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PERSPECTIVES BEHAVIORAL OF LEARNING Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Social Cognition Perspectives of Learning LEARNING Cognitive Perspectives Behavioral Perspectives Constructionist Information Processing Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Social Cognition 2 Basic Definition of Learning It is defined as a relatively permanent change in an individual's cognitive processes or behavior as a result of experience. 3 Behavioral Definition of Learning It is defined as a relatively permanent change in an individual's behavior as a result of experience. 4 Key Aspects of Behavioral Perspective of Learning Definition: Learning is defined as a change in Focus: Stimuli and responses behavior that results from experience Role of the Individual: Passive Note: Environmental stimuli elicit behavior Emphasis: Productive classroom behavior Determination of Learning: Behavioral change 5 Assumptions of Behaviorism People are products of their environment that is, people are conditioned by their environment Learning should focus on things that can be observed and studied objectively Learning is defined as a change in one's behavior rather than mental processes Behavior is controlled by stimuli Learning principles derived from observing one species can be applied to other species that is, learning is not uniquely human and animal research can be applied to human beings. 6 Two Types of Behaviorism Comparison of Two Types of Behaviorisms Characteristic Behavior Order of Stimulus and Response How Learning Occurs Key Researcher Type of Behaviorism Classical Conditioning Involuntary, emotional, physiological Response follows stimulus Operant Conditioning Voluntary Stimulus follows response Neutral stimuli become associated with unconditioned stimuli Pavlov Stimuli following response influences subsequent responses Skinner 7 Behaviorist Definitions and Symbols Definitions Conditioned: learned Unconditioned: unlearned Stimulus/stimuli: anything that can be perceived by the senses Response: behavior Involuntary: behavior that a person does not control (e.g., fear) Voluntary: behavior that a person can control (e.g. writing) Symbols C U S R - conditioned unconditioned stimulus response or behavior 8 Terminology in Classical Conditioning Stimuli (S) Anything detectable by the senses (e.g., sight, sounds, smells, etc.) Reflexive behaviors resulting from S Stimuli that do not produce any response but can become conditioned stimuli: NS = CS Stimuli which produce unconditioned responses: US UR Neutral stimuli that have been paired with US for the purposes of conditioning: CS + US Reflexive, involuntary behavior produced by unconditioned stimuli: US UR Behaviors identical or similar to UR: CR = UR 9 Response (R) Neutral Stimuli (NS) Unconditioned Stimuli (US) Conditioned Stimuli (CS) Unconditioned Response (UR) Conditioned Response (CR) Summary of Classical Conditioning 10 Classical Conditioning & Phobias 11 Educational Applications of Classical Conditioning Prevent School Phobia Provide a safe and warm environment so that the classroom will be associated with positive emotions Prevent Teacher or Subject Phobia When questioning students put them in a safe situation and arrange the results to ensure a positive outcome Prevent Test Anxiety Provide students with practice in anxiety-inducing situations 12 Terminology in Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning Belief that people initiate behaviors rather than merely responding to stimuli: A B C Consequences are referred to as stimuli Presentation or removal of stimuli following the occurrence of a behavior influences the future occurrence of the behavior Consequences can be two of four types: Pleasant or unpleasant (aversive) Positive or negative Any consequence that increases the recurrence of a behavior Reinforcement can be one of two types: positive or negative Punishment can be one of two types: positive or negative Any consequence that decreases the recurrence of a behavior 13 Consequences (S) Reinforcement Punishment Paradigms in Operant Conditioning R ------------------> S ---------------------Reinforcement (increases recurrence of desirable behavior) R ------------------> S --------------------Punishment (decreases recurrence of undesirable behavior) 14 Types of Behavioral Consequences Application of Stimulus Type of Stimulus Pleasant Stimulus Positive Reinforcement Unpleasant Stimulus Positive Punishment Applying an unpleasant stimulus after an undesirable behavior to decrease the recurrence of the undesirable behavior (Type I Punishment) Negative Reinforcement Removing an unpleasant stimulus after a desirable behavior to increase the recurrence of the desirable behavior (Avoidance/Escape Behavior) 15 Apply Stimulus Applying a pleasant stimulus after a desirable behavior to increase the recurrence of the desirable behavior Negative Punishment Removing a pleasant stimulus after an undesirable behavior to decrease the recurrence of the undesirable behavior (Type II Punishment) Remove Stimulus Behavioral Consequences (Alternate) Reinforcement To increase the recurrence of a desirable behavior Punishment To decrease the recurrence of an undesirable behavior Positive Reinforcement To present a pleasant stimulus after the occurrence of a desirable behavior Positive Punishment To present an unpleasant stimulus after the occurrence of an undesirable behavior Negative Reinforcement To remove an unpleasant stimulus after the occurrence of a desirable behavior Negative Punishment To remove a pleasant stimulus after the occurrence of an undesirable behavior 16 Distinguishing Between Classical and Operant Conditioning Directions: Determine whether each of the following items is an example of classical or operant conditioning. 1. Whenever Imani takes her dog out for a walk, she wears the same old blue windbreaker. Eventually, she notices that her dog becomes excited whenever she puts on this windbreaker. To increase the time spent studying two students spend an hour engaged in their favorite activity after studying for three hours. If some one in extreme pain receives a shot of painkilling drug and the pain goes away quickly, there is an increased likelihood that this person will want another injection the next time he or she is in pain. 2. 3. 17 Exercise Continued 4. For nearly 20 years Ramon as worked as a mechanist in the same factory. His new foreman is never satisfied with his work and criticizes him constantly. After a few weeks of heavy criticism, he experiences anxiety whenever he arrives at work. He starts calling in sick more and more frequently to evade this anxiety. Six month old Terry cries when he is accidentally dropped. An uncle's favorite way to play with Terry is to throw him in the air and then catch him. Now Terry cries when the uncle enters the room. 5. 18 Potential Problems with Punishment A punished behavior may be only temporarily suppressed rather than permanently eliminated When a behavior is punished in one situation but not in another, the behavior may increase in the other situation The response-punishment contingency may not be recognized Punishment often conditions negative emotional responses and may lead to escape and avoidance behaviors Punishment may lead to aggression Punishment does not illustrate the correct behavior. Severe punishment may cause physical and/or psychological harm. 19 Schedules of Reinforcement Continuous Reinforcement Intermittent Reinforcement Interval Reinforcement Ratio Reinforcement Fixed Interval Reinforcement Variable Interval Reinforcement Fixed Ratio Reinforcement Variable Ratio Reinforcement 20 Reinforcement Schedules Continued Type of Reinforcement Continuous Fixed Ratio Best Application of Reinforcement New learning Ideal when continuous becomes ineffective Promotes highest and most stable behavior Example Vending machine Win a game when score of 15 is reached Slot machine Superstition Variable Ratio (Best) Fixed Interval Variable Interval Characterize by burst of energy just before reinforcement Promotes high rates of behavior Caution traffic light Exam (Cramming) Pop quizzes Spot room checks 21 Definitions of Reinforcement Schedules Continuous Reinforcement Reinforcement given after every correct response Intermittent Reinforcement Ratio Reinforcement Reinforcement given sporadically after a series of correct responses Reinforcement given after a given number of correct responses Fixed Ratio Reinforcement given after some predetermine of number correct responses Variable Ratio Reinforcement given after an unpredictable number of correct responses Interval Reinforcement Reinforcement given after a specified time periods Fixed Interval Reinforcement given only after certain periodic times Variable Interval Reinforcement given after unknown periods of time have passed 22 Using Operant Conditioning to Promote Classroom Behavior Reinforce desirable behaviors Give feedback about specific behaviors rather than general performance Provide opportunities for students to practice correct behaviors Remember that different things are reinforcing to different students Use shaping to promote desirable behaviors Cue appropriate behaviors with prompts and/or signals Use intermittent reinforcement to prevent already learned behaviors from becoming extinct 23 Educational Applications of Operant Conditioning Applied Behavioral Analysis (ABA) Classroom management techniques based behavior modification techniques Programmed Instruction Structured, sequenced material based on the assumption that people will answer correctly, receive positive reinforcement, and repeat learned behavior again Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) Similar to programmed instruction, except that materials are presented by a computer Better for drill-and-practice learning than concept learning 24 Key Aspects of Social Cognitive Perspective of Learning Definition: Learning is defined as an internal mental process that may or may not be reflected in behavior Focus: Both behavioral and cognitive processes Role of Individual: Observes others' cognitions and behaviors Emphasis: Modeling effective behaviors and cognitions Determination of Learning: Increased self-regulation 25 Comparison of Behaviorism and Social Cognition Comparison of Behavioral & Social Cognitive Perspectives Characteristic Definition Learning Perspective Behavioral Considers learning as a behavioral change Passive considers learning to be largely due to environmental factors beyond the learner's control Focuses only on those consequences that learners experience themselves Leads to extinction Omits punishment from paradigm Social Cognitive Considers learning as a cognitive phenomenon that may or may not be reflected in behavior Self-regulated proposes that learners can control their environment and regulate their own behavior Focuses on the consequences of models that learners observe Is a form of punishment Considers punishment a consequence that affects behavior 26 Role of Individual Role of Behavioral Consequences Nonoccurrence of Reinforcement Role of Punishment Basic Assumptions of Social Cognition People can learn by observing others Learning is an internal process that may or may not result in a behavior change Behavior is directed toward particular goals Reinforcement and punishment have indirect rather than direct effects on learning and behavior Behavior eventually becomes self-regulated 27 Social Cognition and Reinforcement/Punishment People expect things to be reinforced or punished in the future on the basis that they reinforced or punished in the past Expectations about the consequences of behavior come from both the responses that we make ourselves and from observing what happens to others People pay more attention when they expect to be reinforced for learning for the information People work for incentives (an expected or hoped for consequence) People feel that the nonoccurrence of reinforcement is punishment if people expect to be reinforced and are not, they are less likely to exhibit that behavior in the future People feel that the nonoccurrence of punishment is reinforcement if people expect to be punished and are not, they are more likely to exhibit that behavior in the future 28 Social Cognition and Modeling Modeling involves observing and imitating the behaviors of others Types of Model Live model real people that we observe Symbolic models real or fictional characters in books, films, TV, etc, Behaviors Typically Learned Through Modeling Academic skills: Not only skill how to do something but also how to think about something (e.g., problem-solving strategies) Aggression: Can be learned from either live models or from symbolic models in films and on TV Morality: Advanced moral judgments, sympathy, sharing, and generosity 29 Modeling Continued Effects of Modeling on Behavior Observational learning Response Facilitation acquiring a behavior from observing a model displaying a previously learned behavior more frequently after observing a model being reinforced for the behavior displaying a previously learned behavior less frequently after observing a model being punished for the behavior displaying a previously punished behavior after observing model being reinforced for it Example: Student teaching Example: Dancing Response Inhibition Example: Smoking Response Disinhibition Example: Cheating 30 Modeling Continued Characteristics of models why models are imitated Competent: Tend to imitate people who do something well rather than poorly Famous or powerful: Includes people at national and international level as well as at local levels (e.g., a popular student) Attractive: Includes outward appearance as well as inner qualities and other personality characteristics Gender appropriate: Tend to imitate behaviors of people who match one's sexual orientation Demonstrate relevant behaviors: Tend to adopt behaviors that help one's own circumstances 31 Modeling Continued Stages of Modeling and Educational Applications Attention Make sure students are observing and thinking about the model's behavior Retention Help students remember the many facet's of the model's behavior Encourage visual imagery Motor Reproduction Have students physically perform behavior Motivation Make sure students have a reason to demonstrate the model's behavior 32 Social Cognition and Self-Regulation Self-regulation is the process of making choices in order to achieve one's goals Components of Self-Regulation Establishing self-determined goals and standards Engaging in self-monitoring Using self-instruction Conducting self-evaluation Establishing self-imposed contingencies 33 Self-Regulation Continued 34 Self-Regulation Continued Characteristics of self-regulated learners Set goals determine what they want to accomplish Plan determine ahead of time how best to use their time and resources Have attention control focus their attention on the task at hand and avoid distractions Apply appropriate learning strategies use different learning strategies to attain their goals Have motivational strategies devise ways to keep themselves on task to achieve success Solicit outside assistance seek help when necessary Engage in self-monitoring keep track of their progress Conduct self-evaluation determine when their goals have been attained 35 Social Cognition and Self-Efficacy Definition of self-efficacy The belief that one is capable of attaining his/her goals Importance of self-efficacy It is the prerequisite for self-regulation Factors affecting self-efficacy One's own previous successes and failures - Remind students that "success breeds success" Message from others - Assure students that they can be successful Successes and failures of others - Have students see successful peer models 36 Self-Efficacy Continued Ways to Encourage Self-Efficacy Teach students the basic skills they need to know in order to master a subject Teach students resilient self-efficacy (sustained effort and perseverance during setbacks) Help students on difficult tasks scaffolding Give students tasks that are challenging but achievable Assure students both verbally and nonverbally that they can succeed Remind students that others like them have succeeded Provide students with models Have students work in small groups on especially challenging tasks 37 Educational Implications of Social Cognitive Perspective Make sure students are aware of the response-reinforcement contingencies operating in the classroom Follow through with reinforcements and punishments Encourage self-efficacy Remember the consequences that you administer to others have an effect on the students observing those consequences Help students set challenging yet realistic goals Encourage students to monitor and evaluate their own performance Encourage students to develop intrinsic reinforcement Remember students learn both academic and interpersonal skills by imitating others 38 ... 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