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### 2heat2s

Course: PH 102, Fall 2009
School: Augustana
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Word Count: 528

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102 Heat Physics Professor Lee Carkner Lecture 2 PAL #2 Galileo Thermometer How does it work? Water heats up and expands, becomes less dense, as the density of the water decreases it can't support heavier balls which drop, balls have different densities (lower ones marked with lower T are denser) Limitations Not very accurate, limited range, needs to be kept upright, won't work in free fall, delicate, can...

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102 Heat Physics Professor Lee Carkner Lecture 2 PAL #2 Galileo Thermometer How does it work? Water heats up and expands, becomes less dense, as the density of the water decreases it can't support heavier balls which drop, balls have different densities (lower ones marked with lower T are denser) Limitations Not very accurate, limited range, needs to be kept upright, won't work in free fall, delicate, can freeze solid What is heat? Heat Same temperature, no heat Heat is not a "thing", it is a transfer of energy Units: Joules Kilojoules (kJ) = calories (cal) = Calorie (Cal) = 1 kilocal = 1000 cal = For rates of heat transfer (Q/t), unit is the Watt (W) = J/ s Specific Heat The specific heat (c): It is the amount of heat need to change 1 kg of stuff 1 degree C Can rewrite as: c = Q/mT Q =mc T Calorimetry To do experiments with heat we use a calorimeter The total heat exchange is the sum of the heat from all processes Q1 + Q2 + Q3 ... = 0 Always write T = TfTi Use consistent units Make sure units for T and m match units for c How Does Heat Move? Heat (like information) is transferred in different ways Conduction Convection Radiation Photons are emitted and absorbed Conductive Heat Transfer The rate of heat transfer via conduction is: Q/t = kA(T1T2)/L where: k is in units of W/ m K High k = Low k = T1 is the temperature of the hot side and T2 is the temperature of the cold side L is the thickness T1 Q L A T2 Conduction Rate Factors Free electrons Density Cross sectional area Low density materials (like gases) have don't a lot of collisions Temperature difference Thickness Heat takes less time to move through thinner material Convection Rate Factors Fluidity Energy exchange with environment How rapidly will the material lose heat? Small temperature difference, not enough density difference to move All objects emit photons Radiative Heat Transfer The amount of heat radiated out from an object is called the power (P): Q/t = Pr = AeT4 where = e is the emissivity (number between 0 and 1) 0 = no energy absorbed or emitted 5.6696 X 108 W/m2 K4 1 = max energy absorbed or emitted Radiation Rate Factors Surface area Emissivity Temperature Radiation is strongly dependant on T Radiation Exchange All objects emit and absorb radiation Pnet = Ae(T4T42) Where T2 is the temperature of the surroundings Note that T must be in Kelvin Next Time Read: 13.613.11 Homework: CH 14, P: 13, 37, CH 13, P: 29, 48 If two objects are in ther...

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Augustana - PH - 102
The Second Law of ThermodynamicsPhysics 102 Professor Lee Carkner Lecture 6PAL #6 First LawWork of 2 step process Step 1: 1 mole of gas at 300 K and 1 m3 expands to 2 m3, constant pressure W = PV, PV = nRT P = nRT/V = (1)(8.31)(300)/(1) = 2493
Augustana - PH - 102
Kirchhoff's RulesPhysics 102 Professor Lee Carkner Lecture 14PAL #13 Ohm's Law1.5 V battery, 167 A current in 1 m long, 2 mm thick wireR = V/I = 1.5/167 = 0.00898 R = (L/A) = RA/L = (0.00898)(p)(0.001)2/1 = 2.8X108 ( m)wire is aluminum3
Augustana - PH - 102
PhaseChangesPhysics102 ProfessorLeeCarkner Lecture4 Session:104884PAL#4KineticTheory50litersofagasat20Cand2atm Howmanymoles?PV=nRT,n=PV/RTConverttoSIunitsVi=50L/1000L/m3=0.05m3 Ti=20C+273.15=293.15K P=(2atm)(101300Pa/atm)=202600Pa n=(202600)
Augustana - AS - 311
Observing Template Telescope ObservationsObject: Date and Time: Notes:Object: Date and Time: Notes:Object: Date and Time: Notes:Object: Date and Time: Notes:
Augustana - PH - 102
Equations and Constants: Circuits and MagnetismC = Q/V C = 0 A/d Ceq = C1 + C2 + C3 . (parallel) 1/Ceq = 1/C1 + 1/C2 + 1/C3 . (series) Energy = 1/2QV = 1/2C(V)2 =Q2/2C I = Q/t V = IR R = L/A P = IV = I2R = (V)2/R Req = R1 + R2 + R3 . (series) 1/Re
Augustana - PH - 102
Equations and Constants: ElectricityF = ke q1 q2/r2 E = F/q0 = keq/r2 PE = -W = -Fd = qV V = Vf-Vi = PE/q V = ke q/r PE = ke q1 q2/r K.E. = mv2 W = -qV C = Q/V C = 0 A/d Ceq = C1 + C2 + C3 . (parallel) 1/Ceq = 1/C1 + 1/C2 + 1/C3 . (series) Energy
Augustana - PH - 102
Equations and Constants: Magnetism and LightB = ( 0I)/(2r) F = ( 0I1I2L)/(2d) B = 0nI =BAcos =N/t =BLv =2f = maxsin t = maxsin2ft max=NBA =LI/t L=N/I L= 0n2Al(lastsymbolislowercaseell) PEL=(1/2)LI2 (VP/VS)=(NP/NS) Irms=0.707Imax Vrms=0.707Vm
Augustana - PH - 102
Equations and Constants: Exam 1TC = TK -273.15 TF = 9/5 TC +32 L = L T = M/V V = V T = 3 P = F/A KE = (1/2) mv2rms = (3/2)kBT PV = nRT Q =mcT Q = mL Q/t = [kA(T1-T2)]/L Pr = AeT4 Pnet = Ae(T4-T42) U = Q W U = (3/2)nRT W = P V W = nRTln(Vf/Vi)
Augustana - AS - 315
Study Guide for Quiz #2 Astronomy 315In studying for the quiz you should concentrate on your notes and exercises. I would suggest that you do not just read them over, but test yourself on your mastery of the material. You can use the questions below
Augustana - AS - 311
Observing Template Naked Eye ObservationsObject: Location: Date and Time: Notes:Object: Location: Date and Time: Notes:
Augustana - PH - 203
Equations and Constants: Circuits and Magnetismi = q/t i0 = i1 + i2 J = i/A vd = i/(neA) R = (L/A) 0 = 0(T T0) V = iR P = iV P = i2R P = V2/R V = ir Req = R1 + R2 + R3 . 1/Req = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3 . Q = C V C = 0A/d = RC QC = CVC VC= [1-
Augustana - PH - 203
Equations and Constants: ElectricityF = (k q1 q2 )/r2 F2 = Fx2 + Fy2 Fy = F sin Fx = F cos tan = (Fy/Fx) E = F/q0 E = k q/r2 p = qd E = (1/(2 0) (p/z3) = pE sin U = -pE cos W = Uf - Ui dE = (1/(4 0) ( ds/r2) E = qz / (4 0(z2+R2)3/2) E = (/2 0)
Augustana - PH - 202
Equations and Constants: Fluids and Waves=m/V P=F/A P=p0+gh W=mg W=Vg R=Av=constant p1+1/2v12+gy1=p2+1/2v22+gy2 L= 1/2A(vt2vb2) Fo=Fi(Ao/Ai) do=di(Ai/Ao) W =Fd x=xmcos( t+ ) v= xmsin( t+ ) a= 2xmcos( t+ ) =2/T=2f F=kx =(k/m) T=2(m/k) U=kx2
Augustana - PH - 202
Equations and Constants: Opticsc=3X108m/s I=Ps/4r2 F=L/4d2 pr=I/c pr=2I/c E=Emsin(kx t) B=Bmsin(kx t) c=E/B 0=8.85X1012F/m 0=1.26X106H/m c=1/( 0 0) S=(1/ 0)EB I=(1/c 0)Erms2 I=I0 I=I0cos2 1= 1 n2sin 2=n1sin 1 c=sin1(n2/n1) B=tan1n i=p f=r 1/p+1
Augustana - PH - 202
Equations and Constants: Sound and Thermodynamicsf=nv/2L v=(B/) s=smcos(kx t) p=pmsin(kx t) pm=(v )sm L=m L=(m+) I=Ps/4r2 I=v 2sm2 =(10dB)log(I/I0) f=nv/2L f=nv/4L fbeat=f1f2 f=f(vvD/vvS) u=(/)c TC = TK -273.15 TF = 9/5 TC +32 L = L T V = V T =3
Augustana - AS - 311
Study Guide for Quiz #1 Astronomy 311: The Solar SystemIn studying for the quiz you should concentrate on your notes and exercises. I would suggest that you do not just read them over, but test yourself on your mastery of the material. You can use t
Augustana - EXPERIMENT - 2003
PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECTTHEORY When light of sufficiently high frequency falls on the surface of a metal, electrons (called photoelectrons) are emitted. It is observed that the maximum kinetic energy that may be attained by a photoelectron, KEmax, depen
Augustana - EXPERIMENT - 351
PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECTTHEORY When light of sufficiently high frequency falls on the surface of a metal, electrons (called photoelectrons) are emitted. It is observed that the maximum kinetic energy that may be attained by a photoelectron, KEmax, depen
Augustana - EXPERIMENT - 2003
The Michelson InterferometerIntroduction An interferometer is a device that can be used to measure lengths or changes in length with great accuracy by means of interference fringes. In this experiment, it will be used to measure the wavelength of a
Augustana - EXPERIMENT - 351
The Michelson InterferometerIntroduction An interferometer is a device that can be used to measure lengths or changes in length with great accuracy by means of interference fringes. In this experiment, it will be used to measure the wavelength of a
Augustana - PH - 102
EntropyPhysics 102 Professor Lee Carkner Lecture 7If an automobile engine outputs 149200 W to the drive shaft and outputs 596800 W to the radiator, what is the efficiency?W = 149200 W QC = 596800 W W = QH QC, QH = W + QC QH = 149200 + 596800 =
Augustana - PH - 313
Vapor Power CyclesThermodynamics Professor Lee Carkner Lecture 19PAL # 18 TurbinesV Power of Brayton Turbine V If the specific heats are constant (k = 1.4) can find T from (T2/T1) = (P2/P1)(k-1)/kV T2 = T1(P2/P1)(k-1)/k = (290)(8)0.4/1.4 = V
Augustana - PH - 202
Kinetic Theory of GasesPhysics 202 Professor Lee Carkner Lecture 15 Through which material will there be the most heat transfer via conduction? a) solid iron b) wood c) liquid water d) air e) vacuum Through which 2 materials will the
Augustana - PH - 202
Archimedes' Principle&quot;Got to write a book, see, to prove you're a philosopher. Then you get your . free official philosopher's loofah.&quot; Terry Pratchett, Small GodsPhysics 202 Professor Lee Carkner Lecture 2 Which of the following would d
Augustana - PH - 102
FirstLawofThermodynamicsPhysics102 ProfessorLeeCarkner Lecture5 (Session:104884)PAL#5PhaseChangeFinaltemperatureofmeltedFrosty Fourheats:WarmupFrostyto0C:micecice(0(5) MeltFrosty:miceLice WarmupmeltedFrosty:mwatercwater(Tf0) Cooldownair:maircai
Augustana - PH - 102
Ampere's LawPhysics 102 Professor Lee Carkner Lecture 18Currents and Magnetism It is also true that moving charged particles produce magnetic fields Serious magnetic fields are produced by currentsWhat is the magnitude and direction of
Augustana - PH - 102
Ohm's LawPhysics 102 Professor Lee Carkner Lecture 13Potential difference (V or V): in volts (joules per coulomb)Circuit TheoryCurrent (I): in amperes (amps, coulombs per second)I = Q/ tResistance (R):how hard it is to get current t
Augustana - PH - 313
Pure SubstancesThermodynamics Professor Lee Carkner Lecture 5PAL # 4 First LawP Pumping water uphill and then running it back to produce energy P But the pump and the turbine are only 75% efficientP Rate of power imparted to water = P Wwater =
Augustana - PH - 202
DoubleSlitDiffractionPhysics202 ProfessorLeeCarkner Lecture27Singleslitdiffraction,howbrightisspot5cm fromcenter?=680nm,a=0.25mm,D=5.5m Converty=5cmto tan=y/D,=arctan(y/D)=0.52deg NeedtofindtofindI =(a/)sin=10.5rad I=Im(sin/)2=0.007ImPAL#26D
Augustana - AS - 311
TelescopesandSpacecraftAstronomy311 ProfessorLeeCarkner Lecture7Ifitislowtidewhereyouarestanding rightnow,howmanytotalplaceson Earthareatlowtiderightnow?How manytotalplacesonEarthareathigh tiderightnow?a) b) c) a) a) 1and0 1and1 1and2 2and2 4and
Augustana - PH - 102
RCCircuitsPhysics102 ProfessorLeeCarkner Lecture15KirchhoffsRules+ I1 V=6V I2 6 I3 6 4Leftloop:66I2=0 6=6I2soI2=1A Rightloop:6I26I34I3=0 SinceI2=1,610I3=0,or6=10I3orI3=0.6A I1=I2+I3 I1=1+0.6orI1=1.6A Voltage:ForbatteryV=6V,for6,V=6I2=6V,for2
Augustana - PH - 102
Coulomb's LawPhysics 102 Professor Lee Carkner Lecture 93 m +5eForce on 2 from 1: F12 = kq1q2/r2PAL #8F12 2eF232.1 m +7eF12 = (8.99X109)(5)(1.6X1019)(2)(1.6X1019)/(32) = 2.56X1028 N Force is to left, make negative Force on 2 from 3: F23
Penn State - PHYS - 213
Physic 214 Laboratory Diffraction of Light Theory: Light that is incident upon a more slit will be diffracted and produce a diffraction pattern on a distant screen. If light with wavelength is incident upon a slit of width a, the light will interfer
Penn State - PHYS - 213
Interference of LightRefraction (a review) Character of the wave in different (transparent) media wave travels slower Index of refraction n = c/v frequency is constant (wavelength changes) Law of Refraction (Snells Law) n1 sin 1 = n2 sin 2
Penn State - PHYS - 213
Chapter 33-7 PolarizationThe Beginning of Optical Physics (Light and Optics)Transverse Wave Property (Electric Field Considered) Ancient ideaHistorical attempts to characterize light light emanates from eye to illuminate object Newton (18t
Penn State - PHYS - 212
Chapter 24 Electric PotentialRelationship between Work done by a force and ENERGY If you accelerate an object to a greater speed by applying a force you increase its kinetic energy These changes in KE are due to energy transfers: you transfer ene
Penn State - PHYS - 2
Chapter 9 Static Equilibrium; Elasticity and FractureEx. 9-7Units of Chapter 9The Conditions for Equilibrium Solving Statics Problems Applications to Muscles and Joints Stability and Balance Elasticity; Stress and Strain Fracture Spanning a Spac
Penn State - PHYS - 250
Chapter 9 Static Equilibrium; Elasticity and FractureEx. 9-7Units of Chapter 9The Conditions for Equilibrium Solving Statics Problems Applications to Muscles and Joints Stability and Balance Elasticity; Stress and Strain Fracture Spanning a Spac
Penn State - PHYS - 2
Chapter 6 Work and EnergyUnits of Chapter 6Work Done by a Constant Force Work Done by a Varying Force Kinetic Energy, and the Work-Energy Principle Potential Energy Conservative and Nonconservative Forces Mechanical Energy and Its Conservation Pro
Penn State - PHYS - 250
Chapter 6 Work and EnergyUnits of Chapter 6Work Done by a Constant Force Work Done by a Varying Force Kinetic Energy, and the Work-Energy Principle Potential Energy Conservative and Nonconservative Forces Mechanical Energy and Its Conservation Pro
Penn State - PHYS - 211
#2 The Study of Concurrent Forces with the Force TableApparatus: Force table with 4 pulleys, centering ring and string, 50 g weight hangers, slotted weights, protractors, and rulers. Discussion: The force table is designed to help you study the prop
Penn State - PHYS - 2
Chapter 4 Dynamics: Newtons Laws of MotionProb. 6 (#35 in book)Units of Chapter 4 Force Newtons First Law of Motion Mass Newtons Second Law of Motion Newtons Third Law of Motion Weight the Force of Gravity; and the Normal ForceUnits of C
Penn State - PHYS - 250
Chapter 4 Dynamics: Newtons Laws of MotionProb. 6 (#35 in book)Units of Chapter 4 Force Newtons First Law of Motion Mass Newtons Second Law of Motion Newtons Third Law of Motion Weight the Force of Gravity; and the Normal ForceUnits of C
Penn State - PHYS - 211
DYNAMICSSources of Motion (Newton's Laws of Motion)Isaac Newton 1642-1727Develops his three laws and calculus to explain the theory of planetary motion introducing gravity as the cause! Introduces a quantitative description of the causes of motio
Penn State - PHYS - 213
Physics 213 Spring 2009Dr. Leonard GambergAssociate Professor email: lpg10@psu.edu Office Luerssen-122-B Hrs. Tues, Wed 5-6pm or by appointment Phone: 610-396-6124 Fax: 610-396-6024 Course Web-stite: http:/hadron2.bk.psu.edu/ Class Schedule Mon, We
Penn State - PHYS - 211
Motion in 1-D Problem SolvingThe Major Player Isaac Newton 1642-1727 Develops Calculus to explain the theory of Mechanics F = maKinematics Dynamics We begin here in 1-DMike Gallis PSU.SL-Constant AccelerationWhen Solving a problemMake a
Penn State - PHYS - 213
Optical Instruments Telescopes Compound lens problem1 1 1 = + f ob iob pob 1 1 1 = + f eye ieye peyeObject at focal point of converging lens puts a virtual image at infinityOptics of TelescopeNewtonian Reflectorf ob m = - f eyeReflectors
Penn State - PHYS - 212
EXPERIMENTS 1 &amp; 2: ELECTRIC FIELD MAPPINGNOTE: The procedure for Exp. 1 begins on page 2 and the procedure for Exp. 2 begins on page 5.Object: To determine the nature of the electric field and equipotentials of a dipole and the relationship between
Augustana - PH - 313
StatisticalMechanicsPart1Physics313 ProfessorLeeCarkner Lecture251KineticTheory Thermodynamicpropertiesofagasaredue tomotionsoflargenumbersofgas molecules Thebehavioroftheensembleisgoverned bystatistics Theparticlesbehaveinarandomfashion
Augustana - PH - 316
PH316AUGUSTANA COLLEGEWINTER 2006-2007Deep Impact: How much time would we have to prepare? T. S. Grimes &amp; R. S. Kruidenier INTRODUCTION When considering the scenario of a possible earth impact, our eyes automatically turn to the moon. If such a
Penn State - PHYS - 2
#6 Uniform Circular MotionOBJECTIVE: To study the motion of an object undergoing uniform circular motion. DISCUSSION: An object undergoing uniform circular motion (moving with constant speed along the circumference of a circle) experiences a centrip
Penn State - PHYS - 250
#6 Uniform Circular MotionOBJECTIVE: To study the motion of an object undergoing uniform circular motion. DISCUSSION: An object undergoing uniform circular motion (moving with constant speed along the circumference of a circle) experiences a centrip
Augustana - PH - 316
Project 2: Ball on a rotating rodRyan Kruidenier Tom GrimesProblem Statement: The system treated in this problem involved a ball on a massless rod that started with an initial velocity. Using a variable ball mass, rod length, and damping constant
Penn State - PHYS - 2
Chapter 7 Linear MomentumUnits of Chapter 7Momentum and Its Relation to Force Conservation of Momentum Collisions and Impulse Conservation of Energy and Momentum in Collisions Elastic Collisions in One DimensionUnits of Chapter 7Inelastic Coll
Penn State - PHYS - 250
Chapter 7 Linear MomentumUnits of Chapter 7Momentum and Its Relation to Force Conservation of Momentum Collisions and Impulse Conservation of Energy and Momentum in Collisions Elastic Collisions in One DimensionUnits of Chapter 7Inelastic Coll
Penn State - PHYS - 2
Chapter 19 DC CircuitsUnits of Chapter 19 EMF and Terminal Voltage Resistors in Series and in Parallel Kirchhoff's Rules EMFs in Series and in Parallel; Charging a Battery Circuits Containing Capacitors in Series and in ParallelUnits of Chap
Penn State - PHYS - 250
Chapter 19 DC CircuitsUnits of Chapter 19 EMF and Terminal Voltage Resistors in Series and in Parallel Kirchhoff's Rules EMFs in Series and in Parallel; Charging a Battery Circuits Containing Capacitors in Series and in ParallelUnits of Chap
Penn State - PHYS - 2
Physics 250 Experiment #8 CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM IN A TWO-DIMENSIONAL COLLISION Objective To verify the principle of conservation of linear momentum in a collision. Note about terms and notation: The following notation is used in these instructions
Penn State - PHYS - 250
Physics 250 Experiment #8 CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM IN A TWO-DIMENSIONAL COLLISION Objective To verify the principle of conservation of linear momentum in a collision. Note about terms and notation: The following notation is used in these instructions
Penn State - PHYS - 2
#11 Simple Harmonic Motion ExperimentIn this experiment, a motion sensor is used to measure the position of an oscillating mass as a function of time. The frequency of oscillations will be obtained by measuring the velocity and acceleration of the o
Penn State - PHYS - 250
#11 Simple Harmonic Motion ExperimentIn this experiment, a motion sensor is used to measure the position of an oscillating mass as a function of time. The frequency of oscillations will be obtained by measuring the velocity and acceleration of the o