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### Experimental design2

Course: STAT 412, Fall 2008
School: Martin Luther
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Word Count: 814

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Design Brian Experimental Tissot Washington State University Vancouver Lecture overview 1. 2. 3. 4. Objectives &amp; Challenges Design Execution Management Experimental Design Scientific study of the natural world Major components: 1. Scientific method 2. Experimental design 3. Statistical analysis Objectives How can I design a study that will be able to detect meaningful biological changes with a...

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Course Hero has millions of student submitted documents similar to the one below including study guides, practice problems, reference materials, practice exams, textbook help and tutor support.
Design Brian Experimental Tissot Washington State University Vancouver Lecture overview 1. 2. 3. 4. Objectives & Challenges Design Execution Management Experimental Design Scientific study of the natural world Major components: 1. Scientific method 2. Experimental design 3. Statistical analysis Objectives How can I design a study that will be able to detect meaningful biological changes with a reasonable amount of effort? Major Challenges 1. Poor understanding of question 2. Poor design Lack of proper replication Lack of statistical power to detect changes Major Components 1) Design 2) Execution 3) Management Define the Problem Be able to concisely state to someone else the question you are asking. Your results will only be as coherent and comprehensible as your initial conception of the problem. Define the Population Clearly define the statistical population to sample. Define the statistical population precisely on a local scale. Statistical Population The study area of interest Limits the scope of inference Is large relative to our ability to obtain information Census vs. Sample Population Census vs. Sample Transect & Quadrats Census vs. Sample Census vs. Sample Census 100% population Census vs. Sample Sample <1 % population Census vs. Sample Statistical analysis: Populations are large; we are small Our inferences are limited and imperfect Need to use rigorous design Answer questions with degree of uncertainty (e.g., probabilities) Replication Take independent, replicate samples within each combination of time, location, and any other controlled variable. Lack of independence = Pseudoreplication Replication Repeated independent sampling of environmental responses e.g., Quadrats along a transect 1 2 3 Replication Replication must occur in each sampling subunit: Site 1 Shallow Site 2 3 Shallow 1 2 1 2 3 1 Deep 2 3 Deep 1 2 3 QUEST Sampling Design West East Power & Sample Size Calculate appropriate sample size based on power analysis Power: ability of statistical test to reject a false null hypothesis H 0 : 1 = 2 H1 : 1 2 Statistical Errors Reality H0 True Accept H0 H0 False Type II Error OK Results of test Reject H0 Type I error OK Consequences of errors Experiment Monitoring Type I Type II False Effects False Alarm Undetected results Undetected impacts Factors Influencing Power 1. Alpha: as - 2. Variance: as 2 - 3. Sample size: as n - Set Minimize by design Power analysis X Power Curves T-Test X1 X 2 T= s n T=.05 2 Minimum n 2s n X1 X 2 2 X Power Curves Power Analysis Average coral cover Kapoho, Hawai'i 300 300 Power Analysis Average fish abundance Molokini, Maui = 0.05 = 0.10 Minimum sample size 200 = 0.05 = 0.10 Minimum sample size 200 100 100 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 Minimum detectable difference % difference between means Minimum detectable difference % difference between means X Power Analysis Total coral cover 300 Kapoho Puako Molokini Minimum sample size 200 = 0.05 = 0.10 Optimal sample size given accurate vs. effort 100 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 Minimum detectable difference % difference between means Control vs. Impact To test whether a condition has an effect, collect samples both where the condition is present and where the condition absent is but where all else is the same. An effect can only be demonstrated by comparison to a control. Control vs. Impact Coral reef Control Impact Before vs. After To test whether a condition has an effect, collect samples both before the condition is present and after the condition is absent but where all else is the same. An effect can only be rigorously demonstrated by before vs. after comparisons. Before vs. After Coral reef Sample Before Sample After Impact BACI: Before-After Control-Impact Comparison Procedure Before Control After Density Perturbation Impact Time Diablo Canyon NPP Diablo Canyon NPP Mazzaella flaccida Iridescent seaweed 75 Mean % Cover Control 50 25 0 1978 1981 1984 1987 1991 1995 Time 75 Mean % Cover Control 50 25 0 1978 1981 1984 1987 1991 1995 Time 75 Mean % Cover Impact 50 25 0 1978 1981 1984 1987 1991 1995 Time 75 Mean % Cover Control 50 25 0 1978 1981 1984 1987 1991 1995 Time 75 Mean % Cover Impact 50 25 0 1978 1981 1984 1987 1991 1995 Time BACI Two-sample T-test: Before vs. After DF = 6, T = 5.55, P < 0.01 50 Difference in Mean % Cover There is a greater difference between control and impact sites after the Plant began than before. However, there is <1% possibility that this difference is due to chance 25 Difference 0 1978 1981 1984 1987 1991 1995 Time Mill Creek On WSU Vancouver campus New culvert installed in summer 1999 SEPA Mitigated DNS: Erosion minimized through silt fencing Maintained during construction Disturbed slopes reseeded within 24h Mill Creek YSI Multi-probe Sonde Measured temperature, [O2], turbidity Before, during and after construction Mill Creek, WA Water quality during WSU culvert construction 1000 Pre-Construction Baseline August, 1999 Rain Event 100 10 Turbidity (NTU) 1 8/10/2099 8/12/2099 8/14/2099 8/16/2099 Mill Creek, WA Water quality during WSU culvert construction 1000 Pre-Construction Baseline August, 1999 Rain Event 100 10 Turbidity ...

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Washington State - CHEM - 0
Chem 331, Homework #1(Due Wed., Aug. 29th, 2007 at beginning of class) Topics: thermometry, ideal gas law manipulations, math review(1) (a) For the determination of the temperature of the melting point of mercury (a standard fixed point for thermo
Washington State - CHEM - 331
Chem 331, Homework #1(Due Wed., Aug. 29th, 2007 at beginning of class) Topics: thermometry, ideal gas law manipulations, math review(1) (a) For the determination of the temperature of the melting point of mercury (a standard fixed point for thermo
Martin Luther - CHEM - 0
Chem 331, Homework #1(Due Wed., Aug. 29th, 2007 at beginning of class) Topics: thermometry, ideal gas law manipulations, math review(1) (a) For the determination of the temperature of the melting point of mercury (a standard fixed point for thermo
Martin Luther - CHEM - 331
Chem 331, Homework #1(Due Wed., Aug. 29th, 2007 at beginning of class) Topics: thermometry, ideal gas law manipulations, math review(1) (a) For the determination of the temperature of the melting point of mercury (a standard fixed point for thermo
Washington State - CHEM - 0
Washington State - CHEM - 331
Martin Luther - CHEM - 0
Martin Luther - CHEM - 331
Washington State - CHEM - 0
Chem 331, Homework #2(Due Fri., Sept. 7th, 2007 at beginning of class) Topics: heat, work, 1st law of thermodynamics, enthalpy(1) (a) Calculate q, w, U, and H for the reversible isothermal expansion at 300 K of 5.00 mol of an ideal gas from 500 to
Washington State - CHEM - 331
Chem 331, Homework #2(Due Fri., Sept. 7th, 2007 at beginning of class) Topics: heat, work, 1st law of thermodynamics, enthalpy(1) (a) Calculate q, w, U, and H for the reversible isothermal expansion at 300 K of 5.00 mol of an ideal gas from 500 to
Martin Luther - CHEM - 0
Chem 331, Homework #2(Due Fri., Sept. 7th, 2007 at beginning of class) Topics: heat, work, 1st law of thermodynamics, enthalpy(1) (a) Calculate q, w, U, and H for the reversible isothermal expansion at 300 K of 5.00 mol of an ideal gas from 500 to
Martin Luther - CHEM - 331
Chem 331, Homework #2(Due Fri., Sept. 7th, 2007 at beginning of class) Topics: heat, work, 1st law of thermodynamics, enthalpy(1) (a) Calculate q, w, U, and H for the reversible isothermal expansion at 300 K of 5.00 mol of an ideal gas from 500 to
Washington State - CHEM - 0
Washington State - CHEM - 331
Martin Luther - CHEM - 0
Martin Luther - CHEM - 331
Washington State - CHEM - 0
Chem 331, Homework #3(Due Mon., Sept. 17th, 2007 at beginning of class) Topics: manipulating state functions, and , heating/heat capacities&quot; !C % (1) Show that for an ideal gas, \$ v ' = 0 # !V &amp; T 1 \$ #V ' &amp; ) for a van der Waals V % #P ( T(2)
Washington State - CHEM - 331
Chem 331, Homework #3(Due Mon., Sept. 17th, 2007 at beginning of class) Topics: manipulating state functions, and , heating/heat capacities&quot; !C % (1) Show that for an ideal gas, \$ v ' = 0 # !V &amp; T 1 \$ #V ' &amp; ) for a van der Waals V % #P ( T(2)
Martin Luther - CHEM - 0
Chem 331, Homework #3(Due Mon., Sept. 17th, 2007 at beginning of class) Topics: manipulating state functions, and , heating/heat capacities&quot; !C % (1) Show that for an ideal gas, \$ v ' = 0 # !V &amp; T 1 \$ #V ' &amp; ) for a van der Waals V % #P ( T(2)
Martin Luther - CHEM - 331
Chem 331, Homework #3(Due Mon., Sept. 17th, 2007 at beginning of class) Topics: manipulating state functions, and , heating/heat capacities&quot; !C % (1) Show that for an ideal gas, \$ v ' = 0 # !V &amp; T 1 \$ #V ' &amp; ) for a van der Waals V % #P ( T(2)
Washington State - CHEM - 0
Washington State - CHEM - 331
Martin Luther - CHEM - 0
Martin Luther - CHEM - 331
Washington State - CHEM - 0
Chem 331, Homework #4 (Thermochemistry)(Due Mon., Oct. 1st, 2007 at beginning of class) (1) Calculate the molar heat of vaporization of water at 25C. The heat of vaporization of water at 100C is 40.68 kJ/mol. (2) Calculate !H ro and !U ro at 298.15
Washington State - CHEM - 331
Chem 331, Homework #4 (Thermochemistry)(Due Mon., Oct. 1st, 2007 at beginning of class) (1) Calculate the molar heat of vaporization of water at 25C. The heat of vaporization of water at 100C is 40.68 kJ/mol. (2) Calculate !H ro and !U ro at 298.15
Martin Luther - CHEM - 0
Chem 331, Homework #4 (Thermochemistry)(Due Mon., Oct. 1st, 2007 at beginning of class) (1) Calculate the molar heat of vaporization of water at 25C. The heat of vaporization of water at 100C is 40.68 kJ/mol. (2) Calculate !H ro and !U ro at 298.15
Martin Luther - CHEM - 331
Chem 331, Homework #4 (Thermochemistry)(Due Mon., Oct. 1st, 2007 at beginning of class) (1) Calculate the molar heat of vaporization of water at 25C. The heat of vaporization of water at 100C is 40.68 kJ/mol. (2) Calculate !H ro and !U ro at 298.15
Washington State - CHEM - 0
Washington State - CHEM - 331
Martin Luther - CHEM - 0
Martin Luther - CHEM - 331
Washington State - CHEM - 0
Washington State - CHEM - 331
Martin Luther - CHEM - 0
Martin Luther - CHEM - 331
Washington State - CHEM - 0
Chem 331, Homework #5 (Entropy Calculations)(Due Mon., Oct. 8st, 2007 at beginning of class) (1) Show that for a reversible Carnot cycle (abcda) with an ideal gas for the working substance,wcycle = !nR (Th ! Tc ) ln qab = +nRTh ln qcd = !nRTc lna
Washington State - CHEM - 331
Chem 331, Homework #5 (Entropy Calculations)(Due Mon., Oct. 8st, 2007 at beginning of class) (1) Show that for a reversible Carnot cycle (abcda) with an ideal gas for the working substance,wcycle = !nR (Th ! Tc ) ln qab = +nRTh ln qcd = !nRTc lna
Martin Luther - CHEM - 0
Chem 331, Homework #5 (Entropy Calculations)(Due Mon., Oct. 8st, 2007 at beginning of class) (1) Show that for a reversible Carnot cycle (abcda) with an ideal gas for the working substance,wcycle = !nR (Th ! Tc ) ln qab = +nRTh ln qcd = !nRTc lna
Martin Luther - CHEM - 331
Chem 331, Homework #5 (Entropy Calculations)(Due Mon., Oct. 8st, 2007 at beginning of class) (1) Show that for a reversible Carnot cycle (abcda) with an ideal gas for the working substance,wcycle = !nR (Th ! Tc ) ln qab = +nRTh ln qcd = !nRTc lna
Washington State - CHEM - 0
T/K 15 20 25 30 35 40 50 60 70 90 110 130 150 170Cp/J K-1 mol-1Cp/J K-1 mol-1 3.72 7.74 12.09 16.69 20.79 23.97 29.25 33.47 36.32 40.63 43.81 47.24 51.04 55.1y = -1.2950E-07x4 + 7.5025E-05x3 - 1.5415E-02x2 + 1.5098E+00x - 1.6433E+01 60 R2 = 9.9
Washington State - CHEM - 331
T/K 15 20 25 30 35 40 50 60 70 90 110 130 150 170Cp/J K-1 mol-1Cp/J K-1 mol-1 3.72 7.74 12.09 16.69 20.79 23.97 29.25 33.47 36.32 40.63 43.81 47.24 51.04 55.1y = -1.2950E-07x4 + 7.5025E-05x3 - 1.5415E-02x2 + 1.5098E+00x - 1.6433E+01 60 R2 = 9.9
Martin Luther - CHEM - 0
T/K 15 20 25 30 35 40 50 60 70 90 110 130 150 170Cp/J K-1 mol-1Cp/J K-1 mol-1 3.72 7.74 12.09 16.69 20.79 23.97 29.25 33.47 36.32 40.63 43.81 47.24 51.04 55.1y = -1.2950E-07x4 + 7.5025E-05x3 - 1.5415E-02x2 + 1.5098E+00x - 1.6433E+01 60 R2 = 9.9
Martin Luther - CHEM - 331
T/K 15 20 25 30 35 40 50 60 70 90 110 130 150 170Cp/J K-1 mol-1Cp/J K-1 mol-1 3.72 7.74 12.09 16.69 20.79 23.97 29.25 33.47 36.32 40.63 43.81 47.24 51.04 55.1y = -1.2950E-07x4 + 7.5025E-05x3 - 1.5415E-02x2 + 1.5098E+00x - 1.6433E+01 60 R2 = 9.9
Washington State - CHEM - 0
Chem 331, Homework #6 (Fundamental Eqns. of Thermo)(Due Mon., Oct. 15th, 2007 at beginning of class) (1) Calculate !Sro and !Gro at 298.15 K for the following reactions. The latter can utilize the !H ro values from homework #4. (a) 4NH3(g) + 6NO(g)
Washington State - CHEM - 331
Chem 331, Homework #6 (Fundamental Eqns. of Thermo)(Due Mon., Oct. 15th, 2007 at beginning of class) (1) Calculate !Sro and !Gro at 298.15 K for the following reactions. The latter can utilize the !H ro values from homework #4. (a) 4NH3(g) + 6NO(g)
Martin Luther - CHEM - 0
Chem 331, Homework #6 (Fundamental Eqns. of Thermo)(Due Mon., Oct. 15th, 2007 at beginning of class) (1) Calculate !Sro and !Gro at 298.15 K for the following reactions. The latter can utilize the !H ro values from homework #4. (a) 4NH3(g) + 6NO(g)
Martin Luther - CHEM - 331
Chem 331, Homework #6 (Fundamental Eqns. of Thermo)(Due Mon., Oct. 15th, 2007 at beginning of class) (1) Calculate !Sro and !Gro at 298.15 K for the following reactions. The latter can utilize the !H ro values from homework #4. (a) 4NH3(g) + 6NO(g)
Washington State - CHEM - 0
Washington State - CHEM - 331
Martin Luther - CHEM - 0
Martin Luther - CHEM - 331
Washington State - CHEM - 0
Chem 331, Homework #7 (Chemical Equilibrium)(Due Mon., Oct. 22nd, 2007 at beginning of class) (1) Calculate the maximum nonexpansion work that can be gained from the combustion of benzene(liquid) and of H2(g) on a per gram basis under standard condi
Washington State - CHEM - 331
Chem 331, Homework #7 (Chemical Equilibrium)(Due Mon., Oct. 22nd, 2007 at beginning of class) (1) Calculate the maximum nonexpansion work that can be gained from the combustion of benzene(liquid) and of H2(g) on a per gram basis under standard condi
Martin Luther - CHEM - 0
Chem 331, Homework #7 (Chemical Equilibrium)(Due Mon., Oct. 22nd, 2007 at beginning of class) (1) Calculate the maximum nonexpansion work that can be gained from the combustion of benzene(liquid) and of H2(g) on a per gram basis under standard condi
Martin Luther - CHEM - 331
Chem 331, Homework #7 (Chemical Equilibrium)(Due Mon., Oct. 22nd, 2007 at beginning of class) (1) Calculate the maximum nonexpansion work that can be gained from the combustion of benzene(liquid) and of H2(g) on a per gram basis under standard condi
Washington State - CHEM - 0
Washington State - CHEM - 331
Martin Luther - CHEM - 0
Martin Luther - CHEM - 331
Washington State - CHEM - 0