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1 Part Melody: Musical line Melody- is the line, or tune, in music, a concept that is shared by most cultures o The element in music that appeals most directly to the listener o A succession of single pitches that we perceive as recognizable whole Range- the distance between the lowest and highest notes that the melody goes up and down on o The range of the movements Contour- the overall shape as it turns upward or downward or remains static o How it moves up and down Interval- the distance between and two pitches of a melody o Conjunct- melodies that move principally by small intervals in a joined connected manner are o Disjunct- melodies that move in larger disconnected intervals Melody Structure Phrase- a unit of meaning within a larger structure Cadence- where the phrase ends o It may be inconclusive giving the listener the impression of more to come o It may be final giving the listener the impression that the melody has reached the end o Where the singer or musician pauses to get breath Rhyme scheme- describes the similarity in the sound of the last syllables in each line Climax- the high point in a melodic line which usually represents a peak in intensity as well as in range Counter melody- when the relative importance of one melody over the other is clear and the added tune is the counter melody Rhythm and Meter: Musical Time Rhythm- what moves music forward in time, it propels music Beat- basic unit of rhythm, it is a regular pulse that divides time into equal segments o Accented- stronger beats Meters- the organized patterns of rhythmic pulses o Measures- meters in notation Measure lines- regular vertical lines on which the music is notated Metrical Patterns Downbeat- the first accented beat of each pattern o Referring to the downward beat of the conductors hand o Duple meter- the most basic patter alternates on a strong downbeat with a weak beat o Triple meter- basic pattern, three beats to a measure one strong beat and two weak ones Associated with dances like the waltz o Quadruple meter- contains 4 beats to the measure with a primary accent on the first beat and a secondary on the 3rd, usually has a broader feeling o Simple meters- meters in which the beat as duple subdivisions o Compound meters- when the beat is divided into three o Sextuple meter- six beats to the measure, the most common, with accents on beats one and four Upbeat- the accent beat is the last one in the measure Syncopation- the deliberate upsetting of the normal pattern of accentuation to keep from becoming monotonous o The accent is shifted to a weak beat of offbeat Polyrhythm one hand plays one rhythm the other plays a different one o Additive meter- grouping of irregular numbers of beats that add up to a larger overall pattern Nonmetric- some music that moves without any strong sense of beat or meter o Chants of the early Christian church Harmony: musical space Harmony- the simultaneous sounding of noted to form chords and the progression from one chord to the next o The simultaneous events in music o Chord- when three or more tones are sounded together The middle Ages -Early Middle agesThe religious beliefs of the middle ages makes the music of the time predominantly religious o Hildegard of Bingen- a woman who was head of a monastery in a small town in western Germany Remembered for her writings on natural history and medicine as well a for her poetry and music for special church services Sacred music in the middle ages Early influences of Christian church from Greek, Hebrew, and Syrian o Became necessary to assemble the every growing body of music into an organized liturgy. The liturgy refers to the set order of church services and to the structure of each service The task extended over several generations, through tradition credits pope Greg the great made them codified o Gregorian chant consists of a single line melody, it is monophonic in texture and lacking harmony and counterpoint It is a free flowing vocal line subtly following the inflections of the Latin text fall into 3 main categories according to the way they are set to the text syllabic- with one note sung to each syllable of text neumatic- generally with small groups of up to five notes sung to a syllable melismatic- with long groups of notes set to a single syllable of text o strong feature of chant and influenced many types Neumes- little ascending and descending symbols written above words to suggest the contours of the melody Used because there are so many chants its hard to remember Modes- of variety scale patterns Modal- various melodic and harmonic types that prevailed in the medieval and early renaissance eras The mass- services can be divided into 2 categories o Offices- a series of services celebrated at various hours of the day in monasteries and convents o Mass- a reenactment of the sacrifice of Christ, the most solemn ritual of the catholic church and the one attended by public worshipers the prayers that make up the mass fall into 2 categories Proper: texts that vary from day to day throughout the church year depending on what is being celebrated Ordinary: texts that remained the same every mass o Kyrie: the first item in the ordinary portion of the mass Example of Gregorian chant Sung in a responsorial manner- alternating between a soloist and a chorus Early Medieval motetMiddle ages mash up New text for second melody in organum New genre: motet Polytextual, sometimes polylingual Motets are sacred or secular Can have instrumental accompaniment Gregorian chant is basis for motets Thirteenth century motet -robin m'aime -3 polyphonic voices -built on the bottom line of the tenor Secular music in the middle ages -medieval minstrels -secular music arose in courts -preformed by aristocratic artists -france troubadours - germany minnesingers -secular music also arose in cities -performed by wandering minstrels -men: goliards -women- cunts -idealized love and chivalry -secular songs sung monophonically with improvised accompaniment Raimbaut de vaqueiras and the trouvere tradition - southern French secular composer - musician at the court of the marquis of montferrat -most famous song was kalenda maya, middle easter influence -love song about some bitch that he wanted to nail but couldn't Guillaume de machaut and the French ars nova -foremost ars nova fag -ars nova replace ars antiqua -will was a French composer who wrote chansons -cleric and courtier composed motets chansons and polyphonic mass ordinary poet fixed text forms: rondeau ballade virelai will's song- puis qu'en oubli three voice chanson rondeau form pain of unrequited love low melodic range to show despair -the renaissance marks the passing of Europe from religious orientation to a more secular one becomes the age of humanism musicians became all sorts of people -renaissance and sacred music motet -ave maria virfo serena josquin deprez mass - pope Marcellus mass (Gloria) -giovanni Palestrina -early renaissance mass Kyrie, Gloria, credo, sanctus, angus dei Secular influences began to build up Using non religious songs as a cantus firmus -Guillaume du fay and the cantus firmus mass Burundian composer -Burundian school less complex music than ars nova use of cantus firmus (chant or popular song) -late renaissance mass martin Luther: reformation emphasizes the participation for all more participatory music Calvin- sing psalms only need for a quickly written repertoire parody- existing song but with new lyrics counter reformation council of Trent corruption of chant by embellishment use of certain instruments in religious services incorporation of popular music into mass secularism of music irreverent attitude of church musicians Pure vocal style that respected the integrity of the sacred texts -Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina Italian composer organist and choirmaster Sistine chapel choir Wrote mostly sacred music -renaissance and secular music music in court and city life professional musicians: courts and civic functions merchant class amateurs: played and sang at home lute: keyboard instrument women and music chanson and madrigal Francesco petrach Pierre de ronsard -the chanson Burgundy france in the 15th century 3 or 4 voices courtly love voices freer poetic structures -instrumental dance music period of growth published music publishing centers: Venice, paris, Antwerp instrumentation was unspecified indoor/outdoor -susato: three dances set of here rondes from the 1551 danserye collection instrumental dances publsished by tielman susato -italian madrigal chief form or renaissance secular music Italian courts Text- short poem of lyrics Music sets text expressively Instruments substitute for the voices -Monteverdi and the marigal Claudio Monteverdi Italian Renaissance and baroque eras Eight books of madrigals Wrote ecco mormorar l'onde -english madrigal English further developed the Italian madrigal Thomas morley, john wilbye, Thomas weelkes, john farmer Musica transalpina -transition 1: from renaissance to baroque polychoral music in Venice st marks basilica ... 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