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26 Pages

NormalizationhowTo

Course: CSCI 379, Fall 2009
School: UNC Asheville
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Word Count: 748

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for Guidelines Designing Databases Step 1. Identify all the fields Step 2. Group Related Fields into Tables Step 3. Determine Each Table's Primary Key A primary key uniquely identifies each row in a table. Step 4. Identify a Common Field in Related Tables Step 5. Avoid Data Redundancy Remove fields common to multiple tables (except for primary-keys &amp; foreign keys) Step 6. Determine the Properties of...

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for Guidelines Designing Databases Step 1. Identify all the fields Step 2. Group Related Fields into Tables Step 3. Determine Each Table's Primary Key A primary key uniquely identifies each row in a table. Step 4. Identify a Common Field in Related Tables Step 5. Avoid Data Redundancy Remove fields common to multiple tables (except for primary-keys & foreign keys) Step 6. Determine the Properties of Each Field Step 7. Normalize the tables Step 7a. Remove multi-valued attributes (1/2) DEPARTMENT name number locations ... locations is a multi-valued attribute (field) The primary key is the underlined field (i;e;, name) Step 7a. Remove multi-valued attributes (2/2) Before: DEPARTMENT name number Research After: 102 locations Dallas, SFO, NY ... DEPARTMENT name number DEPARTMENT_LOCATIONS number location 102 102 102 Dallas SFO NY ... Step 7b. Make every attribute dependent on the primary key (1/2) ORDER orderId date customerId customerPhone "is functionally dependent on" customerPhone is dependent on the customerId and is not dependent on the primary key (orderId). When an attribute is dependent on the primary key, the primary key value uniquely determines the value of the attribute. Step 7b. Make every attribute dependent on the Before: ORDER orderId After: ORDER orderId date primary key (2/2) date customerId customerPhone "is functionally dependent on" customerId CUSTOMER customerId customerPhone Guidelines for Designing Databases Functional Dependencies and Normalization of Relational Databases Functional Dependency Functional dependency denoted A -> B ("A functionally determines B") between two sets of attributes A and B means that the values of the A component uniquely determine the values of the B component. CUSTOMER customerId A customerPhone B Functional Dependency Functional dependency denoted A -> B ("A functionally determines B") between two sets of attributes A and B means that each unique value of the A component determines a unique value of the B component. CUSTOMER customerId A customerPhone B Functional Dependency Functional dependency Describes a relationship between attributes in a relation. For example, if A and B are attributes of relation R, B is functionally dependent on A, denoted A -> B, if each value of A is associated with exactly one value of B. Functional Dependency For example, if A and B are attributes of relation R, "A functionally determines B", or "B is functionally dependent on A", denoted A -> B, if each value of A is associated with exactly one value of B. RENTAL_ITEM transId videoId copy# 101 151 1 101 127 5 title Hopscotch Matrix rent 1.50 1.00 Identify a functional dependency in RENTAL_ITEM Functional Dependency RENTAL_ITEM transId videoId 101 151 101 127 copy# title 1 Matrix 5 Hopscotch rent 1.50 1.00 Title ("B") is functionally dependent on videoId ("A"). For each videoId=151 there is only one title value ("Matrix"). If you know the videoId, you always know the title. We find only one title=Matrix whenever videoId=151 videoId functionally determines title. videoId 1 1 title Functional Dependency RENTAL_ITEM transId videoId 101 151 101 127 102 163 copy# 1 5 1 title Matrix Hopscotch Matrix rent 1.50 1.00 1.50 Title is functionally dependent on videoId. For each videoId=151 there is only one title value ("Matrix"). If you know the videoId, you always know the title. We find only one title=Matrix whenever videoId=151 We find only one title=Matrix whenever videoId=163 videoId functionally determines title. videoId n 1 title Not Functionally Dependent RENTAL_ITEM transId videoId 101 151 101 151 102 163 copy# 1 5 1 title Matrix Hopscotch Matrix rent 1.50 1.00 1.50 Here, title ("B") is NOT functionally dependent on videoId ("A"). For each videoId=151 there is more than one title value. We find more than one title whenever videoId=151 videoId does not functionally determine title. videoId n n title Functional Dependency RENTAL_ITEM transId videoId 101 151 101 151 102 163 copy# 1 5 1 title Matrix Hopscotch Matrix rent 1.50 1.00 1.50 videoId ("A") does not functionally determine title ("B"). videoId does not functionally de...

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