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### holographic_dark_energy

Course: ASTR 5770, Fall 2008
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Dark Holographic Energy Preety Sidhu 5 May 2006 Black Holes and Entropy Black holes are maximal entropy objects Entropy of a black hole proportional to surface area of event horizon Max entropy for volume of space goes as bounding surface area, not mass The Holographic Principle All information about a physical system in some region of space is encoded in its boundary surface, not its volume Like all the...

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Dark Holographic Energy Preety Sidhu 5 May 2006 Black Holes and Entropy Black holes are maximal entropy objects Entropy of a black hole proportional to surface area of event horizon Max entropy for volume of space goes as bounding surface area, not mass The Holographic Principle All information about a physical system in some region of space is encoded in its boundary surface, not its volume Like all the information in a room encoded in its walls Information Entropy Information entropy (or Shannon entropy) measure of randomness or uncertainty in a signal Thermodynamic entropy like amount of Shannon entropy missing between classical macroscopic variables and full microscopic description of systems state Entropy ultimately measured in bits or nats 1 bit = (ln 2) nats 0.69 nats 1 nat ~ 4 Planck areas Total bits related to matter/energy degrees of freedom Maximum info density, for given volume, about enclosed particle states Matter cannot be infinitely subdivided Holographic Cosmology Related to the (poorly understood) principles of quantum gravity Bekenstein max entropy for weakly selfgravitating physical [4D system flat spacetime]: S 2ER Taken to be max holographic entropy for universe Sizes and Scales In quantum field theory UV cutoff: short wavelength, high energy bound IR cutoff: long wavelength, low energy bound Related by limits set by black hole formation UV limit IR limit ~ Planck length ~ size of universe Particle horizon: largest comoving distance from which light could have reached observer today Event horizon: largest comoving distance from which light will ever reach observer Vacuum Fluctuations Uncertainty principle for quantum vacuum energy fluctuations, with N degrees of freedom Holographic principle sets N within UV and IR cutoffs One degr...

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