Answers to Chapter 6 End of Chapter Questions
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Answers to Chapter 6 End of Chapter Questions

Course Number: GEOG 102, Spring 2008

College/University: Wisc Oshkosh

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Answers to Chapter 6 End of Chapter Questions 1. Quartz is a common mineral in sandstone. Under certain circumstances, feldspar is common in sandstone, even though it normally weathers rapidly to clay. What conditions of climate, weathering rate, and erosion rate could lead to a feldspar rich sandstone? The combination of a) a cold, dry climate (which gives a slow chemical weathering rate); b) a rapid mechanical...

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to Answers Chapter 6 End of Chapter Questions 1. Quartz is a common mineral in sandstone. Under certain circumstances, feldspar is common in sandstone, even though it normally weathers rapidly to clay. What conditions of climate, weathering rate, and erosion rate could lead to a feldspar rich sandstone? The combination of a) a cold, dry climate (which gives a slow chemical weathering rate); b) a rapid mechanical weathering rate and; and c) a rapid erosion rate all combine to give conditions that would produce feldspar-rich sandstones. 2. Describe with sketches how wet mud compacts before it becomes a shale Your sketch should look something like Figure 6.15 on page 149. 3. What do mud cracks tell about the environment of deposition of a sedimentary rock? Mud cracks tell you that an originally wet environment was exposed to air and dried up. See page 159-160 for details. 4. How does a graded bed form? Graded beds form as sediment is deposited by a gradually slowing current. More details can be found on pages 157-159 of your textbook. 5. List the clastic sediment particles in order of decreasing grain size. See Table 6.1 on page 141 for the answer. 6. How does a sedimentary breccia differ in appearance an origin from a conglomerate? Sedimentary breccias are composed of coarse-grained angular fragments, whereas sedimentary conglomerates are formed of 1 coarse-grained rounded fragments. Sedimentary breccias occur close to their source, and therefore have angular fragments. Sedimentary conglomerates occur farther from the source area than the sedimentary breccias, and therefore, have rounded fragments due to the effects of abrasion. See pages 145-147 for more details; also see Figure 6.2 on page 142 to see what types of sediments these rocks form from. 7. Describe the different origins for limestone. Limestones can occur biochemically or inorganically. The details of how these processes form limestone can be found on pages 149-153 of your text. 8. How does dolomite (dolostone) usually form? Dolomite (dolostone) typically forms from limestone reacts that with groundwater. During this reaction, Mg2+ cations are added to the limestone, and Ca2+ cations are removed from the limestone. This changes the mineralogy of the rock from calcite (CaCO3) to dolomite (Ca, Mg (CO3)2). See pages 151-152 for more details. 9. What is the origin of coal? Coal is a sedimentary rock that forms from the compaction of incompletely decayed plant material. Coal usually forms in shallow bogs or swamps in temperate to tropical climates because these environments have low oxygen contents if the oxygen contents were higher, the organic material would have fully decayed. See page 154 for further details. 10. Sketch the cementation of sand to form sandstone. Your sketch should look something like Figure 6.6 on page 144. 11. How do evaporites form? Name two evaporites 2 Evaporites are chemical sedimentary rocks that form from chemical precipitation initiated by evaporation of water. Rock gypsum and rock salt are the two most common evaporites. See page 153 in your text for the details. 12. Name the three most common sedimentary rocks. The three most common sedimentary rocks are shale, sandstone, and limestone (see page 140 in your text). 13. What is a formation? A "formation" is a mappable, thick body of rock that has either physical and/or chemical characteristics that can distinguish it from adjacent rock bodies. See page 160-161 for further details. 14. Explain two ways that cross-bedding can form. Cross-bedding (see page 155-156 for the definition, and page 157 for a field photo) can form in either underwater or land environments. Underwater, cross-bedding can form in sand ridges deposited by ocean currents, in deltas that form at the mouths of rivers, and in sediment bars deposited in river channels. On land, cross-bedding commonly forms when sand is deposited on the downwind side of sand dunes. Figure 6.28 on page 157 illustrates these processes. Answers to Multiple Choice Questions 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. b b d b b d b b a a b 3 26. 27. 28. b c d 4

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