Textbook Chapter Review Questions
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Textbook Chapter Review Questions

Course Number: BIO G 109, Fall 2008

College/University: Cornell

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Textbook Chapter Review Questions CHAPTER 1 1. Which of the following levels of biological organization includes all others in the list?: cell, molecule, organ, tissue? Organ 2. Explain how the photosynthesis of plants functions in both the cycling of chemical nutrients and the flow of energy in an ecosystem? Photosynthesis uses light to convert CO2 and H20 to energy-rich food, making it the pathway by which...

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Chapter Textbook Review Questions CHAPTER 1 1. Which of the following levels of biological organization includes all others in the list?: cell, molecule, organ, tissue? Organ 2. Explain how the photosynthesis of plants functions in both the cycling of chemical nutrients and the flow of energy in an ecosystem? Photosynthesis uses light to convert CO2 and H20 to energy-rich food, making it the pathway by which both chemical nutrients and energy become available to most organisms. 3. Explain why cells are considered the basic unit of life? They are the lowest level in the hierarchy of biological organization at which the producers of life emerge. 4. What is the chemical basis for all of lifes kinship? DNA as the genetic material. 5. To which of the three domains of life do we belong? Eukarya 6. How does natural selection enable a population of organisms to adapt to its environment? On average, those individuals with heritable traits best suited to the local environment produce the greatest number of offspring that survive and reproduce. This increases the frequency of those traits in the population. 7. What is the difference between discovery science and hypothesis-based science? In discovery science, scientists observe and describe objects and phenomena; in hypothesis-based science, they propose hypotheses, make deductions, and test predictions. 8. Why is it difficult to draw a conclusion from an experiment that is not controlled? Without a control, you dont know if the experiment outcome is due to the variable you are trying to test or to some other variable. CHAPTER 15 1. How long did prokaryotes inhabit Earth before eukaryotes evolved? 1.3 billion years 2. Our forearms and a bats wings are? Homologous 3. A bats wings and a bees wings are? - Analogous 4. To distinguish a particular clade of mammals within the larger clade that corresponds to class Mammalia, why is hair not a useful characteristic? Hair is a shared primitive character common to all mammals and cannot be helpful in distinguishing different mammalian subgroups. 5. In comparing the five-kingdom system with the three-domain system, how many of the kingdoms fall into domain Eukarya? Four CHAPTER 16 1. What do fossilized stromatolites suggest about the evolution of prokaryotes? Prokaryotes must have existed at least 3.5 billion years ago when the oldest fossilized stromatolites were formed. 2. What hypothesis was Stanley Miller testing with his experiments? The hypothesis that conditions on early Earth favored synthesis of organic molecules from inorganic ingredients. 3. Why might two strains of E. Coli be genetically more different than a human and a platypus? Bacteria have been evolving and accumulating differences for billions of years; placental mammals (humans) and egg-laying mammals (platypus) diverged only about 200 million years ago. 4. As different as bacteria and archaea are, both groups are characterized by what kind of cells? Prokaryotic 5. How could a microscope help you distinguish the cocci that cause staph infections from those that cause strep throat? It would show clusters of cells for staph and chains of cells for strep. 6. Some archaea are referred to as extremophiles. Why? Because they can thrive in extreme environments too hot, too salty, or too acidic for other organisms. 7. Contrast exotoxins with endotoxins. Exotoxins are poisons secreted by pathogenic bacteria; endotoxins are components of the cell walls of pathogenic bacteria. 8. What is bioremediation? The use of organisms to clean up pollution. 9. Which organelles of eukaryotic cells probably descended from endosymbiotic bacteria? Mitochondria and Chloroplasts 10. Why are protists especially important to biologists investigating the evolution of eukaryotic life? Because the first eukaryotes were protists, and protists were ancestral of all other eukaryotes, including plants, fungi, animals, and modern protists. CHAPTER 17 1. Which adaptations enable plants to reproduce land? on Multicellular gametangia that protect gametes from drying out, protection of embryo within female gametangia, and tough- walled spores. 2. Identify which of the following traits is shared by all plants: flowers, seeds, retained embryo, vascular tissue. Embryo retained on parent plant. 3. Gametophyte is to _____ as _____ is to diploid. Haploid sporophyte 4. What key adaptations have contributed to the overwhelming success of seed plants? Pollen transfers sperm to eggs without the need for water. Seeds protect, nourish, and help disperse plant embryos. The reduced gametophytes of seed plants are protected on the sporophyte plant. 5. What four types of modified leaves make up a flower? Sepals, petals, stamen, and carpals. 6. What is the difference between pollination and fertilization? Pollination is the transfer of pollen by wind or animals from stamens to the tips of carpals. Fertilization is the union of the egg and sperm, which are released from the pollen tube after the tube grows and makes contact with an ovule. 7. What is a fruit? A ripened ovary of a flower, which contains, protects, and aids in the dispersal of seeds. 8. How have humans influenced plant evolution? By selective breeding and genetic engineering, humans intervene in the evolution of plants to maximize the harvest of products for human use. 9. How are an angiosperm and its pollinators mutually rewarded by their relationship? The pollinators obtain food, and the plants has its pollen transferred much more efficiently than if it were carried by the wind. 10. Contrast the heterotrophic nutrition of a fungus with your own heterotrophic nutrition. A fungus digests its food externally by secreting enzymes onto the food and then absorbing the small nutrients that result from digestion. In contrast, humans and most other animals eat relatively large pieces of food and digest the food within their bodies. 11. What is one reason that chytrids are thought to have diverged earliest in fungal evolution? Chytrids are the only fungi that have flagellated spores, a characteristic of the ancestor of fungi. 12. What benefits to algae in lichens receive from their fungal partners? A suitable habitat for growth; absorption and retention of water and minerals. CHAPTER 18 1. List the distinguishing characteristics of animals. Multicellular, eukaryotic heterotrophs that ingest their food; no cell walls; unique cell junctions; nerve and muscle cells, sexual reproduction and life cycles with unique embryonic stages; unique developmental genes. 2. What is the main difference between a colonial organism and an organism that is truly Multicellular? The cells of a Multicellular organism are more extensively specialized and interdependent than are the cells of a colonial organism. 3. List four features that can describe an animals body plan. Symmetry, number of tissue layers, body cavity type, and embryonic development. 4. Why are phylogenic trees considered hypotheses? The fossil record is incomplete. A tree is based on the best available data and will be revised based on new research and molecular comparisons. 5. Why is it thought that sponges represent the earliest branch of the animal kingdom? Sponges lack symmetry and true tissues, and their choanocytes resemble certain flagellated protists. 6. As representatives of classes of mollusks, a garden snail is an example of a ____; a clam is an example of a ____; and a squid is an example of a _____. Gastropod, Bivalve, Cephalopod 7. The phylum arthropoda is named for its members Jointed appendages 8. Contrast complete and incomplete metamorphosis. In complete metamorphosis, adults look very different from larvae. 9. Contrast the skeleton of an echinoderm with that of an arthropod. An echinoderm has an exoskeleton, an arthropod has an exoskeleton 10. What four features do we share with invertebrate chordates, such as lancelets? Dorsal, hollow nerve chord; notochord; pharyngeal slits; post-anal tail.

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