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### 6secondlaw2s

Course: PH 102, Fall 2009
School: Augustana
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Second The Law of Thermodynamics Physics 102 Professor Lee Carkner Lecture 6 PAL #6 First Law Work of 2 step process Step 1: 1 mole of gas at 300 K and 1 m3 expands to 2 m3, constant pressure W = PV, PV = nRT P = nRT/V = (1)(8.31)(300)/(1) = 2493 Pa W = PV = (P) (VfVi) W = (2493)(21) = (2493) (1) = 2493 J Step 2: Isochoric temperature drop to 300 K No volume change = no work Total work = 2493 + 0 = +2493 J W...

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Second The Law of Thermodynamics Physics 102 Professor Lee Carkner Lecture 6 PAL #6 First Law Work of 2 step process Step 1: 1 mole of gas at 300 K and 1 m3 expands to 2 m3, constant pressure W = PV, PV = nRT P = nRT/V = (1)(8.31)(300)/(1) = 2493 Pa W = PV = (P) (VfVi) W = (2493)(21) = (2493) (1) = 2493 J Step 2: Isochoric temperature drop to 300 K No volume change = no work Total work = 2493 + 0 = +2493 J W is positive since gas is expanding and work is output PAL #6 First Law Change of internal energy Start at 300 K, end at 300 K Since T = 0, U = 0 Total heat U = Q W Q = U + W = 0 + 2493 = +2493 J Heat is positive since heat flows in To balance work that goes out Engines General engine properties: A working substance (usually a gas) An output of work (W) An output of heat to a cool reservoir (QL) Papin's Device 1690 Heat and Work Over the Cycle Since the net heat is QHQL, from the first law of thermodynamics: W = QH QL e = W/QH Can also write as: e = 1 (QL /QH) The Second Law of Thermodynamics This is one way of stating the second law: It is impossible to build an engine that converts heat completely into work The first law of thermodynamics says: You cannot break even You cannot completely eliminate friction, turbulence etc. The second law of thermodynamics says: Carnot Engine eideal = 1 (TL / TH) This is the Carnot efficiency (or ideal efficiency) Any engine operating between two temperatures is less efficient than the Carnot efficiency e < eideal There is a limit as to how efficient you can make your engine Dealing With Engines W = QH QL e = W/QH = (QH QL)/QH = 1 (QL/QH) Efficiency must be less than or equal to eideal e < eideal = 1 (TL/TH) Note that heats absolute are values and T must be in Kelvin For individual parts of the cycle you can often use the ideal gas law (PV = nRT) Refrigerators A refrigerator is a device that uses work to move heat from low to high temperature The refrigerator is the device on the back of the box Your kitchen is the hot reservoir Heat QL is input from the cold reservoir, W is input power, QH is output to the hot reservoir How a Refrigerator Works Compressor (work =W) QL Heat removed from fridge by evaporation Gas Low Pressure Liquid High Pressure QH Heat added to room by condensation Expansion Valve Refrigerator Performance Input equals output: QL + W = QH COP = QL / W COP = QL/(QHQL) Unlike efficiency, COP can be greater than 1 COP for real refrigerators ~ 5 COPideal = TL /(THTL) This is the maximum COP for a fridge operating between these two temperatures (COP < COPideal) Refrigerators and the Second Law You cannot move heat from low to high temperature without the addition of work COP cannot be infinite You ...

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Augustana - PH - 102
Kirchhoff's RulesPhysics 102 Professor Lee Carkner Lecture 14PAL #13 Ohm's Law1.5 V battery, 167 A current in 1 m long, 2 mm thick wireR = V/I = 1.5/167 = 0.00898 R = (L/A) = RA/L = (0.00898)(p)(0.001)2/1 = 2.8X108 ( m)wire is aluminum3
Augustana - PH - 102
PhaseChangesPhysics102 ProfessorLeeCarkner Lecture4 Session:104884PAL#4KineticTheory50litersofagasat20Cand2atm Howmanymoles?PV=nRT,n=PV/RTConverttoSIunitsVi=50L/1000L/m3=0.05m3 Ti=20C+273.15=293.15K P=(2atm)(101300Pa/atm)=202600Pa n=(202600)
Augustana - AS - 311
Observing Template Telescope ObservationsObject: Date and Time: Notes:Object: Date and Time: Notes:Object: Date and Time: Notes:Object: Date and Time: Notes:
Augustana - PH - 102
Equations and Constants: Circuits and MagnetismC = Q/V C = 0 A/d Ceq = C1 + C2 + C3 . (parallel) 1/Ceq = 1/C1 + 1/C2 + 1/C3 . (series) Energy = 1/2QV = 1/2C(V)2 =Q2/2C I = Q/t V = IR R = L/A P = IV = I2R = (V)2/R Req = R1 + R2 + R3 . (series) 1/Re
Augustana - PH - 102
Equations and Constants: ElectricityF = ke q1 q2/r2 E = F/q0 = keq/r2 PE = -W = -Fd = qV V = Vf-Vi = PE/q V = ke q/r PE = ke q1 q2/r K.E. = mv2 W = -qV C = Q/V C = 0 A/d Ceq = C1 + C2 + C3 . (parallel) 1/Ceq = 1/C1 + 1/C2 + 1/C3 . (series) Energy
Augustana - PH - 102
Equations and Constants: Magnetism and LightB = ( 0I)/(2r) F = ( 0I1I2L)/(2d) B = 0nI =BAcos =N/t =BLv =2f = maxsin t = maxsin2ft max=NBA =LI/t L=N/I L= 0n2Al(lastsymbolislowercaseell) PEL=(1/2)LI2 (VP/VS)=(NP/NS) Irms=0.707Imax Vrms=0.707Vm
Augustana - PH - 102
Equations and Constants: Exam 1TC = TK -273.15 TF = 9/5 TC +32 L = L T = M/V V = V T = 3 P = F/A KE = (1/2) mv2rms = (3/2)kBT PV = nRT Q =mcT Q = mL Q/t = [kA(T1-T2)]/L Pr = AeT4 Pnet = Ae(T4-T42) U = Q W U = (3/2)nRT W = P V W = nRTln(Vf/Vi)
Augustana - AS - 315
Study Guide for Quiz #2 Astronomy 315In studying for the quiz you should concentrate on your notes and exercises. I would suggest that you do not just read them over, but test yourself on your mastery of the material. You can use the questions below
Augustana - AS - 311
Observing Template Naked Eye ObservationsObject: Location: Date and Time: Notes:Object: Location: Date and Time: Notes:
Augustana - PH - 203
Equations and Constants: Circuits and Magnetismi = q/t i0 = i1 + i2 J = i/A vd = i/(neA) R = (L/A) 0 = 0(T T0) V = iR P = iV P = i2R P = V2/R V = ir Req = R1 + R2 + R3 . 1/Req = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3 . Q = C V C = 0A/d = RC QC = CVC VC= [1-
Augustana - PH - 203
Equations and Constants: ElectricityF = (k q1 q2 )/r2 F2 = Fx2 + Fy2 Fy = F sin Fx = F cos tan = (Fy/Fx) E = F/q0 E = k q/r2 p = qd E = (1/(2 0) (p/z3) = pE sin U = -pE cos W = Uf - Ui dE = (1/(4 0) ( ds/r2) E = qz / (4 0(z2+R2)3/2) E = (/2 0)
Augustana - PH - 202
Equations and Constants: Fluids and Waves=m/V P=F/A P=p0+gh W=mg W=Vg R=Av=constant p1+1/2v12+gy1=p2+1/2v22+gy2 L= 1/2A(vt2vb2) Fo=Fi(Ao/Ai) do=di(Ai/Ao) W =Fd x=xmcos( t+ ) v= xmsin( t+ ) a= 2xmcos( t+ ) =2/T=2f F=kx =(k/m) T=2(m/k) U=kx2
Augustana - PH - 202
Equations and Constants: Opticsc=3X108m/s I=Ps/4r2 F=L/4d2 pr=I/c pr=2I/c E=Emsin(kx t) B=Bmsin(kx t) c=E/B 0=8.85X1012F/m 0=1.26X106H/m c=1/( 0 0) S=(1/ 0)EB I=(1/c 0)Erms2 I=I0 I=I0cos2 1= 1 n2sin 2=n1sin 1 c=sin1(n2/n1) B=tan1n i=p f=r 1/p+1
Augustana - PH - 202
Equations and Constants: Sound and Thermodynamicsf=nv/2L v=(B/) s=smcos(kx t) p=pmsin(kx t) pm=(v )sm L=m L=(m+) I=Ps/4r2 I=v 2sm2 =(10dB)log(I/I0) f=nv/2L f=nv/4L fbeat=f1f2 f=f(vvD/vvS) u=(/)c TC = TK -273.15 TF = 9/5 TC +32 L = L T V = V T =3
Augustana - AS - 311
Study Guide for Quiz #1 Astronomy 311: The Solar SystemIn studying for the quiz you should concentrate on your notes and exercises. I would suggest that you do not just read them over, but test yourself on your mastery of the material. You can use t
Augustana - EXPERIMENT - 2003
PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECTTHEORY When light of sufficiently high frequency falls on the surface of a metal, electrons (called photoelectrons) are emitted. It is observed that the maximum kinetic energy that may be attained by a photoelectron, KEmax, depen
Augustana - EXPERIMENT - 351
PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECTTHEORY When light of sufficiently high frequency falls on the surface of a metal, electrons (called photoelectrons) are emitted. It is observed that the maximum kinetic energy that may be attained by a photoelectron, KEmax, depen
Augustana - EXPERIMENT - 2003
The Michelson InterferometerIntroduction An interferometer is a device that can be used to measure lengths or changes in length with great accuracy by means of interference fringes. In this experiment, it will be used to measure the wavelength of a
Augustana - EXPERIMENT - 351
The Michelson InterferometerIntroduction An interferometer is a device that can be used to measure lengths or changes in length with great accuracy by means of interference fringes. In this experiment, it will be used to measure the wavelength of a
Augustana - PH - 102
EntropyPhysics 102 Professor Lee Carkner Lecture 7If an automobile engine outputs 149200 W to the drive shaft and outputs 596800 W to the radiator, what is the efficiency?W = 149200 W QC = 596800 W W = QH QC, QH = W + QC QH = 149200 + 596800 =
Augustana - PH - 313
Vapor Power CyclesThermodynamics Professor Lee Carkner Lecture 19PAL # 18 TurbinesV Power of Brayton Turbine V If the specific heats are constant (k = 1.4) can find T from (T2/T1) = (P2/P1)(k-1)/kV T2 = T1(P2/P1)(k-1)/k = (290)(8)0.4/1.4 = V
Augustana - PH - 202
Kinetic Theory of GasesPhysics 202 Professor Lee Carkner Lecture 15 Through which material will there be the most heat transfer via conduction? a) solid iron b) wood c) liquid water d) air e) vacuum Through which 2 materials will the
Augustana - PH - 202
Archimedes' Principle&quot;Got to write a book, see, to prove you're a philosopher. Then you get your . free official philosopher's loofah.&quot; Terry Pratchett, Small GodsPhysics 202 Professor Lee Carkner Lecture 2 Which of the following would d
Augustana - PH - 102
FirstLawofThermodynamicsPhysics102 ProfessorLeeCarkner Lecture5 (Session:104884)PAL#5PhaseChangeFinaltemperatureofmeltedFrosty Fourheats:WarmupFrostyto0C:micecice(0(5) MeltFrosty:miceLice WarmupmeltedFrosty:mwatercwater(Tf0) Cooldownair:maircai
Augustana - PH - 102
Ampere's LawPhysics 102 Professor Lee Carkner Lecture 18Currents and Magnetism It is also true that moving charged particles produce magnetic fields Serious magnetic fields are produced by currentsWhat is the magnitude and direction of
Augustana - PH - 102
Ohm's LawPhysics 102 Professor Lee Carkner Lecture 13Potential difference (V or V): in volts (joules per coulomb)Circuit TheoryCurrent (I): in amperes (amps, coulombs per second)I = Q/ tResistance (R):how hard it is to get current t
Augustana - PH - 313
Pure SubstancesThermodynamics Professor Lee Carkner Lecture 5PAL # 4 First LawP Pumping water uphill and then running it back to produce energy P But the pump and the turbine are only 75% efficientP Rate of power imparted to water = P Wwater =
Augustana - PH - 202
DoubleSlitDiffractionPhysics202 ProfessorLeeCarkner Lecture27Singleslitdiffraction,howbrightisspot5cm fromcenter?=680nm,a=0.25mm,D=5.5m Converty=5cmto tan=y/D,=arctan(y/D)=0.52deg NeedtofindtofindI =(a/)sin=10.5rad I=Im(sin/)2=0.007ImPAL#26D
Augustana - AS - 311
TelescopesandSpacecraftAstronomy311 ProfessorLeeCarkner Lecture7Ifitislowtidewhereyouarestanding rightnow,howmanytotalplaceson Earthareatlowtiderightnow?How manytotalplacesonEarthareathigh tiderightnow?a) b) c) a) a) 1and0 1and1 1and2 2and2 4and
Augustana - PH - 102
RCCircuitsPhysics102 ProfessorLeeCarkner Lecture15KirchhoffsRules+ I1 V=6V I2 6 I3 6 4Leftloop:66I2=0 6=6I2soI2=1A Rightloop:6I26I34I3=0 SinceI2=1,610I3=0,or6=10I3orI3=0.6A I1=I2+I3 I1=1+0.6orI1=1.6A Voltage:ForbatteryV=6V,for6,V=6I2=6V,for2
Augustana - PH - 102
Coulomb's LawPhysics 102 Professor Lee Carkner Lecture 93 m +5eForce on 2 from 1: F12 = kq1q2/r2PAL #8F12 2eF232.1 m +7eF12 = (8.99X109)(5)(1.6X1019)(2)(1.6X1019)/(32) = 2.56X1028 N Force is to left, make negative Force on 2 from 3: F23
Penn State - PHYS - 213
Physic 214 Laboratory Diffraction of Light Theory: Light that is incident upon a more slit will be diffracted and produce a diffraction pattern on a distant screen. If light with wavelength is incident upon a slit of width a, the light will interfer
Penn State - PHYS - 213
Interference of LightRefraction (a review) Character of the wave in different (transparent) media wave travels slower Index of refraction n = c/v frequency is constant (wavelength changes) Law of Refraction (Snells Law) n1 sin 1 = n2 sin 2
Penn State - PHYS - 213
Chapter 33-7 PolarizationThe Beginning of Optical Physics (Light and Optics)Transverse Wave Property (Electric Field Considered) Ancient ideaHistorical attempts to characterize light light emanates from eye to illuminate object Newton (18t
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Penn State - PHYS - 250
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Penn State - PHYS - 250
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Penn State - PHYS - 211
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Penn State - PHYS - 2
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Penn State - PHYS - 250
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Penn State - PHYS - 211
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Penn State - PHYS - 213
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Penn State - PHYS - 211
Motion in 1-D Problem SolvingThe Major Player Isaac Newton 1642-1727 Develops Calculus to explain the theory of Mechanics F = maKinematics Dynamics We begin here in 1-DMike Gallis PSU.SL-Constant AccelerationWhen Solving a problemMake a
Penn State - PHYS - 213
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Penn State - PHYS - 212
EXPERIMENTS 1 &amp; 2: ELECTRIC FIELD MAPPINGNOTE: The procedure for Exp. 1 begins on page 2 and the procedure for Exp. 2 begins on page 5.Object: To determine the nature of the electric field and equipotentials of a dipole and the relationship between
Augustana - PH - 313
StatisticalMechanicsPart1Physics313 ProfessorLeeCarkner Lecture251KineticTheory Thermodynamicpropertiesofagasaredue tomotionsoflargenumbersofgas molecules Thebehavioroftheensembleisgoverned bystatistics Theparticlesbehaveinarandomfashion
Augustana - PH - 316
PH316AUGUSTANA COLLEGEWINTER 2006-2007Deep Impact: How much time would we have to prepare? T. S. Grimes &amp; R. S. Kruidenier INTRODUCTION When considering the scenario of a possible earth impact, our eyes automatically turn to the moon. If such a
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Penn State - PHYS - 250
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Augustana - PH - 316
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Penn State - PHYS - 2
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Penn State - PHYS - 250
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Penn State - PHYS - 250
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