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The Cardiovascular System: Cardiac Action Potential 1. How do the waves of depolarization, generated by the autorhythmic cells spread to the muscle cells? _____________________. 2. Depolarizing current from the autorhythmic cells causes the ventricular muscle cells to ____________. 3. Name the 3 channels essential for generating an action potential and indicate which way the ions move (circle the correct one): a. ______________ channels into or out of b. ______________ channels into or out of c. ______________ channels into or out of 4. If the sodium channel or the fast calcium channels are open, the inside of the cell would be relatively more ____________. 5. The pacemaker potential is due to a/an (decreased or increased) efflux of ____ ions compared to a normal influx of ____ ions. 6. Threshold for the action potential in the SA Node is at ____ mV. What channels open, causing depolarization? _________________ 7. The reversal of membrane potential causes the _____ channels to open, causing the _________________ of the membrane. 8. The ______________ pumps sodium out and potassium into the cell, restoring ion concentrations to their resting levels. 9. Where is calcium stored in the contractile cells? ________________ 10. Gap junctions allow what cations to pass into the cardiac contractile cells, causing the opening of voltage- gated sodium channels? ________________________ 11. State the voltage-gated channels responsible for the following stages of the action potential in cardiac contractile cells: a. Depolarization ______________________ b. Plateau ______________________ c. Repolarization ______________________ 12. What channels in the autorhythmic cells allow ions to leak in, producing a pacemaker potential? (Quiz section) ______________ 13. What channels in the autorhythmic cells bring about depolarization? _____________.... View Full Document

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