31295013292981
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31295013292981

Course Number: ETD 11252008, Fall 2009

College/University: Texas Tech

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BIOSOLIDS AND CHEMICAL FERTILIZER APPLICATION ON THE CHIHUAHUAN DESERT GRASSLANDS by PHILIP EARL COOLEY, B.S. A THESIS IN RANGE SCIENCE Submitted to the GracJuate Faculty of Texas Tech University in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved August, 1998 J (\u]'^^\5 /1C 13 Ah.^3^ Copyright 1998, Philip Cooley ACKNOWLEDMENTS This research project was made possible...

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AND BIOSOLIDS CHEMICAL FERTILIZER APPLICATION ON THE CHIHUAHUAN DESERT GRASSLANDS by PHILIP EARL COOLEY, B.S. A THESIS IN RANGE SCIENCE Submitted to the GracJuate Faculty of Texas Tech University in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved August, 1998 J (\u]'^^\5 /1C 13 Ah.^3^ Copyright 1998, Philip Cooley ACKNOWLEDMENTS This research project was made possible by the generosity of many people and organizations. I would like to thank Texas Tech University, the Department of Range, Wildlife and Fisheries Management for allowing me to have this opportunity. I would also like to thank Dr. David Wester, who served as the chairperson for my graduate committee. Without Dr. Wester's encouragement, guidance and help, both with fieldwork and statistical analysis, this would not be possible. I would also like to thank Drs. Britton, Krieg, and Sosebee for taking time out of their busy schedules to serve as my graduate committee. There were numerous people who contributed to the success of the project. These people sacrificed their time to assist with all aspects of this project. Although there are too many people to list individually, I would like to recognize the individuals who were always available to help. I give a very special thanks to: Mr. Chris Shanks, Mr. Pedro Juarado, Dr. Carlos Villalobos, Dr. E. B. Fish, Mr. Corey Moffett, Mr. Mark Benton, Mr. David Holmes, and Mr. Richard Gatewood. And to all the others who donated their time to help, thank you. I would also like to thank the companies who supported this project. I would like to thank Merco Joint Venture for providing an area to conduct this research, biosolids, and a place to stay while in the field collecting data. I would also like to thank Pursell Industries for providing the urea fertilizer, and Goodpasture Inc. in Brownfield, Texas for providing the MAP fertilizer used in this research. u Finally, I would like to thank the rest of my friends and family, especially my parents. Without their love and support this would not have been possible. Ill TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKKNOWLEDGEMENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION U. LITERATURE REVIEW Chemical Fertilizers and Plant Nutrition Native Forage Response to Fertilization Crop and Cropland Response to Biosolids Application Native Forage Response to Biosolids Application Biosolids Application at Sierra Blanca, Texas Root Response to Biosolids and Chemical Fertilizers m. OBJECTIVES AND HYPOTHESIS IV. MATERIALS AND METHODS Study Area Methods Statistical Analysis V. RESULTS Climatic Conditions Blue Grama Plant Height Blue Grama Standing Crop, 1994 ii vi vii 1 3 3 5 8 10 12 14 16 18 18 19 22 24 24 26 30 IV Blue Grama Standing Crop, 1995 Blue Grama Standing Crop, 1996 Blue Grama Root Biomass, 1995 Tobosagrass Plant Height Tobosagrass Standing Crop, 1994 and 1995 Tobosagrass Standing Crop, 1996 Tobosagrass Root Biomass, 1995 VI. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS Blue Grama Plant Height Blue Grama Standing Crop Blue Grama Root Biomass Tobosagrass Plant Height Tobosagrass Standing Crop Tobosagrass Root Biomass Plant Response Conclusions LITERATURE CITED APPENDIX A. Fertilizer Application Calculations B. Analysis of Variance Table C. Raw Data 33 37 39 42 46 46 50 54 54 55 58 59 60 62 63 64 67 70 80 82 LIST OF TABLES 4.1 5.1 Biosoldis analysis and quality for 1994 Blue grama plant height (mm) as influence by season of application, rate of application, irrigation and sampling period, 1995 Blue grama plant height (mm) as influenced by fertilizer type, rate of application, and sampling period, 1996 Blue grama standing crop (kg/ha) as influenced by season of application, fertilizer type, and irrigation, 1996 Tobosagrass plant height (mm) as a function season of application, rate of application, irrigation, and sampling period, 1995 Tobosagrass plant height (mm) as a function of fertilizer type, rate of application, and sampling period, 1996 Tobosagrass standing crop (kg/ha) as influenced by fertilizer type and rate of application, 1996 Tobosagrass root biomass (A-horizon) as influenced by season of application, fertilizer type, and rate of application Analysis of variance table Standing crop data Plant height data, 1995 Plant height data, 1996 Root biomass data 20 28 5.2 5.3 5.4 31 38 44 5.5 5.6 5.7 B. 1 C.l C.2 C.3 C.3 45 49 52 81 83 100 148 170 VI LIST OF FIGURES 5.1 5.2 Cumulative precipitation for 1994-1996 Blue grama plant height (mm) as influenced by fertilizer type and sampling period, 1995. Blue grama plant height (mm) as influenced by irrigation and sampling period, 1996. Blue grama standing crop (kg/ha) as influenced by rate of application and irrigation, 1994. Blue grama standing crop (kg/ha) as influence by season of application and fertilizer type, 1995. Blue grama standing crop (kg/ha) as influenced by season ofapplication and irrigation, 1995. Blue grama standing crop (kg/ha) as influenced by fertilizer type, rate of application, and irrigation, 1995. Blue grama root biomass (A-horizon) as a function of irrigation, 1995. Blue grama root biomass (A-horizon) as a function of fertilizer type, and rate ofapplication, 1995. Blue grama root biomass (B-horizon) as a funciton of of season ofapplication and fertilizer type, 1995. Tobosagrass standing crop (kg/ha) as influenced by season of application and irrigation, 1994. Tobosagrass standing crop (kg/ha) as influenced by irrigation, 1995 Tobosagrass root biomass (A-horizon) as influenced by irrigation. Tobosagrass root biomass (B-horizon) as influenced by fertilizer type and irrigation. 25 27 5.3 29 5.4 32 5.5 34 5.6 35 5.7 36 5.8 40 5.9 41 5.10 43 5.11 47 5.12 5.13 48 51 5.14 53 vu CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Sewage sludge or biosolids refers to the solids removed from municipal waste water during treatment. Currently, sewage sludge is used to refer to untreated material, while biosolids refers to treated material., There are several estimates as to how much sewage sludge is currently produced or will be produced in the U.S. in the future. On average, a typical person generates 16.9 liters of sewage sludge per week (Chermisinoff, 1993). According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA, 1989) approximately 6.5 million dry tons of sewage sludge are generated annually, and this is expected to increase to approximately 13 million dry tons by the year 2000. Due to the large quantities of sewage sludge generated, management of treated sewage sludge, or biosolids, is becommg increasingly important. The Marine Protection Research and Sanctuary Act of 1988 banned ocean dumping of biosolids as a disposal technique, leaving only landfilling,incineration, and land application. Land filling is facing increased regulations because of ground water pollution and decreases in available land fill space. Incineration is also plagued with problems, such as air pollution, high energy input, and capital costs. Land application is a promising alternative to ocean dumping. Land application is defined as the spreading of biosolids on or just below the soil surface, and is becoming a widely used sludge management option. Land application is divided into four categories: agricultural use, forest lands, land reclamation, and land dedicated to sludge application. Land application is encouraged by the EPA wherever environmentally feasible (USEPA, 1989). Land application has been beneficially used on croplands, forest lands, and reclaimed mines throughout the U.S. However, land application has not been widely studied in the arid and semi-arid southwest or on native rangelands. The desert southwest, including the Trans-Pecos region of Texas, receives low and unpredictable rainfall and has high temperatures, high evaporation rates, and low organic matter contents in the soil All of these factors limit native plant growth on rangelands. Application of biosolids might ameliorate some of these conditions by providing organic matter to the soil and reducing soil water evaporation. In addition, biosolids contains several plant macro- and micro- nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, copper, manganese, and zinc that can increase plant production. As long as biosolids do not cause detrimental effects in this semi-arid environment, the Trans-Pecos is an excellent area for land dedicated to sludge application for several reasons: vast acreages of available land, and few estimated number of days when biosolids can not be applied because of unfavorable weather (precipitation) (USEPA, 1989). CHAPTER n LITERATURE REVIEW Chemical Fertilizers and Plant Nutrition Two macronutrients essential to plant growth and production are nitrogen and phosphorus. Nitrogen is taken up through roots mainly as ammonium (NH4'^) and nitrate (NO3") (Simpson, 1986). Nitrates are reduced to ammonium, and ammonium combines with carbohydrates to form amino acids and proteins. Proteins are basic metabolites involved in plant nutrition, including leaf growth, which increases green leaf area and photosynthesis. Phosphorus is taken up through roots mainly as ortho-phosphates (H2PO4", HPO42"). Phosphorus is incorporated in cell nuclei and is essential for cell division. Phosphorus is also important in the merestimatic tissue of plants. Nitrogen and phosphorus are often major constituents of chemical fertilizers. Currently, many nitrogen-based fertilizers are available. Urea has become one of the principal dry nitrogen fertilizers. Method of urea application is an important consideration. Topical or broadcast application is a common practice; however, if urea is not incorporated or washed into the soil, substantial nitrogen losses may occur through ammonia volatilization. Ammonia volatilization is influenced by soil type. For example, soils with high pH values typically favor the transformation of urea into ammonia instead of ammonium, which leads to volatilization. Topical application of urea produces the best resuhs when applied on cold or dry soils with significant precipitation (0.25 cm) wdthin 3-6 days after application to minimize nitrogen losses through ammonia volatilization (Tisdale et al, 1993). Phosphorus is considered an immobile element in the soil, which can lead to problems with plant uptake. Since phosphorus has limited mobility, plant roots must extend and locate phosphorus. In order to best utilize phosphorus fertilizers, banded applications, where fertilizers are concentrated near the root zone, are recommended to maximize effectiveness. In addition, phosphorus also reacts in the soil to form insoluble compounds. In calcareous soils, phosphorus typically binds with calcium and magnesium which reduces the amount of plant available phosphorus (Tisdale et al, 1993). Timing of fertilizer applications is often regulated through planting in agronomic settings (Tisdale et al, 1993). For example, if fertilizers require incorporation, then fertilizers are applied immediately prior to planting. If ammonia toxicity is a concern, fertilizer application may be delayed until after seedling maturity. Relative to time of fertilizer application on rangeland. Workman and McCormick (1977) reported spring applications to be more effective than fall applications in Utah. Stroehlein et al, (1968) found that application of fertilizer immediately before the onset of the rainy season through late in the rainy season increases plant growth in Arizona. These results indicate fertilizer application immediately before or during plant growth is most effective on native rangeland. Native Forage Response to Fertilization Fertilization is normally not considered for native rangeland. However, application of nitrogen can be beneficial to many warm season grasses. Nitrogen in the form of ammonium nitrate was applied to native rangeland in western Oklahoma at rates of 0, 35, 70, and 105 kg N/ha/year (Berg, 1995). Common species included blue grama (Bouteloua gracillis). sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendulaV little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium). and other warm season grasses. Over 3 years, herbage yields increased an average of 15 kg/kg of nitrogen. Pettit and Fagan (1974) applied nitrogen in the form of ammonium nitrate at rates of 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 kg/ha to irrigated buffalograss (Buchloe dactyloides) in the Texas panhandle. When nitrogen was applied at the lowest rate (30 kg/ha), herbage yield was increased by 23% over the control, whereas at the highest rate (120 kg/ha) herbage yield was increased by 130% over the control. Several studies have been conducted to determine the effects of fertilizer application to desert and semi-arid grasslands of the United States. Stephens and Whitford (1993) reported that black grama (Bouteloua eriopoda) tiller length, tiller mass, canopy area, and biomass were greatly increased v^^th supplemental irrigation, but only tiller mass per unit length was increased with addition of nitrogen fertilizer. However, datafi*omthis study indicate the addition of nitrogen fertilizer increased biomass over non-fertilized plants. Stroehlein et al, (1968) found that 16-16-8 at 165.37 kg of nitrogen and 30-10-0 at 110.25 kg of nitrogen increased standing crop of a variety of Arizona grasses over the control. Nitrogen and phosphorus have been shown to increase grass production in southern Arizona (Freeman and Humphrey, 1956). Nitrogen alone caused the greatest increase in production at the lower rates, whereas phosphorus alone increased production the most at the higher rates. When nitrogen and phosphorus were applied in combination, grass production increased with each successive rate ofapplication. In semi-arid regions of the Northern Great Plains the effectiveness of nitrogen and nitrogen plus phosphorus fertilization depends on adequate water (Rauzi et al, 1968; Wight and Black, 1979). When sufficient water is available standing crop is slightly increased (550 kg/ha) with additional water. Standing crop can be increased by more than 100% when sufficient water is present and nitrogen and phosphorus are available in nonlimiting amounts (Wight and Black, 1979). The majority of the yield response was due to application of nitrogen. However, when phosphorus is applied in conjunction with nitrogen, yields increase an additional 20%. The effectiveness of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization on tobosagrass (Hilaria mutica) growing in southern New Mexico depends on environmental factors, especially rainfall (Herbel, 1963). During favorable growmg conditions, applications of nitrogen, phosphorus, or a combination increased forage standing crop and crude protein. However, tobosagrass yields were reduced when growth was interrupted because of inadequate soil water quantities. Several researchers have studied the effects of nitrogen or nitrogen and phosphorus on blue grama. Blue grama shoot production grown in a greenhouse was increased with the addition of 132.3 kg of N/ha, when sufficient leaf surface area was present (Dwyer, 1969). Pieper et al. (1975) also showed that blue grama production in southern New Mexico increased with the addition of nitrogen fertilizers. In addition, they reported that blue grama production increased when production of other grasses and forbs did not increase. These resuhs suggest that blue grama is more efficient than other species in utilizing the additional nitrogen. Richard and Rendente (1995) found similar results with blue grama and buffalograss grown in a greenhouse. Blue grama production was increased with the addition of nitrogen and phosphorus. However, the increased nutrients were most effective in increasing blue grama production when blue grama was growing with buffalograss. In addition to increased standing crop, other factors of grass growth and production can be positively influenced by fertilization. Pettit and Fagan (1974) found crude protein concentrations in buffalograss increased by 46%, 80%, 134%, and 263% over the control at 30, 60, 90, and 120 kg/ha of N, respectively. Samuel et al, (1980) also found that nitrogen fertilizers increased crude protein of a variety of grasses in southem Arizona. Both Holt and Wilson (1961) and Samuel et al., (1980) reported increased utilization of fertilized areas over non-fertilized areas. Hoh and Wilson (1961) reported that 55.1, 110.2, and 220.5 kg/ha of fertilizer increased utilization by 3, 4, and 5 times, respectively. Other research has shown that nitrogen fertilization has a residual effect on vegetation several years after application depending upon rate of fertilization (Power and Alessi, 1971). One-time application of nitrogen at rates of 68, 135, 270, and 540 kg/ha increased total production over a 6-year period commensurate with rate ofapplication. In addition, nitrogen applied at rates of 270 and 540 kg/ha increased production for up to six. years after 1 application. Nitrogen applied for 3 and 6 years at the same total nitrogen rate for 1 year also showed a residual effect. At lower rates ofapplication, yields increased only when nitrogen was applied for several years. Over 6 years, all treatments produced the same yield. This research shows an apparent N-immobilizing capacity in the soil-plant system ("nitrogen-sink"), in which more than 34 kg/ha/year of nitrogen were needed before plant yield was increased. Although some reports may agree that fertilizers may carry overfi-omyear to year, (Workman and McCormick 1977), others have found no evidence of carry over effects (Herbel 1968). Crops and Cropland Response to Biosohds Application Farmers around ancient Athens (Tisdale et al., 1993) realized the value of sewage as a fertilizer. Canals were used to transport sewage water to truck gardens and olive groves. In recent times, biosolids land application is a relatively new management practice. However, in this short amount of time a large amount of data have been collected on the effects of applying biosolids to crops and forage plants. For example, wheat (Triticum durum) response to biosolids was compared to wheat fertilized with equivalent amounts of inorganic nitrogen (Day et al., 1990). Results showed that wheat fertilized with biosolids m a semi-arid environment had similar plant heights, heads per unit area, and yields of hay, grain, and straw compared to wheat fertilized with inorganic nitrogen. Biosolids application increased daysfi-omplanting to heading. When biosolids rate was doubled, number of daysfi^omplanting to heading, plant height, and heads per plant increased. In a separate study (Day et al, 1990), concentrations of heavy metals were assessed in wheat 8 hay following continuous application of biosolids at recommended rates of plant available nitrogen. Concentrations of heavy metals in biosolids wheat hay were similar to concentrations in wheat hay fertilized with inorganic nitrogen. Biosolids contams many nutrients essential to plant growth. Menelik et al. (1994) compared com (Zea mays) response to nitrogen application in the form of ureaammonium nitrate and anaerobically digested sewage sludge, and com response to conventional-till versus no-till management. Resultsfromthis experiment showed com yield increased with sludge application over inorganic nitrogen application at the same rates of nitrogen. In addition, no-till management produced higher com yields at lower nitrogen rates over conventional-till. No-till management of sludge provided nitrogen in the root zone longer, which reduced non-point source pollution and increased fertilizer effectiveness. McCoy et al. (19S6) compared com response to phosphoms applications in the form of triple superphosphate and biosolids compost. Both phosphoms sources over 100 kg P/ha produced consistently higher yields than controls. However, triple superphosphate produced higher yields than sludge compost. Sludge can be used as an effective fertilizer. However, a major concem using sludge as a fertilizer is heavy metal accumulations. Chemically treated sludge was applied to sugar beets (Beta vulgaris) growing in a greenhouse to assess any harmful effects from sludge application (Gestring and Jarrell, 1982). Sludge was chemically treated wdth calcium (Ca), aluminum (Al), and iron (Fe). Heavy metals analyzed were zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), iron, cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), and lead (Pb). Of the heavy metals analyzed, concentrations of Zn, Mn, and Cd were the only ones that increased in the sugar beets, and only from sludge treated with Al and applied on acidic soils. Soil pH decreased with application of all sludge types, with lower decreases in alkaline soils. Resultsfromthese experiments show that biosolids can be effectively used as a fertilizer. In addition, biosolids as a fertilizer has other benefits, such as a beneficial use of the byproducts generated in waste water treatment plants. Kenny Evans, a farmer in Yuma, Arizona, uses biosolids as a fertilizer. This area is characterized by high temperatures, sandy soils with low water-holding capacity, and low fertility. Evans now uses biosolids to offset these problems. "I had been buying chicken manure for $25/ton so it seemed logical to begin a program where I would be paid to take a different type of manure" (Riggle and Goldstein, 1983, pg 54). Biosohds application has proven to be a useful tool in land reclamation by allowing farmers to now farm land that was previously unsuitable for farming, while decreasing money spent on fertilizer, and increasing profit. Native Forage Response to Biosolids Application Although biosolids and sewage composts applications to native range are a relatively new idea, several researchers have shovm these material can be beneficial to native grasses and plant communities. Fescue yields were increased with appUcation of sewage composts (Sikora et al, 1980). Yields were additionally increased when compost application was combined with N and N+P fertilizers. However, nutrients were depleted after 100 days after fertilizer application, and compost continued to provide nutrients. A separate study compared tall fescue response to anaerobically digested liquid sewage sludge and nitrogen as NH4NO3 (Kiemnec et al, 1987). Tall fescue yields were greater 10 following application of NHLjNOsthan sewage sludge. Additionally, nitrogen recovery was also greater for the NH4NO3 treatment than the sewage sludge treatment. In 1985, dried anaerobically digested biosolids was applied to a semiarid grassland in New Mexico at rates of 0, 22.5, 45 and 90 Mg/ha (Fresquez et al, 1990a). Most soil nutrients (including N, P, K) increased after both the first and second growing seasons. Soil pH decreased linearly with sludge application after two growing seasons. Heavy metal and micronutrient concentrations were well below toxic level in the soil after sludge application. Total herbaceous yield was highest at 22.5 and 45 Mg/ha; yield at 90 Mg/ha exceeded yield in control plots. Standing crop of blue grama, the dominant grass species, increased linearly with application rate. Plant tissue N, P, and K increased, but levels of Pb and Cd did not increase. Plants wdth sludge application had higher green and dry weights, but significantly lowerfiberconcentration, than the control. Similar data were collected in Colorado using blue grama as one of the dominant species (Harris-Pierce et al, 1993). Resultsfromthis experiment were similar to Fresquez et al, (1990). Blue grama biomass increased wdth sludge application while N, P, and K levels increased in plant tissue. At the same time heavy metal concentrations in plant tissue were below toxic levels (Harris-Pierce et al, 1993). Biosolids appHcation at several sites in the western U.S. has been credited with improving a variety of attributes of native range (Gallier et al., 1993). In southem Colorado, biosolids treatments have increased grazingfrequencyfromonce to twice per year. The U.S. Air Force Academy has improved vegetative cover, reduced soil erosion 11 and improved wildlife habitat on 405 ha with biosolids application. Biosolids has helped control wind erosion and almost doubled cattle stocking rates in eastem Oregon. In addition to influencing plant growth, biosolids application also influences soil properties. Soil nitrogen levels were increased with increasing biosolids rates to a depth of 30-cm (Gallier et al., 1993). Epstein (1975) found application of sewage sludge increased soil water retention. Raw sludge retained the most soil water, and two digested sludge treatments retained approximately 10 times more water than untreated soils. Although biosolids provide many beneficial effects, harmfiil accumulations of heavy metals in the soil are a concem of biosolids application (Giusquiani et al., 1992). A long-term study of biosohds application to grasslands found heavy metal accumulations occur in the top 10 cm of the soil (Aitken, 1995). However, accumulation of heavy metals, after 50 years of biosolids application were not high enough to cause toxicity in either plants or animals. Contradictory to Aitken's results, Giusquiani et al., (1992) found that concentrations of Cu, Zn, Ni, and Cr, were increased to a depth of 50 cm in a sandy-loam and a clay-loam soil amended with urban waste compost. With the increased levels of heavy metals in this study, it shows a potential danger to ground water that is relatively close to the soil surface. Biosolids Application at Sierra Blanca> Texas In 1992, Texas Tech University began studying the effects of biosolids application on the Chihuahuan desert grasslands. Several experiments have shown that biosohds 12 appHcation is beneficial in this area. Tobosagrass and alkali sacaton (Sporabolus airodes) production was increased after biosohds application (Benton and Wester, in press). Biosohds appUcation in the dormant season increasedfirst-yearstanding crop over summer application for both tobosagrass and alkah sacaton. Following a second application of biosohds or the second year after biosolids appUcation, season of application did not influence standing crop of either grass species. Similar results were found for tobosagrass following application of biosoUds 2 times a year. After thefirstyear, biosohds appUcation was most effective when applied in wdnter-summer than springsummer seasons (Jurado, 1996). However, season ofapplication did not effect standing crop in the second growing season. Tobosagrass and alkaU sacaton standing crops were also effected by a combination of rate and number of years of appUcation (Benton and Wester, in press). Repeated years ofapplication increased standing crop at rates up to 34 Mg/ha rate; however, in one case standing crop decreased at the 90 Mg/ha rate. Tobosagrass standing crop increased similarly over the control at 7, 18, and 34 Mg/ha when appUed for 2 or 3 consecutive years, tsvice per year (Juardo, 1996). Standing crop after 1-year-only application was increased over the control at the 18 and 34 Mg/ha rates similar to consecutive years of appUcation. BiosoUds also can have positive effects on soil properties in this area. Moffet (1994) found that application of biosoUds increased soil water infiltration. In addition, erosion was decreased with biosolids application (Moffet, 1995). 13 Although biosolids improve both plant and soil properties, many people believe that biosoUds can lead to contamination of ground water. Lysimeter studies conducted using soilfromthe Sierra Blanca Ranch showed increased levels of elements in simulated ground water typically occurred at a 90 Mg/ha rate, with occasional increases occurring at the 34 Mg/ha rate (Brenton, 1994; Shanks, 1995, 1996). Although increased levels of magnesium, calcium, strontium, copper, barium, vanadium, and potassium were coUected in the leachate, static water levels in this area are typically at depths of 1640 m or below. With water levels this deep, rainfaU even at the 100-year storm event cannot be expected to reach the ground water of this area (U.S. Dept. of Commerce, 1961). Root Response to Biosolids and Fertilizer AppUcation Roots play an important role in the growth and survival of plants. The mam functions of roots include anchorage, synthesis of various compounds, food storage, and absorption of water and nutrients. One important factor affecting root growth is soil water availabiUty. When soil water decreases, root growth is decreased (Kramer and Boyer, 1995). Shoot growth is often reduced before root growth in many cases when soil water is deficient. Reduction in shoot growth may not be accompanied with reduction in photosynthesis, which provides more carbohydrates for root growth. If root elongation is stopped, roots may become suberized to the tip. This process is thought to protect plants, especially in the desert, by reducmg water lossfromthe roots to the drier soil. Suberization of the entke root system can also decrease water absorption foUowing rewetting of the soil. 14 Root growth has been hypothesized to be greater in areas that do not have large amounts of nutrients, such as nitrogen (Chapin et al., 1987). Chapin's hypothesis assumes that if nutrient availability is limiting, plants will allocate more resources for root growth to find and absorb additional nutrients. When soil nutrients are abundant, plants then allocate resources to aboveground growth to increase photosynthesis, and reduce root growth. According to this hypothesis, fertilization would decrease root grovv1;h because root movement is not necessary for nutrient acquisition. Conversely, Tisdale et al, (1993) stated that fertiUzation stimulates both above and belowground growth. This stimulation of root growth is considered to be in response to increases in nitrogen and phosphoms that increase cell division and elongation. Root growth from sludge amended rangeland appears to be different from herbage yields. Root growth 6 and 18 months after sludge appUcation was significantly less than on non-amended plots. (Aguilar and Loftin, 1994). Root growth after chemical fertilization is different from root growth after biosoUds application as reported by Aguilar and Loftin (1994). Root production in plots fertilized with N was the same or greater than control plots, depending on depth and rate of fertiUzer (Goetz, 1969; Power and Alessi, 1971). Black and Wight (1979) had similar results with N and P fertiUzers. The upper 3.0 cm had 3,610 kg/ha more roots with 336 kg N/ha and 224 kg P/ha than controls. All three studies showed that roots have the potential to immobilize large amounts of N and P fertUizers, restricting N and P availabiUty for Aboveground plant growth. 15 CHAPTER in OBJECTIVES AND HYPOTHESIS Previous research has shown that the appUcation of biosolids can be beneficial to plant growth in a variety of different environments. However, in previous research, biosoUds were applied to determine how plant growth was effected. Although it is apparent that biosoUds appUcation is beneficial., it is not clear as to why. BiosoUds contain many essential nutrients for plant growth. Additionally, biosoUds have been advertised to act as a mulch, increasing organic matter in the soil and increasing soil water. This project was developed to hdp determine how biosolids influences plant growth and production. The objectives of this project were two-fold: (1) evaluate Aboveground production of tobosagrass and blue grama as influenced by one-time only appUcation and repeated appUcations of chemical fertiUzers; and (2) evaluate belowground production of tobosagrass and blue grama as influenced by one-time only appUcation of biosoUds and repeated appUcations of chemical fertiUzers. BiosoUds have been reported to have a strong carryover or residual effect from one year to the next. Thus, a one-time-only appUcation of biosoUds was used; however, chemical fertiUzers needed to be applied on an annual basis to provide an equivalent amount of nutrients as the biosoUds. The main hypothesis underlying the objectives of this research assumes that chemical fertilizers are appUed at rates that provide an equivalent amount of plant available nitrogen as suppUed by biosoUds. Thus, if plant production is similar following appUcation of biosoUds and chemical fertiUzers, the primary influence of biosolids is nutritional via 16 increased nitrogen. If plant production is greater in biosoUds-treated plots than in chemical fertiUzer plots, then both nutritional and physical effects (mulching) are important contributions of biosolids. 17 CHAPTER IV MATERIALS AND METHODS Study Area This study was conducted on the Sierra Blanca Ranch north of Sierra Blanca, Texas, on two variants of a Loamy range site. Two grass species, tobosagrass and blue grama were selected for this study. The tobosagrass study area was on a Stellar loam taxajunct soil, which is classified as a Vertic Paleargid (Allen, 1993). The A horizon on this site is about 7 cm thick and has afinesandy loam texture; the texture of the B horizon is sandy clay loam. The dominant vegetation is tobosagrass, alkali sacaton, and honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa). The blue grama study is on an Armesafinesandy loam soil (B. L. Allen, pers. comm.). The A horizon on this site has fine sandy loam texture; the texture of the B horizon is alsofinesandy loam. The dominant vegetation is blue grama, three-awns (Aristida spp.), burrograss (Scleropogon brevifoUus).fluffgrass (Erioneuron pulcheUum), sand dropseed (Sporobolus crytandmsV muhlys (Muhlenbergia spp.), yucca (Yucca spp.), and honey mesquite. The climate is characterized by high au" temperatures in the summer, high evaporation rates, periodicaUy high wind velocities, and low precipitation that usuaUy occurs in the form of high intensity thunderstorms (Sosebee, 1994). Precipitation usually averages 30 cm with approximately 65% of the total precipitation occurring in July, August, and September. 18 Methods Experimental units (1 m^) were established in the fall of 1994 with 528 plots in tobosagrass and in blue grama plant communities. Each plot was surrounded by poultry netting to reduce mammalian herbivory. Within each l-m^ plot, a 0.5-trfi plot was delineated with a 10-cm high pl5WOod border. Experimental units were selected on the basis of uniformity of vegetation and absence of physical disturbance (e.g., rodent activities). Plots were randomly assigned to either dormant season (Febmary) or growing season (July) fertilizer appUcation dates. FertiUzer treatments for this experiment included four rates (0, 7, 18, and 34 metric tons/ha) of biosoUds. Four rates of urea (42-0-0) were used which provided an equivalent amount of plant available nitrogen as the biosolids. The urea was coated with a POLYON polymer that releases nutrients into the soil slowly, which was intended to mimic the slow release of nitrogen by the biosolids. Four rates of mono-ammonium phosphate (MAP, 11-52-0) were used to provide the same amount of plant available nitrogen as biosoUds, plus phosphoms. Amount of plant available nitrogen provided by the biosolids was calculated using equations provided in the EPA Process Design Manual: Land AppUcation of Municipal Biosolids (1983) (Appendk A). Fresh biosoUds were collected and moisture content was determined on a wet weight basis. Biosolids were weighed to the nearest 0.1 g and applied by hand. Samples of fresh biosolids were also analyzed for a wide variety of elements (Table 4.1). Chemical fertilizers were weighed to the nearest 0.01 g, and appUed by hand to ensure a uniform 19 Table 4.1 Biosolids analysis for 1994 appUcation. Season of AppUcation Growing 1995 Dormant 1994 n=5 n=5 8278.80 7843.60 32.60 37.20 1.90 2.32 1032.80 430.20 19798.00 28472.00 0.38 0.90 651.20 1253.20 1100.00 1185.40 1.41 2.11 3.62 3.74 0.04 0.10 21.54 12.14 8.08 3.20 3.86 186.80 Element Al Bo Ca Cu Fe Mg Mn Zn P TKN K Ni Cd Pb mg/kg mg/kg % mg/kg mg/kg % mg/kg mg/kg % % % mg/kg mg/kg mgy^g 20 distribution over the plot. BiosoUds were applied one-time-only (1994), whereas urea and MAP were appUed one-time per year for 3 consecutive years (1994-1996). Due to the importance of applying the biosolids and chemical fertilizers at the same time, it was not possible to receive biosoUds, analyze for nitrogen content, calculate chemical fertilizer application rates, and apply aU fertiUzers at the same time in 1994. Thus, the first appUcation (dormant and growing) of chemical fertilizers was not based on the actual biosolids applied, but on an average of 20 biosolids samples received at the Sierra Blanca Ranch in December 1993 and January 1994. One-half of the plots in both tobosagrass and blue grama communities were irrigated by hand in order to promote plant growth in the event of a dry year. Irrigation began near the end of June and continued through August. Irrigated plots received 1.5 cm of water approximately biweekly for a total of 7.5 cm during 5 irrigation appUcations in 1995, and a total of 6 cm during 4 irrigation applications in 1996. Nonirrigated plots received only natural precipitation. Plant height data were collected approximately every two weeks beginning the first of June and continuing into October, or until plant growth stopped. Measurements were recorded to the nearest mm, and collected from 4 plants in each plot that were randomly selected at the beginning of the growing season. Aboveground standing crop was estimated by hand clipping to a 5-cm stubble height at the end of the grov^ng season. Samples were oven-dried and weighed to the nearest O.Olg. The end of the growing season was defined as: "after plant grov^^h had stopped, or plant heights no longer increased". This normally occurred in the middle of October. 21 Belowground biomass was sampled in 48 plots per season of appUcation per plant community per year. Root samples were collected in 5 locations per plot in February at depths of 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm using a soil auger. Samples were air dried and stored in plastic bags until analysis. Roots were separated from the soil by passing the soil through a series of sieves (2 mm, 1 mm, and 35 j^m). Roots were collected from the 1- and 2-mm sieves and weighed. Soil was washedfromthe 35-|im sieve, roots werefilteredout of the excess water using #1 qualitativefilterpaper, air-dried and, weighed. Weather data were coUected by a permanently recording weather station located in the tobosagrass plant community. Weather data included air temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, evaporation, wind velocity, wind direction, and soil temperature. In addition, precipitation was monitored at the blue grama plant community. Statistical Analysis A set of 24 plots of a species was randomly assigned to a season of fertiUzer appUcation (dormant, growing). Each set of 24 plots was divided into 3 groups of 8 plots each; fertilizer type (biosoUds, urea, MAP) was randomly assigned to the 8 plots in each 1/3 of a set. The 8 plots of each fertilizer type were randomly assigned a factorial combination of 4 rates of appUcation and 2 levels of irrigation. Aboveground and belowground biomass were analyzed with an analysis of variance of a spUt split plot arrangement of a completely randomized design. The main plot factor was season of appUcation; the sub plot factor was type of fertiUzer; and the sub-sub plot factor was a factorial arrangement of rate of appUcation and irrigation 22 (Appendix 2). Normality was assessed with the Shapiro-Wilk test (Shapiro and Wilk, 1965); sphericity was assessed with Mauchley's (1940) test. Non-normal data were logtransformed prior to analysis of variance; back-transformed means were used for presentation. Fisher's LSD test was used for mean separation. Blue grama data from 1996 and tobosagrass data from 1994, 1995, and 1996 were log-transformed due to non-normal distributions and back transformed for presentation. 23 CHAPTER V RESULTS CUmatic Conditions Environmental conditions, especially rainfall, are important in understanding plant responses to biosolids and chemical fertilizers. Weather patterns for 1994 were characterized by high air temperatures and low precipitation. Mean air temperatures for June, July, and August were 29, 27, and 26C, respectively. Total rainfaU for 1994 was only 203 mm, about 67% of the long-term average (Fig. 5.1). Rain occurring between June and September totaled 117 mm, about 90% of the long-term average for this period. Mean monthly air temperatures for 1995 were lower than during the previous year. Mean air temperatures for June through September were between 21 and 25C. Total rainfaU was below the long-term average, with a total of 233 mm occurring in 1995 (Fig. 5.1). Between June and September, 137-mm precipitation was recorded with 86 mm occurring in September. Growing conditions in 1996 were much improved over 1994 and 1995. Rainfall totaled 248 mm by the end of September, and between June and September 213 mm of rain were recorded (Fig. 5.1). Mean monthly air temperatures for June, July, and August were 27, 24, and 21 C, respectively. 24 300 ati U 0) Q. E 250 E 200 c o 150 100 50 ^^ ^^ ^^ ^J>^ <,<^^* ^O-^ Month Cum. 94 -*~Cum. 95 ~^Cum. 96 Fig. 5.1 Cumulative precipitation for 1994-1996. 25 Blue Grama Plant Height Blue grama plant height in 1995 was influenced by a combmation of fertilizer type and sampUng period (P<0.0044). Plant heights were similar for all fertilizer types at the beginning of the growing season and remained similar until significant rainfall occurred in September (Fig. 5.2). Beginning 29-September plant heights in biosoUds treated plots were taUer than in urea and MAP treated plots. Terminal plant heights were sunilar for both urea and MAP treatments. Terminal plant heights were greater in biosolids treated plots than in urea treated plots. Plant heights for 1995 were also influenced by season of appUcation, rate of appUcation, irrigation, and sampUng period (P<0.0369). Plants were taUer in irrigated plots than in nonirrigated plots for both seasons of appUcation and aU rates beginning 24-July after the onset of irrigation (Table 5.1). However, foUowing dormant season appUcation m irrigated plots, plant heights were taUer in untreated plots begmning 29-September. Plants in nonirrigated plots treated with 18 Mg/ha in the dormant season were taller than plants in the control after 29-September. However, at this sampUng period, plants in nonirrigated plots that were treated with 34 Mg/ha in the dormant season were shorter than plants in untreated plots. Following growing season appUcation in irrigated plots plant heights were similar at the 0, 7, and 18 Mg/ha rates, whereas plants were shorter in the 34 Mg/ha rate beginning 29-September. Blue grama plant heights in 1996 were influenced by irrigation and sampling period (P<0.0001). Before the onset of irrigation plant heights were similar m irrigated and nonirrigated plots (Fig. 5.3). Following irrigation plant heights increased in irrigated plots 26 250 "E E 200 ^ .<^ . ^ < ^ ^ ^ '^ - ^ *Qr ,**' \ .' eJ'' A* V .O.* <y Sample Period Biosolids -B-Urea Fig. 5.2 MAP Blue grama plant height (mm) as influenced by fertilizer type and sampling period in 1995. Fertilizer means within a week CD(LSD)=9.97 27 Table 5.1 Blue grama plant height (mm) as influenced by season ofapplication, rate of appUcation, irrigation, and sampling period, 1995. Dormant Season Irrigated1 Sample Ratei (Mg/ha) Date 0 7 18 5-June 79 81 72 19-June 81 83 75 3-July 80 84 78 24-July 114 102 96 7-Aug 113 106 98 19-Aug 111 114 103 29-Sept 235 C^ 208 B 200 B 7-Oct 253 219 223 13-Oct 255 C 221 B 225 A Growing Season Irrlgatec1 Ratei (Mg/ha) 0 7 18 5-June 79 81 80 19-June 81 83 81 3-July 82 85 83 24-July 99 96 102 7-Aug 104 102 107 19-Aug 104 106 102 29-Sept 204 B 207 B 217 B 229 244 7-Oct 233 229 B 245 B 13-Oct 232 B Non- Irrigated Rate (Mg/ha) 18 0 7 72 73 73 75 73 72 71 75 74 72 78 78 80 73 79 76 82 86 132 B 142 B 144 B 148 159 167 154 B 165 C 175 C Non- Irrigated Rate (Mg/ha) 0 7 18 76 70 75 75 78 71 72 76 77 77 72 76 77 78 72 79 79 70 129 A 117A 130 A 143 145 132 150 A 139 A 144 A 34 67 70 73 99 98 97 181 A 196 196 A 34 70 72 72 75 75 76 117A 128 130 A 34 74 76 77 97 104 102 188 A 208 209 A 34 71 74 74 75 74 74 124 A 139. 144 A ^Rate means within a season, irrigation, and week followed by the same letter are not significantly different. 28 600 500 E" 400 E J 300 I 200 100 3-Jun 17-Jun 15-Jui 7-Aug 14-Aug Sample Date Irrig --Non-lrrig Fig. 5.3 Blue grama plant height (mm) as influenced by irrigation and sampling period, 1996, Irrigation means within a week CD(LSD)=13.3. 29 compared to nonirrigated plots. Plant heights in 1996 were also influenced by fertilizer type, application rate and sampling period (P<0.0001). In biosolids-treated plots, plant heights were similar at the beginning of the growing season; however, plant heights increased with each increase in rate by the end of the growing season (Table 5.2). Plants at each rate of urea were similar to heights in control plots throughout the growing season. Plants in MAP-treated plots began the grov^ng season at the same height at each application rate. By the end of the growing season, plant heights increased over the control in treated plots; however, plants were similar at the 7, 18, and 34 Mg/ha equivalent rates of MAP. Plants were taller in biosolids- and MAP-treated plots than urea treated plots. At the higher application rates, plants were taller in the biosoUds-treated plots than MAP-treated plots. Blue Grama Standing Crop, 1994 Blue grama standing crop was relatively low regardless of treatment because of dry growing conditions. Fertilizer rate and irrigation interacted in their effects on blue grama standing crop (P<0.032). Standing crop in nomrrigated plots was similar at aU rates of appUcation (Fig. 5.4). Standing crop was increased by irrigation at all rates of fertiUzer application. Under irrigated conditions standing crop was similar between the control and 7 Mg/ha rates. Standing crop was increased about 19% over the control at the 18 and 34 Mg/ha rates. There was no difference in standing crop between the 18 and 34 Mg/ha rates. 30 Table 5.2. Blue grama plant height (mm) as influenced by fertilizer type, rate of appUcation, and sampling period, 1996. Sample Date 15-July 6-Aug 292 Aa 331 Aab 377 Bbc 415 Cc 302 Aa 319 Aa 318Aa 314 Aa 424 Aa 472 Aa 531 Bb 565 Cd 453 Aa 461 Aa 457 Aa 452 Aa BiosoUds 0 Mg/ha 7 Mg/ha 18 Mg/ha 34 Mg/ha 0 Mg/ha 7 Mg/ha 18 Mg/ha 34 Mg/ha 0 Mg/ha 7 Mg/ha 18 Mg/ha 34 Mg/ha 3-June 17-June 53 A*a^ 103 Aa 109 Aa 53 Aa 121 Aa 56 Aa 128 Bb 56 Aa 52 Aa 55 Aa 53 Aa 49 Aa 54 Aa 54 Aa 52 Aa 52 Aa 105 Aa 108 Aa 107 Aa 94 Aa 14-Aug 431 Aa 479 Aa 535 Bb 569 Cb 465 Ba 470 Aa 464 Aa 458 Aa Urea MAP 105 Aa 108 Aa 106 Aa 107 ABa 310 Aa 340 Aa 341 Aba 348 Ba 449 Aa 478 Aab 477 Aab 501 Bb 455 ABa 495 Aab 484 Aab 509 Bb ^Fertilizer means vdthin a rate and week followed by the same uppercase letter are not significantly different. ^Rate means within a fertiUzer and week followed by the same lowercase letter are not significantly different. 31 (0 A MM. , , . f) 150 a p iding C OS >r -inn c D (0 i 0- 1 1 1 10 20 Rate (m.t./ha) 30 40 Irrig -H-Non-lrrig Fig. 5.4 Blue grama standing crop (kg/ha) as influenced by rate of appUcation and irrigation, 1994. Rate means within an irrigation CD (LSD)=18.4. Irrigation means within a rate CD (LSD)=18.4. 32 Blue Grama Standing Crop. 1995 Blue grama standing crop in 1995 was relatively low because of poor growing conditions. Season of appUcation and fertilizer type interacted in their effects on blue grama standing crop (P<0.0394). Season of appUcation of biosoUds or urea did not affect standing crop (Fig. 5.5). However, standing crop increased by 43% when MAP was applied in the grov^ng season compared to dormant season appUcation. Additionally, season of appUcation and irrigation interacted in their effects on standing crop (P<0.0036). Irrigation increased standing crop by 226% in plots fertilized in the growing season, but only 166% in plots fertilized in the dormant season (Fig. 5.6). There was a three-way interaction between fertilizer type, rate of appUcation, and irrigation (P<0.0025). Standing crop was increased v^th irrigation with all fertilizer types and rates of appUcation (Fig. 5.7). Standing crop in irrigated, biosoUds plots were similar to the control at all rates of appUcation. Standing crop decreased below the control at the 18 and 34 Mg/ha equivalent rates of urea and at the 34 Mg/ha equivalent rate of MAP in irrigated plots. In nonirrigated plots, there was no difference between fertilizer types at any application rate. (Aboveground biomass data for 1994 did not satisfy sphericity in experimental error [c]; thus separate error terms were estimated for each contrast involving rate comparisons fKirk, 1982]). In this analysis, there was no difference (P>0.0545) between the lowest-yielding treatment (34 Mg/ha) and highest-yielding treatment (18 Mg/ha) standing crops regardless of fertilizer type. Thus, it is reasonable to conclude that application of any fertilizer did not affect standing crop. However, the 7 Mg/ha and 34 Mg/ha rates differed (P>0.033), a result that is counterintuitive with respect 33 200 (0 "3) 160 o 100 I o. o c c 50 CO Growing Dormant Season of Application Biosolids B Urea MAP Fig. 5.5 Blue grama standing crop (kg/ha) as influenced by season of appUcation and fertilizer type, 1995. ^Season means within a fertilizer type with the same letter are not significantly different. 34 250 200 B^b^ Ab o a 150 o ro 100 ^^^^^^^m Aa Aa S 50 (0 ^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^^^HB^HH 1 Growing Dormant Season of Application Irrig a Non-lrrig Fig. 5.6 Blue grama standing crop (kg/ha) as influenced by season of appUcation and irrigation, 1995. * Season means within an irrigation with the same uppercase letter are not significantly different. ^Irrigation means within a season with the same lowercase letter are not significantlydifferent. 35 300 10 20 Rate (Mg/ha) 30 40 *- Biosolids I -- Urea I ^*- Biosolids N -- Urea N MAPI MAPN Fig. 5.7 Blue grama standing crop (kg/ha) as influenced by fertilizer type, rate of appUcation, and irrigation, 1995.1 = irrigated and N = nonirrigted. Fertilizer means within rate and irrigation CD(LSD)=53.1. Rate means within a fertilizer and irrigation CD(LSD)=50.73. Irrigation means within a fertilizer and rate CD(LSD)=50.7 36 to the lack of the difference between the 18 and 34 Mg/ha rates. These contradictory results are attributed to a 3-fold higher error mean square used in the comparison between the 18 and 34 Mg/ha rates than between the 7 and 34 Mg/ha rates. Blue Grama Standing Crop. 1996 Blue grama standing crop in 1996 was influenced by a 4-way interaction between season of appUcation, fertiUzer type, rate of appUcation, and irrigation (P<0.0483). Irrigation generally increased blue grama standing crop over nonirrigated plots (Table 5.3). Additionally, growing season appUcation appeared to have a greater influence on blue grama standing crop than dormant season appUcation in relation to the other treatments. Blue grama standing crop with dormant and growing season application of urea in irrigated plots was similar at aU appUcation rates. Under nonirrigated conditions, standing crop in urea-treated plots decreased at the 34 Mg/ha equivalent rate following dormant season appUcation compared to the 7 and 18 Mg/ha equivalent rates. Standing crop in MAP treated plots was highest at the 18 Mg/ha equivalent rate following both seasons of application and under both irrigated and nonirrigated conditions. Biosolids increased standing crop up to the 34 Mg/ha rate in both dormant and growing season appUcation under both irrigated and nonirrigated conditions. However, with growing season appUcation in nonirrigated plots, standing crop was similar at aU rates of biosoUds application. 37 Table 5.3 Blue grama standing crop (kg/ha) as influenced by season of appUcation, fertilizer type, rate ofapplication, and irrigation, 1996. Seas D D D D D D G G G G G G Pert B N NP B N NP B N NP B N NP Irrig 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 7 Mg/ha 18 Mg/ha 34 Mg/ha 0 Mg/ha 574.72 A'a' 709.68 ABa 948.17 BCa 1145.50 Cb 610.62 ABa 823.71 Ba 868.22 Ba 538.61 Aa 584.69 Aa 1017.96 Ba 1506.85 Bb 586.22 Aa 765.89 Aa 1056.42 Aba 1387.07 BCb 1897.33 Cb 823.10 Aa 854.31 Aa 915.68 Aa 1119.76 Aa 832.37 Aa 973.37 Aa 1501.18 Bb 1199.76 ABa 955.69 Aa 1056.42 Aa 1011.74 Aab 948.64 Aa 884.03 ABa 739.97 Aa 949.73 ABa 1081.81 Ba 873.54 Aa 1032.56 ABa 1532.25 Bb 1313.56 ABa 1125.89 Aa 1029.59 Aa 1652.18 Ba 2570.94 Cb 1200.86 Aa 1146.22 Aa 1430.88 Aa 1449.67 Aa 1318.97 Aa 1665.41 Abb 1999.13 Ba 1720.14 Aab ^Rate means within a season, fertilizer, and irrigation foUowed by the same upi>ercase letter are not significantly different. ^Fertilizer means within a season, rate, and irrigation followed by the same lowercase letter are not significantly different. 38 Blue grama standing crop was similar for each fertilizer type during each season of application and within each irrigation treatments at the 0 Mg/ha rate. Standing crop at the 7 Mg/ha equivalent rate of MAP follovdng growing season appUcation and irrigation was greater than both urea and biosolids. Dormant season application of MAP produced a higher standing crop than dormant season appUcation of urea under both irrigated and nomrrigated conditions at the 18 Mg/ha equivalent rate. Dormant season appUcation of biosoUds in nonirrigated plots produced standing crops similar to urea treated plots at the 18 Mg/ha rate, but under irrigated conditions standing crop in biosoUds and MAP treatments exceeded standing crop in the urea treatment. Growing season appUcation of MAP at the 18 Mg/ha equivalent rate under nonirrigated conditions increased standing crop over urea-treated plants. BiosoUds produced the highest standing crop at the 34 Mg/ha rate in dormant season application under both irrigated and nonirrigated conditions, and in growing season application under irrigated conditions. However, in plots treated during the growing season, standing crop was similar amoung all fertilizers at the 34 Mg/ha rate in nonirrigated plots. Blue Grama Root Biomass, 1995 Blue grama root biomass in the A-horizon (0-10 cm) was influenced by irrigation (P<0.0087) and an interaction between fertilizer type and rate of appUcation (P<0.024). Root biomass was greater in nonirrigated plots than irrigated plots (Fig. 5.8). In biosoUdstreated plots root biomass was mcreased over the control at the 7 Mg/ha rate (Fig. 5.9). Urea also increased root biomass over the 0 and 34 Mg/ha equivalent rates at the 7 Mg/ha 39 ^ 5 '5 0) B o 4 A^ 2 0) E o CD ^ O a: . Irrig Irrigation Non-lrrig o Fig. 5.8 Blue grama root biomass (A-horizon) as a function of irrigation, 1995. ^Irrigation means with the same letter are not significantly different. 40 7 18 34 Rate (Mg/ha) Biosolids -*- Urea - ^ MAP Fig. 5.9 Blue grama root biomass (A-horizon) as a function of fertilizer type and rate of appUcation, 1995. Rate means within a fertilizer CD (LSD)=1.9. Fertilizer means with in a rate CD (LSD)=2.1. 41 equivalent rate. MAP did not increase root biomass over the control; however, root biomass was greater in the 34 Mg/ha equivalent rate than the 7 and 18 Mg/ha equivalent rates. Blue grama root biomass in the B-horizon (10-20 cm) was influenced by an interaction between season of appUcation and fertilizer type (P<0.0459). FoUowing dormant season application, both urea and MAP produced greater root biomass than biosoUds (Fig. 5.10). Following growing season appUcation, urea produced greater root biomass than MAP; root production was similar in plots treated with biosoUds and urea, and biosolids and MAP. Tobosagrass Plant Height Tobosagrass plant heights in 1995 were influenced by a combination of season of appUcation, rate of appUcation, and sample period (P<0.0012). Tobosagrass plant heights were similar for all rates until thefinalsampUng period (Table 5.4). Plant height increased over the control in the 7 and 34 Mg/ha rates at week 7 following dormant season appUcation. Plant heights remained similar in plots that received growing season application of fertilizers. Tobosagrass plant heights in 1996 were influenced by fertilizer type, rate of appUcation, and sampling period (P<0.0001). Plant heights increased over the control at all biosoUds rates by the end of the growing season (Table 5.5). Plants were taUer at the higher rates of biosolids than at the higher rates of chemical fertilizers. Plant heights in urea-treated plots were similar to the control at all application rates. Plant heights in 42 Dormant Growing Season of Application Biosolids H Urea m MAP Fig. 5.10 Blue grama root biomass (B-horizon) as a function of season ofapplication and fertilizer type, 1995. ^Fertilizer means within a season with the same letter are not significantly different. 43 C O .c * C3) S t CO CO CO O ^ Cvl CO 00 oo a> C > o> c3) CM 7 s ii C O ason x= "B) ^ O 00 ( O T- CJ 3 SB 00 oo 00> (3> <3> CO 1 a (/> C 00 D C O o> c C O O g 5 ^ ^ i . /-n CO "^ O s^ *^ " ^ o 0) s ^JS ? o o 00 r*s o ^ c o ^ h- o < CO CO in 55 "o) oo oo 00 cx> (3) o> 0> g I .8 O C O s ^ B> CO C O QQ < o m CM CO r*. >* hOO oo oo oo 00 00 1CM a M 0) r: c hr- in o B> T- 00 in 00 oo h- "O oo 00 o S oo oo *i C O CM r cD C * i>~ oo T- CO m :* i_ o ^ r>^ oo r^ 00 oo 00 t>i CM Q S E C O :C G o h- C D x: w^ CO S o O ) (P r. -^ o CO CO r- CO r^ 00 oo 00 00 00 o) CO 0) CD >> > CO C3) tS . to 5.Q C O i = =5 J O 7 7 ^ 4 ri d> 1^ m C3) ^' ^ E ' ii: (Ji Table 5.5 Tobosagrass plant height (mm) as afiinctionof fertiUzer type, rate of appUcation and sampUng period, 1996. Fertilizer Biosolids Rate (Mg/ha) 0 7 18 34 0 7 18 34 0 7 18 34 Sample Date 15-Jul>' 6-Aug 154 186 A^a^ 169 214 Ba 181 235 BCa 195 244 Cb 168 182 185 162 176 174 167 158 209 Aab 231 Aa 222 Aa 205 Aa 235 Bb 225 Ba 235 Ba 199 Aa 3-June 72 74 76 73 86 76 79 73 79 79 78 78 17-June 100 109 116 127 110 114 114 104 113 110 105 101 14-Aug 184 217 233 245 207 232 218 208 238 223 229 196 27-Sep 206 Aa 245 Bb 261 BCb 275 Cb 232 Aa 257 Aa 244 Aa 235 Aa 258 Bb 248 Bab 251 Bb 218 Aa Urea MAP ^Rate means within a fertiUzer and week foUowed by the same uppercase letter are not significantly different. Fertilizer means within a rate and week followed by the same lowercase letter are not significantly different. 45 MAP-treated plots were similar to the control at the lower appUcation rates, but decreased below the control at the 34 Mg/ha equivalent rate. Tobosagrass Standing Crop. 1994 and 1995 Tobosagrass standing crop was relatively low in 1994 because of poor growing conditions. Season of appUcation and hrigation interacted in their effects on 1994 tobosagrass standing crop (P<0.0051). Growing-season appUcation of fertilizers produced a higher standing crop than dormant season appUcation in both irrigated and nonirrigated plots (Fig. 5.11). Irrigation increased standing crop after both seasons ofapplication; however, irrigation increased standing crop by 63.2% following growing season appUcation and by 123.9% foUowing dormant season appUcation. Tobosagrass standing crop was relatively low in 1995 because of poor growing conditions. Tobosagrass standing crop in 1995 was only influenced by irrigation (P<0.0001). Irrigation increased standing crop by 20.5% over nonirrigated conditions (Fig. 5.12). Tobosagrass Standing Crop. 1996 Fertilizer type and rate interacted in their effects on standing crop (P<0.0001). Standing crops in MAP-treated plots were similar at the 0, 7, and 18 Mg/ha equivalent rates, and decreased at the 34 Mg/ha equivalent rate (Table 5.6). Standing crop was similar at the 0, 18, and 34 Mg/ha equivalent rates of urea; urea increased standing crop over the other rates at the 7 Mg/ha equivalent rate. Standing crop in biosoUds-treated 46 250 CO 200 150 6 a o c 100 50 T5 C (0 jS O) Growing Dormant Season of Application Irrig B Non-lrrig Fig. 5.11 Tobosagrass standing crop (kg/ha) as influenced by season ofapplication and irrigation, 1994. ^Season means wdthin an irrigation with the same uppercase letter are not significantly different. Irrigation means within a season with the same lowercase letter are not significantly different. 47 I 150 ^ 100 Irrig Non-lrrig Fig. 5.12 Tobosagrass standing crop (kg/ha) as influenced by irrigation, 1995. ^Irrigation means with the same letter are not significantly different. 48 Table 5.6 Tobosagrass standing crop (kg/ha) as influenced by fertilizer type and rate of appUcation, 1996. Rate (Mg/ha) 7 18 640.00 A 865.69B 806.21B 631.61AB 746.01B 662.20B FertiUzer BiosoUds Urea MAP 0 586.88A^ 627.96AB 710.83B 34 1166.60C 600.21A 472.20A ^Rate means within a fertilizer type followed by the same letter are not significantly different 49 plots was similar at 0 and 7 Mg/ha. Standing crop was increased by 18 Mg/ha and also increased by 34 Mg/ha of biosolids. Tobosagrass Root Biomass. 1995 Tobosagrass root biomass in the A-horizon (0-10 cm) was influenced by irrigation (P<0.0191). Root biomass was greater in nonirrigated plots than irrigated plots (Fig. 5.13). Tobosagrass root biomass in the A-horizon was also influenced by an interaction between season of appUcation, fertilizer type, and rate ofapplication (P<0.0434). FoUowing dormant season of appUcation, biosoUds produced higher root biomass than urea or MAP at most appUcation rates (Table 5.7). However, foUowing growing season appUcation, MAP produced higher root biomass than biosoUds at most application rates, Tobosagrass root biomass in the B-horizon (10-20 cm) was mfluenced by an interaction between fertiUzer type and irrigation (P<0.0174). Root biomass was similar under irrigated and nonirrigated conditions in biosoUds- and MAP-treated plots (Fig. 5.14). However, root biomass was greater in urea treated plots under nonirrigated conditions than urigated conditions. Under nonirrigated conditions, root biomass was similar between urea and MAP treatments, but urea-treated plots had a higher root biomass than biosoUds-treated plots. Under irrigated conditions, root biomass was similar between MAP and biosoUds treatments, but MAP-treated plots had a higher standing crop than urea-treated plots. 50 o *o U) A* 3 (0 E o 2 tn o o 1 tx: Irrig Non-lrrig Fig. 5.13 Tobosagrass root biomass (A-horizon) as influenced by irrigation. ^Irrigation means with the same letter are not significantly different. 51 Table^ 5.7 Tobosagrass root biomass in the A-horizon (g/lOOg of soil) as influenced by season ofapplication, fertilizer type, and rate ofapplication. Rate (Mg/ha) 0 7 18 34 Dormant Season Biosolids Urea MAP 11.70 Be 4.74 Aa 5.92 Ab 5.71 Bb 5.26 Bab 4.51 Aa 5.89 Aa 5.47 Ba 8.81 Bb 6.00 Ab 5.21 Aa 5.87 Aab Growing Season MAP Urea 6.00 Ab 6.01 Bb 6.14 Be 4.31 Ab 5.55 Ab 4.62 Aa 6.95 Be 4.86 Aa BiosoUds 4.80 Aa 3.53 Aa 7.14 Be 5.86 Ab Season means within a fertilizer and rate followed by the same uppercase letter are not significantly different. Rate means within a fertilizer and season foUowed by the same lowercase letter are not significantly different. 52 o (0 *o 2 (0 C O E o o o a: irrig Irrigation Biosolids m Urea D MAP Non-lrrig Fig. 5.14 Tobosagrass root biomass (B-horizon) as influenced by fertilizer type and irrigation. ^Fertilizer means within an irrigation with the same uppercase letters are not significantly different. Irrigation means with in a fertilizer with the same lowercase letters are not significantly different. 53 CHAPTER VI DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS The following discussion and conclusions are based on the assumption that the EPA formulas for calculating plant avaUable nitrogen in biosolids are correct and applicable to the research site and the biosoUds used in this study. With this assumption, we have, in fact, matched plant available nitrogen among aU fertilizers, except in the first year where an estimate of the biosolids nitrogen content was used due to time constraints. Blue Grama Plant Height In 1995, plant height decreased at the higher application rates of chemical fertilizers. However, averaged across rate of appUcation, terminal plant heights were greater in biosolids-treated plots than in urea- or MAP-treated plots. The decrease in plant height at higher application rates may be attributable to a "burning effect" during the dry growing conditions of 1995, an effect that was more pronounced with the chemical fertilizers than with biosoUds. In 1996, plant height was not affected by urea at any appUcation rate; however, the higher appUcation rates of biosoUds and MAP increased plant heights. Evidently, the addition of nitrogen alone was ineffective in increasing plant height; however, added nitrogen with phosphorus (MAP) or added nitrogen with either the mulching benefits or micronutrients provided by biosolids, can increase plant height. 54 Blue Grama Standing Crop Previous research has indicated that dormant season appUcation of biosolids increases tobosagrass and alkaU sacaton standing crop more than growing season appUcation in thefirstgrowing season after appUcation (Benton and Wester, in press). These resuhs were not found for blue grama in this study. Benton and Wester (in press) reported precipitation above the long-term average, with over 100-mm of precipitation in July 1993. However, precipitation in 1994 was below the long-term average. When grovdng conditions are poor, application of biosolids during normal growth periods may be more effective than appUcation during dormancy; however, v^dth good to exceUent growing conditions application of biosolids before plant growth commences may be more effective. Additionally, species-specific differences are likely (Fresquez et al., 1990b). Irrigation increased standing crop each year of this study. During thefirstyear of this study (1994), irrigation was needed to elicit a response to rate of fertUizer application. With the addition of supplemental water, aU three fertiUzer types increased standing crop at the higher appUcation rates. Since all fertilizers produced similar standing crops, it appears that under these conditions (first-year appUcation in a dry year), the primary influence of biosoUds on blue grama was nutritional.. During the second year of this study (1995) growing conditions were also poor with below normal precipitation. Irrigation increased standing crop over nonirrigated plots, and under nonirrigated conditions, standing crop was not increased over the control for any fertilizer treatment. It is possible that, under the dry growing conditions of 1995, adding water induced a burning effect at the higher rates of urea and MAP. The "burning" 55 effect of the chemical fertiUzers possibly involves an osmotic response, where the additional nutrients provided by the fertilizers reduces soil water potential., which decreases the amount of plant available water. In addition, increases of one or two nutrients may induce, or magnify, deficiencies of other macro- or micro-nutrients. For example, phosphorus and zinc are two elements that are highly correlated. It is common in agricultural settings for increases in phosphorus (which was provided in MAP and biosoUds treatments, but not in the urea treatment) to magnify, or induce, zinc deficiencies. Zinc deficiencies may in turn decrease plant production (Tisdale et al, 1993). Although chemical fertilizers may decrease plant production at high rates without sufficient water, biosoUds did not reduce grass production in dry years, with or without irrigation. This suggests that beginning in the second year after biosoUds appUcation, the potential mulching effect associated with biosoUds that increases plant available water becomes mcreasingly important and may offset the "burning" effect of the additional nutirents. Season of appUcation was important during the second and third years of this study. In the second year, MAP was most effective when appUed during the grov^ng season. Additionally, irrigation was most effective follovsdng growing season appUcation of fertilizers. In the third year, standing crop was higher when fertiUzers were appUed during the growing season. These resuhs support Workman and McCormick (1977) and Stroehlein et al., (1968), who found growing season application of fertilizers to be most effective. Phosphorus is only available for a short period of time before it is bound in the soil (with calcium and magnesium) to form insoluble compounds. Because of the short 56 period of time phosphorus is available for plant use, appUcation during active growing periods is most effective. In contrast, nitrogen is a mobile element in the soil (Tisdale et al., 1993). Nitrogen, especially in the form of nitrates, may leach out of the rooting zone before plant uptake can occur if applied during the dormant season. Thus, chemical fertilizers are more effective when appUed during the growing season. With favorable growing conditions, such as 1996, irrigation increased standing crop. Chemical fertilizers (MAP) increased blue grama production in 1996. However, m many cases the highest standing crop did not occur at the highest appUcation rate, and in many cases standing crop at the 34 Mg/ha equivalent rate (highest) was less than the highest standing crop. The reduction in standing crop may be explained by Liebig's and MitscherUch's laws. Liebig's law of the minimum and MitscherUch's law both state that plant growth is most affected by the nutrient available in the most limiting amount. Thus, if nitrogen is not the limiting factor, increases in nitrogen will not increase plant production. For example, Klock et al. (1975) found that urea appUed at 50, 100, and 200 kg/ha did not increase orchardgrass production over the control. However, when sulfur and urea were appUed together, all three rates of urea increased plant growth. In some cases, it appears that Liebig's law, MitscherUch's law, and the results of Klock et al. (1975) may be used to interpret the blue grama standing crop resuhs in 1996. For example, in irrigated plots that were treated in the growing season, standing crop was similar or decreased beyond the 18 Mg/ha equivalent rate of chemical fertilizers, but continued to increase at the 34 Mg/ha rate of biosoUds. This suggests that at the 34 Mg/ha equivalent rate of chemical fertilizers, nitrogen and phosphorus are no longer limiting plant 57 growth. Since biosolids continued to increase blue grama standing crop, it appears that either plant available water and/or micronutrients may have become the limiting factors in blue grama plant growth. Biosolids may increase plant available water through mulching, and may also have provided micronutrients which accounts for the increase in standing crop in the biosoUds treatment while standing crop m the chemical fertilizer treatment declined. Chemical fertilizers (MAP) produced higher standing crops than biosolids at the lower appUcation rates in some cases during the 1996 growing season (such as 7 Mg/ha appUed during the dormant growing season appUcation under irrigated conditions). In these cases, it appears that the additional phosphorus provided by the MAP treatment may have been more beneficial than either the physical effects or micronutrients provided by biosolids. However, at the higher appUcation rates, biosoUds produced higher standing crop than the chemical fertiUzers. In these cases, the additional benefits of biosoUds presumably are more beneficial than the additional phosphorus in the MAP treatment. Blue Grama Root Biomass Blue grama root production in the A-horizon was greater under nonirrigated conditions than irrigated conditions. These resuhs contradict Kramer and Boyer (1995) who stated that as soil water decreases, root grov^h also decreases. Plants have a variety of defense mechanisms which help reduce water loss, especially in dry environments. One such defense mechanism is for roots to become suberized to reduce water loss from the roots into the soil. As roots become suberized, they need to continually grow and elongate 58 so that they can continue to take up water and nutrients. Apparently, under irrigated conditions (or with sufficient soil water) roots do not need to become suberized to prevent water loss, and thus have reduced need for elongation. However, under nonirrigated conditions roots tend to become suberized to decrease water loss; and with some soil water available, root growth and elongation will continue so that roots will not become suberized to the tip and die. With continued root grovs^h, root biomass is greater in nonirrigated plots than irrigated plots. There are two schools of thought as to how the addition of nutrients affect root growth. Chapin (1987) hypothesized that root growth is reduced with the addition of nutrients, because the additional nutrients are allocated to Aboveground growth since the roots do not need to elongate and search for nutrients. Tisdale et al. (1993) stated that additional nutrients stimulate both above and belowground grov^h. Blue grama root production was only increased over the control at the 7 Mg/ha rates of biosolids and urea. Since root production did not increase over the control at the higher application rates, these data support Chapin's hypothesis, in that, root production was not mcreased . However, with a small increase in nutrients, such as 7 Mg/ha of biosoUds or urea, root growth is stimulated to find additional nutrients to keep pace mth the increased needs of the plant. Tobosagrass Plant Height Tobosagrass terminal plant heights were greater at 7 and 34 Mg/ha rates than the control follovsdng dormant season appUcation and similar to the control following grov^ng season application. Due to the poor growing conditions in 1995, growing season 59 application of fertilizers was ineffective. However when fertUizers were applied during the dormant season, plants had the ability to utUize the additional nutrients v^th early rainfall and late snowfall events. Tobosagrass plant heights in 1996 were influenced by fertiUzer type and rate of appUcation. Biosolids increased tobosagrass plant height more than the chemical fertiUzers. Additionally, biosolids increased plant heights over the control at all rates beginning 15-July. This indicates that biosoUds appUed at 7 Mg/ha in 1994 continued to stimulate tobosagrass growth in 1996. Tobosagrass Standing Crop Tobosagrass resuhs were complicated because of factors involving plot selection and location. For example, a new road/fire break was constructed immediately south of the tobosagrass research site after the plots were selected which ahered the natural hydrology of the study site. It is possible that this disturbance increased overland flow or run-on water to the sets of plots located relatively close to this new road. Additionally, this study was located around another, smaller study. The smaller study had a small fu-ebreak around it, which possible reduced over-land flow to plots on the down slope side. In addition, several sets of plots appear to have been partially, or completely, located m sites that appeared to naturally collect more water than other sites. With this variation in the hydrology of the area, the effects of the different treatments may have been weakened. Season of appUcation of fertilizers was important in thefirstyear of the study. All fertilizers yielded higher standing crops when applied in the growing season. These resuhs, 60 for the chemical fertilizers, are similar to previous research by Workman and McCormick (1977) and Stroehein et al., (1968). However, previous research by Benton and Wester (in press) found that dormant season appUcation was more effective than growing season application in thefirstgrowing season. In this study, growmg season application of biosolids was more effective than dormant season appUcaiton. Environmental factors, mamly precipitation, may play an important role in determining the best season of appUcation for biosolids. Benton and Wester (in press) reported precipitation in excess of the long-term average, with over 100-mm of precipitation in July 1993. However, precipitation in 1994 was less than the long-term average. When growing conditions are poor, appUcation of biosolids during normal plant growth periods may be more effective than appUcation during dormancy; however, with during good to exceUent growing conditions appUcation of biosoUds before plant growth commences may be more effective. Tobosagrass standing crop in 1995 was only influenced by irrigation. The increase in standing crop due to irrigation shows the importance of water in plant production in this area. Ludwig et al, (1989) stated that the Chihuahuan desert is a "water-Umited, nitrogenregulated" envh-onment. This hypothesis impUes that adding supplemental water would not have a major influence on plant growth unless nitrogen was also added. However, tobosagrass, resuhs in 1995 showed that irrigation increased standing crop over nonirrigated plots, even when no fertilizer was added. Additionally, in 1996 standmg crop was not increased over the control with the application of MAP, and was only increased over the control at the 7 Mg/ha equivalent rate of urea, with or without the addition of supplemental water. Resuhs from both 1995 and 1996 do not support the hypothesis by 61 Ludwig et al, (1989). Although chemical fertilizers were relatively ineffective, biosolids increased standing crop. Since standing crop was higher in biosoUds-treated plots, factors other than macronutrients (N and P) were responsible for the increase. One such factor is additional micronutrients in relation to macronutrients. Another factor in increasing standing crop is the physical effect of the biosoUds. BiosoUds may have acted as a mulch that increased plant available water which, with the additional nitrogen and phosphorus, increased tobosagrass standing crop. Tobosagrass Root Biomass Tobosagrass root biomass in the A-horizon was greater under nonirrigated conditions than irrigated conditions. Apparently, under nonirrigated conditions tobosagrass roots tend to become suberized to reduce water losses. In order to maintain a viable root system, root elongation and growth must occur, resulting in increased root biomass. However, m irrigated plots, water loss out from the root system is not an unportant factor, and root growth and elongation is less important, resuhing in lower root biomass. Root biomass in the B-horizon was influenced by both irrigation and fertiUzer type. Under nonirrigated conditions urea-treated plots had the highest root biomass, whereas in irrigated plots the urea treatment had the lowest biomass. It is possible that under irrigated conditions (sufficient available water), root biomass may respond in the same manner as Aboveground standmg crop, where increases in nitrogen may induce deficiencies in other 62 elements, such as phosphorus, which may lead to decreased root biomass compared to the MAP treatment. Plant Response Plants are composed of above and belowground parts that work together to sustain life. Although above and belowground portions of plants work together, they respond differently to aherations in environmental factors (Aguilar and Lofton, 1994). During the 1995 growing season, Aboveground growth of blue grama decreased below the control at the higher application rates of chemical fertilizers. However, root growth did not decrease below the control at these rates. The decrease in standing crop was attributed to the fertilizers "burning" the grass. Additionally, both blue grama and tobosagrass standing crop increased with the addition of supplemental water. For both species, root biomass was greater in nonirrigated plots. Annual plants are dependent on seed production and germination for survival.. To ensure seed production, annual plants may sacrifice some root growth and development to provide nutrients to the Aboveground portion of the plant. However, perennial plants depend upon a strong root system to help the plant survive from year to year. In case of perennial plants, Aboveground grovy^h may be sacrificed (decreased) to ensure more, heahhier roots for the next year (Brown, 1995). This may explain why blue grama standing crop decreased at the higher rates of chemical fertiUzer appUcation, while root biomass did not decrease; it may also explain why both blue grama and tobosagrass root biomass was greater in nonirrigated plots than irrigated. 63 Tobosagrass root biomass in the A-horizon responded to season of fertilizer application in a similar manner to Aboveground biomass response. Aboveground growth was increased more by MAP foUov^ng growing season appUcation than dormant season appUcation. This was attributed to the additional nutrients being avaUable for plant use during active growth periods. SimUarly, tobosagrass root biomass increased more in MAP-treated plots appUed in the grov^ng season than other fertilizers (biosoUds). Conclusions One objective of this research was to determine whether the impact of biosolids on plant growth can be attribuated to nutritional effects \da mcreased nitrogen and phosphorus, or to physical via mulching. During thefirstyear, chemical fertUizers and biosoUds had similar effects on both tobosagrass and blue grama plant production. This indicates that the primary mfluence of biosoUds is nutritional.. However, during the second and third after appUcation on blue grama and the third year after appUcation on tobosagrass, biosolids had a greater influence on plant production than did the chemical fertUizers, even though all three fertUizers provided the same amount of plant available nitrogen. Thus, in addition to increasing nitrogen and phosphorus, biosoUds also enhance soil moisture availabUity through mulching. Biosolids also provide micronutrients essential for plant growth. Many researchers have found that chemical fertilizers can increase standing crop on native range, but this is not always an economical practice. For example, for best resuhs urea should be incorporated into the soil, which is not feasible on native rangeland. 64 However, biosoUds may be a feasible substitute for chemical fertilizers. MeneUke et al, (1994) found that no-till management of biosoUds was more efficient than conventional tUl management on com production. In this research, biosolids also increased blue grama growth without incorporation in 1994 and 1996, and tobosagrass grov^h m 1996. It is also unportant to remember that in this study biosoUds were applied one time only (1994) whereas chemical fertilizers were appUed for three consecutive years. During 1996 the highest application rate of MAP increased blue grama standing crop over the control, but only by approximately 500 kg/ha. However, after an equivalent rate of biosoUds (on a nitrogen basis), standing crop was increased over the control by 1000 kg/ha. Similarly, tobosagrass production after three consecutive appUcations of chemical fertilizers did not increase above the control in the MAP treatment, and only mcreased above the control at the 7 Mg/ha rate of urea by 28.4%. However, tobosagrass production increased by 98.7% over the control in the third growing season after biosoUds application. These resuhs show a strong carry-over effect that can occur following biosoUds appUcation. Burkhardt et al, (1993) suggested that biosoUds can not be efficiently appUed to western range because of unpredictable rainfall patterns, and if rain is not present immediately foUowing biosolids appUcation no benefit can be obtained. However, in semiarid grassland vegetation, biosoUds can be beneficial and increase standing crop at least three years post-appUcation. In addition to being an environmentally sound recycling practice, biosolids appUcation may be an economically feasible range improvement technique. 65 LITERATURE CITED Aitken, M. N. 1995. Long term effects of sewage sludge on grassland. SoU Use and Manage. 11:145-154. Aguilar, R., and S. R. Loftm,. 1994. Sewage sludge appUcation in semiarid grasslands; effects on vegetation and water quality. New Mexico Water Resource Institute. WRRI Report No.285. Las Cruces, N.M., 75 pp. Allen, B. L. 1993. 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C. 69 APPENDIX A FERTILZER APPLICATION RATE CALCULATIONS 70 CALCULATION OF PLANT AVAILABLE NITROGEN FROM BIOSOLIDS APPLICATION Np = B [(NO3) + Kv (NH4) + F (No)] (10) where: Np B NO3 Kv = plant available nitrogen from current years biosolids application (kg/ha) = biosoUds rate (dry mt/ha) = nitrate nitrogen (%) in biosolids (1% = 1,0) = Volatization factor 0,5 for surface applied Uquid biosolids 1.0 for incorporated liquid biosoUds 1.0 for dewatered biosolids appUed in any manner NH4 F = Ammonia nitrogen (%) (2% = 2.0) = MineraUzation factor for organic nitrogen in biosoUds year 1 = 20 % (20% = 0.2) year 2 =10% (10%-0.1) year 3= 5% (5% = 0.5) No = Organic nitrogen in biosoUds (1% = 1.0) 71 DORMANT SEASON FERTILIZER APPLICATION CALCULATIONS YEARl Plant Available Nitrogen 3 tons/ac 3 tons/ac = 6.72828 m.t./ha Np=6.72828[.01+.5(,815)+.2(2.942)]10 Np=67.437550044 kg/ha plant available nitrogen Np=6.7437 g/m2 8 tons/ac 8 tons/ac = 17.94208 m.t./ha Np=17.94208[.01+.5(.815)+.2(2.942)]10 Np= 179.83347 kg/ha plant avaUable nitrogen Np=l7.983347 g/m2 15 tons/ac 15 tons/ac = 33.6413 m.t./ha Np=33.6413[.01+.5(.815)+.2(2.942)]10 Np=337.18775 kg/ha plant available nitrogen Np=33.718775 g/m2 Amount of Urea (42-0-0) 3 tons/ac 6.7437/0.42 = 16.05655963 g/m^ 8 tons/ac 17.983347/0.42 = 42.81749286 g/m^ 15 tons/ac 33.718775/0.42 = 80.28279762 g/m^ Amount of MAP (11-52-0) 3 tons/ac 6.7437/0.11 =61.30636364 g/m2 61.30636364(0.4364)(0.52) = 13.91213049 g/nfl of P provided by MAP 8 tons/ac 17.983347/0.11 = 163.4849727 g/m^ 72 163.4849727(0.4364)(0.52) = 37.09931788 g/m2 of P provided by MAP 15 tons/ac 33,718775/0.11 =306.5343182 g/m2 306.5343182(0.4364)(0.52) = 69.5612176 g/m^ of P provided by MAP YEAR 2 Plant Available Nitrogen 3 tons/ac 672.828 g/m2 of biosolids at 2.942% organic N (No)= 19.79459976 g/m^ of No 20% of No mineralized in year 1 = 3.958919952 g/m^ Begin year 2 with 15.83567981 g/m^ of No (Total N) 10% of No mineralized in year 2 = 1.583567981 g/m2 (AvaUable N) 8 tons/ac 179.4208 g/m2 of biosoUds at 2,942% organic N (No)= 52.78559936 g/m2 of No 20% of No mineralized in year 1 = 10.55711907 g/m^ Begin year 2 with 42.22847949 g/m^ of No (Total N) 10% of No mineralized in year 2 = 4.22847949 g/m^ (Available N) 15 tons/ac 3364.14 g/m2 of biosolids at 2.942% organic N (No)= 98.9729988 g/m^ of No 20% of No mineralized in year 1 = 19.79459976 g/m^ Begm year 2 with 79.17839904 g/m^ of No (Total N) 10% of No mineralized in year 2 = 7.917839904 g/m^ (Available N) Amount of Urea (42-0-0) 3 tons/ac 1.583567987/0.42 = 3.770399954 g/m^ 8 tons/ac 4.22847949/0.42 = 10.05439988 g/m^ 15 tons/ac 7.91839904/0.42 = 18,85199977 g/m2 Amount of MAP 01-52-0) 3 tons/ac 1,583567981/0,11 = 14.39607255 g/m^ 73 14.39607255(0.4364)(0.52) = 3.266871953 g/m^ of P provided by MAP 8 tons/ac 4.22847949/0.11 = 38.38952681 g/m^ 38.38952681(0.4364)(0.52) = 8.711658539 g/m^ of P provided by MAP 15 tons/ac 7.91839904/0.11 = 71.98544582 g/m2 71.98544582(0.4364)(0.52) = 16.33551325 g/m^ of P provided by MAP YEAR 3 Plant Available Nitrogen 3 tons/ac 672.828 g/m2 of biosolids at 2.942% organic N (No)= 19.79459976 g/m^ of No 20% of No mineralized in year 1 = 3.958919952 g/m^ Begin year 2 with 15,83567981 g/m^ of No (Total N) 10% of No mineralized in year 2 = 1.583567981 g/m^ (Available N) Begin year 3 with 14.25211183 g/m2 of No (Total N) 5% of No mineralized in year 3 = 0.712605591 g/m^ (Available N) 8 tons/ac 179.4208 g/m2 of biosolids at 2.942% organic N (No)= 52.78559936 g/m^ of No 20% of No mineralized in year 1 = 10.55711907 g/nfl Begin year 2 with 42.22847949 g/m2 of No (Total N) 10% of No mineralized in year 2 = 4.22847949 g/nfi (Available N) Begin year 3 wrth 38,00563154 g/m^ of No (Total N) 5% of No mineraUzed in year 3 = 1.900281577 g/rrfl (Available N) 15 tons/ac 3364.14 g/m2 of biosolids at 2.942% organic N (No)= 98.9729988 g/m^ of No 20% of No mineralized in year 1 = 19.79459976 g/m^ Begin year 2 v^th 79.17839904 g/nfi of No (Total N) 10% of No mineralized m year 2 = 7.917839904 g/nfi (AvaUable N) Begin year 3 with 71.12661505 g/m^ of No (Total N) 5% of No mineralized in year 3 = 3.563307525 g/m^ (Available N) Amount of Urea (42-0-0) 3 tons/ac 0.712605591/0.42= 1.696679979 g/m2 74 8 tons/ac 1.900281577/0.42 = 4.524479945 g/m^ 15 tons/ac 3.563307525/0,42 = 8.484065535 g/m^ Amount of MAP (11-52-0) 3 tons/ac 0.712605591/0.11 = 6.478232645 g/m^ 6.478232645(0.4364)(0.52) = 1.470092378 g/m2 of P provided by MAP 8 tons/ac 1.900281577/0.11 = 17.27528706 g/m^ 17.27528706(0.4364)(0.52) = 3.920246343 g/m^ of P provided by MAP 15 tons/ac 3.563307525/0.11 = 32.39370477 g/m^ 32.39370477(0.4364)(0.52) = 7.351038637 g/m^ of P provided by MAP GROWING SEASON FERTILIZER APPLICATION CALCULATIONS YEARl Plant AvaUable Nitrogen 3 tons/ac 3 tons/ac = 6.72828 m.t./ha Np=6.72828[.01+.5(.7701788)+.2(2.8418212)]10 Np=64.82385857 kg/ha plant available nitrogen Np=6.482385857g/m2 8 tons/ac 8 tons/ac = 17.94208 m.t./ha Np=17.94208[.01+.5(.7701788)+.2(2.8418212)]10 Np=l72.8636229 kg/ha plant available nitrogen Np=l 7.28636229 g/m2 15 tons/ac 15 tons/ac = 33.6413 m.t./ha 75 Np=33.6413[.01+.5(.7701788)+.2(2.8418212)]10 Np=324.1183294 kg/ha plant avaUable nitrogen Np=32.41183294 g/m2 Amount of Urea (42-0-0) 3 tons/ac 6.48238587/0.42 = 15.43425207 g/m^ 8 tons/ac 17.28636229/0.42 - 41.15800545 g/m^ 15 tons/ac 32.41183294/0.42 = 77.17103081 g/m^ Amount of MAP (11-52-0) 3 tons/ac 6.48238587/0.11 = 58.93078064 g/m^ 58,93078064(0.4364)(0.52) = 13.37304419 g/m^ of P provided by MAP 8 tons/ac 17.28636229/0.11 = 157.1487481 g/m^ 157.1487481(0.4364)(0.52) = 35.66145111 g/m^ of P provided by MAP 15 tons/ac 32.41183294/0.11 = 294.6530267 g/m^ 294.6530267(0.4364)(0.52) = 66.86502205 g/m^ of P provided by MAP YEAR 2 Plant AvaUable Nkrogen 3 tons/ac 672.828 g/m2 of biosolids at 2.8418212% organic N (No)= 19.12056874 g/m^ of No 20% of No mineralized in year 1 = 3.824113748 g/m^ Begin year 2 with 15.29645499 g/m^ of No (Total N) 10% of No mineralized in year 2 = 1.529645499 g/m^ (Available N) 8 tons/ac 179.4208 g/m2 of biosolids at 2,8418212% organic N (No)= 50.98818332 g/m^ of No 20% of No mineralized in year 1 = 10.19763666 g/m^ 76 Begin year 2 wdth 40,79054665 g/m^ of No (Total N) 10% of No mineralized in year 2 = 4.079054665 g/m^ (Available N) 15 tons/ac 3364.14 g/m2 of biosolids at 2.8418212% organic N (No)= 95.82272963 g/m^ of No 20% of No mineralized in year 1 = 19.16454593 g/m^ Begin year 2 with 76.65818371 g/m^ of No (Total N) 10% of No mmeralized in year 2 = 7.665818371 g/m^ (Available N) Amount of Urea (42-0-0) 3 tons/ac 1.529645499/0.42 = 3.642013094 g/m^ 8 tons/ac 4.079054665/0.42 = 9.712034917 g/m^ 15 tons/ac 7.665818371/0.42 = 18.2519485 g/m^ Amount of MAP (11-52-0) 3 tons/ac 1.529645499/0.11 = 13.90587264 g/m^ 13.90587264(0.4364)(0.52) = 3.155631866 g/m^ of P provided by MAP 8 tons/ac 4.079054665/0.11 =37.08231514 g/m2 37.08231514(0.4364)(0.52) = 8.415015609 g/m^ of P provided by MAP 15 tons/ac 7.665818371/0.11 = 69.68925792 g/m^ 69.68925792(0.4364)(0.52) = 15.81444392 g/m^ of P provided by MAP YEAR 3 Plant AvaUable Nitrogen 3 tons/ac 672.828 g/m2 of biosolids at 2.8418212% organic N (No)= 19.12056874 g/m^ of No 20% of No mineralized in year 1 = 3.824113749 g/m^ Begin year 2 wdth 15.29645499 g/m2 of No (Total N) 77 10% of No mineralized in year 2 = 1.529645499 g/m^ (AvaUable N) Begin year 3 with 13.76680949 g/m^ of No (Total N) 5% of No mineralized in year 3 = 0.688340475 g/m^ (Available N) 8 tons/ac 179.4208 g/m2 of biosolids at 2.8418212% organic N (No)= 50.98818332 g/m^ of No 20% of No mineralized in year 1 = 10.17763666 g/m^ Begin year 2 whh 40.7905466 g/m^ of No (Total N) 10% of No mineralized in year 2 = 4.0.7905466 g/m^ (AvaUable N) Begin year 3 with 36.71149199 g/m^ of No (Total N) 5% of No mineralized in year 3 = 1.835746 g/m^ (Available N) 15 tons/ac 3364.14 g/m2 of biosolids at 2.8418212% organic N (No)= 95.60284372 g/m^ of No 20% of No mineralized m year 1 = 19.12056874 g/m^ Begm year 2 with 76.70216089 g/m^ of No (Total N) 10% of No mmeralized in year 2 = 7.670216089 g/m^ (AvaUable N) Begm year 3 with 69.0319448 g/m^ of No (Total N) 5% of No mineralized in year 3 = 3.45159724 g/m^ (AvaUable N) Amount of Urea (42-0-0) 3 tons/ac 0.688340475/0.42 = 1.638905892 g/m^ 8 tons/ac 1.8355746/0.42 = 4.370415714 g/m^ 15 tons/ac 3.45159724/0.42 = 8.218088667 g/m^ Amount of MAP (11-52-0) 3 tons/ac 0.688340475/0.11 = 6.257640682 g/m^ 6.257640682(0.4364)(0.52) = 1.420033885 g/m^ of P provided by MAP 8 tons/ac 1.8355746/0.11 = 16,68704182 g/m^ 16.68704182(0,4364)(0.52) ^ 3.786757026 g/m^ of P provided by MAP 15 tons/ac 78 3,45159724/0.11 =31.32815673 g/m^ 31.32815673(0.4364)(0.52) = 7.12058235 g/m^ of P provided by MAP 79 APPENDIX B ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE TABLE 80 Table B.l Analysis of variance table. AOV Source Season Ea _ _ df (s-1) s(n-l) _ 1 20 _ SxT Eb Rate Irrig Rxl RxS RxT RxSxT IxS IxT IxSxT RxIxS RxIxT RxIxSxT Ec (t-l)(s-l) s(t-l)(s-l) (M) (i-1) (r-l)(i-l) (r-l)(s-l) (r-l)(t-l) (r-l)(s-l)(t-l) (i-l)(s-l) (i-l)(t-l) (i-l)(s-l)(t-l) (r-l)(i-l)(s-l) (r-l)(i-l)(t-l) (r-l)(i-l)(s-l)(t-l) st(ri-l)(n-l) 2 40 3" 1 3 3 6 6 1 2 2 3 6 6 420 1994 s = 2, t = 3, r = 4, i = 2, n = 11 1995s = 2,t = 3,r = 4,i = 2,n = 9 1996 s = 2, t = 3, r = 4, i = 2, n = 7 1997s = 2,t = 3, r = 4,i = 2,n = 5 81 APPENDIX C RAW DATA 82 Table C I Standing Crop Data, Spp. Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr B<^r Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Obs. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 Set Plot 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Seas D D D D D 0 D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D 0 0 D D D D D D D Pert NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP N N N N N N N N B B B B B B 6 B NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP N N N N N N N N B B B B B B B B N N N N N N N N B B B B B B Rate 18 34 7 18 7 34 0 0 18 18 34 7 34 0 0 7 0 34 7 18 7 34 0 18 18 34 18 7 7 0 34 0 0 34 7 18 7 18 0 34 18 7 0 0 7 18 34 34 18 7 0 34 7 34 0 18 7 34 18 0 7 34 Irrig 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 Biomass '94 6.77 0.21 2 0.57 0.36 6.9 3.94 0.8 11.21 2.08 11.18 0.56 0.88 0.76 0.05 0.62 0.72 1.12 0.18 1.6 3.11 11.01 0.58 11.01 14.79 13.59 1.19 1.33 12.87 9.33 0.59 5.22 1.8 17.96 0.78 10.79 1.69 1.29 0.01 1.12 1423 6.01 0.6 0.42 0.21 16.22 2.26 0.08 5.33 0.19 6.16 7.1 0.78 0.86 0.78 0.66 0.29 8.55 0.15 0.4 0.31 1.58 Biomass '95 24.93 17.09 17.62 20.01 17.14 17.50 22.64 18.58 19.51 21.15 24.63 23.32 21,77 19.62 25.98 37.50 29.94 17.10 18.89 17.15 29.13 24.26 19.48 28.91 20.00 19.13 18.91 18.85 27.70 26.47 18.35 22.97 32.64 20.13 19.97 23.44 27.33 22.48 21.21 19.51 41.67 40.13 30.73 21.72 19.90 25.98 42.18 17.78 Biomass '96 112.34 30.73 46.47 81.78 42.3 54.05 73.81 40.55 78.29 54.41 118.33 72.56 93.4 42.66 43.66 60.63 61.02 58.84 39.28 41.32 63.98 107.09 47.54 63.43 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D 83 Spp. Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bc^r Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr B<^r Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Obs. 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 Set 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 Plot 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Seas D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D 0 D D D D G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G Q G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G Pert B B NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP B B B B B B B B NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP N N N N N N N N NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP B B B B B B B B N N N N N N N N NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP Rate 0 18 0 34 34 18 7 7 18 0 7 34 34 7 0 16 0 18 7 18 34 7 34 0 18 0 18 7 0 34 34 0 18 7 18 0 34 7 0 18 7 34 0 7 18 7 34 18 0 34 18 18 0 7 34 7 34 0 34 18 7 7 0 18 0 34 Irr^ 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 Biomass '94 0.47 6.59 2.67 6.24 0.85 3.74 1.02 8.02 1.56 1.72 0.98 9.79 0.45 0.52 2.48 6.65 0.33 0.01 7.53 0.73 7.88 1.77 0.26 0.45 418 4.75 14.43 0.94 1.2 1.69 12.24 0.29 0.67 0.59 2.98 2.36 0.74 10.83 0.73 14.06 10.09 8.33 11.16 1.25 2.76 10.19 0.17 0.94 2.26 0.57 0.72 1.56 0.86 17.55 0.32 0,45 12.66 0.47 0.52 0.65 0.11 6.64 0.61 0.33 0.82 8.35 Biomass '95 Biomass '96 19.65 25.76 17.40 27.38 29.90 23.70 17.89 16.57 25.50 15.69 19.32 22.06 17.16 19.13 19.72 24.26 26.47 18.59 27.63 15.76 24.61 20,23 20.93 23.51 23.59 18.86 22.90 20.03 29.53 36.82 28.15 34.83 18.32 30.78 27.92 17.47 25.86 16.54 23.42 0.00 25.66 16,61 18.43 27.84 16.95 18.64 2410 28.60 23.90 19.35 19.13 27.05 22.26 35.12 27.30 25.98 52.54 88.05 68.51 71.44 60.69 136.58 32.75 30.16 113.02 107.1 72.5 85.59 62.03 70.2 77.21 64.57 64.06 41.27 59.26 43.31 94.86 70.07 102.08 70.01 135.49 76.64 59.73 131.96 68.63 142.85 72.19 129.18 84 Spp. Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Obs. ' 29 1 30 1 31 32 1 33 1 34 1 35 1 36 1 37 1138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 Set 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 Plot 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 1 2 Seas G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G D D D 0 D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D G G Pert B B B B B B B 6 N N N N N N N N B B B B B B B B NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP N N N N N N N N NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP B B B B B B B B N N N N N N N N NP NP Rate 7 7 34 18 34 0 18 0 18 7 0 7 0 34 34 18 7 34 0 18 7 18 34 0 7 7 34 0 18 0 18 34 18 7 34 34 18 0 0 7 18 7 0 18 34 7 34 0 34 7 18 18 7 0 34 0 34 0 7 18 7 0 34 18 18 34 Irrig 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 Biomass '94 9.94 1.53 6.85 0.59 6.8 9.97 3.96 0.3 1.39 0.55 0.78 1.09 0.85 8.6 3.46 0.2 11.98 9.75 8.88 1.35 10.27 0.49 0.12 0.18 0.07 0.92 3.77 15.71 0.21 1.2 2.38 9.47 0.35 1.09 2.18 11.28 0.87 0.3 0.51 5.65 0.26 0.55 6.25 1.46 12.47 0.3 1.34 2.59 0.81 9.47 0.97 0.17 1.58 13.53 0.45 0.85 6.95 2.34 0.81 18.85 1.87 23.19 11.9 7.22 1.38 Biomass "95 22.05 24.97 36.02 21.40 18.92 31.97 27.37 25.32 31.90 17.99 33.26 46.41 19.83 27.17 37.87 24.98 26.31 30.88 28.92 20.19 20.83 27.58 18.30 23.24 27.27 19.09 18.59 17.81 19.40 31.93 42.94 23.14 18.53 18.42 26.01 19.17 26.30 18.43 27.82 25.91 Biomass "96 49.97 124.52 182.82 88.23 115.19 107.07 86.89 85.23 93.35 43.68 78.36 110.97 62.41 103.81 125.05 104.46 85.77 138.56 66.79 71.94 62.89 85.47 56.36 94.13 82.76 70.49 81.04 47.93 86.18 93.91 180.9 112.65 57.2 49.02 89.17 75.92 80.31 81.75 106.06 73.14 24.45 18.71 110.35 109.87 85 Spp. Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr B<^r Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr B<^r Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Obs, 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 Set 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 9 Plot 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Seas G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G Pert NP NP NP NP NP NP N N N N N N N N B B B 6 B B B B B B B B B B B 6 NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP N N N N N N N N B B B B B B B 6 NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP N N N N Rate 34 0 0 7 18 7 18 18 0 34 0 7 34 7 7 34 0 7 34 0 18 18 7 0 0 34 18 34 7 18 18 18 34 0 7 0 7 34 18 7 0 0 7 34 18 34 34 7 18 7 18 34 0 0 0 18 7 18 7 34 0 34 34 34 0 7 Irrig 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 Biomass '94 10.28 0.86 4.44 0.29 5.64 1.33 5.35 0.39 0.34 23.89 0.77 1.75 12.71 5.61 20.39 3.62 2.11 1.6 9.21 13.75 16.17 0.83 4.45 14.79 3.32 16.18 7.62 0.38 3.33 12.08 12.55 17.33 15.17 15.02 2.65 1.24 2 1.79 5.52 4.2 15.33 11.4 12.36 1.7 0.89 17 4.04 17 9.43 13.72 3.98 15.44 6.21 3.98 2.65 0.29 11.19 1.24 1.81 14.78 5.04 11 4.15 16.06 13.48 15.65 Biomass '95 21.89 28.06 21.45 37.77 42.87 27.36 19.39 28.39 27.99 21.00 18.16 30.80 22.84 19.19 33.15 16.49 26.64 21.75 33.79 0.00 20.72 42.84 18.29 32.54 19.29 21.94 19.97 17.28 22.71 21.46 29.73 20.50 26.36 20.30 24.21 28.79 23.45 16.37 19.17 21.30 19.54 28.75 27.69 24,65 21.06 17,22 19.64 24.94 27.83 26.14 19.60 27.26 21.71 25.03 47.42 25.48 28.43 28.53 18.08 26.88 24.51 19.98 19.77 21.01 26.18 18.06 Biomass '96 120.17 88.62 62.05 127.36 161.03 129.54 85 119.35 90,03 106.9 38.68 89.34 78.99 68.25 145.44 40.38 79.88 98.75 174.05 62.32 83.47 169.19 49.91 91.97 54.07 168.62 97.09 90.23 90.59 94.75 104.6 103.38 154.8 70.22 75.97 60.66 93.82 32.27 46.17 70.32 39.84 62.25 50.58 67.36 37.46 31.25 178.92 91.21 124.63 61.11 73.67 167.22 99.77 93.67 162.61 189.38 116.32 137.9 50.22 158.17 100.86 94.38 88.65 128.93 135.81 4Q.72 86 Spp. Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr B<^r Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Obs. 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 Set 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 Plot 21 22 23 24 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Seas G G G G D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G D D D D D D D D D D D D D D Pert N N N N NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP B B 6 B B B B B N N N N N N N N B B B B B B 6 B NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP N N N N N N N N B B B B B B B B N N N N N N Rate 18 7 0 18 7 18 0 18 34 34 0 7 0 0 18 34 7 7 34 18 7 0 7 18 0 34 18 34 0 7 34 0 18 18 34 7 7 0 0 34 7 34 18 18 0 34 0 7 34 18 18 7 0 0 18 18 34 7 7 34 0 7 34 7 0 18 Irrig 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 Biomass '94 1.24 4.39 13.35 4.75 0.74 1.83 2.86 1.11 5.26 8.59 13.19 6.34 0.86 0.47 8.02 0.65 6.83 0.02 0.24 0.01 7.54 1.48 0.93 2.61 1.18 0.58 6.66 0.84 2.25 1.02 0.74 9.29 1.15 1.77 6.6 11.85 3.43 0.92 16.85 3.38 0.63 0.7 9.06 0.89 13.22 0.27 3.63 6.76 0.82 4.78 17.66 2 0.96 11.74 2.98 0.85 0.02 13.92 0.96 0.98 16.07 2.35 1.27 0.53 0.96 8.79 Biomass '95 17.88 27.40 17.89 22.82 20.25 27.30 27.26 21.26 34.51 17.91 17.31 19.06 23.02 20.15 22.16 30.10 19.34 29.26 20.67 28.93 24.81 35.21 36.01 22.22 22.97 17.46 18.89 22.35 20.79 21.31 18.00 27.33 33.09 24.55 28.42 40.93 46.65 31.78 21.64 31.75 23.82 22.75 20.02 44.81 20.94 28.55 31.50 22.42 19.69 18.94 24.96 33.80 29.12 24.80 24.93 22.02 26.92 21.12 25.67 18.56 24.55 19.19 26.76 21.91 19.65 19.13 Biomass '96 57.29 96.08 75.25 149.56 59.08 107.11 55.13 119.88 122.48 62.07 49.94 69.45 49.54 39.48 79.72 137 30.36 76.13 107.95 90.6 94.35 82.32 116.31 75.5 63.4 36.19 41.7 70.22 87 Spp. Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Obs. 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 360 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 Set 14 14 14 114 114 114 14 14 14 14 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 Plot 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Seas D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G Pert N N NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP N N N N N N N N B B B B B B B B NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP N N N N N N N N B B B B B B B B NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP B B B B B B B B Rate 18 34 34 7 18 7 18 0 34 0 34 34 18 0 0 7 18 7 7 7 0 34 0 34 18 18 7 18 0 7 0 34 18 34 18 0 7 18 0 34 34 7 34 18 18 7 34 0 0 7 18 0 7 18 34 34 7 0 7 34 7 18 34 0 0 18 Irr^ 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 Biomass '94 10.97 18.66 1.99 0.59 10.19 1.63 19.41 0.08 0.51 1.16 2 1.33 13.1 8.32 1.45 7.53 27.68 3.2 1.08 5.73 0.26 1.72 0.55 0.71 11.96 0.4 0.07 0.27 0.33 0.47 8.84 0.61 1.09 8.99 1.49 0.91 7.95 5.56 2.24 6.1 0.83 0.78 11.64 2.45 7.56 12.32 0.67 13.49 1.72 1.42 3.8 4.8 0,63 0.98 1.05 0.77 0.98 6.86 0.41 0.52 0.61 0.21 8.61 1.89 6.07 0.02 Biomass '95 31.76 16.75 16.35 26.03 21.2 18.55 26.81 21 31.19 36.57 21.15 18.34 28.48 18.3 43.46 20.16 26.89 22.67 27.66 33.51 20.9 50.55 34.51 17.5 34.75 25.46 36.35 21.79 20.35 20.49 31.22 24.35 28.29 16.95 Biomass '96 90.3 55.01 103.19 52.49 127.37 72.73 111.63 54.14 68.19 180.57 63.75 106.85 89.28 88.27 127.71 156.33 106.25 156.34 60.43 92.4 82.85 83.39 102.16 55.91 21.49 17.67 23.64 41.08 27.89 17.79 25.89 16.87 144.88 105.24 85.09 177.96 205.11 58.66 75.26 57.27 88 Spp. Bogr Bogr Bogr B<^r Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bc^r Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Obs. 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 451 452 463 454 455 456 457 458 Set 17 7 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 :20 :20 Plot 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 1 2 Seas G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D Pert NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP N N N N N N N N NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP N N N N N N N N B B 6 B B B B B N N N N N N N N NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP B B B B B B B B B B Rate 0 34 18 0 7 18 7 34 18 7 18 34 0 7 34 0 0 18 34 7 18 0 34 7 18 34 0 18 34 7 7 0 18 7 0 0 34 18 7 34 7 34 18 18 0 34 0 7 7 18 0 34 34 0 18 7 18 34 7 0 18 7 0 34 7 0 Irrig 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 Biomass '94 3.23 9.09 1.14 16.45 1.9 1.41 1.57 18.48 0.38 12.79 0.42 0.73 2.51 1 14.96 0.63 20.39 0.6 0.21 1.03 0.05 12.63 1.02 0.69 1.98 8.12 0.32 3.15 11.94 0.66 0.37 0.29 2.39 5 4.2 12.35 21.32 1.22 0.9 0.75 0.26 1.25 0.37 13.33 11,03 0.68 0.2 1.49 10.32 5.96 5.04 8.01 5,84 10.3 8.28 4.55 8.45 0.88 1.76 10.37 0.35 0.29 3.2 5.32 4.29 6.22 Biomass '95 27.55 17.59 21.46 19.50 25.30 34.84 34.54 21.76 28.61 28.02 18.10 26.13 20.78 20.88 23.23 36.52 24.66 31.65 22.36 23.28 19,40 20.48 20.19 33.36 20.39 26.76 24.26 33.92 20.05 28.69 24.26 35.25 21.01 19.03 22.59 20.53 27.76 30.49 31.33 17.80 24.42 25.61 23.58 34.31 36.38 18.08 24.33 38.78 31.00 35.59 37,20 22.19 19.26 20.58 21.98 23.61 27.94 19.65 43.26 30.80 23.59 21.47 19.62 25.33 23.91 29.67 Biomass '96 100.06 89.06 122.17 79.37 148.41 193.67 118,59 99.19 105.69 76.25 77.07 88.4 93.56 112.72 87.85 77.67 97.99 192.72 124.17 149.14 100.55 64.43 132.44 125.85 79.28 186.29 110.94 113.98 80.4 85.22 74.76 108.41 130.22 84.71 99.18 91.08 253.86 146.92 139.62 49.53 115.27 117.46 93.12 119.41 99.37 54.68 111.72 98.71 105.55 172.72 80.77 109.39 100.26 61.56 117.98 87.47 172.39 110.1 108.71 55,23 133.25 123.48 72.33 188 99.4 76,07 89 Spp. Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr B<^r Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Obs. 469 460 461 462 463 464 465 466 467 468 469 470 471 472 473 474 475 476 477 478 479 480 481 482 483 484 485 486 487 488 489 490 491 492 493 494 495 496 497 498 499 500 501 502 503 504 505 506 507 508 509 510 511 512 513 514 515 516 517 518 519 520 521 522 523 524 Set 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 Plot 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Seas D D D D D D D D D D D D D D 0 D D D D D D D G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G Pert B B B B B B N N N N N N N N NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP B B B B B B B B N N N N N N N N NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP N N N N N N N N NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP B B B 6 Rate 7 34 18 18 34 0 34 0 7 18 7 18 0 34 34 7 0 18 0 18 34 7 7 18 18 7 34 34 0 0 7 18 7 34 0 34 18 0 0 34 18 7 7 34 0 18 0 18 7 0 34 18 7 34 7 34 0 7 18 34 0 18 18 0 7 34 Irrig 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Biomass "94 2.71 2.47 2.93 1.81 1.87 4.3 2.64 3.92 0.54 4.64 3.18 0.67 0.58 0.88 2.32 0.76 0.57 0.72 5.67 5.49 0.8 0.91 10.18 12.68 2.34 3.28 16.93 1.13 18.38 1.43 13.05 3.83 3.94 2.81 1.61 11.58 7.06 8.98 1.53 0.84 11.85 0.64 10.47 14.53 7.24 0.93 15.82 2.17 2.73 1.14 5.92 9.58 9.17 1.08 6.91 10.3 7.21 4.84 10.1 3.46 2.81 2.06 0.58 1.53 1.28 5.08 Biomass '95 21.00 30.62 22.04 28.56 21.20 31.76 25.75 19.01 32.36 23.95 20.05 32.85 20.36 19.19 20.68 32.40 36.57 31.55 18.15 23.66 21.01 28.73 24.23 27.77 18.79 19.60 43.89 19.78 44.94 20.87 33.66 21.14 20.87 18.13 21.68 29.90 25.61 30.89 20.09 18.55 39.01 16.77 39.25 34.06 31.61 19.02 Biomass '96 147.48 229.43 119.44 124.55 141.57 128.77 113.95 51.87 85.97 134.31 58.62 103.37 58.7 81.94 116.3 87.87 87.89 142.67 46.33 122.99 106.2 161.61 70.87 106.24 92.41 56.3 163 108 118.31 73.31 114.02 108.5 99.15 70.82 94.14 107.94 113.09 78.98 122.2 83.44 119.48 57.04 185.27 156.71 121.27 96.53 90 Spp. Bogr Bogr Bogr Bogr Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Obs. 525 526 527 528 529 530 531 532 533 534 535 536 537 538 539 540 541 542 543 544 545 546 547 548 549 550 551 552 553 554 555 556 557 558 559 560 561 562 563 564 565 566 567 568 569 570 571 572 573 574 575 576 577 578 579 580 581 582 583 584 585 586 587 588 589 590 Set 22 22 22 22 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 Plot 21 22 23 24 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Seas G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G Pert B B B B N N N N N N N N B B B B B B B B NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP N N N N N N N N B B B B B B B B NP NP HP NP NP NP NP NP B B B B B B B B NP NP NP NP NP NP Rate 18 7 0 34 0 7 0 34 34 18 18 7 18 34 7 7 0 34 18 0 7 34 18 0 18 7 34 0 7 7 18 34 0 34 18 0 34 7 0 18 7 34 0 18 34 0 7 18 7 18 0 34 0 7 34 0 18 7 18 34 34 0 7 18 34 7 Irrig 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 Biomass '94 5.13 6.48 11.53 0.45 33.84 46.74 54.46 70.75 115.47 84.99 29.73 58.51 39.85 13.65 13.84 38.71 16.1 25.35 6.3 2.81 5.92 6.26 6.86 12.02 14.29 8.85 4.07 2.52 17.46 10.41 16.63 18.43 3.24 1.34 25.83 14.33 5.49 44.37 8.11 9.93 20.81 12.61 14.37 11.4 7.34 4.61 13.06 15.07 5.34 16.61 10.47 8.3 16.05 5.92 4.69 3.39 10.16 12.13 12.56 15.88 18.32 21.85 13.72 9.42 9.14 3.93 Biomass '95 Biomass '96 30.1615 49.4515 44.7115 36.2115 124.3215 749515 28.5815 47.9715 47.4315 21.1315 23.0515 52.6915 28.1815 76.4715 15.2715 7.8215 15.9815 8.5815 22.8015 14.0715 22.6815 13.9015 11.8415 9.0615 72.94 89.33 77.77 103.88 165.46 154.9 65.49 100.53 133.18 185.65 72,83 137.59 65.48 212.39 75.33 45.33 83.73 24.67 76.72 43.98 73.3 39.24 43.42 49.47 20.051 J 12.621? 15.121 f 5.331 e 24.031 e 16.991 i 12.821 ( 23.771 { 26.161J 37.791 ( 28.751 J 26.3715 14.721! 9.401! 91 Spp. Himu Himu Himu Hirmj Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Obs. 591 592 593 594 595 596 597 598 599 600 601 602 603 604 605 606 607 608 609 610 611 612 613 614 615 616 617 618 619 620 621 622 623 624 625 626 627 628 629 630 631 632 633 634 635 636 637 638 639 640 641 642 643 644 645 646 647 648 649 650 651 652 653 654 655 656 Set 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 Plot 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Seas G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D Pert NP NP N N N N N N N N B B B B B B B B N N N N N N N N NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP B B B B B B B B N N N N N N N N NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP Rate 0 18 0 18 7 34 18 7 34 0 7 18 34 0 0 18 7 34 0 18 34 7 34 7 18 0 18 34 7 34 0 18 7 0 0 34 18 34 18 0 7 7 18 34 0 34 18 7 7 0 7 7 18 0 18 0 34 34 18 0 34 34 18 7 7 0 Irrig 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 Biomass '94 3.08 27.46 21.14 6.54 6.27 7.21 12.54 4.73 16.85 4.89 8.87 35.17 5.27 22.47 16.56 100.95 64.66 17.45 13.56 67.27 27.72 7.94 12.96 70.09 52.43 55.53 27.53 18.93 23.28 23.41 12,13 24.24 16 25.9 24.91 45.05 30.32 16.44 27.59 15.73 19.88 11.62 24.43 21.74 9.43 7.97 4.49 11.74 8.03 26.94 5.5 10.81 15.55 16.71 4.21 2.53 9.59 3.77 2.36 16 2.22 3.76 6.76 7.9 4.2 3.18 Biomass '95 8.4015 26.3315 43.0815 20.2515 13.6915 243215 27.1715 14.9515 34.1915 13.2615 23.7715 40.4915 16.3615 22.1515 19.1315 40.8415 32.8015 40.3515 31.7515 90.6215 50.3615 19.8415 23.9115 78.2815 90.0515 62.6215 65.4115 19.8615 36.5115 31.9515 18.5615 39.6315 36.8115 26.2715 33.0315 38.8115 54.5415 19.7115 32.8815 41.2115 46.8515 20.3515 46.8715 56.5315 23.7815 29.3515 16.9415 18.5815 17.4715 50.8015 18.9815 28.3415 23.0215 16.7715 12.8515 20.8715 14.9915 10.6115 Biomass '96 57.48 82.5 74.43 53.47 54.62 13445 100.39 86.67 66.48 141.53 84.81 66.68 58.18 133.62 122.54 77.39 130.7 48.94 65.68 74.06 51.15 79.95 84.43 88 72.76 59.19 86.04 40.95 49.29 91.5 75.33 50.58 123.88 150.78 62.59 97.49 68.98 46.51 52.15 91.75 50.15 56.56 40 49.39 39.73 38.93 43.46 41.15 92 Spp. Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Hirmj Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Obs. 657 658 659 660 661 662 663 664 665 666 667 668 669 670 671 672 673 674 675 676 677 678 679 680 681 682 683 684 685 686 687 688 689 690 691 692 693 694 695 696 697 698 699 700 701 702 703 704 705 706 707 708 709 710 711 712 713 714 715 716 717 718 719 720 721 722 Set 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 Plot 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 6 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 2 1 Seas D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G Pert B B B B B B B B N N N N N N N N NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP N N N N N N N N B B B B B B B B NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP N N N N N N N N B B B B B B B B N N Rate 7 0 34 18 18 0 34 7 0 18 7 0 34 34 7 18 18 34 7 34 0 7 0 18 7 7 0 18 34 18 0 34 18 0 7 34 34 0 18 7 7 18 0 34 18 0 7 34 7 0 34 18 0 18 7 34 18 7 34 34 7 0 18 0 0 7 Irrig 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 Biomass '94 2.89 10.23 13.4 2.51 9.06 6.13 4.14 19.48 13.43 9.43 26.14 14.11 4.41 13.31 3.79 15.11 13.91 14.97 15.54 19.46 21.49 13.18 28.51 20.9 7.11 12.24 13.12 6.14 7.84 15.13 16.49 3.96 10.68 13.59 4.62 2.84 4.17 6.17 2.11 2.59 19.64 18.84 16.69 19.19 9.2 11.99 11.76 8.67 19.54 14.49 19.02 5.59 5.35 5.2 4.33 4.2 3.53 6.59 3.69 6.18 12.94 13.92 21.76 8.8 24.9 18.45 1 Biomass '9^ Biomass '96 34.7615> . 24.701 37,641 S . 83.0916. 93.7015. 70.0715> 86.6715) 113.3815> 39,0215) 54.9315. 37.1615i 21.6115i 27.4015> 36.6415i 42.6415) 16.701 > 16.9515) 21.8015> 11.6215) 17.8215) 17.7315 22.4615 5.4515 8.0015 27.0215 25.1715 30.2315 71.0915 18.4615 22.8115 16.1215 18.5115 59.3415 26.5215 549615 23.5115 24.4915 25.8915 29.1415 22.5415 9.0715 21.1115 18.5615 17.5015 36.5915 64.4615 61.8615 27.5215 , . 92.02 48.43 59.22 202.3 163.1 194.99 236.96 315.3 119.91 87.7 67.02 53.56 53.74 54.55 65.42 50,7 47.85 48.4 43.45 61.29 87.28 54.75 33.46 39.04 62.65 77.51 73.06 152.84 44.68 59.71 56.74 52.37 93.87 76.7 97.96 43.64 51.03 61.08 75.37 50.52 49,96 73 78.6 79.01 72.84 115.33 122.38 71.35 93 Spp. Himu HImu Himu Hinrui Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu HImu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Obs. 723 724 725 726 727 728 729 730 731 732 733 734 735 736 737 738 739 740 741 742 743 744 745 746 747 748 749 750 751 752 753 754 755 756 757 758 759 760 761 762 763 764 765 766 767 768 769 770 771 772 773 774 775 776 777 778 779 780 781 782 783 784 785 786 787 788 Set 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 Plot 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Seas G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G Pert N N N N N N B B B B B B B B NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP B B B B B B B B N N N N N N N N NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP N N N N N N N N B B B B B B B B NP NP NP NP Rate 0 34 34 7 18 18 7 18 18 0 34 0 7 34 0 0 18 7 7 34 34 18 34 0 0 7 18 7 34 18 0 0 34 18 34 7 18 7 7 18 0 7 34 18 0 34 0 7 34 18 7 34 0 18 7 34 7 18 0 34 0 18 34 7 0 18 Irrig 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 Biomass '94 8.68 29.4 27.24 22.58 14.63 18.67 24.62 1426 25.33 16,74 7.16 10.35 13.35 9.42 13.52 18.27 2.67 10.09 10.85 1,27 7.49 13.72 14.46 25.94 31.02 28.06 66.68 39.51 36.61 18.9 25.69 59.7 11.68 12.77 26.02 83.44 7.2 36.21 40.37 5.87 28.2 27.56 15.16 16.44 29.73 17.27 8.67 8.77 5.14 3.23 18.87 2.82 14.52 10.77 2.65 5.96 7,53 9.96 7,28 12.01 17.34 9.77 16.01 15.48 11.28 7.54 Biomass '95 Biomass '96 38.5015 38.2215 63.5815 57.7815 51.7615 119.6715 67.7715 60.8115 39.1115 82.8315 16.9815 20.8415 98.0815 142.9515 26.4715 64.6715 132.2115 30.6715 86.4815 87.0515 32.1315 31.1615 547915 29.7815 11.6315 16.3615 14.2015 9.2715 10.0915 5.3915 21.7015 8,3915 6.0715 32.5315 6.2015 33.1015 23.4615 52.7215 27.8915 15.331 S . 34.1015> 21.2815 41,1315 24.6915. 68.38 56.04 130.53 115,08 125,18 144.21 140.65 73.57 84.66 98.32 34.26 63.75 128.3 153.62 73.88 110.21 241.35 81.29 143.74 121.67 84.26 83.01 113.69 85.96 44.66 49.55 47.68 49.19 58.08 30,23 59.33 41.02 39.76 96.04 40.37 104.95 68.56 113.88 66.52 61.21 85.69 65.93 85.54 72.15 94 Spp. Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu HImu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Obs. 789 790 791 792 793 794 795 796 797 798 799 800 801 802 803 804 805 806 807 808 809 810 811 812 813 814 815 816 817 818 819 820 821 822 823 824 825 826 827 828 829 830 831 832 833 834 835 836 837 838 839 840 841 842 843 844 845 846 847 848 849 850 851 852 853 854 Set 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 Plot 21 22 23 24 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Seas G G G G D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D Pert NP NP NP NP N N N N N N N N B B B B B B B B NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP B B B B B B B B NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP N N N N N N N N B B B B B B B B N N N N N N Rate 7 18 0 34 7 0 7 18 34 0 34 18 34 18 0 7 18 0 7 34 0 18 18 34 7 7 34 0 0 7 34 18 18 0 34 7 34 7 18 0 7 34 0 18 18 34 18 0 7 7 34 0 34 0 7 0 34 18 7 18 0 34 7 0 7 34 Irrig 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 Biomass '94 6.38 4.4Q 29.85 18.15 5.11 8.06 2.9 3.31 11.45 5.74 6.63 4.05 5.05 4.9 3.36 5.06 7.13 1.99 2.69 2.58 1.5 2.13 3.1 5.63 6.99 1.69 2.78 17.95 15.36 7.1 13.78 18.94 1464 19.8 15.87 27.53 85.22 10.6 13,58 10.75 7.86 18.86 3.24 4.2 2.55 6.7 24.57 1.83 11.33 16.34 3.17 6.4 20.57 49.79 14.53 25.83 51.44 2.12 4.03 4.8 4.1 13.97 4.49 7.76 2.77 8.8 Biomass '95 25.0615 13.1715 61.5415 36.2515 38.8415 13.3615 14.4915 18.2515 53.0315 34.3915 28.5715 8.5115 8.6315 26.2515 10.1815 25.6715 57.4815 14,6315 10.2215 9.7015 6.5215 7.4115 9.1215 6.8715 11.7415 2.0815 3.9015 32.4615 Biomass "96 91.52 44.65 111.54 63.24 78.47 41.59 43.23 47.91 82.69 80.22 75.25 36.78 32.6 65.99 24.75 51.45 78,94 40,55 38.91 52,65 41.04 37.27 34.37 33.18 55.77 26.22 28.99 57.42 68.6415) 114.8415) 42.281 J 5 84.441 e > 76.071 5 10,541 J > 12.291!J 24.431!j 11.291!3 51.791!5 27.161!5 44.291!5 18.451!5 25.281!5 159.02 202.03 73.49 161.23 250.24 62.85 41.35 79.75 33.33 79.51 57.59 109.58 60.92 75.11 95 Spp. Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Obs. 855 856 857 858 859 860 861 862 863 864 865 866 867 868 869 870 871 872 873 874 875 876 877 878 879 880 881 882 883 884 885 886 887 888 889 890 891 892 893 894 895 896 897 898 899 900 901 902 903 904 905 906 907 908 909 910 911 912 913 914 915 916 917 918 919 920 Set 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 114 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 16 15 15 15 15 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 116 17 17 ^7 117 17 17 117 17 Plot 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Seas D D D D D D D D D D G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G D D D 0 D D D D Pert N N NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP B B B B B B B B N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B Rate 18 18 18 7 0 7 0 18 34 O^ 18 34 0 0 7 34 7 18 34 7 0 7 18 18 0 34 7 18 34 0 0 34 7 18 0 18 18 7 34 0 34 7 34 0 18 7 18 0 34 7 34 0 18 7 7 0 34 18 34 0 18 7 34 18 0 7 Irrig 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 Biomass '94 6.63 13.63 3.97 3.95 1.66 49.4 15.68 22.42 26.51 8.09 6.77 7.1 5.49 10.67 3.59 6.82 6.61 5J2 20.35 5.54 7.05 25.81 9.44 5.62 22.52 7.99 7.02 12.6 2.24 11.85 8.93 20.56 4.99 9.09 4.38 21.42 13.72 7.73 12.98 15.79 5 8.25 2.96 3.73 7.32 7.99 5.91 15.37 11.02 4.38 11.33 19.2 12.26 2.32 10.6 2.68 1.73 4,5 9,02 7,57 4.61 2.55 12,03 24.19 3.77 13,03 Biomass '95 36.0215 62.4115 22.5115 38.2315 6.5215 99.2715 36.5515 35.7615 545415 16.2815 15.4615 25.6215 28.6315 28.5015 13.3515 19.9515 23.7615 18.2215 50.2615 29.5915 22.1615 50.4315 20.6115 16.4815 53.1215 30.5115 18.5115 20.8015 5.7715 36.311$ 16.9215 31.3715 15.4415 24.7515 12.1815 18.5815 25.2715 24.5515 14.8715 31.4615 11.4015 12.8515 10.5415 8.2115 20.4615 10.9315 14.2015 25.5115 14.1315 15.8115 25.5715 64.0615 44.6315 12.3915 33.6215 7.4115 12.0215 12.6515 46.6615 25.4715 21.4115 25.9915 16.0915 35,0915 12.5815 18.7115 Biomass '96 57.78 81.99 50.37 77.81 27.42 156.6 61.76 58.94 46.72 32.98 63.55 60.12 87.08 75.24 42.6 51.2 66.14 23.65 122.61 68.76 44.37 93.93 63.7 60.66 98.19 113.85 50.47 44.6 28.8 73.47 36.78 63.68 50.87 68.05 114.16 61.35 56.65 40.15 59.18 88.63 49.83 59.15 96 Spp. HImu HImu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu HImu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu HifTUJ Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Obs. 921 922 923 924 925 926 927 928 929 930 931 932 933 934 935 936 937 938 939 940 941 942 943 944 945 946 947 948 949 950 951 952 953 954 955 956 957 958 959 960 961 962 963 964 965 966 967 968 969 970 971 972 973 974 975 976 977 978 979 980 981 982 983 984 985 986 Set 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 Plot 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 1 2 Seas D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D 0 D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D Pert N N N N N N N N NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP N N N N N N N N B B B B B 6 B B NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP N N N N N N N N B B B B B B B B NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP N N Rate 34 7 18 0 34 0 7 18 0 7 18 0 34 18 34 7 34 0 18 7 18 34 0 7 7 18 0 34 34 0 18 7 7 34 18 0 7 0 34 18 18 7 7 34 18 0 0 34 7 0 7 18 18 0 34 34 34 18 7 18 34 0 7 0 7 18 Irrig 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 Biomass '94 5.03 8.19 9.76 8.81 5.66 6.07 3.53 8.23 5.88 2.86 5.84 8.66 3.03 7.84 19.3 16.51 22.63 6.39 60.41 8.85 7.02 5.33 43.51 25.84 17.13 1.39 11.65 5.21 13.63 3.87 10.2 2.46 6.09 26.74 3.85 16.74 61.62 52.49 17.61 28.39 28.93 10.44 3.92 6.83 5.29 2.67 5.16 1.63 3.96 17.28 9.98 9,34 1.67 1.77 6.43 11.64 2,15 4.18 9.33 12.18 15.61 13.39 9.21 12.17 10.9 7.23 Biomass '95 8.9315 14.2515 28.5815 17.4615 10.1615 10.0815 8.2815 16.2115 19.9515 12.4115 19.8715 22.2615 11.5115 16.1015 15.6815 31.3315 65.1915 23.3815 72.8415 24.7815 28.8915 15.4715 41.7515 35.1015 34.6615 7.8415 10.9815 15.3815 19.1415 9.5215 12.4315 7.6315 15.8015 68.4815 21.8315 44.2015 68.3615 67.5715 31.9815 66.5415 44.5415 37.2715 31.4015 21.3215 25,7815 9.4015 18.9515 4.6315 14.2015 29.2915 30.9215 6.9515 29.6315 11.0915 22.2215 23.0215 6.2415 20,6915 14.5615 13.1215 25.4415 16.8915 18.4315 18.0315 64.9315 21.3015 Biomass '96 59.26 63.87 78.36 66.47 42.33 49.75 46.7 46.86 50.47 53.4 48.78 65.04 39.03 50.85 43.54 71.95 117.07 100.9 59.31 53.78 84.63 55.65 53.74 30.57 56.69 57.69 68.55 60.17 97.81 41.51 74.41 67,63 34.81 63.95 54.8 44.59 70.77 49.02 61.16 51.2 92.79 39.92 97 Spp. Himu Himu Himu HImu Himu Hirruj Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu HImu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu HImu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu HImu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Himu Obs. 987 988 989 990 991 992 993 994 995 996 997 998 999 1000 1001 1002 1003 1004 1005 1006 1007 1008 1009 1010 1011 1012 1013 1014 1015 1016 1017 1018 1019 1020 1021 1022 1023 1024 1025 1026 1027 1028 1029 1030 1031 1032 1033 1 034 1 035 1 036 1 037 1 038 1 039 1 040 1 041 1 042 1 043 1 044 1045 046 047 1 048 1049 1050 1 051 1052 Set 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 Plot 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Seas D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D Pert N N N N N N B B B B B B B B NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP B B B B B B B B N N N N N N N N NP NP NP NP NP NP NP NP N N N N N N N N B B B B Rate 0 7 34 34 0 18 0 18 7 34 0 7 34 18 7 7 18 18 34 0 34 0 0 34 0 7 18 7 18 34 0 18 18 0 34 7 7 34 0 18 34 18 7 7 0 34 34 18 0 7 0 34 7 18 34 18 0 7 18 7 34 0 18 7 7 0 Irrig 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 Biomass '94 9.81 16.98 7.38 17.68 7.76 10.81 1.92 3.06 7.31 13.98 6.48 14.7 19.56 22.86 6.91 21.4 3.22 16.9 7.96 4.58 15.48 11.04 4.01 1,82 5.45 4.87 3.37 1.91 2.27 13.69 5.83 11.14 8.66 4.27 9.67 3.85 2.88 1.44 6.14 6.46 4.47 5 14,42 2.01 15.47 11.63 14.48 4.62 8.4 2.88 2.83 13.86 5.31 12.81 1.7 3.99 4.59 16.99 9.3 3.95 5.58 9.21 3.11 15.85 4.34 0.1 Biomass '95 16.1515 29.4815 36.5215 36.7115 32.7015 11.4715 3.6115 13.5515 15.2615 35.9315 6.0415 40.0215 46.5215 32.7315 20.6815 41.8815 11.8015 48.3315 13.9115 8.7415 26.3115 40.9415 8.9315 4.8315 8.6915 11.5315 8.6515 48615 7.9315 17.0615 15.9015 14.2915 15.0715 6.4515 24.6715 9.7415 17.1215 6.3615 24.1515 11.2115 11.0915 13.0515 18.0715 6.6915 18.0715 22.4815 45.1515 13.0115 16.1915 12.0115 8.3015 53.4515 25.9815 10.3715 5.2015 23.8115 9.8715 14.7415 10,0415 4.0515 41815 25.3315 15.3015 22.8115 22.5415 19.0415 Biomass '96 39.59 64.2 76.29 70.21 48.13 45.33 27.95 62.02 56.09 114.31 28.05 70.44 95.27 71.46 48.26 86.31 94.75 97.54 40.62 32.02 42.14 97.7 37.8 22.59 30.35 50.21 35.8 37,03 44.9 51.58 45.16 57.05 64.7 32.33 89.36 34.24 52.74 51.89 82.1 35.86 44.34 57.49 55.77 42.51 44.8 45.21 98 Spp. Himu Himu Himu HImu Obs. 1053 1054 1055 1056 Set 22 22 22 22 Plot 21 22 23 24 Seas D D D D Pert B B B B Rate 0 34 34 18 Irrig 1 0 1 1 Biomass '94 20.67 29.39 31.41 15.67 Biomass "95 49.0015 104.7015 55.5315 39.4815 Biomass '96 . 99 . 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