frol11 5 to 10 aha; characterized by reddish-purple petioles with inconspicuous yetlowish-green stripes. Petiole: 70 to 95 cm. long, red near base shading to reddish-purple above, with inconspicuous yellowish-green stripes especially 011 midsection, indistinctly dark reddish at edge, a dark red ring at base with dark pink for 3 to 5 cm. above. Leaf blade: 35 to 45 cm. long, 25 to 35 cm. wide, 25 to 35 cm. from tip to base of sinus, ovate, dark glossy green with bluish cast; pilw large, distinct, purple; primary and marginal veins reddish on lower surface; lobes obtuse with narrow sinus. Corm: Flesh white with pinkish tinge, especially near apex, the fibers yellowish; skin pinkish-titac. Origin, and derivation of name: Native variety; named after the Hawaiian fish, maano, which is reddish to reddish-purple with brownish markings. Distribution: Planted in a few scattered localities throughout the islands, usuatty under upland culture. Use: Both for poi and as table taro, principatly for home consumption. 51. Niue-ulaula (Niue) General characteristics: Medium in height, well spreading, stocky, maturing within 9 to 12 months, producing from 5 to 10 aha; distinguished by its deep reddish-brown petioles and white base. Petiole: 65 to 80 cm. long, deep reddish-brown slightly diffused with green, purplish-red at apex, white at base, with a narrow, dark pinkish edge. Leaf blade: 40 to 55 cm. long, 25 to 35 cm. wide, 30 to 45 cm. frolll tip to base of sinus, sagittate, dark green with bluish cast; pika large, conspicuous, purple; veins distinctly purplish-red Oil lower surface, usuatly purplish on upper; lobes acute with narrow sinus. Corm: Flesh chalky white with yetlow fibers; skill white to cream-colored. Origin, and derivation of name: Introduced from South Seas by Wilder as one of two distinct forms named Niue .. the suffix tdaula has been added to designate the reddish hue of the petioles. Distribution: Limited; grown primarily under upland culture. Use: Principally as a table taro. Remarks: According to Christophersen (2), Nille is aIJparently the name for a group comprising at least three varieties; the writers have not, how- Taro Varieties in Hawaii 53 ever, been able to ascertain any characters by which the mcmbcrs of thc group are linked. 52. Oopukai (Kaimoi) General characteristics: Medium in height, well spreading, maturing within 9 to 12 months, producing from 2 to 5 aha; distinguished by lilac-purple corm flesh and reddish-purple flecked stripes. Petiole: 65 to 90 cm. long, light yellowish-green with dark purplc or rcdrlishpurple flecked stripes and blotches, dark red at edge, reddish-purple at apex, a dark reddish-purple ring at base with purplish-pink for 3 to 4 cm. above. Leaf blade: 50 to 65 cm. long, 35 to 45 cm. wide, 40 to 50 em. from tip to base of sinus, ovate, dark green with bluish cast; margins undulate; pilw purple; veins conspicuously reddish-purple over entire lower surface; lobes acute with wide sinus. Corm: Flesh light lilac-purple with darker purplish fibers; skin dark pinkishlilac. Origin, and derivation of name: Native variety; OO!,ukai means "sea guppy," a fish similar in coloring to the petiole of this taro. Distribution: Planted fairly extensively in Kona, Hawaii, primarily under upland culture, but found only occasionally on the other islands. Use: Mainly as table taro; the leaves are often used for luau. Remarks: Although good poi can be made from this variety, it cannot be stored as long as poi from other taros due to over-rapid fermentation. GROUP MANINI This group, named after the common striped fish 1nonini, is distinguished by green and reddish-purple or purplish-black striped petioles, white corm flesh, and quite narrow, sagittate leaf blades. Formerly it was grown quite extensively under wetland culture, particularly in Wahiawa, Kauai, which was noted for its Manini taros. At present the varieties are grown under upland culture in a few scattered localities for home consumption as table taro. Their popularity has declined somewhat, possibly due to susceptibility to disease or to higher yields of other varieties. 53. Manini Uliuli General characteristics: Medium in height to tall, slender, erect, maturing in about 12 months, producing from 2 to 5 aha; characterized by broad purplish-black stripes on dark green petioles. Petiole: 75 to 90 cm. long, dark green with broad purplish-black stripes especially ncar base, with light pink to whitish edge, purplish-red at apex, white at base with livid brown for 3 to 4 Clll. above. 54 Bulletin 84, Hawaii Experiment Station Leaf blade: 3S to 50 cm. long, 25 to 3S cm. wide, 25 to 35 cm. from tip to base of sinus, sagittate, thin in texture, dark green; margins slightly undulate; pika purple; veins reddish on lower surface of lobes; lobes acute with narrow smus. Corm: Flesh white with yellowish fibers; skin yellowish with purple leaf scars. Origin, and derivation of name: Native variety; derives name from dark striping of petioles. Distribution: Limited; grown equally well under upland or wetland culture. Use: Chiefly as table taro; makes poi of fair quality. Remarks: The petiole stripes are less interrupted than in other striped varieties and very broad, especially at base, often coalescing to form purplishblack blotches. 54. Manini Kea General characteristics: Medium in height to tall, well spreading, maturing in about 12 months, producing from 5 to 10 aha; distinguished by very light-colored petioles with indistinct reddish-purple stripes. Petiole: 6S to 90 cm. long, shading from light green to yellowish-green toward apex with a few indistinct, more or less interrupted reddish-purple stripes more prominent toward base, conspicuously reddish-purple at apex, an area of white for 3 to 5 cm. above base, with inconspicuous faint pink to whitish edge. Leaf blade: 40 to 50 cm. long, 30 to 35 em. wide, 30 to 40 cm. from tip to base of sinus, sagittate, thin in texture, drooping, dark green with bluish cast; pika purple; veins purple on lower surface of lobes; lobes acute with narrow sinus. Corm: Flesh white with yellowish fibers; skin white to cream-colored. Origin, and derivation of name: Native variety; probably called Kea because of very light petioles. Distribution: Planted in a few scattered localities, under upland or wetland culture. Use: Makes poi of good quality. Remarks: This variety seems to be fairly resistant to soft rot. It is the lightest in color of the striped taros, both basically and as to stri})es, which are, strictly speaking, minute fleckings arranged in definite, narrow lines. 55. Manini Toretore (~oretore)}torefore) General characteristics: Medium in height to tall, slender, erect, maturing within 9 to 12 months, producing from 2 to S oha; differentiated by profuse purplish-black stripes on light green background. Petiole: 7S to 100 cm. long, light green prominently striped with purplishblack nearly throughout, the upper section suffused with reddish-purple which runs into primary veins of basal lobes, reddish-purple at apex, whitish at base, with indistinct whitish edge. Taro Varieties in Hawaii 55 Leaf blade: 40 to 55 cm. long, 35 to 45 cm. wide, 30 to 40 cm. from tip to base of sinus, ovate, inconspicuously mottled dark and light green with bluish cast; pika large, prominent, purple; veins reddish-purple at margins and on lower surfaces of lobes; lobes acute with deep, narrow sinus. Corm: Flesh chalky white with conspicuous yellow fibers; skin cream-colored. Inflorescence: Peduncle striped dark purple and light green; spathe about 28 cm. long, the lower tubular portion striped like peduncle with deep purple at constriction, the upper portion yellow; spadix about 9 cm. long, the staminate portion yellow, the sterile appendage orange, about 810m. long. Origin, and derivation of name: Introduced from South Seas; Taretare is the name under which it was introduced but it has been classified under the M anini group. Distribution: Liitle-known variety of limited distribution. Use: A fair table taro. 56. Papakolea-koae (Papakolea) General characteristics: Short to medium in height, moderately spreading, stocky, maturing within 9 to 12 months, producing from 5 to 10 aha; the brilliantly red-streaked apex of the petiole is distinctive. Petiole: 60 to 80 cm. long, dark green brilliantly streaked with red at apex, especially when young, a brilliant deep pink ring at base, the area above red with a few broad green stripes, indistinctly pinkish at edge. Leaf blade: 40 to 55 cm. long, 30 to 35 cm. wide, 30 to 40 cm. from tip to base of sinus, slightly concave, thin in texture, medium green; margins slightly undulate; pika light green or tinged with red; veins brilliantly reddish on lower surfaces of lobes; lobes acute with wide sinus. Corm: Flesh white with pinkish tinge, especially near apex, and yellowish fibers; skin a brilliant pink, purple at leaf-scar rings. Origin, and derivation of name: Native variety; Papokalea, being the name of a land district, and kaae, meaning "the food of," probably indicates that this variety was the common food of the district. Distribution: Planted exclusively under upland culture in a few scattered localities, chiefly in Kona and Puna, Hawaii. Use: Primarily as a table taro. Remarks: The red coloration near the base of the petioles is often so narrow that it may not be noticed. 57. Ula General characteristics: Short to medium in height, moderately spreading, stocky, maturing within 9 to 12 months, producing from 2 to 5 aha; distinguished by a few narrow green stripes on the brilliant pink basal portion of the petioles. Petiole: 60 to 80 cm. long, rather rigid, nearly solid pink at base with narrow green stripes, the upper half green, distinctly reddish-pink at edge, a white ring at base. S6 Bulletin 84, Ha'looii Experiment Station Leaf blade: 40 to 55 em. long, 30 to 40 em. wide, 30 to 40 em. from tip to base of sinus, ovate, thin in texture, medium green; margins slightly undulate; pika yellowish-green to light green; lobes acute with narrow sinus. Corm: Flesh chalky white with large, conspicuous, yellow fibers; skin white to cream-colored. Origin and derivation of name: Introduced from Samoa by Wilder, ula means "red" in Samoan and probably refers to the brilliant pinkish-red coloration of the petiole bases. Distribution: Upland taro of limited distribution. Use: A good table taro. Remarks: The similarity between this variety and Papalwlea-lwae is rather striking, further indicating the close relationship between certain Hawaiian and South Sea forms. 58. Nihopuu General characteristics: Medium in height to tall, moderately spreading, maturing within 12 months, producing from S to 10 aha; identified by light and dark green-striped petioles and distinct purplish-black edges. PetiGle: 75 to 90 em. long, light and dark green-striped, the light green predominating, conspicuously purplish-black at edge, white to greenish-white at base. Leaf blade: 45 to 50 em. long, 30 to 35 em. wide, 35 to 40 em. from tip to base of sinus, sagittate, indistinctly light and dark green-mottled; pika purple; lobes acute with deep, narrow sinus. Corm: Flesh white with yellowish fibers; skin white. Origin, and derivation of name: Native variety, collected at Ewa, Oahu; the derivation of the name is unknown. Distribution: Rare; formerly grown to considerable extent in valleys near Schofield Barracks. Use: Makes a light-colored poi of good quality. Remarks: This variety is said to be susceptible to soft rot soon after maturity, necessitating early harvesting. 59. Manini-opelu General characteristics: Medium in height, well spreading, maturing within 9 to 12 months, producing from S to 10 alta; distinguished by profuse light and dark green striping of the petiole, with reddish tinge on upper third. Petiole: 6S to 90 em. long, distinctly and profusely dark and light greenstriped, strongly tinged with reddish-purple on upper third, white at base, light pinkish at edge, curved slightly at apex. Leaf blade: 4S to 55 em. long, 30 to 40 em. wide, 40 to 45 em. from tip to base of sinus, sagittate, thin in texture, drooping, inconspicuously light and dark green-mottled; margins undulate; pika purple; veins reddish-purple on lo~er surface; lobes acute with narrow sinus. Corm: Flesh white with yellow fibers; skin white to cream-colored. Inflorescence: Peduncle green- and white-striped with diffusion of reddishpurple; spathe 28 to 32 em. long, the lower tubular portion 4 to 5 em. Taro Varieties in Hawaii 57 long, tightly convolute, green- and white-striped with conspicuous diffusion of reddish-purple often nearly obscuring the striping, thc upper portion tightly rolled, slightly open near constriction upon maturity, yellow, oftcn drooping. Origin, and derivation of name: Native variety, the first part of thc namc is derived from the striping, and the second may be due to the coloring of the petiole or to the use of the corm as fish bait. Distribution: Planted in a few scattered localities, ncarly always under upland culture. Use: Primarily as a table taro. 60. Hinupuaa (Manini) General characteristics: Medium in height to tall, slender, moderately spreading, maturing within 15 to 18 months, producing from 2 to 5 aha; readily identified by profuse light and dark green petiole stripes and light pinkish edge. Petiole: 70 to 100 cm. long, light and dark green-striped throughout length of petiole, the dark stripes predominating, slightly tinged with purple on upper half, purplish at apex, white to greenish-white at base, light pinkish at edge. Leaf blade: 35 to 60 cm. long, 30 to 40 cm. wide, 30 to 45 cm. from tip to base of sinus, sagittate, thin in texture, slightly mottled dark and light green with bluish cast; margins slightly undulate; pilw purple; lobes acute with narrow sinus. Corm: Flesh white with yellowish fibers; skin white to cream-colored. Inflorescence: Peduncle green- and white-striped; spathe about 24 cm. long, the lower tubular portion 4 to 5 cm. long, green- and white-striped, the upper yellow, tightly rolled or sometimes open near constriction; spadix 8 cm. long, the sterile appendage 7 mm. long. Origin, and derivation of name: Native variety; the name Hinllpuaa is literally translatcd "pig grease," and may have referred to the glossy appearance of the petiole or the slippery texture of the cooked corm. Distribution: Limited; usually grown under upland culture. Use: Mai nly as a table taro. 61. NiUe-uliuli (Niue) General characteristics: Medium in height to tall, moderately spreading, maturing within 9 to 12 months, producing from 2 to 5 aha; quite similar in coloring to Kai Ulillli except at the edge, which is narrow and reddish instead of broad and whitish or yellowish. Petiole: 75 to 105 cm. long, dark green slightly shaded with reddish-brown, purplish at apex, reddish at edge, a brilliant dark pink ring at base with light pink for 3 to 4 cm. above. 58 Bulletin 84, H a'Waii Experi1nent Station Leaf blade: 45 to 55 COl. long, 30 to 40 COl. wide, 40 to 45 cm. from tip to base of sinus, ovate, slightly concave, dark green with bluish cast; margins with numerous fine undulations; pika and marginal veins reddish-purple; lobes obtuse with wide sinus. Corm: Flesh white tinged with pink, especially near apex, with yellowish fibers; skin light pink. Origin, and derivation of name: Introduced from Samoa by Wilder under the name Niue (see also Nille-lIlallla, No. 51); the suffix uliuli given to this variety refers to the dark green petioles which are slightly shaded with reddish-brown. Distribution: Little-known variety of limited distribution. Use: Primarily as a table taro. 62. Ohe General characteristics: Medium in height, wetl spreading, stocky, maturing within 12 to 16 months, producing from 5 to 10 aha; characterized by light green petioles with light reddish-brown tinge on lower half. Petiole: 60 to 80 cm. long, light green tinged with light reddish-brown on lower half, with inconspicuous, narrow, reddish-brown edge, an orangered or dark pink ring at base with light greenish or pinkish area for 3 to 5 cm. above. Leaf blade: 35 to 45 cm. long, 20 to 30 cm. wide, 30 to 35 cm. from tip to base of sinus, sagittate, thin in texture, medium green; margins slightly undulate; pika whitish to light brownish; lobes acute with wide sinus. Corm: Flesh white with light pinkish tinge, especially near apex, and yellowish fibers; skin light pink. Origin, and derivation of name: Native variety; Ohe is the Hawaiian name for bamboo and probably refers to the similarity of the petiole coloring to the stem coloring of a certain variety of Hawaiian bamboo. Distribution: Very common in Kona, Puna, and Kau on Hawaii, primarily under upland culture. Use: Makes poi of excellent quality. Remarks: This variety is an important upland poi taro, especially well adapted to elevations above 1,500 feet. GROUP LEHUA This group is distinguished by light green, spreading petioles, very smooth, sagittate leaf blades, and lilac-purple corms. The name LeIma is derived from the flowers of the lehua tree, which are similar in coloring to the corm flesh. There are four varieties, all of which make red poi of excellent quality. All red pois are called {(Lehua poi" for this reason. They mature early, usually in from 8 to 12 months, and are grown under both wetland and upland cultures. They are known as royal taros and were formerly grown for and eaten only by the chiefs. Taro Varieties in Hawaii 63. Lehua Maoli (Lehua) S9 General characteristics: Medium in height, well spreading, slender, maturing within 8 to 12 months, producing from 5 to 10 aha; identified by yellowishgreen, widely spreading petioles and light purplish-lilac corm flesh. Petiole: 65 to 80 em. long, yellowish-green with pinkish cast, slightly tinged with brownish-purple at apex, pinkish-lilac at edge, a dark reddish-purple ring at base with light purplish-lilac for 3 to 5 em. above. Leaf blade: 40 to 55 em. long, 30 to 40 em. wide, 35 to 45 em. from tip to base of sinus, sagittate, very smooth in outline, thin in texture, drooping, medium green, often with pinkish tinge when young; pilla small, light pinkish; lobes acute with narrow sinus. Corm: Flesh light purplish-1ilac with darker purplish fibers; skin dark pinkish-lilac. Inflorescence: Peduncle pale green with pinkish flush; spathe 14 to 20 em. long, the lower tubular portion 2.5 to 3 em. long, olive green with pinkish tinge, the upper portion deep yellow, open near constriction only upon maturity; spadix 6 to 7 em. long, the sterile appendage 6 to 8 mm. long. Origin, and derivation of name: Native variety; l/laoli means "the more common" or "ordinary." This variety is commonly known simply as "Le/lUa." Distribution: A favorite variety of the Hawaiians, grown throughout the islands under both upland and wetland cultnres. It is the most widely .distributed of the upland poi taros and is planted extensively in Kana, Hawaii. Use: The widely advertised "Lchlla red poi," which often commands a premium in price, usually comes from this variety. 64. Lehua Keokeo (Wm:akea) General characteristics: Medium in height, well spreading, maturing within 8 to 12 months, producing from 5 to 10 aha,. identified by pale green petioles with broad, purplish-black edges. Petiole: 70 to 90 em. long, pale green often tinged with reddish-brown at apex, pinkish at base with a reddish-purple ring, the edge conspicuous, broad, purplish-black with adjacent dark green blotches. Leaf blade: 40 to 55 em. long, 35 to 45 em. wide, 35 to 45 em. from tip to base of sinus, broadly sagittate, drooping, medium green with pinkish cast when young; margins slightly undulate; pika pinkish; veins reddish on lower surface; lobes acute with medium-cut sinus. Corm: Flesh pale pinkish with purplish fibers; skin dark pinkish. Origin, and derivation of name: An old native variety; the descriptive name Keakea is derived from the pale coloring of the petiole. Distribution: Grown in a few scattered localitie5, primarily under upland culture. Use: Makes red poi of good quality. 60 Bulletin 84, Hawaii Experinu?1It Station Remarks: This variety is reputed to make very luxuriant growth in certain sections, rivaling the Lallaa group. 65. Lehua Eleele (Wo.11al10) General characteristics: Medium in height to taft, slender, erect, maturing within 8 to 12 months, producing from 2 to 5 aha; distinguished by the dark green petioles which are shaded with purple, especially near base and along margins. Petiole: 75 to 100 em. long, dark green with purplish shading especially near base and along margins, purple at apex, with a narrow dark reddish to purplish-black edge, a dark reddish-purple ring at base with lighter reddish-purple for 3 to 5 em. above. Leaf blade: 45 to 55 em. long, 30 to 35 em. wide, 35 to 45 em. from tip to base of sinus, sagittate, drooping, dark green; pika small, dark purplish; lobes acute with deep, narrow sinus. Corm: Flesh lilac-purple with darker reddish-purple fibers; skin brilliant reddish-purple; roots light reddish-purple. Orgin, and derivation of name: Native variety; the name Eleele is probably given to this variety because it has much darker colored petioles than other Lehua varieties, although the petioles are far from being blackish. This variety is known as Wailalla in Kona, Hawaii. Distribution: Planted quite extensively in Kona, Hawaii, usually under upland culture, but practically none is grown elsewhere. Use: Makes a very good red poi. Remarks: This is an early-maturing taro of high yielding capacity. It must be harvested as soon as it is mature as it rots readily if held in the field for any length of time. 66. Lehua Palaii (Palaii) General characteristics: Short to medium in height, stiffly erect, slender, maturing within 12 to 18 months, producing from 5 to 10 aha; distinguished by lilac-purple corm flesh and dark green petioles. Petiole: 60 to 75 em. long, dark green slightly tinged with reddish-brown at apex, a dark purple ring at base with light purplish-lilac for 3 to 4 em. above, with a narrow, indistinct, reddish to whitish edge. Leaf blade: 40 to 50 em. long, 25 to 35 em. wide, 30 to 40 em. from tip to base of sinus, sagittate, drooping, dark green with faint pinkish cast; margins slightly undulate; pika light green to faint brownish; lobes acute with fairly deep, wide sinus. Corm: Flesh lilac-purple with darker purplish fibers; skin light pink. Intlorescence: Peduncle dark green; spathe 18 to 23 em. long, the lower tubular portion 3 to 4 em. long, dark green, the upper portion clear, deep yellow, open near constriction only upon matu...
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