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Psychology, Abnormal 5/e Richard P. Halgin, University of Massachusetts, Amherst Susan K. Whitbourne, University of Massachusetts, Amherst Glossary Abstinence violation effect A sense of loss of control over one's behavior that has an overwhelming and demoralizing effect. Active phase A period in the course of schizophrenia in which psychotic symptoms are present. Acute stress disorder An anxiety disorder that develops after a traumatic event with symptoms such as depersonalization, numbing, dissociative amnesia, intense anxiety, hypervigilance, and impairment of everyday functioning. People with this disorder may reexperience the event and desperately avoid reminders of the trauma. These symptoms arise within the month following the trauma and last from days to weeks. Adoption study A method of comparing genetic versus environmental contributions to a disorder by tracking the incidence of disorders in children whose biological parents have diagnosed psychological disorders but whose rearing parents do not. Adult antisocial behavior Illegal or immoral behavior such as stealing, lying, or cheating. Affect An individual's outward expression of emotion. Affective flattening A symptom of schizophrenia in which an individual seems unresponsive and which is reflected in relatively motionless body language and facial reactions, as well as minimal eye contact. Agnosia The inability to recognize familiar objects or experiences, despite the ability to perceive their basic elements. Agoraphobia Intense anxiety about being trapped or stranded in a situation without help if a panic attack occurs. Akinesia A motor disturbance in which a person's muscles become rigid and movement is difficult to initiate. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) A zinc containing enzyme that breaks down alcohol into fatty acids, carbon dioxide, and water before it enters the bloodstream. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) An enzyme that is involved in metabolizing alcohol. Alogia Speechlessness or a notable lack of spontaneity or responsiveness in conversation. Alters The alternative personalities that develop in an individual with dissociative identity disorder. Amnestic disorders Cognitive disorders involving the inability to recall previously learned information or to register new memories. Amyloid plaques A characteristic of Alzheimer's disease in which clusters of dead or dying neurons become mixed together with fragments of protein molecules. Anal stage A period of psychosexual development in which the toddler's pleasure focuses on anal stimulation from holding onto and expelling feces. Anhedonia A loss of interest in or ability to experience pleasure from activities that most people find appealing. Anorexia nervosa An eating disorder characterized by an inability to maintain normal weight, an intense fear of gaining weight, and distorted body perception. Antisocial personality disorder A personality disorder characterized by a lack of regard for society's moral or legal standards. Anxiety A future-oriented and global response, involving both cognitive and emotional components, in which an individual is inordinately apprehensive, tense, and uneasy about the prospect of something terrible happening. Anxiety disorders Disorders characterized by intense, irrational, and incapacitating apprehension. Anxiety sensitivity theory The belief that panic disorder is caused in part by the tendency to interpret cognitive and somatic manifestations of stress and anxiety in a catastrophic manner. Aphasia A loss of the ability to use language. Apraxia A loss of the ability to carry out coordinated bodily movements that the individual could previously perform without difficulty. Asperger's disorder A pervasive developmental disorder in which a child maintains adequate cognitive and language development but becomes severely impaired in social interaction. Children with this disorder also develop restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities. Assessment The evaluation of a person in terms of the psychological, physical, and social factors that have the most influence on the individual's functioning. Assigned (biological) sex The sex of the individual that is recorded on the birth certificate. Asylum Literally a place of refuge or safety, the term was originally used to describe a psychiatric facility and later came to have negative connotations. Attachment style The way a person relates to a caregiver figure. Attention deficit hyperactivity A behavior disorder of childhood involving problems with disorder (ADHD) inattentiveness, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Attributions Explanations that people make of the things that happen to them. Auditory hallucination An hallucination that involves hearing sounds, often voices or even entire conversations. Autistic disorder A pervasive developmental disorder involving massive impairment in an individual's ability to communicate and relate emotionally to others. Automatic thoughts Ideas so deeply entrenched that the individual is not even aware that they lead to feelings of unhappiness and discouragement. Aversions Responses of discomfort or dislike to a particular object or situation. Aversive conditioning A form of conditioning in which a painful stimulus is paired with an initially neutral stimulus. Avoidant personality disorder A personality disorder whose most prominent feature is that the individual desires, but is fearful of, any involvement with other people and is terrified at the prospect of being publicly embarrassed. Avolition A lack of initiative, either not wanting to take any action or lacking the energy and will to take action. Axis A class of information in DSM-IV regarding an aspect of the individual's functioning. Base rate The frequency with which a disorder occurs in the general population. Baseline The period in which a participant is observed prior to being given treatment, the purpose being to document the frequency of the target behavior. Behavioral assessment A form of measurement based on objective recording of the individual's behavior. Behavioral medicine An interdisciplinary approach to medical conditions affected by psychological factors that is rooted in learning theory. Behavioral observation A behavioral method of assessment in which the clinician observes the individual and records the frequency of specific behaviors along with any relevant situational factors. Behavioral perspective A theoretical perspective in which it is assumed that abnormality is caused by faulty learning experiences. Behavioral self-report A method of behavioral assessment in which the individual provides information about the frequency of particular behaviors. Benzodiazepines Medications that slow down central nervous system reactions that are thought to contribute to anxiety. Big win A gain of large amounts of money in one bet, which propels the pathological gambler into a pattern of uncontrollable gambling. Binges The ingestion of large amounts of food during a short period of time, even after reaching a point of feeling full, and a lack of control over what or how much is eaten. Biofeedback A procedure in which people learn to monitor and control their autonomic responses, such as blood pressure, heart rate, skin conductance, and muscular tension. Biological markers Measurable characteristics or traits whose patterns parallel the inheritance of a disorder or other characteristic. Biological perspective A theoretical perspective in which it is assumed that disturbances in emotions, behavior, and cognitive processes are caused by abnor-malities in the functioning of the body. Biopsychosocial A model in which the interaction of biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors is seen as influencing the development of the individual. Bipolar disorder A mood disorder involving manic episodesintense and very disruptive experiences of heightened mood, possibly alternating with major depressive episodes. Bipolar I disorder The diagnosis used to describe a clinical course in which the individual experiences one or more manic episodes with the possibility, though not the necessity, of having experienced one or more major depressive episodes. Bipolar II disorder The diagnosis used to describe a clinical course in which the individual experiences one or more major depressive episodes and at least one hypomanic episode. Body dysmorphic disorder A somatoform disorder in which individuals are preoccupied with the idea that a part of their body is ugly or defective. Borderline personality disorder A personality disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of poor impulse control and instability in mood, interpersonal relationships, and self-image. Bradykinesia A motor disturbance involving a general slowing of motor activity. Brief psychotic disorder A disorder characterized by the sudden onset of psychotic symptoms that are limited to a period of less than a month. Broca's aphasia A form of aphasia that involves a disturbance in language production but intact comprehension abilities. Bulimia nervosa An eating disorder involving the alternation between the extremes of eating large amounts of food in a short time, and then compensating for the added calories either by vomiting or other extreme actions to avoid gaining weight. Caregiver burden The adverse effects on caregivers from the constant demands placed on them by their role. Caregivers The people (usually family members) primarily responsible for caring for a person with a chronic disease, such as Alzheimer's disease. Case formulation A clinician's analysis of the factors that might have influenced the client's current psychological status. Case study method An intensive study of a single person described in detail. Caspase theory of Alzheimer's The proposal that beta amyloid stimulates substances called disease caspases, which become enzymes that destroy neurons. Catatonia Extreme motor disturbances in a psychotic disorder not attributable to physiological causes. Childhood disintegrative disorder A pervasive developmental disorder in which the child develops normally for the first years and then starts to lose language, social, and motor skills, as well as other adaptive functions, including bowel and bladder control. Choline acetyltransferase (CAT) An enzyme that is essential for the synthesis of acetylcholine. Chromosomes Structures found in each cell of the body that contain the genes and exist in a pair, with one chromosome contributed from each parent at conception. Classical conditioning The learning of a connection between an originally neutral stimulus and a naturally evoking stimulus that produces an automatic reflexive reaction. Client A person seeking psychological treatment. Client-centered An approach based on the belief held by Rogers that people are innately good and that the potential for self-improvement lies within the individual. Clinical psychologist A mental health professional with training in the behavioral sciences who provides direct service to clients. Cognitive distortions Errors that depressed people make in the way they draw conclusions from their experiences. Cognitive restructuring One of the fundamental techniques of cognitive behavioral therapy in which clients learn to reframe negative ideas into more positive ones. Cognitive triad A negative view of the self, the world, and the future. Cognitive-behavioral perspective A theoretical perspective in which it is assumed that abnormality is caused by maladaptive thought processes that result in dysfunctional behavior. Command hallucination An hallucination in which the individual hears an instruction to take an action. Commitment Legal procedure designed to protect individuals from doing harm to themselves or others through involuntary institutionalization or other forms of mental health treatment. Communication disorders Conditions involving impaired expression or understanding of language. Community mental health center (CMHC) Outpatient clinic that provides psychological services on a sliding fee scale to serve individuals who live within a certain geographic area. Comorbid Multiple diagnostic conditions that occur simultaneously within the same individual. Competency to stand trial A prediction by a mental health expert of the defendant's cognitive and emotional stability during the period of the trial. Compulsion A repetitive and seemingly purposeful behavior performed in response to uncontrollable urges or according to a ritualistic or stereotyped set of rules. Computed axial tomography (CAT or CT scan) A series of X-rays taken from various angles around the body which are integrated by a computer to produce a composite picture. Concordance rate Agreement ratios between people diagnosed as having a particular disorder and their relatives. Conditioned fear reactions Acquired associations between an internal or external cue and feelings of intense anxiety. Conditioned response An acquired response to a stimulus that was previously neutral. Conditioned stimulus A previously neutral stimulus that, after repeated pairings with the unconditioned stimulus, elicits a conditioned response. Conditions of worth Conditions in which the child receives love only when he or she fulfills certain demands. Conduct disorder A development-related disorder that involves repeated violations of the rights of others and society's norms and laws; the childhood precursor of antisocial personality disorder in adulthood. Confidentiality The principle that disclosures in therapy must be safeguarded by the therapist as private. Congruence A central feature of Rogers' theory is the idea that a welladjusted person's self-image should match the person's experiences. Content of thought Ideas that fill a client's mind. Contingency management A form of behavioral therapy that involves the principle of rewarding a client for desired behaviors and not providing rewards for undesired behaviors. Continuous amnesia Inability to recall past events from a particular date up to and including the present time. Control group The group of participants that does not receive the "treatment" thought to influence the behavior under study. Conversion disorder A somatoform disorder involving the translation of unacceptable drives or troubling conflicts into physical symptoms. Coping The process through which people reduce stress. Coprolalia The involuntary uttering of obscenities. Correlation An association, or correlation, between two variables, that can range in value from .0 to .0. Cortical atrophy A wasting away of tissue in the cerebral cortex of the brain. Cortisol A hormone involved in the mobilization of the body's resources in times of stress. Counterconditioning The process of replacing an undesired response to a stimulus with an acceptable response. Covert conditioning A behavioral intervention in which the therapist instructs the client to imagine a highly negative experience when engaging in an undesirable behavior. Crack cocaine A crystallized form of cocaine that is usually smoked. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease A neurological disease transmitted from animals to humans that leads to dementia and death resulting from abnormal protein accumulations in the brain. Crossfostering study A method of comparing genetic versus environmental contributions to a disorder by tracking the incidence of disorders in children who are adopted by parents with psychological disorders but whose biological parents are psychologically healthy. Cue exposure methods A behavioral approach to alcohol treatment in which the individual is given a priming dose of alcohol, which initiates the craving for more alcohol; the person is then urged to refuse further alcohol. Culture-bound syndromes Recurrent patterns of abnormal behavior or experience that are limited to specific societies or cultural areas. Cyclothymic disorder A mood disorder that, compared with bipolar disorder, involves a less intense vacillation between states of euphoria and dysphoria. Day treatment program A structured program in a community treatment facility that provides activities similar to those provided in a psychiatric hospital. Decision tree A strategy used for diagnosis, consisting of yes/no questions that guide clinicians in ruling in or out psychological disorders. Defense mechanisms Tactics that keep unacceptable thoughts, instincts, and feelings out of conscious awareness and thus protect the ego against anxiety. Deinstitutionalization movement The release of psychiatric patients into community treatment sites as a result of dramatic changes in public policy. Delirium A temporary state in which individuals experience a clouding of consciousness in which they are unaware of what is happening around them and are unable to focus or pay attention. Delirium tremens A physical condition consisting of autonomic nervous system dysfunction, confusion, and possible seizures associated with alcohol withdrawal. Delusional disorders Disorders marked by a single striking psychotic symptoman organized system of nonbizarre false beliefs. Delusions Deeply entrenched false beliefs not consistent with the client's intelligence or cultural background. Demand characteristics The expectations of participants in an experiment about what is going to happen to them or the proper way to respond. Dementia A form of cognitive impairment involving generalized progressive deficits in a person's memory and learning of new information, ability to communicate, judgment, and motor coordination. Dementia praecox The term coined by Kraepelin to describe what is currently known as schizophrenia. According to Kraepelin, this condition involves a degeneration of the brain that begins at a young age and ultimately leads to a disintegration of the entire personality. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) A molecule containing a sequence of nucleotides that forms the structure of the chromosome. Dependent personality disorder A personality disorder whose main characteristic is that the individual is extremely passive and tends to cling to other people, to the point of being unable to make any decisions or to take independent action. Dependent variable The variable whose value is the outcome of the experimenter's manipulation of the independent variable. Depersonalization An altered experience of the self, ranging from feeling that one's body is not connected to one's mind to the feeling that one is not real. Depersonalization disorder A dissociative disorder in which the individual experiences recurrent and persistent episodes of depersonalization. Depressant A psychoactive substance that causes the depression of central nervous system activity. Developmental coordination disorder A condition characterized by marked impairment in the development of motor coordination. Deviation IQ An index of intelligence derived from comparing the individual's score on an intelligence test with the mean score for that individual's reference group. Dexamethasone suppression test A method of testing neuroendocrine functioning by injecting (DST) the individual with dexamethasone, which in normal individuals results in the suppression of cortisol. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) A book published by the American Psychiatric Association that contains standard terms and definitions of psychological disorders. Diathesis-stress model The proposal that people are born with a predisposition (or "diathesis") that places them at risk for developing a psychological disorder if exposed to certain extremely stressful life experiences. Differential diagnosis The process of systematically ruling out alternative diagnoses. Disorder of written expression A learning disorder in which the individual's writing is characterized by poor spelling, grammatical or punctuation errors, and disorganization of paragraphs. Dissociative amnesia An inability to remember important personal details and experiences; is usually associated with traumatic or very stressful events. Dissociative fugue A dissociative disorder in which a person, confused about personal identity, suddenly and unexpectedly travels to another place and is unable to recall past history or identity. Dissociative identity disorder A dissociative disorder, formerly called multiple personality disorder, in which an individual develops more than one self or personality. Disulfiram Known popularly as Antabuse, a medication used in the treatment of alcoholism that inhibits aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and causes severe physical reactions when combined with alcohol. Dizygotic twins Nonidentical, or fraternal, twins who are genetically alike only to the same degree as other siblings. Dopamine hypothesis The biological hypothesis that the delusions, hallucinations, and attentional deficits of schizophrenia result from overactivity of neurons that communicate with each other via the transmission of dopamine. Double-blind technique An experimental procedure in which neither the person giving the treatment nor the person receiving the treatment knows whether the participant is in the experimental or control group. Down syndrome A form of mental retardation caused by abnormal chromosomal formation during conception. Dream analysis A method used in psychoanalysis in which the client relates the events of a dream to the clinician and free associates these events. Duty to warn The clinician's responsibility to notify a potential victim of a client's harmful intent toward that individual. Dysfunctional attitudes Personal rules or values people hold that interfere with adequate adjustment. Dyslexia A learning disorder in which the individual omits, distorts, or substitutes words when reading and reads in a slow, halting fashion. Dyspareunia A sexual dysfunction affecting both males and females that involves recurrent or persistent genital pain before, during, or after sexual intercourse. Dysphoria The emotion of sadness. Dysphoric mood Unpleasant feelings, such as sadness or irritability. Dysthymic disorder A mood disorder involving chronic depression of less intensity than major depressive disorders. Echolalia Repetition of words or phrases in the speech of a person with autistic disorder. Ego In psychoanalytic theory, the structure of personality that gives the individual the mental powers of judgment, memory, perception, and decision making, enabling the individual to adapt to the realities of the external world. Ego ideal The individual's model of how the perfect person should be. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) The application of electrical shock to the head, for the purpose of inducing therapeutically beneficial seizures. Electroencephalogram (EEG) A measure of changes in the electrical activity of the brain. Emotion-focused coping A type of coping in which a person does not change anything about the situation itself, but instead tries to improve feelings about the situation. Encopresis An elimination disorder in which the child is incontinent of feces and has bowel movements either in clothes or in another inappropriate place. Enuresis An elimination disorder in which the child is incontinent of urine and urinates in clothes or in bed after the age when the child is expected to be continent. Environmental assessment scales Measures of key environmental dimensions hypothesized to influence behavior. Epilepsy A neurological condition that involves recurring bodily seizures with associated changes in EEG patterns. Episode A time-limited period during which specific symptoms of a disorder are present. Euphoria The emotion of elation. Euphoric mood A feeling state that is more cheerful and elated than average, possibly even ecstatic. Executive functioning Cognitive abilities such as abstract thinking, planning, organizing, and carrying out of behaviors. Exhibitionism A paraphilia in which a person has intense sexual urges and arousing fantasies involving the exposure of genitals to a stranger. Expectancy model An approach to alcohol dependence that focuses on cognitivebehavioral and social learning perspectives. According to this view, people acquire the belief that alcohol will reduce stress; will make them feel more competent socially, physically, and sexually; and will give them feelings of pleasure. Experimental group The group of participants that receives the "treatment" thought to influence the behavior under study. Experimental method A research method that involves altering or changing the conditions to which participants are exposed (independent variable) and observing the effects of this manipulation on the participants' behavior (dependent variable). Expressed emotion (EE) An index of the degree to which family members speak in ways that reflect criticism, hostile feelings, and emotional overinvolvement or overconcern with regard to the schizophrenic individual. Expressive language disorder A communication disorder characterized by having a limited and faulty vocabulary, speaking in short sentences with simplified grammatical structures, omitting critical words or phrases, or putting words together in peculiar order. Extinction The cessation of behavior in the absence of reinforcement. Factitious disorder A disorder in which people fake symptoms or disorders not for the purpose of any particular gain, but because of an inner need to maintain a sick role. Factitious disorder by proxy (or A condition in which a person induces physical symptoms in Munchausen's syndrome by another person who is under that person's care. proxy) Failure to thrive A condition in which the child does not grow physically and cognitively at a normal rate due to poor prenatal care or grossly inadequate and inattentive parenting. Family dynamics The pattern of interactions among the members of a family. Family history Information gathered in a psychological assessment regarding the sequence of major events in the lives of the client's relatives, including those who are closest to the client as well as more distantly related family members. Family perspective A theoretical perspective in which it is assumed that abnormality is caused by disturbances in the pattern of interactions and relationships within the family. Family therapy Psychological treatment in which the therapist works with several or all members of the family. Fear An innate, almost biologically based alarm response to a dangerous or life-threatening situation. Feeding disorder of infancy or A disorder involving the persistent failure to eat, leading to a early childhood loss of weight or failure to gain weight. Female orgasmic disorder A sexual dysfunction in which a woman experiences problems in having an orgasm during sexual activity. Female sexual arousal disorder A sexual dysfunction characterized by a persistent or recurrent inability to attain or maintain the normal physiological and psychological arousal responses during sexual activity. Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) A condition associated with mental retardation in a child whose mother consumed large amounts of alcohol on a regular basis while pregnant. Fetish A strong, recurrent sexual attraction to a nonliving object. Fetishism A paraphilia in which the individual is preoccupied with an object and depends on this object rather than sexual intimacy with a partner for achieving sexual gratification. Fixation Arrested development at a particular stage of psychosexual development attributable to excessive or inadequate gratification at that stage. Flooding A behavioral technique in which the client is immersed in the sensation of anxiety by being exposed to the feared situation in its entirety. Free association A method used in psychoanalysis in which the client speaks freely, saying whatever comes to mind. Frontotemporal dementias Dementias that involve the frontotemporal area of the brain. Frotteur A person with the paraphilia of frotteurism. Frotteurism A paraphilia in which the individual has intense sexual urges and sexually arousing fantasies of rubbing against or fondling an unsuspecting stranger. Functional magnetic resonance A variant of the traditional MRI, which makes it possible to imaging construct a picture of activity in the brain. Galvanic skin response (GSR) Minor electrical changes in the skin that result from sweating. Gender identity The individual's self-perception as a male or female. Gender identity disorder A condition in which there is a discrepancy between an individual's assigned sex and gender identity, involving a strong and persistent identification with the other gender. Gender role The behaviors and attitudes a person has that are indicative of maleness or femaleness in one's society. Gene The basic unit of heredity. Generalized amnesia Inability to remember anything from one's past life. Generalized anxiety disorder An anxiety disorder characterized by anxiety that is not associated with a particular object, situation, or event but seems to be a constant feature of a person's day-to-day existence. Genetic mapping The attempt by biological researchers to identify the structure of a gene and the characteristics it controls. Genital stage A period of psychosexual development coinciding with the resurfacing of sexual energy just prior to puberty. Genome The complete set of instructions for "building" all the cells that make up an organism. Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale Axis V of the DSM-IV, a scale that rates the individual's overall level of psychological health. Graduated exposure A procedure in which clients gradually expose themselves to increasingly greater anxiety-provoking situations. Grandiosity An exaggerated view of oneself as possessing special and extremely favorable personal qualities and abilities. Group therapy Psychological treatment in which the therapist facilitates discussion among several clients who talk together about their problems. Guardian ad litem A person appointed by the court to represent or make decisions for a person (e.g., a minor or an incapacitated adult) who is legally incapable of doing so in a civil legal proceeding. Gustatory hallucination An hallucination involving the false sensation of taste, usually unpleasant. Halfway house A community treatment facility designed for deinstitutionalized clients leaving a hospital who are not yet ready for independent living. Hallucination A false perception not corresponding to the objective stimuli present in the environment. Hallucinogens Psychoactive substances that cause abnormal perceptual experiences in the form of illusions or hallucinations, usually visual in nature. Heritability The proportion of the offspring's phenotype that is due to genetic causes. Hierarchy of needs According to Maslow, the order in which human needs must be fulfilled. High-risk design A research method in which investigators follow the lives of children who are considered to be at risk for developing schizophrenia because they have a biological parent with the disorder. Histrionic personality disorder A personality disorder characterized by exaggerated emotional reactions, approaching theatricality, in everyday behavior. Host The central personality of an individual with dissociative identity disorder. Humanistic An approach to personality and psychological disorder that regards people as motivated by the need to understand themselves and the world and to derive greater enrichment from their experiences by fulfilling their unique individual potential. Huntington's disease A hereditary condition causing dementia that involves a widespread deterioration of the subcortical brain structures and parts of the frontal cortex that control motor movements. Hyperactivity A motor pattern involving abnormally energized physical activity, often characterized by quick movements and fast talking. Hypnotherapy A method of therapy in which hypnosis is used for various purposes, such as helping a person recall repressed memories. Hypnotic A substance that induces sedation. Hypnotism The process of inducing a trance state. Hypoactive sexual desire disorder A sexual dysfunction in which the individual has an abnormally low level of interest in sexual activity. Hypochondriasis A somatoform disorder characterized by the misinterpretation of normal bodily functions as signs of serious illness. Hypomanic episode A period of elated mood not as extreme as a manic episode. Hypothesis formation process The stage of research in which the researcher generates ideas about a cause-effect relationship between the behaviors under study. Hysteria A disorder in which psychological problems become expressed in physical form. Hysterical neurosis A term used by Freud to describe conversion disorder, implying that it is a reaction to anxiety. Id In psychoanalytic theory, the structure of personality that contains the sexual and aggressive instincts. Identity One's self-concept or sense of who one is. Identity confusion A lack of clear sense of who one is, ranging from confusion about one's role in the world to actual delusional thinking. Imaginal flooding A behavioral technique in which the client is immersed through imagination in the feared situation. Impulse An urge to act. Impulse-control disorders Psychological disorders in which people repeatedly engage in behaviors that are potentially harmful, feeling unable to stop themselves and experiencing a sense of desperation if their attempts to carry out the behaviors are thwarted. Inappropriate affect The extent to which a person's emotional expressiveness fails to correspond to the content of what is being discussed. Incidence The frequency of new cases within a given time period. Independent variable The variable whose level is adjusted or controlled by the experimenter. Individual psychotherapy Psychological treatment in which the therapist works on a one-to-one basis with the client. Informed consent The process, often in the form of a written statement, in which a client participates in setting treatment goals, understands and agrees to the treatment plan, and knows the credentials of the clinician. Insanity defense The argument, presented by a lawyer acting on behalf of the client, that, because of the existence of a mental disorder, the client should not be held legally responsible for criminal actions. Insight A sense of understanding and awareness about oneself and one's world. Intelligence quotient (IQ) A method of quantifying performance on an intelligence test, originally calculated according to the ratio of a person's tested age to that person's chronological age, and changed in the revision of the Stanford-Binet to the deviation IQ. Intensity of affect Strength of emotional expression. Intermittent explosive disorder An impulse-control disorder involving an inability to hold back urges to express strong angry feelings and associated violent behaviors. Internet addiction An impulse control condition in which an individual feels an irresistible need to be involved in Internet-based activities. In vivo observation A form of behavioral assessment in which the individual is observed in the natural context in which the target behavior occurs. Kleptomania An impulse-control disorder that involves the persistent urge to steal. Korsakoff's syndrome A permanent form of dementia associated with long-term alcohol use in which the individual develops retrograde and anterograde amnesia, leading to an inability to remember recent events or learn new information. Labeling A social process in which an individual is designated as having a certain disease or disorder; once given this label, the individual acts in ways that conform to the label. La belle indifference Lack of concern by some people with a conversion disorder over what might otherwise be construed as very disturbing physical problems. Latency In psychoanalytic theory, a period of psychosexual development during which the child interacts with peers and imitates the behavior of parents and other adults of the same biological sex as the child. Latent A state in which a disorder is present and capable of becoming evident but is not yet obvious or active. Learned helplessness model A behavioral approach to depression that proposes that depressed people have come to view themselves as incapable of having an effect on their environment. Learning disorder A delay or deficit in an academic skill that is evident when an individual's achievement on standardized tests is substantially below what would be expected for others of comparable age, education, and level of intelligence. Least restrictive alternative A treatment setting that provides the fewest constraints on the client's freedom. Lewy body dementia A form of dementia similar to Alzheimer's disease with progressive loss of memory, language, calculation, and reasoning, as well as other higher mental functions. Libido An instinctual pressure for gratification of sexual and aggressive amnesia Inability desires. Localized to remember all events that occurred in a specific time period. Lovemap The representation of an individual's sexual fantasies and preferred practices. Magical thinking A peculiarity of thinking in which an individual makes a connection between two objects or events that other people would see as unrelated. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) The use of radiowaves rather than X-rays to construct a picture of the living brain based on the water content of various tissues. Mainstreaming A governmental policy to integrate fully into society people with cognitive and physical disabilities. Major depressive disorder A mood disorder in which the individual experiences acute, but time-limited, episodes of depressive symptoms. Major depressive episode A period in which the individual experiences intense psychological and physical symptoms related to a dysphoric mood. Male erectile disorder A sexual dysfunction marked by a recurrent partial or complete failure to attain or maintain an erection during sexual activity. Male orgasmic disorder A sexual dysfunction in which a man experiences problems having an orgasm during sexual activity; Also known as inhibited male orgasm. Malingering The fabrication of physical or psychological symptoms for some ulterior motive. Mandated reporting The legal requirement that professionals notify appropriate authorities about cases in which children and certain other groups of vulnerable individuals are being abused. Manic episode A period of euphoric mood with symptoms involving abnormally heightened levels of thinking, behavior, and emotionality. Masochism The seeking of pleasure from being subjected to pain. Mathematics disorder A learning disorder in which the individual has difficulty with mathematical tasks and concepts. Maturation hypothesis The proposition that people with antisocial personality and the other Cluster B disorders become better able to manage their behaviors as they age. Medical model The view that abnormal behaviors result from physical problems and should be treated medically. Melancholic features A specifier for a depressive episode in which the individual loses interest in most activities, awakens much earlier than usual in the morning, has significant loss of appetite, and possibly experiences psychomotor agitation or retardation and excessive or inappropriate guilt feelings. Mental retardation A condition, present from childhood, characterized by significantly below-average general intellectual functioning (an IQ of 0 or below). Mental status examination A method of objectively assessing a client's behavior and functioning in a number of spheres, with particular attention to the symptoms associated with psychological disturbance. Mesmerism Derived from the name Mesmer; a process of bringing about a state of heightened suggestibility through the words and actions of a charismatic individual. Methadone A synthetic opioid that produces a safer and more controlled reaction than heroin and that is used in treating heroin addiction. Milieu therapy A treatment approach, used in an inpatient psychiatric facility, in which all facets of the milieu, or environment, are components of the treatment., Mixed episode A period of at least a week during which the symptoms of both a manic episode and a major depressive episode occur in rapidly alternating fashion. Mixed receptive-expressive language disorder A communication disorder in which the individual has difficulty understanding and expressing certain kinds of words or phrases, such as directions, or, in more severe forms, basic vocabulary or entire sentences. Modality The form in which psychotherapy is offered. Modeling Acquiring new behavior by imitating that of another person. Monoamine depletion model The proposal that deficits in monoamine neurotransmitters are the cause of depression. Monozygotic twins Identical twins, who share the same genetic inheritance. Mood A person's experience of emotion. Moral treatment The philosophy popular in the mid- th century that people can, with the proper care, develop self-control over their own disturbed behaviors. Motivational interviewing (MI) A directive, client-centered therapeutic style for eliciting behavior change by helping clients explore and resolve ambivalence. Multiaxial system A multidimensional classification and diagnostic system that summarizes a variety of relevant information about an individual's physical and psychological functioning. Multifactorial polygenic threshold The position that several genes with varying influence are involved in the transmission of a disorder or characteristic. Multiple baseline approach In behavioral research, the observation of different dependent variables in a person over the course of treatment, or observing the behavior as it occurs under different conditions. Munchausen's syndrome An extreme form of factitious disorder in which the individual goes to great lengths to maintain a sick role. Narcissistic personality disorder A personality disorder primarily characterized by an unrealistic, inflated sense of self-importance and a lack of sensitivity to the needs of other people. Negative reinforcement The removal of aversive conditions when certain behaviors are performed. Negative symptoms The symptoms of schizophrenia, including affective flattening, alogia, avolition, and anhedonia, that involve functioning below the level of normal behavior. Neurofibrillary tangles A characteristic of Alzheimer's disease in which the material within the cell bodies of neurons becomes filled with densely packed, twisted protein microfibrils, or tiny strands. Neuroleptics A category of medications used to reduce the frequency and intensity of psychotic symptoms; also called major tranquilizers. Neuropsychological assessment A process of gathering information about a client's brain functioning on the basis of performance on psychological tests. Neurosis Behavior that involves symptoms that are distressing to an individual and that the person recognizes as unacceptable; unofficially used to characterize psychological disorders considered to be less severe than psychosis. Neutrality The clinician does not provide any information that would reveal the clinician's preferences, personal background, or reactions to the client's revelations in therapy. Nonpurging type A form of bulimia nervosa in which individuals compensate for what they eat by fasting or engaging in excessive exercise. Normal mood (euthymic mood) A feeling state that is neither unduly happy nor sad but shows day-to-day variations within a relatively limited range considered to be appropriate. Object relations One's unconscious representations of important people in one's life. Observation process The stage of research in which the researcher watches and records the behavior of interest. Obsession An unwanted thought, word, phrase, or image that persistently and repeatedly comes into a person's mind and causes distress. , Obsessive-compulsive disorder An anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent obsessions or compulsions that are inordinately time-consuming or that cause significant distress or impairment. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder Intense perfectionism and inflexibility manifested in worrying, indecisiveness, and behavioral rigidity. Olfactory hallucination An hallucination involving the perception of a smell. Operant conditioning A learning process in which an individual acquires behaviors through reinforcement. Oppositional defiant disorder A disruptive behavior disorder of childhood that is characterized by undue hostility, stubbornness, strong temper, belligerence, spitefulness, and self-righteousness. Oral stage A period of psychosexual development in which the infant's pleasure comes from stimulation of the mouth. Orgasmic reconditioning A behavioral intervention geared toward a relearning process in which the individual associates sexual gratification with appropriate stimuli. Orientation A person's awareness of time, place, and identity. Overvalued idea A thought that has an odd and absurd quality but is not usually bizarre or deeply entrenched. Pain disorder A somatoform disorder in which the only symptom is pain that has no physiological basis. Panic attack A period of intense fear and physical discomfort accompanied by the feeling that one is being overwhelmed and is about to lose control. Panic control therapy (PCT) Treatment that consists of cognitive restructuring, exposure to bodily cues associated with panic attacks, and breathing retraining. Panic disorder An anxiety disorder in which an individual has panic attacks on a recurrent basis or has constant apprehension and worry about the possibility of recurring attacks. Paranoid personality disorder A personality disorder whose outstanding feature is that the individual is extremely suspicious of others and is always on guard against potential danger or harm. Paraphilias A disorder in which an individual has recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors involving ( ) nonhuman objects, ( ) children or other nonconsenting persons, or ( ) the suffering or humiliation of self or partner. Parasuicide A suicidal gesture to get attention from loved ones, family, or professionals. Parens patriae The state's authority to protect those who are unable to protect themselves. Parkinson's disease A disease that can cause dementia and that involves the degeneration of neurons in the subcortical structures that control motor movements. Partialism A paraphilia in which the person is interested solely in sexual gratification from a specific body part, such as feet. Participant modeling A form of therapy in which the therapist first shows the client a desired behavior and then guides the client through the behavioral change. Pathological gambling An impulse-control disorder involving the persistent urge to gamble. Patient In the medical model, a person who receives treatment. Pedophilia A paraphilia in which an adult's sexual urges are directed toward children. Penetrance The extent to which a genotype is expressed in the individual's phenotype. Personality disorder Ingrained patterns of relating to other people, situations, and events with a rigid and maladaptive pattern of inner experience and behavior, dating back to adolescence or early adulthood. Personality trait An enduring pattern of perceiving, relating to, and thinking about the environment and others. Person-centered theory The humanistic theory that focuses on the uniqueness of each individual, the importance of allowing each individual to achieve maximum fulfillment of potential, and the need for the individual to confront honestly the reality of his or her experiences in the world. Pervasive developmental disorders Conditions that begin in childhood and have a major impact on social and cognitive functioning; involve serious deficits in social interaction and communication skills, as well as odd behavior, interests, and activities. Phallic stage A period of psychosexual development in which the genital area of the body is the focus of the child's sexual feelings. Phenotype The expression of the genetic program in the individual's physical and psychological attributes. Phonological disorder A communication disorder in which the individual misarticulates, substitutes, or omits speech sounds. Pica A condition in which a person eats inedible substances, such as dirt or feces; commonly associated with mental retardation. Pick's disease A relatively rare degenerative disease that affects the frontal and temporal lobes of the cerebral cortex and that can cause dementia. Placebo condition The condition used in experimental research in which people are given an inert substance or treatment that is similar in all other ways to the experimental treatment. Pleasure principle In psychoanalytic theory, a motivating force oriented toward the immediate and total gratification of sensual needs and desires. Polygenic A model of inheritance in which more than one gene participates in the process of determining a given characteristic. Population The entire group of individuals sharing a particular characteristic. Positive reinforcement Providing reward when certain behaviors are performed. Positive symptoms The symptoms of schizophrenia, including delusions, hallucinations, disturbed speech, and disturbed behavior, that are exaggerations or distortions of normal thoughts, emotions, and behavior. Positron emission tomography A measure of brain activity in which a small amount of (PET) scan radioactive sugar is injected into an individual's bloodstream, following which a computer measures the varying levels of radiation in different parts of the brain and yields a multicolored image. Post-traumatic stress disorder An anxiety disorder in which the individual experiences (PTSD) several distressing symptoms for more than a month following a traumatic event, such as a reexperiencing of the traumatic event, an avoidance of reminders of the trauma, a numbing of general responsiveness, and increased arousal. Potentiation The combination of the effects of two or more psychoactive substances such that the total effect is greater than the effect of either substance alone. Pragmatic case study An organized approach for the development and accumulatin of case study material that focuses on practical results. Premature ejaculation A sexual dysfunction in which a man reaches orgasm well before he wishes to, perhaps even prior to penetration. Prevalence The number of people who have ever had a disorder at a given time or over a specified period. Primary gain The relief from anxiety or responsibility due to the development of physical or psychological symptoms. Primary process thinking In psychoanalytic theory, loosely associated, idiosyncratic, and distorted cognitive representation of the world. Primary reinforcers Rewards that satisfy a biological need, making them intrinsically rewarding. Principal diagnosis The disorder that is considered to be the primary reason the individual seeks professional help. Privileged communication Information provided by a client to a clinician that cannot be disclosed in a court of law without the client's expressed permission. Probability The odds or likelihood that an event will happen. Probands In genetic research, people who have the symptoms of a particular disorder. Problem-focused coping Coping in which the individual takes action to reduce stress by changing whatever it is about the situation that makes it stressful. Prodromal phase A period in the course of schizophrenia, prior to the active phase of symptoms, during which the individual shows progressive deterioration in social and interpersonal functioning. Prognosis A client's likelihood of recovering from a disorder. Projective test A technique in which the test-taker is presented with an ambiguous item or task and is asked to respond by providing his or her own meaning or perception. Pseudodementia Literally, false dementia, or a set of symptoms caused by depression that mimic those apparent in the early stages of Alzheimer's. Psychiatrist A medical doctor (MD) with advanced training in treating people with psychological disorders. Psychoanalysis A theory and system of practice that relies heavily on the concepts of the unconscious mind, inhibited sexual impulses, early development, and the use of the "free association" technique and dream analysis. Psychoanalytic model An approach that seeks explanations of abnormal behavior in the workings of unconscious psychological processes. Psychodynamic perspective The theoretical orientation in psychology that emphasizes unconscious determinants of behavior. Psychodynamics The processes of interaction among personality structures that lie beneath the surface of observable behavior. Psychological factors affecting Situations in which psychological or behavior factors have an medical condition adverse effect on a medical condition. Psychological testing A broad range of measurement techniques, all of which involve having people provide scorable information about their psychological functioning. Psychometrics Literally, "measurement of the mind," reflecting the goal of finding the most suitable tests for psychological variables under study. Psychomotor agitation A motor pattern involving an obvious level of personal discomfort in which the individual appears to be restless and stirred up. Psychomotor retardation A motor pattern involving abnormally slow movements and lethargy. Psychoneuroimmunology The study of connections among psychological stress, nervous system functioning, and the immune system. Psychopathy A personality type characterized by a cluster of traits that constitutes the core of what is now called antisocial personality disorder. Psychosexual stages According to psychoanalytic theory, the normal sequence of development through which each individual passes between infancy and adulthood. Psychosis Behavior involving loss of contact with reality. Psychosurgery A form of brain surgery, the purpose of which is to reduce psychological disturbance. Psychotherapy The treatment of abnormal behavior through psychological techniques. Punishment The application of an aversive stimulus. Purge To eliminate food through unnatural methods, such as vomiting or the excessive use of laxatives. Purging type A form of bulimia nervosa in which individuals force out of their bodies what they have just eaten. Pyromania An impulse-control disorder involving the persistent and compelling urge to start fires. Quasi-experimental design A design that is like an experimental design but lacks the key ingredient of random assignment to groups. Range of affect The extent and variety of an individual's emotional expression. Rapid cyclers Individuals with bipolar disorder who have four to eight mood episodes within the course of a year. Reactive attachment disorder of A disorder involving a severe disturbance in the ability to infancy or childhood relate to others in which the individual is unresponsive to people, is apathetic, and prefers to be alone rather than to interact with friends or family. Reading disorder A learning disorder in which the individual omits, distorts, or substitutes words when reading and reads in a slow and halting fashion. Reality principle In psychoanalyic theory, motivational force that leads the individual to confront the constraints of the external world. Reinforcement The "strengthening" of a behavior. Relapse prevention therapy A treatment method based on the expectancy model, in which individuals are encouraged not to view lapses from abstinence as signs of certain failure. Relaxation training A behavioral technique used in the treatment of anxiety disorders that involves progressive and systematic patterns of muscle tensing and relaxing. Reliability The consistency of measurements or diagnoses. Representativeness The extent to which a sample adequately reflects the characteristics of the population from which it is drawn. Residual phase A period in the course of schizophrenia, following the active phase, in which there are continuing indications of disturbance, evidenced by the same kinds of behaviors that characterize the prodromal phase. Resistance The unconscious blocking of anxiety-provoking thoughts or feelings. Rett's disorder A pervasive developmental disorder, occurring only in females, in which the child develops normally until between months and years of age and then begins to show a number of neurological and cognitive impairments, including a deceleration of head growth, stereotyped movements of the hand, a lack of bodily coordination, language impairments, and social withdrawal. Rumination disorder An eating disorder in which the infant or child regurgitates food after it has been swallowed and then either spits it out or reswallows it. Sadomasochist A person who derives sexual pleasure from both inflicting and receiving pain. Sample A selection of individuals from a larger group. Schizoaffective disorder A psychotic disorder involving the experience of a major depressive episode, a manic episode, or a mixed episode while also meeting the diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia. Schizoid personality disorder A personality disorder primarily characterized by an indifference to social relationships, as well as a very limited range of emotional experience and expression. Schizophrenia A disorder with a range of symptoms involving disturbances in content of thought, form of thought, perception, affect, sense of self, motivation, behavior, and interpersonal functioning. Schizophrenia, catatonic type A type of schizophrenia characterized by a variety of bodily movement abnormalities. Schizophrenia, disorganized type A type of schizophrenia characterized by a combination of symptoms, including disorganized speech and behavior and flat or inappropriate affect. Even delusions and hallucinations lack a coherent theme. Schizophrenia, paranoid type A type of schizophrenia characterized by preoccupation with one or more bizarre delusions or with auditory hallucinations that are related to a particular theme of being persecuted or harassed. Schizophrenia, residual type A type of schizophrenia in which people who have previously been diagnosed as having schizophrenia may no longer have prominent psychotic symptoms but still show some lingering signs of the disorder, such as emotional dullness, social withdrawal, eccentric behavior, or illogical thinking. Schizophrenia, undifferentiated A type of schizophrenia characterized by a complex of type schizophrenic symptoms, such as delusions, hallucinations, incoherence, or disorganized behavior, that does not meet the criteria for other types of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia spectrum disorders A term used by some researchers to characterize a continuum of disorders, including schizophrenia, schizoid personality disorder, and schizotypal personality disorder. Schizophreniform disorder A disorder characterized by psychotic symptoms that are essentially the same as those found in schizophrenia, except for the duration and chronic nature of the symptoms; specifically, symptoms usually last from to months. Schizotypal personality disorder A personality disorder that primarily involves peculiarities and eccentricities of thought, behavior, appearance, and interpersonal style. People with this disorder may have peculiar ideas, such as magical thinking and beliefs in psychic phenomena. Seasonal pattern A specifier for a depressive episode in which the individual has varying symptoms according to time of year, with symptoms usually developing during the same months every year. Secondary gain The sympathy and attention that a sick person receives from other people. Secondary process thinking In psychoanalytic theory, the kind of thinking involved in logical and rational problem solving. Secondary reinforcers Rewards that derive their value from association with primary reinforcers. Sedative A psychoactive substance that has a calming effect on the central nervous system. Selective amnesia Inability to remember some, but not all, events that occurred in a specified time period. Selective mutism A disorder originating in childhood in which the individual consciously refuses to talk, sometimes accompanying this refusal by oppositional or avoidant behavior. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) Medications that block the reuptake of serotonin at the synapse, enabling more of this neurotransmitter to be available at the receptor sites. Self-actualization In humanistic theory, the maximum realization of the individual's potential for psychological growth. Self-efficacy The individual's perception of competence in various life situations. Self-monitoring A self-report technique in which the client keeps a record of the frequency of specified behaviors. Self-report clinical inventory A psychological test with standardized questions having fixed response categories that the test-taker completes independently, self-reporting the extent to which the responses are accurate characterizations. Semistructured interview This consists of a standardized series of questions in which the interviewer has the discretion to ask follow-up questions that will clarify the person's responses. Sensate focus A method of treatment for sexual dysfunctions that involves the partners' taking turns stimulating each other in nonsexual but affectionate ways at first, then gradually progressing over a period of time toward genital stimulation. Sensory gating The ability to filter sensory input. Separation anxiety disorder A childhood disorder characterized by intense and inappropriate anxiety, lasting at least weeks, concerning separation from home or caregivers. Sexual aversion disorder A sexual dysfunction characterized by an active dislike of intercourse or related sexual activities. Sexual dysfunction An abnormality in an individual's sexual responsiveness and reactions. Sexual impulsivity An impulse-control disorder in which people feel uncontrollably driven to seek out sexual encounters and to engage in frequent and indiscriminate sexual activity. Sexual masochism A paraphilia marked by an attraction to achieving sexual gratification by having painful stimulation applied to one's own body. Sexual orientation The degree to which a person is erotically attracted to members of the same or opposite sex. Sexual sadism A paraphilia in which sexual gratification is derived from activities that harm, or from urges to harm, another person. Shaping A learning technique in which reinforcement is provided for behaviors that increasingly resemble a desired outcome. Shared psychotic disorder A psychotic disorder in which one or more people develop a delusional system as a result of a close relationship with a psychotic person who is delusional. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) A variant of the PET scan that permits a longer and more detailed imaging analysis. Single-subject design An experimental procedure in which one person at a time is studied in both the experimental and control conditions. Situationally bound (cued) panic attack A panic attack that is triggered by anticipation of or exposure to a specific situation or cue. Situationally predisposed panic A panic attack that is usually but not invariably triggered by attack exposure to a situational cue. Smooth pursuit eye movements A biological marker that is measured by having a person visually follow a target; people with schizophrenia and their relatives have been found to show irregular pursuit of a moving target with many interruptions by extraneous eye movements. Social cognitive theory Increased focus on thought processes and how they influence overt behavior. Social phobia An anxiety disorder characterized by irrational and unabating fear that one's behavior will be scrutinized by others, causing the individual to feel embarrassed and humiliated. Sociocognitive model of dissociative identity disorder The view that an individual who appears to have dissociative identity disorder might be enacting a social role. Sociocultural perspective The theoretical perspective that emphasizes the ways that individuals are influenced by people, social institutions, and social forces in the world around them. Somatic hallucination An hallucination involving the false perception of bodily sensation. Somatic therapies Biologically based treatments that act upon known or presumed immediate causes of a psychological disorder. Somatization disorder A somatoform disorder in which multiple and recurrent bodily symptoms, which lack a physiological basis, are the expression of psychological issues. Somatoform disorders A variety of conditions in which psychological conflicts become translated into physical problems or complaints. Specific phobia An irrational and unabating fear of a particular object, activity, or situation. Spectatoring The experience in which the individual feels unduly selfconscious during sexual activity, as if evaluating and monitoring his or her performance during the sexual encounter. Splitting A defense, common in people with borderline personality disorder, in which individuals perceive others, or themselves, as being all good or all bad, usually resulting in disturbed interpersonal relationships. Squeeze technique A method of treatment for premature ejaculation in which the partner stimulates the man's penis during foreplay and squeezes it when he indicates he is approaching orgasm. Stereotypic movement disorder A disorder in which the individual voluntarily repeats nonfunctional behaviors, such as rocking or head-banging, that can be damaging to his or her physical well-being. Stimulant A psychoactive substance that has an activating effect on the central nervous system. Stimulus discrimination Differentiation between two stimuli that possess similar but essentially different characteristics. Stimulus generalization The process of learning to respond in the same way to stimuli that share common properties. Stop-start procedure A method of treatment for premature ejaculation in which the man or his partner stimulates him to sexual excitement, and, as he approaches the point of orgasmic inevitability, stimulation is stopped. When this procedure is repeated over time, the man can develop greater control over his orgasmic response. Stress The unpleasant emotional reaction that a person has when an event is perceived by an individual as threatening. Stress inoculation training Stress reduction method that helps people prepare for difficult situations that have occurred in the past and are likely to occur again in the future. Stressful life event An emotional reaction a person has when he or she perceives an event to be threatening., also called stressor. Stressor An event that disrupts the individual's life, also called a stressful life event. Structured interview A standardized series of assessment questions, with a predetermined wording and order. Stuttering A communication disorder that involves a disturbance in the normal fluency and patterning of speech that is characterized by such verbalizations as sound repetitions or prolongations, broken words, the blocking out of sounds, word substitutions to avoid problematic words, or words expressed with an excess of tension. Substance A chemical that alters a person's mood or behavior when it is smoked, injected, drunk, inhaled, or swallowed in pill form. Substance abuse The pattern of maladaptive substance use that leads to significant impairment or distress. Substance dependence A maladaptive pattern of substance use manifested by a cluster of cognitive, behavioral, and physiological symptoms during a -month period and caused by the continued use of a substance. Substance-induced persisting amnestic disorder An amnestic disorder caused by drugs or environmental toxins. Substance-induced persisting dementia A form of dementia caused by the ingestion of substances, such as drugs, or exposure to toxins. Substance intoxication The temporary maladaptive experience of behavioral or psychological changes that are due to the accumulation of a substance in the body. Substance withdrawal Psychological and physical changes that occur when some substances are discontinued. Suicidal intent The level of commitment to taking one's own life. Suicidal lethality The dangerousness of a suicidal person's intended method of dying. Superego In psychoanalytic theory, the structure of personality that includes the conscience and the ego ideal; it incorporates societal prohibitions and exerts control over the seeking of instinctual gratification. Survey method A research tool, used to gather information from a sample of people considered representative of a particular population, in which participants are asked to answer questions about the topic of concern. Synapses Points of communication between neurons. Synaptic cleft The gap at the juncture between neurons. Syndrome A collection of symptoms that form a definable pattern. Systematic desensitization A variant of counterconditioning that involves presenting the client with progressively more anxiety-provoking images while in a relaxed state. Target behavior A behavior of interest or concern in an assessment. Tau A protein that normally helps maintain the internal support structure of the axons. Theoretical perspective An orientation to understanding the causes of human behavior and the treatment of abnormality. Thinking style and language A term used in a mental status exam to indicate how a person thinks. This includes information on the client's vocabulary use and sentence structure. Thought stopping A cognitive-behavioral method in which the client learns to stop having anxiety-provoking thoughts. Tic A rapid, recurring, involuntary movement or vocalization. Token economy A form of contingency management in which a client who performs desired activities earns chips or tokens that can later be exchanged for tangible benefits. Tolerance The extent to which the individual requires larger and larger amounts of a substance in order to achieve its desired effects, or the extent to which the individual feels less of its effects after using the same amount of the substance. Tourette's disorder A tic disorder involving a combination of chronic movement and vocal tics. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) A powerful electromagnet is placed on the individual's scalp and a current is passed through the cortex Transference The carrying over toward the therapist of the feelings the client had toward parents or other significant people in the client's life. Transsexualism A term sometimes used to refer to gender identity disorder, specifically pertaining to individuals choosing to undergo sex reassignment surgery. Transvestic fetishism A paraphilia in which a man has an uncontrollable craving to dress in women's clothing in order to derive sexual gratification. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) Damage to the brain caused by exposure to trauma. Traumatic experience A disastrous or an extremely painful event that has severe psychological and physiological effects. Trephining The drilling of a hole in the skull, presumably as a way of treating psychological disorders during prehistoric times. Trichotillomania An impulse-control disorder involving the compulsive, persistent urge to pull out one's own hair. Unconditional positive regard A method in client-centered therapy in which the clinician gives total acceptance of what the client says, does, and feels. Unconditioned response A reflexive response that occurs naturally in the presence of the unconditioned stimulus without having been learned. Unconditioned stimulus The stimulus that naturally produces a response without having been learned. Unexpected (uncued) panic attack A panic attack that occurs in the absence of a specific situation or cue. Unstructured interview A series of open-ended questions aimed at determining the client's reasons for being in treatment, symptoms, health status, family background, and life history. Vaginismus A sexual dysfunction that involves recurrent or persistent involuntary spasms of the musculature of the outer part of the vagina. Validity The extent to which a test, diagnosis, or rating accurately and distinctly characterizes a person's psychological status. Variable A dimension along which people, things, or events differ. Vascular dementia A form of dementia resulting from a vascular disease that causes deprivation of the blood supply to the brain. Vicarious reinforcement A form of learning in which a new behavior is acquired through the process of watching someone else receive reinforcement for the same behavior. Visual hallucination An hallucination involving the false visual perception of objects or persons. Voyeur A person with the paraphilia of voyeurism. Voyeurism A paraphilia in which the individual has a compulsion to derive sexual gratification from observing the nudity or sexual activity of others. Wernicke's aphasia A form of aphasia in which the individual is able to produce language but has lost the ability to comprehend, so that these verbal productions have no meaning. Wernicke's encephalopathy An acute conditionassociated with long-term, heavy alcohol useinvolving delirium, eye movement disturbances, difficulties in movement and balance, and deterioration of the peripheral nerves to the hands and feet. Working through A phase of psychoanalytic treatment in which the clinician helps the client achieve a healthier resolution of issues than had occurred in the client's early childhood environment. 2001 McGraw-Hill Any use is subject to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. McGraw-Hill Higher Educationis one of the many fine businesses of The McGraw-Hill Companies. File Created at 2005-10-26 18:00:49 EST ... View Full Document

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