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### Chromatography Theory Part 2

Course: COURSE1 1, Fall 2008
School: Winona
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Word Count: 267

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can How the General Elution Problem by fixed? 1. Temperature programming in GC 2. Solvent programming in LC 3. Density programming in SFC Determination of Appropriate Method N= Resolution How many theoretical plates are necessary to resolve 2 PCBs with retention times of 170.0 and 172.0 minute? Void time is 2 minutes. Resolve at a resolution of 1.0. Practical: How can you increase resolution? Increase N by...

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can How the General Elution Problem by fixed? 1. Temperature programming in GC 2. Solvent programming in LC 3. Density programming in SFC Determination of Appropriate Method N= Resolution How many theoretical plates are necessary to resolve 2 PCBs with retention times of 170.0 and 172.0 minute? Void time is 2 minutes. Resolve at a resolution of 1.0. Practical: How can you increase resolution? Increase N by reduction in H or increase in L Which is preferable? How is this done? Practical: How can you increase resolution? What else? A. changes in mobile phase composition including changes in pH B. Column temperature changes C. Stationary phase changes D. Special chemical effects Internal Standards Vital in GC Why? 1. When choosing an appropriate internal standard, choose one that behave similarly to the analytes you want to quantitate a. of comes the column near the same time as analyte b. similar chemical properties Internal standards 2. Analysis involving multiple quantitations, multiple internal standards are advisable 3. Relative response ratio between known quantity of standard & known quantity of analyte should be determined daily Example: The amount of diphenyl (DP) in a sample was to be measured. Phenyl ether (PE) was chosen as the internal standard. In a preliminary experiment, a solution containing 0.0837mM DP And 0.0666mM...

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Winona - COURSE1 - 1
Liquid ChromatographyIntroduction to Liquid Chromatography Instrumentation 1. Solvent gradient systems 2. Injection systems 3. Pumps 4. Detectors 5. Columns C. Types of Liquid ChromatographyA. B.1. 2. 3.Ion-exchange Partition chromatography Size
Winona - COURSE1 - 1
Types of Liquid ChromatographyI. Ion Exchange Chromatography A. Factors influencing retention B. Suppressed ion exchange II. Partitioning Chromatography A. Normal phase/ reverse phase III. Size Exclusion Chromatography IV. Supercritical Fluid Chroma
Winona - COURSE1 - 1
Gas ChromatographyGas Chromatography BasicsGas Liquid Chromatography (GLC) Gas Solid Chromatography (GSC) Mobile phase does not interact with analyte Separation occurs by interaction of analyte differentially w/liquid stationary phase and temperat
Winona - COURSE1 - 1
Capillary Electrophoresisa.k.a. CE, CZE, HPCESeparation is based on differences in solute mobilities when a strong electric field is applied across a bufferAdvantages (Vs. HPLC)1. 2. 3. 4. 5.Velocity of Flow can be altered by:1. 2. 3. 4.App
Winona - COURSE1 - 1
WSU CHEMISTRY LABORATORY SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS AND CONTRACT Report all injuries to your laboratory instructor or TA as soon as possible. LAB SAFETY GUIDELINES Chemical splash-proof goggles must be worn AT ALL TIMES in the lab except dur
Winona - COURSE1 - 1
Computer Graphing Procedure for plotting your calibration curve data using EXCEL 1. Open EXCEL 2. Enter data in two columns with x data in the first column (for the calibration curve this will be the concentrations you used) and the y data in the sec
Winona - COURSE1 - 1
Physical Properties of MatterThose characteristics that can be observed without changing the substance into another substance: Color Taste Density Melting point Odor Hardness Solubility Boiling pointChemical Properties of MatterThose cha
Winona - COURSE1 - 1
Physical Properties DemonstrationWhy is there a difference in the behavior of the two cans of soda? (Hint: think about what is contained in each can.)Density DemonstrationDensity = mass/volume Assume the density of H2O = 1g/mL Estimate what is
Winona - COURSE1 - 1
Combustion and Global WarmingCarbon dioxide (CO2) is recognized as contributor to the greenhouse effect CO2 is produced from complete combustion Complete combustion: Fuel (usually a substance containing C &amp; H) + O2 CO2 + H2OCombustion &amp; Glo
Winona - COURSE1 - 1
Atomic Theory All matter consists of atoms All the atoms of one element are identical in mass &amp; other properties &amp; are different from atoms of any other element Atoms of one element cannot be converted into atoms of another element Compounds a
Winona - COURSE1 - 1
Winona - COURSE1 - 1
Chemical BondingWhen chemicals form bonds they do so in a way to have the most stable arrangement of their electrons Noble gases are unreactive because they already have a nice, stable arrangement of their atomsTypes of BondingIonic bonding:
Winona - COURSE1 - 1
Moles1 mole = 6.022 x 1023 1 pair = 21 dozen = 12 Etc.1 mole of atoms = the atomic weight on periodic tablePractice calculationsHow much would a mole of KNO3 weigh? How much would a mole of acetic acid (CH3COOH) weigh? How much wou
Winona - COURSE1 - 1
?:. Acid Rain Neutral water has a pH of 7 Pure pristine rain has a pH of 5.6 This is due to dissolved CO2 in the rainwater Rain which has a pH &lt; 5.6 is acid rainHow is acid rain formed?How is acid rain formed? Combustion of fossil f
Winona - COURSE1 - 1
RadiationWhat makes something radioactive?The nucleus of an atom contains protons and neutrons They are packed together with a lot of repulsive charge Opposites attract, same charges repelIf atom has too many neutrons, beta emission occur
Winona - COURSE1 - 1
Chemistry 106Chemistry in Our World Winona State University Fall 20053 creditsInstructor: Dr. Jeanne Franz Office: SLC Terrace 322E Phone: (457)-5297 email:jfranz@winona.edu Lecture: T Th 9:30-10:50 SLC 120 Office hours: M 10-1, T 11-1, W 8-11,
Winona - COURSE1 - 1
Chemistry 107Chemistry in Our World with Lab Winona State University Fall 20054 creditsInstructor: Dr. Jeanne Franz Office: SLC Terrace 322E Phone: (457)-5297 email:jfranz@winona.edu Lecture: T Th 9:30-10:50 SLC 120 Lab: SLC 382 W 1-2:50 Office
Winona - COURSE1 - 1
Chemistry 106: Chemistry in the Popular Media Group Project Topics: Groups will be assigned according to interest in topics currently in popular mediaPaper:One five to seven pages paper not including figures or references per group should be hande
Winona - COURSE1 - 1
Poster Presentations Evaluations Evaluators Name: _ Poster Title: _ Authors Names: _Please be fair and honest in your assessment, and please assess the group as a whole rather than assessing individual performances. Under each poster presentation ar
Winona - CHEM - 1
Study Guide 1 Chemistry 213 Student should be able to: 1. Explain how kinetics plays a role in reactions they experience in their lives. 2. Describe what things will determine the rate of a reaction. 3. Explain the effect the following variables will
Winona - CHEM - 213
Study Guide 1 Chemistry 213 Student should be able to: 1. Explain how kinetics plays a role in reactions they experience in their lives. 2. Describe what things will determine the rate of a reaction. 3. Explain the effect the following variables will
Winona - CHEM - 1
Study Guide 2 Chemistry 213 Student should be able to: 1. Understand the chemical principles behind demonstrations done in class. 2. Explain the chemical principles behind things done in lab. 3. Identify acids and bases with the Bronsted-Lowry defini
Winona - CHEM - 213
Study Guide 2 Chemistry 213 Student should be able to: 1. Understand the chemical principles behind demonstrations done in class. 2. Explain the chemical principles behind things done in lab. 3. Identify acids and bases with the Bronsted-Lowry defini
Winona - CHEM - 1
Study Guide 3 Chemistry 213 Student should be able to: 1. Understand the chemical principles behind demonstrations done in class. 2. Explain the chemical principles behind things done in lab. 3. Explain some of the biological effects of UV radiation
Winona - CHEM - 213
Study Guide 3 Chemistry 213 Student should be able to: 1. Understand the chemical principles behind demonstrations done in class. 2. Explain the chemical principles behind things done in lab. 3. Explain some of the biological effects of UV radiation
Winona - CHEM - 1
First order reactionsIf reaction is firstorder the rate of disappearance of reactants = rate =Aproducts1st order reaction example (g) 4NO2(g) + O2(g) 2N O25Rate = k[N2O5] k = 6.93 x 10-3/sec If the initial concentration of N2O5 is 0.1000M
Winona - CHEM - 213
First order reactionsIf reaction is firstorder the rate of disappearance of reactants = rate =Aproducts1st order reaction example (g) 4NO2(g) + O2(g) 2N O25Rate = k[N2O5] k = 6.93 x 10-3/sec If the initial concentration of N2O5 is 0.1000M
Winona - CHEM - 1
Winona - CHEM - 213
Winona - CHEM - 1
Naturally occurring radiation1. Cosmic radiation: At sea level average annual dose is 26 millirem a year Travel from Los Angeles to Paris on a conventional flight will result in additional 10 millirems of radiationNaturally occurring radiation
Winona - CHEM - 213
Naturally occurring radiation1. Cosmic radiation: At sea level average annual dose is 26 millirem a year Travel from Los Angeles to Paris on a conventional flight will result in additional 10 millirems of radiationNaturally occurring radiation
Winona - CHEM - 1
Effect of volume change on equilibria If you decrease the volume, you increase concentration, this will have a varying effect on the equilibria depending upon which side of the reaction has fewer moleculesExample: N2(g) + 3H2(g) = 2NH3 (g) Set eq
Winona - CHEM - 213
Effect of volume change on equilibria If you decrease the volume, you increase concentration, this will have a varying effect on the equilibria depending upon which side of the reaction has fewer moleculesExample: N2(g) + 3H2(g) = 2NH3 (g) Set eq
Winona - CHEM - 1
Chapter 16ACIDS AND BASESWhat are acids and bases? Bronsteddefinition: acid is a protondonor Base is a proton acceptor Acid example: H2SO4 + H2O = H3O+ + HSO4Base example: NH3 + H2O = NH4+ + OH-What is the acid &amp; base in each of the follow
Winona - CHEM - 1
Salts Def: Ioniccompound whose cation comes from a base and whose anion comes from an acid Ex. 1 NaCl Ex. 2 K2CO3 Ex. 3 NH4BrReactions of salts with water hydrolysis Conjugate base of a weak acid (strongor weak?) will react with water to g
Winona - CHEM - 213
Salts Def: Ioniccompound whose cation comes from a base and whose anion comes from an acid Ex. 1 NaCl Ex. 2 K2CO3 Ex. 3 NH4BrReactions of salts with water hydrolysis Conjugate base of a weak acid (strongor weak?) will react with water to g
Winona - CHEM - 1
Chapter 17Additional aspects of aqueous equilibriaCommon Ion Effect Whenever a weak electrolyte and a strong electrolyte contain a common ion, the weak electrolyte ionizes less than it would if it were alone in solution LeChatliers Principle Wh
Winona - CHEM - 213
Chapter 17Additional aspects of aqueous equilibriaCommon Ion Effect Whenever a weak electrolyte and a strong electrolyte contain a common ion, the weak electrolyte ionizes less than it would if it were alone in solution LeChatliers Principle Wh
Winona - CHEM - 1
Buffer Action Demonstration What is a buffer? How can a buffer accept an acid or a base without changing pH? How does the buffer in this demonstration work? What are some practical applications of buffers?How does the buffer here work?How doe
Winona - CHEM - 1
How does the strength of the acid change the shape of theWhat do polyprotic titration curves look like?Solubility and Temperature Solubility of solids in liquids generally increases with increases in temperature Solubility of gases in liquids g
Winona - CHEM - 213
How does the strength of the acid change the shape of theWhat do polyprotic titration curves look like?Solubility and Temperature Solubility of solids in liquids generally increases with increases in temperature Solubility of gases in liquids g
Winona - CHEM - 1
CHAPTER 18Environmental ChemistryAtmospheric ChemistryAtmospheric ChemistryOzone DepletionOzone hole 2007 and 2008Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)CFCs were used as propellants, degreasers, refrigerants in home and auto applications Low to
Winona - CHEM - 213
CHAPTER 18Environmental ChemistryAtmospheric ChemistryAtmospheric ChemistryOzone DepletionOzone hole 2007 and 2008Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)CFCs were used as propellants, degreasers, refrigerants in home and auto applications Low to
Winona - CHEM - 1
Biological Effects of UV Radiation Damage to DNA is extremely pronounced at wavelengths less than 300nm 280nm biological sensitivity 1 320nm biological sensitivity 0.00001 1% reduction in O3 results in 2% increase in UV intensity and 2-4% incr
Winona - CHEM - 213
Biological Effects of UV Radiation Damage to DNA is extremely pronounced at wavelengths less than 300nm 280nm biological sensitivity 1 320nm biological sensitivity 0.00001 1% reduction in O3 results in 2% increase in UV intensity and 2-4% incr
Winona - CHEM - 1
Adding to that uncertainty is the fact that some regions have actually experienced cooling during the last 50 yearsGlobal Warming CausesUndisputable that burning fossil fuels releases CO2 more rapidly into atmosphere than can be recreated in
Winona - CHEM - 213
Adding to that uncertainty is the fact that some regions have actually experienced cooling during the last 50 yearsGlobal Warming CausesUndisputable that burning fossil fuels releases CO2 more rapidly into atmosphere than can be recreated in
Winona - CHEM - 1
CHAPTER 19 CHEMICAL THERMODYNAMICSst 1Law of ThermodynamicsEnergy can be neither created nor destroyed2ndLaw of Thermodynamics: Entropy of the universe is increasingIf Keq &gt; 1 reaction is product favored If Keq &lt; 1 reaction is reactant favo
Winona - CHEM - 213
CHAPTER 19 CHEMICAL THERMODYNAMICSst 1Law of ThermodynamicsEnergy can be neither created nor destroyed2ndLaw of Thermodynamics: Entropy of the universe is increasingIf Keq &gt; 1 reaction is product favored If Keq &lt; 1 reaction is reactant favo
Winona - CHEM - 1
Ammonia salt/ Barium Hydroxide demo Did this reaction occur spontaneously? Is the reaction exothermic or endothermic?NH4Cl + Ba(OH)2 .8H2O 10H2OBaCl2 + 2NH3 +Entropy: Disorder/ Chaos Entropy increasing is a spontaneous process Molecule
Winona - CHEM - 213
Ammonia salt/ Barium Hydroxide demo Did this reaction occur spontaneously? Is the reaction exothermic or endothermic?NH4Cl + Ba(OH)2 .8H2O 10H2OBaCl2 + 2NH3 +Entropy: Disorder/ Chaos Entropy increasing is a spontaneous process Molecule
Winona - CHEM - 1
Cell potentials under nonstandard conditions(standard conditions 1M, 1 atm pressure) If we have the reaction:Cu2+ + Fe Fe2+ + Cu Eo = 0.78V If we increase [Cu2+] which direction would reaction go? Products Increasing Cu2+ increases the driving for
Winona - CHEM - 213
Cell potentials under nonstandard conditions(standard conditions 1M, 1 atm pressure) If we have the reaction:Cu2+ + Fe Fe2+ + Cu Eo = 0.78V If we increase [Cu2+] which direction would reaction go? Products Increasing Cu2+ increases the driving for
Winona - COURSE1 - 1
Chemistry 213 Lab CriteriaLab Name: _ Group Members Names: _ Notebook Section Comments Section pts. Title to the 1) The title is very, somewhat, or not very appropriate. experiment 0, 1 List major and minor 1) All, some, or none of the major and mi
Winona - COURSE1 - 1
CHEM 213 Fall 2008 Dr. FranzRates of Chemical ReactionsThe first four sections of the lab notebook should be completed as a pre-laboratory exercise which will be checked off at the beginning of the lab period. Introduction Factors that affect rate
Winona - COURSE1 - 1
CHEM 213 Spring 2007 Dr. MiertschinA Kinetic Study: Reaction of Crystal Violet with NaOH Learning Objectives The objectives of this experiment are to . . . study the reaction rate of crystal violet with NaOH by monitoring concentration using a Spe
Winona - COURSE1 - 1
CHEM 213 Fall 2008 Dr. FranzWhat Factors Affect Chemical Equilibrium? Introduction Many chemical reactions do not go to completion, but reach a state of equilibrium before the reactants are completely consumed. At the equilibrium state, the concent
Winona - COURSE1 - 1
CHEM 213 Fall 2008 TITRATION CURVES AND THE DISSOCIATION CONSTANT OF ACETIC ACIDLEARNING OBJECTIVES The objectives of this experiment are to . . . perform the experimental titration of HC2H3O2 with NaOH. analyze the titration data to determine t
Winona - COURSE1 - 1
CHEM 213 Fall 2008 Dr. Franz Exp. 8 Nickel and Copper Coordination Compounds Page 1 of 4Investigation of Nickel and Copper Coordination Complexes Learning Objectives The objectives of this experiment are to understand how a simple calorimeter is u
Winona - COURSE1 - 1
CHEM 213 Fall 2008 Dr. Franz Electrochemistry Page 1 of 2Electrochemistry: Chemical Cells Introduction Electrochemistry is the detailed study of electron transfer reactions. Electron transfer involves the loss of electrons (oxidation) from one subs
Winona - COURSE1 - 1
Survey (Due 9/8) Assignment #1 For Orientation 100, Fall 2003 Professor FranzPlease email me with the subject line as Orientation 100 and your full name in the message box so I can add your email to my list. Please fill out this survey and return it