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45 DANCE MIDTERM study guide 3 basic dance patterns often seen in ancient times - chain dance(group joins hands or arms and dance in circle or line), line(people dancing in a line), procession(large group of people, like a parade) 4 Styles of movement: Classical- hero Character- pure technique Demi-character- folklore Mime- codifying, storytelling> ex: Greek chorus mimes the events in Greek drama 5 positions of the feet - positions in ballet> codified by Beauchamps for teaching/training 18th Century three categories of dance: Noble: slow, serious, dignified> hero from history or myth-wore mask. Louis Dupre god of dance demi-character: lively, fast, younger>peasants/regular people> more elaborate costume-more movement. Auguste Vestris good at jumps, 16 turns/sec illegitimate son of Gatean Vestris comic/grotesque: servants, rustic roles, evil. Jean Dauberval (blended classical and peasant) La Fille Mal Gardee (no god or goddess. Girl loves peasant but mother wants her to marry a wealthy man. Girl gets peasant in end) 1760 book Letters on Dancing - about ballet de action by Jean Jacques Noverre> dance unified-no technical display-no masks-simpler costumes Aborigines - Australian native people> dance to keep culture alive, cohesive group, no competition, imitate animal movements/behaviors, stamping, jumping, stomach is center point of movement. Lineage based society. Believed dances are to be given to them by the spirit world at the time of creation, which they call the Dreaming or Dreamtime. The Academie Royale de Musique and Dance 1671 - 1st dance school(in France)> became Paris Opera Albrecht, Lucien Petipa - Silesian count (in Giselle)> character created by Lucien Petipa Animistic Perspective - during Neolithic> belief that animals, objects, and spirits have souls that must be appeased Apollo - Sun God> associated with harmonious dance Arbeau - French court dance master> wrote orchesography(dance guide)> manual for dance and social importance of dance, especially etiquette/manners Arthur Saint-Leon - choreographer Athens - culture and arts, 115,000 slaves of 315,000 people August Bournonville - director of the Danish ballet for 60 years> one of two places in the world where men still had main roles in ballet Auguste Vestris - son of Gaetan Vestris> famous ballet dancer who trained Marius Petipa, Lucien Petipa, Fanny Elssler, Jules Perrot, and Marie Taglioni after his retirement Ballet Comique de la Reine, 1581 - 1st ballet> honor queen of France(Catherine de Medicis daughter in law) -choreographer=Beaujoeux-6hours longGreco/Roman mythology-danced by nobles ballet daction - against dance decole> for unity, expressive gestures, no masks John Weaver (loves of mars and venus, 1st to convey thru movement, no speech or song) Ballet of the Provinces of France, 1573 - 1 hour long> patterns of movement Barberina Campanini - successor to Salle/Camargo-speed/agility> became a nun, but Catholic church had condemned dance~ poor girls became dancers because of dance schools~ kept girls= mistresses of rich men(many retired dancers did this) Basic elements of all dance - space(dance creates space/takes place in space; body defines space around it, but space defines body too), - time(rhythm, sequence, course of time), dance is always temporal, existing within a period of sequenced time, which incorporates rhythm, the structuring of time - energy/force(attitude towards movement-way that it is executed), - flow(amount of energy released or restricted), - feeling/expression(motivation/experience for movement> meaning for individual or culture, but always includes relationship between individual/culture) - rules, messages, meanings, knowledge(cultural and societal experiences/expectations expressed through danceex: gender roles) WORKING DEFINITION: dance is rhythmic and sequenced movements of the 3 dimensional body through space with energy and expression, without necessarily a goal (the purpose toward which an endeavor is directed such as an objective or desired outcome), such as that of a soccer player, but which always has intent( the state of a persons mind that directs his or her actions towards a specific object, meaning, or significance) Basse Dance - grounded dance-dancers stay low and controlled> gave way to the Pavane Beaujoyeux - choreographer of 1st ballet(Ballet Comique da la Reine 1581) Box pointe shoes, 1860 - had wood in the toe to allow pointe work Bubonic plague/black death - mid 14th century> World population decreases from 450 million to 350 million Cachucha - central Spanish dance performed by Elssler> sensual ~written about by Gautier Catherine de Medici - Italian aristocrat who married Henry II and brought dance to France, as well as fashion, makeup. Places 119 mirrors in castle to light it(reflect candle light). Shrewd. Carlo Blasis, Elementary Treatise 1820, Code of Terpsichore 1828 - rigorous dance school> created attitude position after the statue of Mercury - Elementary Treatise, 1820: analysis on ballet techniques - Code of Terpischore, 1828: Book about ballet techniques *these were the first comprehensive dance books to appear in print Carlotta Grisi - star in Giselle Carole - chain dance done in a circle with a song of refrain(repetition)> where Christmas caroles come from Charles Didelot - lived in Russia 1801-1837> choreographed 20 ballets during that time> raised standards with pointe work and flying wires, Children on stage - Marius Petipa put children on stage as a variation on traditional theater dancer expectations and to allow children dancers to get used to being on stage Christianity and dance - dance was originally condemned, however it has always taken place within the church for religious affairs-dance for entertainment was banned and entertainers were disowned by society Coppelia, Girl with the Enamel Eyes, 1870 - last great romantic ballet> comedy ~choreographed by Arthur St. Leon> Swanilda and friends break into Dr. Coppelius house because Swanilda suspects her love, Frantz, is fooling around with his daughter; Dr. Coppelius comes home and Swanilda hides in the closet; Frantz comes over and Dr. Coppelius tries to drug him so he can take his life force and put it into Coppelia(the doll); however, Swanilda pretends to be Coppelia come to life and makes a ruckus in his workshop; Frantz realizes that his love (Coppelia) is only a doll Court dance - developed ballet. outside church, in private homes> more refined-traveling entertainers(dance masters)> Guglielmo Ebreo- choreographer and notation, italian Cradle of western civilization - Mesopotamia-Sumeria( 5,500 years ago)> wheel, writing, bronze, created 60 secs, 60 mins, 12 months, Zodiac, and laws to protect under-priviledged Sumerians influenced: Hebrews, Egyptians, Greeks (religious dance regarding ceremony and war. King for a day sacrificed for harvest) Cultural knowledge - dance reveals cultural norms, religion, gender roles, appreciation of nature, etc. Curtain - lowerable for changing set between scenes Dance in Crete ( influenced Greeks- -300-1400 BC) - Supreme Earth Goddess, dance with snakes in magic circle Dance dEcole - educational dance Dance in Greece - private or communal, religious, educational, military training, entertainment, theater, to produce well-bred citizens >Sparta: warlike culture, military training, 8,000 citizens of 400,000 total(non-citizens were slaves/foreigners) >Athens: culture and arts, 115,000 slaves of 315,000 people Dance of death - outside of church, rise of middle class death was the equalizer of social classes signs of democracy. dance to ward off evil spirits of the dead. Peasant pagan death rituals prohibited by the church fear of dead, tie legs together, etc, to prevent rising of dead Dance of the Hebrews, 12 verbs(for dance) - 1st monotheistic, forgiving God, religion> music communicates directly to god> dance for religious reasons, joy, celebration, weddings, circle dances Dance Mania - outside church> ecstatic dance-ex: Greek Maenads(tore animals apart)escape everyday reality. Hysteria convulsive epileptic dance to death/die from exhaustionPiped piper story. ~theory: poison in rye flour made people go crazy Dance and religion - dance was used to express religion and honor gods, spirits, etc. Dark Ages and dance - until 10th century> Roman Catholic church was anti-dance because not good for the afterlife because dancing feels good. St. Augustine dance is moral poisioning Daughter of the Pharoah, 1861 - Marius Petipa> Aspica was the daughter of the Pharoah ~ the English lord becomes Ta-hor in a opium dream> then he dreams that he saves the Pharaohs daughter Dionysus - god of wine, fertility, and sexual ecstasy> followers were cults called Maenads who did wild, frenzied dance and ran through forest tearing small animals apart Dithyramb - city-fathers attempted to control Maenads crazy dancing by establishing a dance session when it was allowed called Dithyramb Egyptian dance - religious, funerals, acrobatic(inspired by god, Bes- lion, joy), done by poor, wall paintings & relief, profile, tombs - pharohs = divine law. Created writing, paper. Rise and fall of the Nile reflected life and death (immortality (tombs)) Divertissement - dance for entertainment (does not further the plot) Dr. Louis Vernon 1830 - put in charge of Paris Opera in 1828> 1st time it earned a profit, rents it out for commercial use> emphasizes the star system> established the jockey club> slashes salary of ballerinas and makes a place for the jockey clubs to meet ballerinas and become mistresses for $ (whore house) Ellen Dissanayake - baby psychologist who found that babies can visually distinguish a pacifier from a set of others after having in their mouth > shows that babies learn with space, time, and energy/ also: mothers make exaggerated movements with their babies and babies respond by doing the same, thus building a strong relationship Emmeleia - a harmonious Greek chorus dance> inspired by Apollo Etruscan dance - vigorous culture on Italian peninsula/ no religion> dance for freedom, individuality, and recreation Equestrian Ballet - done on horseback> in a large field, horses made geometric patterns and pranced Fanny Elssler - pagan dancer, volumptuous> she was beautiful and became a huge star> traveled the world from U.S, through Europe, and Russia. Buys slaves with salary then lets them go Feuillet - choreographer who was good at notation Foyer de la Danse - actual area where the Jockey club met with the dancers Francoise Prevost - 1st female choreographer(light, dramatic, expressive)> 1715> Les caracteres de la danse with love solos and popular dance-men/women~taught Salle/Camargo Franco-Prussian War - shut down Paris Opera (1870-1871) French Revolution, 1789 - overthrow of government/rise of Napoleon> Paris Opera, freer costumes and movements, normal people danced, men/women on stage French Revolution (changes after FR) - Paris Opera, freer costumes and movements, normal people danced, men/women on stage, partnering(men+men/men+women), gas light developed-pink silk body stocking developed bc dancers wore no underware, supernatural themes, wires to fly on stage Gaetan Vestris - nickname for Louis Dupre> father of Auguste Vestris Galliard - improvisational, for skilled dancers> has a feet dialogue> lively and carefree, leaping, kicking, and leg-thrusting> considered immodest Gas-lighting - brightened/dimmed the stage for dramatic effect Giselle (1841) - height of romantic ballet ~starring Carlota Grisi> peasant girl loves Albrecht of (count Silesia) who have been affianced; she dies; and Wilis protect her grave at night; one night Albrecht comes to put flowers on her grave and the Queen of the Wilis (Myrtha) orders Giselles ghost to dance him to death; Giselle refuses and shields Albrecht until morning Giuseppina Bozzacchi - star in Coppelia> plays Swanilda Greek Chorus - noble dance( ex: Emmeleia), gesture, set dance phrase, harmonious> dancers pantomimed the actions in the drama to emphasize its events with gestures, movements, etc. Grand pas de deux: two stars involved Entre: the dancers enter the stage Adagio duet: partnering> sequence in which the dancers partner and bond Male solo(variation): male dancers section in the dance> time to shine Female solo(variation): female dancers section of the dance> time to shine Coda (ending): reunion of the stars and finaleGreek Drama - story of play that is acted out on stage Imperial Russian Ballet - (late 17th 18th century)> Peter the Great> Russia looked to westernize by bringing western fashion and dance Industrial Revolution - movement to cities, new jobs, business, capitalism, railroads allow quick transportation and reach of unknown places Italy, beginnings of ballet - made popular by Catherine de Medici> used for social occasions-ex: weddings, celebrations, entertainment for the aristocracy Ivanov - became Marius Petipas assistant> choreographer the snowflake part of The Nutcracker, 1892 James, Eppi, Madge - James: lord of manor - Eppi: James fiance - Madge: the evil witch Jean Baptiste Lande - Frenchman who established St. Petersburg ballet school in 1738 Jean Baptiste Lully - served in the court of Louis XIV> he was a composer who wrote music for Louis XIV> he also composed many ballets for Louis XIV Jean Coralli - Choreographed Giselle with Perrot Jean Dauberval - takes Noverres place as head of Paris Opera Jean Georges Noverre - pioneered ballet de action-book> Letters on Dancing- dance unified, no technical display, no mask, simpler costumes Jean Jacques Rousseau - French philosopher who wrote Confessions, on individuality and uniqueness> endorsed nature and said nature brought individuality/personal prosperity Jiri Kylian- choreographer who observes aborigine dance for dance works (in 1980) in Jockey club - exclusive club for rich men to mingle with the female dancers in the backstage foyer, horses, fencing Netherlands Theater Jules Perrot - choreographed Giselle ~also Grisis lover King Louis XIII - father of Louis XIV-loved dance too-had a love affair King Louis XIV - French King(Sun King)1661-1714-loves dance-stars in ballets-plays role of Apollo(the sun god)-nobles performestablishes dance school> leads to professionals. Patron of the arts Kordax was a Greek dance that was - warlike, non-harmonious, comic, after tragedy, lewd, with leather phallus(penis), hated by Plato *best performed drunk La Fille Mal Gardee, The Ill-guarded Girl, 1789 - grotesque/comic> a girl loves a peasant but her mother wants her to marry rich> the peasant gets the girl La Sylphide, 1832 - 1st romantic ballet> James leaves his fiance for a sylphide (like an angel)~ a witch gives him a scarf saying it will bind her to him~ when it puts it on her, she dies Lineage-based cultures and dance - they had dance for religion, nature, celebration, war, military training, fertility, weather, expression, etc. Louis Dupre - noble dance> God of Dance and Gataen Vestris ~did demi-character Marie Salle - plain/expressive-choreographs 1729Les caracteres de la danse(her own version)~ fan club rivalry with Camargo. Pygmalion (statue comes to life) natural hair, fights for tickets in the streets Marie Anne Camargo - beautiful/technical-well schooled-did mens steps-short skirt to show feet/steps-lowered heel-many lovers-fan clubs-retired in 1751 with large pension~ rivalry with Salle Marie Taglioni - star of La Sylphide beautiful, Christian dancer Marius Petipa - arrived in Russia in 1847> became chief ballet master in 1870> choreographed 40 ballets in 30 years> pleased the tsar, himself, and the public> had pointe work and aerials> divertissement, children on stage, happy peasants, and grand pas de deux Maryinsky Theater to Kirov Theater - Marinsky Theater became Kirov Theater> it was well known for classic, pure ballet Maypole dance - dance around a pole to celebrate May> pole represents a penis and ring and tethers represent a vagina. 24 hours- night before may 1st, sleep in the forest, people sneak out and get drunk, have sex in the morning, cut down tree & dance around it. Pole symbolizes fallic Middle Ages/Medieval and dance - 10th to 15th century> everybody danced> peasants, aristocracy, middle class> used for religion, entertainment, death dance(to ward off spirits> also dance mania, court dance(private homes & wealthy), and dance for healing Middle class - rise due to capitalism Minuet - most popular at turn of 18th century-court dance-couples dance for courtship-seen and judged by others-went from church to theater Moscow, Bolshoi Theater - known for flamboyant, outlandish, wild ballet Morris dance - dance about trial, competition, battle, etc. with a sword. A ring goes to best dancer Mystery, miracle, and morality plays - start of romantic ballet(17th century)-ex: La Sylphide, Le Diable(one section of ballet in an opera), Giselle, Le, Papillon> Romanticism Neolithic, New Stone Age - 15,000-10,000 years ago> farming begins allowing permanent architecture Netherlands Dance Theatre - contemporary dance theater in Netherlands where Kylian works and choreographs The Nutcracker, 1892 - Marius Petipa(choreographer) and Tchaikovsky(composer) Pagan and non pagan - pagan=polytheistic - nonpagan=monotheistic Pageantry and tournaments - outside church-done by royalty-ceremonious-colorful processions-display skill and intelligence, followed by banquets with nobles wearing masks and disguises> gave way to theatrical dance Paleolithic, Old Stone Age - 20,000 years ago/hunter-gatherers Paris Opera - academy/school for ballet> main theater for ballet in Paris (1821-1873) discards masks(1772).. Noverre heads (1776)-quits and leaves for England, Jean Dauberval takes Noverres place Pavane - improvised dance-2nd part of sonata-thought to be from Spain> slow and grounded, walking step, couples advance and retreat Plato - Greek philosopher who hated lewd, warlike dances Petipa - choreographer of Sleeping Beauty,1890 Philip Taglioni - choreographer of La Sylphide Pierre Beauchamps - dance master of Louis XIV Professional ballet dancers - emerged during Louis XIV and creation of dance academies Proscenium arch - arch around stage to frame the stage like a painting> separates audience from the performers/stage> gives frontal view (no audience on the sides) Pyrrhic - war dance, harmonious Renaissance and dance - 16th to 18th century revival of intellect, science, art, spirituality, literature> social, theatrical dance-Shakespeare Robert le Diable, 1831 - an opera containing one scene of romantic ballet> beginning of romantic ballet ~choreographed by Fillipo Taglioni ~starring Marie Taglioni. Ballet scene of lapsed nuns that come back from grave Roman dance - becomes violent, spectacles with slaves, acrobats, jugglers> popular entertainment Roman pantomime - no words (because all may not understand a given language), gestures to tell story, different character, emperor Nero- burned Christians to death & decapitated & used the heads on posts in garden as lanterns, wore cloak Romantic era - new interest in the supernatural, exotic, science, madness, gas lighting, and magic> industrialization allows railways and long-distance travel to explore new places> pain between hope and reality Rose Adagio - famous adagio(partnering sequence) in Sleeping Beauty, 1890> flowers as sign of love Shaman - group of people concerned with connection to spirit world> seek trance through singing, taking entheogens, meditating, drumming> dancing involved healing and magic/focused on individual rather than group> remembered dances to repeat(1st choreographers) The Sleeping Beauty, 1890 - Marius Petipa> gave details to composer and music> end of Act I= rose adagio/ Act II= Prince and Aurora find each other/ Act III= Prince and Auroras wedding> divertissement and grand pas de deux Sonata, Musical suite and dance [Reader pp. 50-52] - four part musical sonata(instrumental procession)> Allemande(slow, with hands), Courante(faster), Sarabande(slower), Gigue(faster) Sparta - warlike culture, military training, 8,000 citizens of 400,000 total(non-citizens were slaves/foreigners) Stamping Ground - name of Kylians work based on aborigine dance> performed in Netherlands Dance Theater St. Petersburg [to Leningrad, to St. Petersburg] - St. Petersburg becomes Leningrad after rise of communism> then switches back to St. Petersburg after overthrow of communism Sun god - Apollo Swan Lake, 1895 - Odiles father was evil sorcerer> sudden divertissement> Black Swan pas de deux~ Petipa choreographed Acts I and III> Ivanov choreographer Acts II and IV - Black Swan Pas de Deux - entre: dancers enter and female puts on great display while man is present but has limited involvement and isnt as spectacular - adagio: intimate partnering sequence - male variation: mans great display - female variation: womans great display - coda: ending and reunion of stars - Petipa Acts I and III - choreographed Acts I and III - Ivanov Acts II and IV - choreographer Acts II and IV - Odette/Odile - Odette is Odiles disguise> these parts are played by the same dancer - Prince Siegfried - prince in Swan Lake, 1895 Swanilda, Frantz - are set to be wed Sympathetic magic - during Paleolithic age> means the image roughly equals reality ~ex: killing an animal in a dance equals killing an animal in a hunt Tchaikovsky - composer of the music in Sleeping Beauty, 1890 Tchaikovsky, dies 1893 - composer of The Nutcracker, 1892 Theatrical dance - done in theater with audience> rehearsed and choreographed-technical, not expressive> ballet companies emerged Theophile Gautier - dance critic who wrote against male dancers ~wrote Giselle ~loved Grisi (Giselles star) Thespis - gained popularity due to the Dithyramb> 1st Greek actor around 535 BC> led to drama, tragedy, etc. Totem(Spirit) - from idea that animals and people have powers, spirits, etc. (ex: eagle has healing powers) Trance - altered state of consciousness. Removes themselves from reality self inflict pain (walk on hot coals, flames and not get burned). Polytheistic religion. Some cultures use drugs to bring about trance Troubadors - composer/performer during middle ages(10th-15th century) Tsar - ruler of Russia> ballet dancers were servants for him> everything was done to please the tsar Versailles(the palace, not the city) - home of Louis XIV> he brought nobles there to dance~ bad dancers got kicked out Volta - Queen Elizabeths favorite dance> tossing woman in the air What is history? - Study of the past and past events. What is dance? - Rhythmic and 3-dimensional movements of the body through space with energy and expression, without necessarily a goal, such as a soccer player, but always with intent. - goal: objective or desired outcome - intent: state of mind directing action towards object, meaning, or significance What is art? - Use of skill and creative imagination to produce aesthetic objects Press definition: expression of feeling -giving form to self expression Whirling Dervishes - Turkish/persian dancers that spin for hours ... View Full Document

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