exercise_cardio_topic_3
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exercise_cardio_topic_3

Course Number: BIO 203, Spring 2009

College/University: SUNY Stony Brook

Word Count: 237

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The Cardiovascular System: Cardiac Action Potential 1. How do the waves of depolarization, generated by the autorhythmic cells spread to the muscle cells? _____________________. 2. 3. Depolarizing current from the autorhythmic cells causes the ventricular muscle cells to ____________. Name the 3 channels essential for generating an action potential and indicate which way the ions move (circle the correct one): a....

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Cardiovascular The System: Cardiac Action Potential 1. How do the waves of depolarization, generated by the autorhythmic cells spread to the muscle cells? _____________________. 2. 3. Depolarizing current from the autorhythmic cells causes the ventricular muscle cells to ____________. Name the 3 channels essential for generating an action potential and indicate which way the ions move (circle the correct one): a. ______________ channels b. ______________ channels c. ______________ channels 4. into into into or or or out of out of out of If the sodium channel or the fast calcium channels are open, the inside of the cell would be relatively more ____________. 5. The pacemaker potential is due to a/an (decreased or increased) efflux of ____ ions compared to a normal influx of ____ ions. 6. Threshold for the action potential in the SA Node is at ____ mV. What channels open, causing depolarization? _________________ 7. The of reversal membrane potential causes the _____ channels to open, causing the _________________ of the membrane. 8. The ______________ pumps sodium out and potassium into the cell, restoring ion concentrations to their resting levels. 9. 10. Where is calcium stored in the contractile cells? ________________ Gap junctions allow what cations to pass into the cardiac contractile cells, causing the opening of voltagegated sodium channels? ________________________ 11. State the voltage-gated channels responsible for the following stages of the action potential in cardiac contractile cells: a. Depolarization ______________________ b. Plateau ______________________ c. Repolarization ______________________ 12. What channels in the autorhythmic cells allow ions to leak in, producing a pacemaker potential? (Quiz section) ______________ 13. What channels in the autorhythmic cells bring about depolarization? _____________.

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SUNY Stony Brook - BIO - 203
The Cardiovascular System: Cardiac Action Potential 1. How do the waves of depolarization, generated by the autorhythmic cells spread to the muscle cells? _. 2. 3. Depolarizing current from the autorhythmic cells causes the ventricular muscle cells t
SUNY Stony Brook - BIO - 203
The Cardiovascular System: Cardiac Cycle 1. 2. Valves open in response to _ on their two sides. List the chambers/vessels that the four valves connect: Chamber Pulmonary Semilunar Aortic Semilunar Mitral Tricuspid Chamber/Vessel3.a. Ventricular f
SUNY Stony Brook - BIO - 203
The Cardiovascular System: Cardiac Cycle 1. 2. Valves open in response to _ on their two sides. List the chambers/vessels that the four valves connect: Chamber Pulmonary Semilunar Aortic Semilunar Mitral Tricuspid Chamber/Vessel3.a. Ventricular f
SUNY Stony Brook - BIO - 203
The Cardiovascular System: Cardiac Output 1. Define Cardiac Output (CO).2.Write the equation for CO.3.Define Stroke Volume (SV).4.Write the equation for SV.5.Write the normal values (include correct units) for the following: a. HR (he
SUNY Stony Brook - BIO - 203
The Cardiovascular System: Cardiac Output 1. Define Cardiac Output (CO).2.Write the equation for CO.3.Define Stroke Volume (SV).4.Write the equation for SV.5.Write the normal values (include correct units) for the following: a. HR (he
SUNY Stony Brook - BIO - 203
The Cardiovascular System: Anatomy Review: Blood Vessel Structure and Function 1. Name the three layers or tunics of the blood vessel wall and what they are composed of. Location Innermost Middle Outer 2. Tunic name Composed ofIn the following list
SUNY Stony Brook - BIO - 203
The Cardiovascular System: Anatomy Review: Blood Vessel Structure and Function 1. Name the three layers or tunics of the blood vessel wall and what they are composed of. Location Innermost Middle Outer Tunic name Composed of2.In the following lis
SUNY Stony Brook - BIO - 203
The Cardiovascular System: Measuring Blood Pressure 1. Blood flow is generated by the _. Blood pressure results when that flow encounters _ from the vessel walls. 2. 3. Blood pressure is expressed in _ of mercury and is written as _. Blood flows in l
SUNY Stony Brook - BIO - 203
The Cardiovascular System: Measuring Blood Pressure 1. Blood flow is generated by the _. Blood pressure results when that flow encounters _ from the vessel walls. 2. 3. Blood pressure is expressed in _ of mercury and is written as _. Blood flows in l
SUNY Stony Brook - BIO - 203
The Cardiovascular System: Factors That Affect Blood Pressure 1. What are the three main factors that influence total peripheral resistance (TPR)? a. b. c. 2. Name three hormones that act as vasoconstrictors. a. b. c. 3. Name two hormones that direct
SUNY Stony Brook - BIO - 203
The Cardiovascular System: Factors That Affect Blood Pressure 1. What are the three main factors that influence total peripheral resistance (TPR)? a. b. c. 2. Name three hormones that act as vasoconstrictors. a. b. c. 3. Name two hormones that direct
SUNY Stony Brook - BIO - 203
The Cardiovascular System: Blood Pressure Regulation 1. a. Short term mechanisms for regulating blood pressure include regulating what three things? 1. 2. 3. b. Long term mechanisms will regulate _. 2. Two major arterial baroreceptors are located whe
SUNY Stony Brook - BIO - 203
The Cardiovascular System: Blood Pressure Regulation 1. a. Short term mechanisms for regulating blood pressure include regulating what three things? 1. 2. 3. b. Long term mechanisms will regulate _. 2. Two major arterial baroreceptors are located whe
SUNY Stony Brook - BIO - 203
The Cardiovascular System: Autoregulation and Capillary Dynamics 1. a. What regulates the flow of blood into true capillaries? _ b. If all sphincters are closed, blood is _ to the venules through _ capillaries. 2. Use arrows to show whether high or l
SUNY Stony Brook - BIO - 203
The Cardiovascular System: Autoregulation and Capillary Dynamics 1. a. What regulates the flow of blood into true capillaries? _ b. If all sphincters are closed, blood is _ to the venules through _ capillaries. 2. Use arrows to show whether high or l
SUNY Stony Brook - BIO - 203
The Digestive System: Anatomy Review 1. List two main divisions of the digestive system. a. _ b. _ 2. The four main layers of the digestive tract wall are a. _.b. _. c. _. d. _.3. Label the diagram below with the four main layers you listed in qu
SUNY Stony Brook - BIO - 203
The Digestive System: Anatomy Review 1. List two main divisions of the digestive system. a. _ b. _ 2. The four main layers of the digestive tract wall are a. _.b. _. c. _. d. _.3. Label the diagram below with the four main layers you listed in qu
SUNY Stony Brook - BIO - 203
The Digestive System: Control of the Digestive System1. List the primary two mechanisms that control the motility and secretion of the digestive system. a. _ b. _ 2. List the three phases of digestive system processes a. _. b. _ c. _ 3. The _ nerve
SUNY Stony Brook - BIO - 203
The Digestive System: Control of the Digestive System1. List the primary two mechanisms that control the motility and secretion of the digestive system. a. _ b. _ 2. List the three phases of digestive system processes a. _. b. _ c. _ 3. The _ nerve
SUNY Stony Brook - BIO - 203
The Digestive System: Motility 1. The process by which food is received into the GI tract via the mouth is called _. 2. The esophagus is digestive in function. a. True b. False 3. Swallowing has both voluntary and involuntary components a. True b. Fa
SUNY Stony Brook - BIO - 203
The Digestive System: Motility 1. The process by which food is received into the GI tract via the mouth is called _. 2. The esophagus is digestive in function. a. True b. False 3. Swallowing has both voluntary and involuntary components a. True b. Fa
SUNY Stony Brook - BIO - 203
The Digestive System: Secretion1. Of the approximately 9.0 L of fluids contained in the digestive tract daily, only _ L are eliminated with the feces.2. Of the approximately 800 g of food ingested during a typical day, only about _ g are eliminate
SUNY Stony Brook - BIO - 203
The Digestive System: Secretion1. Of the approximately 9.0 L of fluids contained in the digestive tract daily, only _ L are eliminated with the feces.2. Of the approximately 800 g of food ingested during a typical day, only about _ g are eliminate
SUNY Stony Brook - BIO - 203
The Digestive System: Digestion and Absorption1.List the three major nutrient classes (a.k.a. macronutrients). _ _ _2.Which of the following carbohydrates is NOT a disaccharide? maltose lactose starch sucrose3.Match the following pairs of
SUNY Stony Brook - BIO - 203
The Digestive System: Digestion and Absorption1.List the three major nutrient classes (a.k.a. macronutrients). _ _ _2.Which of the following carbohydrates is NOT a disaccharide? maltose lactose starch sucrose3. letter:Match the following
SUNY Stony Brook - BIO - 203
Endocrine System: Endocrine System Review 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Hormones act at specific target organs because these organs contain _ specific for the hormones. Growth hormone, secreted by the _ _ gland, stimulates growth of bones and muscle by activating i
SUNY Stony Brook - BIO - 203
Endocrine System: Endocrine System Review 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Hormones act at specific target organs because these organs contain _ specific for the hormones. Growth hormone, secreted by the _ _ gland, stimulates growth of bones and muscle by activating i
SUNY Stony Brook - BIO - 203
Endocrine System: Biochemistry, Secretion and Transport of Hormones 1. Place the following hormones into one of the three categories of hormones (peptides, amines or steroids): T4 (thyroxin), estradiol, norepinephrine, insulin, aldosterone, glucagon,
SUNY Stony Brook - BIO - 203
Endocrine System: Biochemistry, Secretion and Transport of Hormones1.Place the following hormones into one of the three categories of hormones (peptides, amines or steroids): T4 (thyroxin), estradiol, norepinephrine, insulin, aldosterone, glucago
SUNY Stony Brook - BIO - 203
Endocrine System: The Actions of Hormones on Target Cells 1. The receptor is activated by the input signal that is the _. This signal causes a biochemical change in the cell. Name three of the five possible changes listed. _ __ _ 2. 3. Water soluble
SUNY Stony Brook - BIO - 203
Endocrine System: The Actions of Hormones on Target Cells1.The receptor is activated by the input signal that is the _. This signal causes a biochemical change in the cell. Name three of the five possible changes listed. _ __ _2.Water soluble
SUNY Stony Brook - BIO - 203
Endocrine System: The HypothalamicPituitary Axis 1. The anterior pituitary is composed of _ tissue. Name the six classic hormones whose functions are well known. a. b. c. d. e. f. 2. TRH, GNRH, CRH etc. are known as _ hypothalamic hormones which regu
SUNY Stony Brook - BIO - 203
Endocrine System: The HypothalamicPituitary Axis1.The anterior pituitary is composed of _ tissue. Name the six classic hormones whose functions are well known. a. b. c. d. e. f.2.TRH, GNRH, CRH etc. are known as _ hypothalamic hormones which
SUNY Stony Brook - BIO - 203
Endocrine System: Response to Stress 1. 2. 3. What two body systems work together to provide well coordinated, generalized, nonspecific responses to combat stress? _ and _ Increased levels of what three hormones indicate that an individual is experie
SUNY Stony Brook - BIO - 203
Endocrine System: Response to Stress 1. What two body systems work together to provide well coordinated, generalized, nonspecific responses to combat stress? _ and _ 2. Increased levels of what three hormones indicate that an individual is experienci
SUNY Stony Brook - BIO - 203
Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance: Introduction to Body Fluids 1. a. Where are fluids absorbed? _ b. Where are excess fluids and electrolytes lost?_ 2. Name four of the six functions of water. a. b. c. d. 3. a. The amount of water in the body
SUNY Stony Brook - BIO - 203
Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance: Introduction to Body Fluids 1. a. Where are fluids absorbed? _ b. Where are excess fluids and electrolytes lost?_ 2. Name four of the six functions of water. a. b. c. d. 3. a. The amount of water in the body
SUNY Stony Brook - BIO - 203
Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance: Water Homeostasis 1. Below are listed the four examples of disturbances in water homeostasis. Indicate if there is an increase (), decrease (), or no change () in volume and osmolarity. Give an example of ea
SUNY Stony Brook - BIO - 203
Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance: Water Homeostasis 1. Below are listed the four examples of disturbances in water homeostasis. Indicate if there is an increase (), decrease (), or no change () in volume and osmolarity. Give an example of ea
SUNY Stony Brook - BIO - 203
Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance: Electrolyte Homeostasis 1. Electrolytes enter the body in the food we eat and the beverages we drink. What is the main way they leave the body? _ 2. Movement of electrolytes and water between intracellular a
SUNY Stony Brook - BIO - 203
Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance: Electrolyte Homeostasis 1. Electrolytes enter the body in the food we eat and the beverages we drink. What is the main way they leave the body? _ 2. Movement of electrolytes and water between intracellular a
SUNY Stony Brook - BIO - 203
Fluid, Electrolyte and Acid-Base Balance: Acid-Base Homeostasis 1. List the three important buffer systems in the body: a. b. c. 2. Write the equation showing the relationship of CO2 and H2O levels with bicarbonate and hydrogen ion levels: CO2 + H2O
SUNY Stony Brook - BIO - 203
Fluid, Electrolyte and Acid-Base Balance: Acid-Base Homeostasis 1. List the three important buffer systems in the body: a. b. c. 2. Write the equation showing the relationship of CO2 and H2O levels with bicarbonate and hydrogen ion levels: CO2 + H2O
SUNY Stony Brook - BIO - 203
The Immune System: Immune System Overview 1. Name the two major functions of the immune system: _ _ 2. Pathogens are classified according to their size and where they are located in the body. List the five types of pathogens from largest to smalles
SUNY Stony Brook - BIO - 203
The Immune System: Immune System Overview 1. Name the two major functions of the immune system: _ _ 2. Pathogens are classified according to their size and where they are located in the body. List the five types of pathogens from largest to smalles
SUNY Stony Brook - BIO - 203
The Immune System: Anatomy Review 1. Name the two major anatomical parts of the immune system: _ _ 2. Cells of the immune system originate in _. These cells are called _ when traveling in the blood and are classified according to the shape of their
SUNY Stony Brook - BIO - 203
The Immune System: Anatomy Review 1. Name the two major anatomical parts of the immune system: _ _ 2. Cells of the immune system originate in _. These cells are called _ when traveling in the blood and are classified according to the shape of their
SUNY Stony Brook - BIO - 203
The Immune System: Innate Host Defenses 1. Name the two major categories of innate (nonspecific) defenses: _ _ 2. Surface barriers include the _ and __ of the respiratory, gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts. 3. List the three properties of s
SUNY Stony Brook - BIO - 203
The Immune System: Innate Host Defenses 1. Name the two major categories of innate (nonspecific) defenses: _ _ 2. Surface barriers include the _ and __ of the respiratory, gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts. 3. List the three properties of s
SUNY Stony Brook - BIO - 203
The Immune System: Common Characteristics of B and T Lymphocytes 1. Shared features of B and T lymphocyte function include: _ _ _ _ 2. Lymphocytes must distinguish between normally occurring internal antigens called _ and those external to the bo
SUNY Stony Brook - BIO - 203
The Immune System: Common Characteristics of B and T Lymphocytes 1. Shared features of B and T lymphocyte function include: _ _ _ _ 2. Lymphocytes must distinguish between normally occurring internal antigens called _ and those external to the bo
SUNY Stony Brook - BIO - 203
The Immune System: Humoral Immunity 1. Antibodies can be found on the plasma membrane of _ (where they act as antigen receptors) or free in the extracellular fluid, here they are known as _. 2. Antibodies consist of two types of polypeptide chains:
SUNY Stony Brook - BIO - 203
The Immune System: Humoral Immunity 1. Antibodies can be found on the plasma membrane of _ (where they act as antigen receptors) or free in the extracellular fluid, here they are known as _. 2. Antibodies consist of two types of polypeptide chains:
SUNY Stony Brook - BIO - 203
The Immune System: Cellular Immunity 1. Cytokines are small proteins that transfer information within the immune system. List the actions of cytokines given in this Topic: _ __ _ _ _ 2. Interleukin-1, a cytokine, acts as a chemical alarm to aler
SUNY Stony Brook - BIO - 203
The Immune System: Cellular Immunity 1. Cytokines are small proteins that transfer information within the immune system. List the actions of cytokines given in this Topic: _ __ _ _ _ 2. Interleukin-1, a cytokine, acts as a chemical alarm to aler
SUNY Stony Brook - BIO - 203
The Muscular System: Skeletal Muscle Tissue 1. Fill in the characteristics of the three muscle types: Muscle Type Shape of cell # of nuclei Striations Control 2. 3. 4. Cardiac Skeletal SmoothWhat attaches muscles to bone? _. The whole muscle is com
SUNY Stony Brook - BIO - 203
The Muscular System: Skeletal Muscle Tissue 1. Fill in the characteristics of the three muscle types: Muscle Type Shape of cell # of nuclei Striations Control Cardiac Skeletal Smooth2. 3. 4.What attaches muscles to bone? _. The whole muscle is co
SUNY Stony Brook - BIO - 203
The Muscular System: Neuromuscular Junction 1. 2. What insulates each muscle cell? _ Synaptic vesicles in the axon terminal of a motor neuron contain what neurotransmitter? _ 3. type An action potential in the axon terminal of a motor neuron opens wh
SUNY Stony Brook - BIO - 203
The Muscular System: Neuromuscular Junction 1. 2. What insulates each muscle cell? _ Synaptic vesicles in the axon terminal of a motor neuron contain what neurotransmitter? _ 3. An action potential in the axon terminal of a motor neuron opens what ty
SUNY Stony Brook - BIO - 203
The Muscular System: Sliding Filament Theory 1. a. The thick filament is composed of what molecule? _ b. Flexing the head of this molecule provides what is known as the _. 2. The myosin head contains binding sites for what two molecules? a. b. 3. Thr
SUNY Stony Brook - BIO - 203
The Muscular System: Sliding Filament Theory 1. a. The thick filament is composed of what molecule? _ b. Flexing the head of this molecule provides what is known as the _. 2. The myosin head contains binding sites for what two molecules? a. b. 3. Thr