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### physics lab 5

Course: PHYSICS 1061, Spring 2009
School: Temple
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Word Count: 799

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Atinuke Omolara Physics Lab 1061 Momentum- Elastic and Inelastic Collisions March 16, 2009 Objective: To study momentum and the conservation of energy in one dimensional collisions Introduction: Collisions between two (or more) objects provide a good case to study both the conservation of momentum and conservation of &lt;a href=&quot;/keyword/kinetic-energy/&quot; &gt;kinetic...

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Atinuke Omolara Physics Lab 1061 Momentum- Elastic and Inelastic Collisions March 16, 2009 Objective: To study momentum and the conservation of energy in one dimensional collisions Introduction: Collisions between two (or more) objects provide a good case to study both the conservation of momentum and conservation of <a href="/keyword/kinetic-energy/" >kinetic energy</a> . The former is the conservation of a vector and the latter a scalar quantity. The change of the momentum of an object is given by the time integral of the force acting on the object. From Newton s third law, i.e. action reaction principle, the forces exerted by two objects on each other during a collision are equal and opposite. Therefore the changes of momentum of the two objects are equal and opposite. Then if there are no external forces acting on the objects, the total momentum of the two objects remain the same. The conservation of the <a href="/keyword/kinetic-energy/" >kinetic energy</a> requires that the force exerted by the two objects on each other during the collision must be conservative. In mathematical terms this means that the force is related to a potential energy. Before the collision, let s take the potential energy to be zero. Then, if we assume that the force of the collision is repulsive, the potential energy will increase when the two objects get close to each other (the start of the impact), will reach a maximum when they are closest, and decrease and go back to zero when they are away from each other. Therefore the total potential energy doesn t change during the collision. The change in the <a href="/keyword/kinetic-energy/" >kinetic energy</a> is the opposite of the change in the potential energy. Therefore the <a href="/keyword/kinetic-energy/" >kinetic energy</a> will do the exact opposite of the potential energy: it will decrease during the impact, and it will return to its original value when the two objects are away from each other. Note that we assumed that all the internal forces that are involved in the collision are elastic and there are no external forces. Collisions satisfying these two conditions are known as elastic collisions, in which the total <a href="/keyword/kinetic-energy/" >kinetic energy</a> is conserved (except during the impact). Procedure: Part 1 Elastic Collisions 1. Level the air track and weigh the gliders with the additional bumpers and counterweights attached. One glider should have the rubber band attachment and one should have a bumper plate. 2. Make sure the photogate is separated at a certain distance. 3. Turn on the air supply and place the two gliders on the track 4. Keep Ma at rest and slightly push Mb, so that it moves at a constantly velocity, colliding with Ma. Be sure that Mb passes photogate 1 before Ma passes through photogate 2. 5. In the next part, gently push both gliders toward each other so that they collide in the middle. (Ma should have a faster velocity than Mb) Part 2- Inelastic Collisions 1. Change the rubber band and bumper attachment to the velcro attachments. Make sure the counterweights are still on the glider 2. Rest Mb between the photogates and Ma in front of photogate 1. Turn on the air supply and begin the computer software. 3. Allow Ma to move through photogate 1 and collide with Mb 4. The computer will compose a time of Mb as it passes through photogate 2 Analysis and Data: Questions Part 1A Questions 1. Calculate the velocities of Ma and Mb as they moved through the photogates. Use the measurements to determine if linear momentum is conserved. Explain any deviation from the conservation of linear momentum. Trial #1 Pi= MbVb1= (210.1 g)(0.3702 m/s) = 77.8 g m/s Va= 0.3778 m/s Pf=MbVb2+ MaVa= 0 + (209.3 g)(0.3778 m/s) = 79 g m/s Vb= 0.3702 m/s 2. Can you predict the velocity of Ma knowing only the initial momentum of the system? Yes the velocity of Ma will be similar to the initial momentum or velocity of the system 3. Calculate the initial and final <a href="/keyword/kinetic-energies/" >kinetic energies</a> of the gliders Ma and Mb. Is <a href="/keyword/kinetic-energy/" >kinetic energy</a> conserved? KE = mv2 Part 1B Questions 1. Is momentum conserved? Calculate the glider velocities for all four photogate transits 2. Analyze your measurements and state how accurately you were able to verify momentum conservation. Please notice that we did not use vector notation for conservation of linear momentum. Why? Part 2 Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Is momentum conserved? Is <a href="/keyword/kinetic-energy/" >kinetic energy</a> conserved? Can you predict the final velocity of the system from the initial condition? What is the coefficient of restitution for an inelastic collision? 0 Will the maximum value of Ei occur for elastic or inelastic collisions? 6. Discuss how the conservation of momentum prevents all the incident <a href="/keyword/kinetic-energy/" >kinetic energy</a> from being converted into internal energy when one mass is initially at rest. Conclusion:
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