study guide 3a[1]
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study guide 3a[1]

Course Number: BIO BIO 108L, Spring 2009

College/University: Duke

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Evolutionary Anatomy of the Vertebrate Study guide 3A The vertebrate head There is some overlap with this study guide and the head section from midterm 2; you can expect to see any of the material on the portion of the class on the head on the final. Can you summarize the three components (dermal, endochondral, pharyngeal arch) that give rise to the skull in vertebrates and what they contribute? Chondrocranium-...

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Anatomy Evolutionary of the Vertebrate Study guide 3A The vertebrate head There is some overlap with this study guide and the head section from midterm 2; you can expect to see any of the material on the portion of the class on the head on the final. Can you summarize the three components (dermal, endochondral, pharyngeal arch) that give rise to the skull in vertebrates and what they contribute? Chondrocranium- encases the brain and sensory organs; Evolutionarily become more posterior and ventral; brain and sensory encaser Developmentally endochondral bone; preformed in cartilage cartilage-replacement bone Nasal Otic Occipital Ethmoid Sphenoid (sphenethmoid)- fills in brain case anterior to occipital Dermocranium- covers chondocranium and splanchnocranium Evolutionarily dermal shield Developmentally comes from dermal layer of the skin Facial Premaxilla, maxilla Palatal palatine, pterygoid Cheek Jugal, postorbital, squamosal Roof nasal, frontal, parietal Jaw dentary Splanchnocranium Evolutionarily from visceral arches (cartilage that supports gills) Developmentally cartilage- somewhat ossified Upper Jaw palatoquadrate (quadrate and epipterygoid) quadrate =incus and epipterygoid = alisphenoid Lower Jaw mandibular cartilage (articular bone) malleus Hyomandibula jaw suspension stapes Could you identify whether a skull is from a shark, bony fish, amphibian, turtle, reptile, bird or mammal? Shark cartilaginous skeleton = only condrocranium Jaw palatoquadrate + Mandibular cartilage + hyomandibula Bony fish tones of many little, segmented dermal plates Amphibian diapsids 2 huge fenestra + flat skull Turtle anapsid no fenestra dermal bone Reptile anterior choanae primitive = sphenedon = DIAPSID 2 fenestra with the jugal bone forming the lower bar upper bar= post-orbital + squamosal derived = modified DIAPSID lost 1 fenestra b/c the jugal bar is lost (the jugal bone is just around the optic capsule) Bird one large fenestra = modified diapsid quadrate + quadratojugal + jugal = one temporal fenestra jugal bone (zygomatic arch) and squamosal (temporal) bar allows the upper and lower beaks to move quack quack and back and forth Mammals synapsids = 1 fenestra zygomatic arch forms the only bar choanae is posterior part of the mouth Can you identify the major bones and/or features of skull (e.g., bones listed in back of the first lab handout on the skull)? Major bones/features of the skull: Maxilla, premaxilla, nasal, frontal, parietal, temporal, jugal, squamosal, postorbital, dentary, quadratojugal?, occipial= basio +exo+ superior Can you summarize major innovations in mammalian skull/feeding apparatus? Heterodont = many different types of teeth (vs. homodont) incisors, canines, premolars, molars Polphyodont (vs. diphyodont) Enamal (from ectoderm) + dentyne (from mesoderm) + cementum (mesoderm) Teeth are secure in sockets Ossified 2ndary palate (also reptiles) feed and breathe at the same time Mammals chew food facilitate metabolism -Higher metabolic needs, need to get more out of food mastication, mechanical digestion aids in chemical digestion by increasing the rate at which food can be broken down -heterodont/occlusion/cementum = greater efficiency of chewing -diphyodonts because mothers take care of their young, young dont need teeth until later Jaw dentary bone with condyloid process (articulates with the zygomatic arch) coronoid process in the hole angular is below the condyloid larger masseter (zygomatic arch and masseteric fossa on jaw OR angular process) and temporalis (from temporal part of the skull to the coronoid) Can you summarize major functional adaptations of different kinds of mammalian skulls in response to dietary adaptations? Herbivores large masseter muscle for side-to-side movement (rabbit) modified incisors gnawing continuously growing molars low-profile blades shearing incisors + molars cant occlude at the same time side-to-side movements occlude only on one side coronoid process is higher than the level of the molars Carnivores large temporalis muscle up and down movements + force tight occlusion of all teeth at the same time molars shearing blades coronoid is on the same plane as molars Omnivores molars mortar and pestle (side-to-side and up-and-down movement) Could you give an overview of the anatomy and function of mammalian teeth? Enamel (from secretions of ectoderm) Dentine (secretions from mesoderm) Cementum (mammal teeth mesoderm) TEETH Types Homodont- similar in structure/dont articulate **Heterodont- different structure for precise occlusion/mastication better for greater metabolic needs Number of Generations Polyphyodont- many generations **Diphyodont- two generations function of mammalian teeth = increased efficiency of metabolism via mechanic digestion Can you discuss the form and functional relations in feeding adaptations of the vertebrates highlighted in lecture? APPREHEND food CHEW food SWALLOW food birds = gizzard with pebbles to help grind up food snakes open and close the larynx independently can move the lanrynx out of the mouth like a straw (eat and breathe at the same time) cranial kinesis to apprehend food eat prey larger than their head = pterygoid walk venom delivery subdue the prey squamosal = part of the jaw = extra lever mammals = many muscles to swallow squeeze the throat to get food down- separation between pharynx and larynx mammals use tongue for intraoral food transport to back of the throat suction feeding = bony fish decrease pressure in mouth (increase in volume) so water moves into mouth and food is apprehended water is dense and viscous so prey in the near vicinity are sucked in hyoid expands the buccal cavity + throat muscle moves the floor of the mouth unidirectional, into mouth, out of gills bidirectional = into and out of mouth What is cranial kinesis and in which groups is it well developed? How does it function in the different vertebrate groups? cranial kinesis = independent movement of different parts of the skull= movement of the skull snakes upper temporal arch is lost + the lower jaw is disarticulated from the upper jaw two sides of the upper jaw can move independently = PTERYGOID AND PALATINE squamosal bone is part of the jaw suspension (used to be part of the temporal arch) = extra lever that helps open the mouth wider= larger gape purpose = larger gape and ability to swallow food ** birds jaw quadrate pushes on the palatoquadrate food prehension = movement of the jaw independent of the skull Can you summarize role of neural crest in skull development? neural crest = multipotentiality of cells become nerves, glands, melanocytes, parts of the skeleton cartilage of the visceral arches + endocranium (endochondral bone) + sensory organs + teeth enamel + membrane bones of face (dermal bone) + connective tissue for muscles in face + nerves precursor for any skeletal element of the skull highly-migratory cells developmental role = patterning information the position of the neural crest cells determines the type of cell that they will become (i.e. what part of the face it belongs to or what it will become) = hox code for a particular region Can you trace the evolution of the major elements of the branchial arches? 1st arch = mandibular arch = palatoquadrate + mandibular cartilage V = trigeminal nerve 2nd arch = hyoid = hyomandibula + facial/throat muscles, tonsils, thyroid + stapes VII = facial nerve 3rd arch = hyoid throat muscles for swallowing and speech + carotid artery + thymus gland IX = hypoglossal 4-6 arch = pharyngeal = larynx X = vagus 4th arch = left arch of the aorta and right subclavian 6th arch = ductus arteriosus

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