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26 Pages

### EMWaves

Course: PHY 250, Fall 2009
School: University of Dayton
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Word Count: 780

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EMWaves Electric Charge and Field Basics Fundamental charges are carried by electrons (negative) and protons (positive). Charge on the electron is 1.6 x 10-19 C Charge on the proton is + 1.6 x 10-19 C Like sign charges repel, opposite sign charges attract Ability to exert electric forces on other charges is represented by the electric field of the charge Direction of the electric field is that same as the...

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EMWaves Electric Charge and Field Basics Fundamental charges are carried by electrons (negative) and protons (positive). Charge on the electron is 1.6 x 10-19 C Charge on the proton is + 1.6 x 10-19 C Like sign charges repel, opposite sign charges attract Ability to exert electric forces on other charges is represented by the electric field of the charge Direction of the electric field is that same as the direction of the electric force that would be exerted on a positive charge when placed in the electric field Away from positive + - Toward negative Electric Charge and Field Basics Fundamental charges are carried by electrons (negative) and protons (positive). Charge on the electron is 1.6 x 10-19 C Charge on the proton is + 1.6 x 10-19 C -19 e = 1.6 x 10 C Called the elemental charge Current and Magnetic Field Basics A moving charge is called a current Moving charges have the ability to exert a second type of force on other moving charges. This force is called a magnetic force. Ability to exert magnetic forces on other charges is represented by the magnetic field of the current Direction of the magnetic field is determined by a Right Hand Rule (will not be used in this course) <a href="/keyword/electromagnetic-wave/" >electromagnetic wave</a> Basics If a charge is made to jiggle (or more appropriately accelerate) it will produce a varying electric field. If the charge oscillates with a regular period, it will produce an oscillating electric field, with all the characteristics of a wave. Charge v <a href="/keyword/electromagnetic-wave/" >electromagnetic wave</a> Basics Faraday's Law: A changing magnetic field will create an electric field. The direction of the electric field will be perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic field. Maxwell's Proposal: A changing electric field will create a magnetic field. The direction of the magnetic field will be perpendicular to the direction of the electric field. <a href="/keyword/electromagnetic-wave/" >electromagnetic wave</a> Basics James C. Maxwell (1831 1879): In 1864 presented a theory which combined both of these effects into one entity called the <a href="/keyword/electromagnetic-wave/" >electromagnetic wave</a> . Since one field was &quot;created&quot; by the other, there was no need for a medium in Maxwell's version of electromagnetic theory. In order to conserve energy, Maxwell calculated that ALL <a href="/keyword/electromagnetic-waves/" ><a href="/keyword/electromagnetic-wave/" >electromagnetic wave</a> s</a> travel at the same wave speed, 3 x 108 m/sec. 8 <a href="/keyword/electromagnetic-wave/" >electromagnetic wave</a> Basics Special Property of EM waves: * The can be created in and move though a vacuum * No medium is required for an EM wave to exist. * EM waves are the only wave phenomena that can exist without a medium <a href="/keyword/electromagnetic-wave/" >electromagnetic wave</a> Basics <a href="/keyword/electromagnetic-wave/" >electromagnetic wave</a> Basics <a href="/keyword/electromagnetic-wave/" >electromagnetic wave</a> phenomena * X-Rays * Radio Waves * Microwaves * Ultraviolet (UV) waves * Infrared (IR) waves * Light <a href="/keyword/electromagnetic-wave/" >electromagnetic wave</a> Basics The Electromagnetic Spectrum Wavelength in meters 10000 1 .0001 10-8 10-12 Radio Microwave IR UV X-Ray <a href="/keyword/electromagnetic-wave/" >electromagnetic wave</a> Basics The Electromagnetic Spectrum Wavelength in meters 10000 1 .0001 10-8 10-12 The Visible Window <a href="/keyword/electromagnetic-wave/" >electromagnetic wave</a> Basics The Electromagnetic Spectrum The range of wavelengths detectible by the average human eye Shortest detectible wavelength F 400 mn Longest detectible wavelength F 700 mn <a href="/keyword/electromagnetic-wave/" >electromagnetic wave</a> Basics Transparency of the Earth's Atmosphere Wavelength in meters 10000 1 .0001 10-8 10-12 Very transparent Partially transparent <a href="/keyword/electromagnetic-wave/" >electromagnetic wave</a> Basics Transparency of the Earth's Atmosphere Wavelength in meters 10000 1 .0001 10-8 10-12 Radio Microwave IR UV X-Ray Very transparent Partially transparent <a href="/keyword/electromagnetic-wave/" >electromagnetic wave</a> Basics Transparency of the Earth's Atmosphere Wavelength in meters 10000 1 .0001 10-8 10-12 Radio Microwave IR UV X-Ray Very transparent Partially transparent <a href="/keyword/electromagnetic-wave/" >electromagnetic wave</a> Basics Transparency of the Earth's Atmosphere Implications: Earth based astronomy is based upon the receipt and analysis of <a href="/keyword/electromagnetic-waves/" ><a href="/keyword/electromagnetic-wave/" >electromagnetic wave</a> s</a> . Astronomical observations can only be carried out at wavelengths that can penetrate through the atmo...

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University of Dayton - PHY - 3
EMWavesElectric Charge and Field BasicsFundamental charges are carried by electrons (negative) and protons (positive). Charge on the electron is 1.6 x 10-19 C Charge on the proton is + 1.6 x 10-19 C Like sign charges repel, opposite sign charges
University of Dayton - PHY - 20
The Helium Flash and Stages 10 and 11 M &lt; 8 MhThe Helium Flash and Stage 10 M &lt; 8 MhElectron degeneracy pressure: the pressure exerted by electrons caused by the confinement in the small core of a star that has left the main sequence.The Helium
University of Dayton - PHY - 250
The Helium Flash and Stages 10 and 11 M &lt; 8 MhThe Helium Flash and Stage 10 M &lt; 8 MhElectron degeneracy pressure: the pressure exerted by electrons caused by the confinement in the small core of a star that has left the main sequence.The Helium
University of Dayton - PHY - 5
The Helium Flash and Stages 10 and 11 M &lt; 8 MhThe Helium Flash and Stage 10 M &lt; 8 MhElectron degeneracy pressure: the pressure exerted by electrons caused by the confinement in the small core of a star that has left the main sequence.The Helium
University of Dayton - PHY - 250
Cygnus X1 The FirstCygnus X1In the early Seventies scientists found an intensive X-Ray source in the Cygnus Constellation. They believe that this X-Ray source is a black hole. Cygnus X-1 is an X-ray binary in the constellation Cygnus, the swan, t
University of Dayton - PHY - 6
Cygnus X1 The FirstCygnus X1In the early Seventies scientists found an intensive X-Ray source in the Cygnus Constellation. They believe that this X-Ray source is a black hole. Cygnus X-1 is an X-ray binary in the constellation Cygnus, the swan, t
University of Dayton - PHY - 250
Space WarpsSpace WarpsLight is believed to travel the shortest distance between two pointsBut. the path of light is curved in the presence of a gravitational fieldEinstein realized that the characteristics of gravity could be explained without
University of Dayton - PHY - 6
Space WarpsSpace WarpsLight is believed to travel the shortest distance between two pointsBut. the path of light is curved in the presence of a gravitational fieldEinstein realized that the characteristics of gravity could be explained without
University of Dayton - PHY - 250
The Solar SystemThe Solar SystemNebula is very hot, and generally is made of gas that is rotating.The Solar SystemHot, rotating nebula RotationSolar NebulaSmall amount of rotation about the axisLarge amount of rotation near the equator
University of Dayton - PHY - 6
The Solar SystemThe Solar SystemNebula is very hot, and generally is made of gas that is rotating.The Solar SystemHot, rotating nebula RotationSolar NebulaSmall amount of rotation about the axisLarge amount of rotation near the equator
University of Dayton - PHY - 250
NovaNovaNova Rapid increase in luminosity of a white dwarf in a binary systemRotationThe Roche lobe is the region of space around a star in a binary system within which orbiting material is gravitationally bound to that star.NovaNova Rapi
University of Dayton - PHY - 6
NovaNovaNova Rapid increase in luminosity of a white dwarf in a binary systemRotationThe Roche lobe is the region of space around a star in a binary system within which orbiting material is gravitationally bound to that star.NovaNova Rapi
University of Dayton - PHY - 250
Line SpectraWhen the particles in the solid, liquid, or gas accelerate, they will produce EM waves.Electron orbit to orbit transitions in atoms (gasses)Applicable to the study of stars (gaseous objects)Line SpectraAtomic StructureShell mode
University of Dayton - PHY - 4
Line SpectraWhen the particles in the solid, liquid, or gas accelerate, they will produce EM waves.Electron orbit to orbit transitions in atoms (gasses)Applicable to the study of stars (gaseous objects)Line SpectraAtomic StructureShell mode
University of Dayton - PHY - 20
Quantum Mechanics - Confinement The Heisenberg Uncertainty PrincipleThe Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle: The position and momentum of a particle cannot be precisely specified simultaneously.&quot;Classical physics seemed the limiting case of visualiza
University of Dayton - PHY - 5
Quantum Mechanics - Confinement The Heisenberg Uncertainty PrincipleThe Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle: The position and momentum of a particle cannot be precisely specified simultaneously.&quot;Classical physics seemed the limiting case of visualiza
University of Dayton - PHY - 250
Line SpectraWhen the particles in the solid, liquid, or gas accelerate, they will produce EM waves.Electron orbit to orbit transitions in atoms (gasses)Applicable to the study of stars (gaseous objects)Line SpectraEmission SpectrumIn accord
University of Dayton - PHY - 250
Measurements of LuminosityFor a refresher on Stefan's Law, upon which this tutorial is based, please consult the Tutorial on Continuous SpectraLuminosity (brightness) of a StarLuminosity is the amount of energy per second (Watts) emitted by the
University of Dayton - PHY - 250
Doppler Shift Astrophysics and CosmologyLonger , lower f Shorter , higher fThe Wavelengths get &quot;squished&quot; in the direction of motion, and &quot;stretched&quot; in the opposite direction.Doppler Shift Astrophysics and CosmologyLonger , lower f Shorter
University of Dayton - PHY - 250
Sun Nuclear ReactionsSunNuclear PhysicsThe work of Einstein A new view of mass:2E=mc Conceptual Implication: Mass is a highly concentrated form of energy.Therefore mass can be converted to other formsSunNuclear PhysicsHow much mass wou
University of Dayton - PHY - 250
Issues with the use of telescopes MagnificationMagnification determines how much larger the image is as compared to the size of the source of the light (the object)oMagnification = fWhere fo is the focal length of the objective fe is the focal
University of Dayton - PHY - 250
Line BroadeningLine broadening - Effect of Doppler Shifts.Spread in Wavelength True Wavelength H= H==2 x Average Velocity of Particles in the Gas Wave SpeedH=H=WavelengthLine BroadeningThe figure shows the spectrum of the sun. It is d
University of Dayton - PHY - 250
Two Body Systems Based on Keplers First LawTwo Body Systems Based on Keplers First LawXFocusClose window to end programTwo Body Systems Based on Keplers First LawXFocusClose window to end programTwo Body Systems Based on Keplers
University of Dayton - PHY - 250
Hertzsprung Russell DiagramA plot of the luminosity as a function of the surface temperature for different radii stars.Hertzsprung Russell DiagramShow all the steps, including the non-dimensionalization process, to demonstrate that a plot of th
University of Dayton - PHY - 250
Spectral Types Continuous SpectraStellar SpectraSince for a photonE=hfThe energy carried by the photon determines the position of the electromagnetic wave on in the electromagnetic spectrum. If the resulting frequency is within the visible win
University of Dayton - PHY - 250
Measurements of Star PropertiesFor a refresher on Trigonometry, please consult the Tutorial on Measurement BasicsCommon Name SunScientific NameDistance (light years) -Apparent Magnitude -26.72Absolute Magnitude 4.8Spectral Type G2VPro
University of Dayton - PHY - 250
Keplers Laws 1. The orbits of the planets are ellipses, with the sun at one focus of the ellipse. 2. The line joining the planet to the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times as the plates travels around the ellipse. 3. The ratio of the squares of
University of Dayton - PHY - 250
Trigonometry Tutorial* Right Triangles * Tangents * Small Angle Approximation * Triangulation * Parallax Trianglesr OppositeTrianglesWr Trianglesrd Adjacent TriangleswrdTan = Opposite/Adjacent = w/d
University of Dayton - PHY - 250
Comparative Planetology Determining Planet CharacteristicsMost of what is in this tutorial is a review of information contained in past tutorialsPlease refer to the previous tutorials to reinforce the information contained in this tutorialThe A
University of Dayton - SCI - 190
John E. ErdeiINTEGRATED NATURAL SCIENCE SEQUENCE (INSS) SCI190 Fall 2008 Science Center 101B 92318 John.Erdei@notes.udayton.edu Mon Thrs 9:00 am 10:30 am 1:00 pm 2:30 pm Office of the Dean: O'Reilly Hall 104A 92604Physics:Office Hours:Web P
University of Dayton - SCI - 190
John E. ErdeiINTEGRATED NATURAL SCIENCE SEQUENCE (INSS) SCI190 Fall 2007 Science Center 101B 92318 John.Erdei@notes.udayton.edu Mon Thrs 9:00 am 10:30 am 1:00 pm 2:30 pm Office of the Dean: O'Reilly Hall 104A 92604Physics:Office Hours:Web P
University of Dayton - SCI - 190
Part 2, B: MOTION Newton's Laws Fnet2Net force is the vector sum of the individual forces7N2N5NPart 2, B: MOTION Newton's Laws2Part 2, B: MOTION Newton's Laws2Part 2, B: MOTION Newton's Laws2Example: An object sits at rest on
University of Dayton - SCI - 190
123456Destructive Interference Active Noise Reduction (ANR)Koss Noise Reduction Headphones7Destructive Interference Active Noise Reduction (ANR)Koss Noise Reduction HeadphonesThis revolutionary Active Noise Reduction (ANR) ste
University of Dayton - SCI - 190
University of Dayton - SCI - 190
1234Part 2, B: MOTION Newton's Laws Fnet2Net force is the vector sum of the individual forces7N2N5N5Part 2, B: MOTION Newton's Laws26Part 2, B: MOTION Newton's Laws27Part 2, B: MOTION Newton's Laws2Example: An ob
University of Dayton - SCI - 190
Part 2, B: MOTION Derived Quantity - Acceleration An object is moving with a speed of 3 m/sec and accelerates at 4 m/sec . What is its speed after 1 sec, 2 sec, etc?Part 2, B: MOTION Derived Quantity - Acceleration An object is moving with a speed
University of Dayton - SCI - 190
15 Part 2, A: THERMODYNAMICS 6 WORK Definition (Young): Energy is the capacity to do work.16 Part 2, A: THERMODYNAMICS 56 WORK Definition (Young): Energy is the capacity to do work. W = Fd W F d is the work done (Joules) is the applied force (Newto
University of Dayton - SCI - 190
MotionInertiaPart 2, B: MOTION Newton's Vis Viva - Momentum Momentum: p = mv So what?2Part 2, B: MOTION Newton's Vis Viva - Momentum Recall: av=at ma v = ma t ap=Ft2Part 2, B: MOTION Newton's Vis Viva - Momentum Definition: a p is called
University of Dayton - SCI - 190
Part 3(e): Atomic Physics Bohr Model of the Atom Important point: * Each atom has a unique set of orbits * Each atom produces a unique set of wavelengths when it produces em wavesPart 3(e): Atomic Physics Bohr Model of the Atom Important point: * E
University of Dayton - SCI - 190
Astrophysics and CosmologyHow do we know what we know about the universe around us?Astrophysics and CosmologyHow do we know what we know about the universe around us? The farthest from the Earth we have been to return direct evidence has been Mar
University of Dayton - SCI - 190
Part 2, A: THERMODYNAMICS Ideal Gas Relationships - Equation of State3An equation of state is a relationship between the pressure, volume, and temperature of a system. In thermodynamics, pressure, volume, and temperature define the state of the s
University of Dayton - SCI - 190
E = F/q
University of Dayton - SCI - 190
Motion Newton's Laws1. Every body continues in its state of rest or uniform motion unless it is acted upon by a net external force. 2. The acceleration of a body is equal to the net force acting on the body divided by the mass of the body.NETa=F
University of Dayton - SCI - 190
1Motion* Why do all objects &quot;seem&quot; to fall at the same rate? * What is the relationship between force and motion? * Why do like really big slow moving ships run into like really big stationary continents?2MotionVis Insita Power of Resting3
University of Dayton - SCI - 190
1Fundamental Quantities and UnitsFundamental Quantity MKS Unit2Fundamental Quantities and UnitsFundamental Quantity * Length MKS Unit (Meters)3Fundamental Quantities and UnitsFundamental Quantity * Length * Mass MKS Unit (Meters) (Kilogr
University of Dayton - SCI - 190
Part 2, A: THERMODYNAMICS 2 Conservation of Energy Heat WorkKinetic EnergyChemical Energy1Part 2, A: THERMODYNAMICS Kinetic Theory Kinetic Energy3TemperatureHeat2Part 2, A: THERMODYNAMICS Kinetic Theory Kinetic Energy4Temperature
University of Dayton - SCI - 190
E = F/q
University of Dayton - SCI - 190
Line SpectraLine Spectrum of Hydrogen Gas
University of Dayton - SCI - 190
15 Part 2, A: THERMODYNAMICS 6 WORK Definition (Young): Energy is the capacity to do work.16 Part 2, A: THERMODYNAMICS 56 WORK Definition (Young): Energy is the capacity to do work. W = Fd W F d is the work done (Joules) is the applied force (Newto
University of Dayton - SCI - 190
123Standing Waves What determines the &quot;standing wave patterns&quot; that can be achieved in a system?4Standing Waves What determines the &quot;standing wave patterns&quot; that can be achieved in a system? * The length of the system5Standing Waves Wha
University of Dayton - SCI - 190
Motion Newton's LawsI'd rather be a hammer than a nail.- Simon and Garfunkel1Motion Newton's Laws1. Every body continues in its state of rest or uniform motion unless it is acted upon by a net external force. 2. The acceleration of a body i
University of Dayton - SCI - 190
12345MotionVectorsQuantity Distance Speed Acceleration Symbol d v a d/t v/t Definition Units m m/s m/s2 Quantity Symbol Definition UnitThe symbol &quot; means &quot;Change in&quot;6MotionVectorsQuantity Distance Speed Acceleration Symbol d v a d/
University of Dayton - SCI - 190
Part 2, A: THERMODYNAMICS2Anaximander: Two sets of opposites - wet and dry, hot and cold. Empedocles: First to detail the theory of the four elements - earth, wind, water, and fire.1Fundamental Quantities and UnitsFundamental Quantity * Lengt
University of Dayton - SCI - 190
How do we know what we know about the universe around us?How do we know what we know about the universe around us?Moving one step closer to finding the fingerprints of life in a habitable planet beyond the solar system, astronomers have for the f
University of Dayton - PHY - 206
Chapter 2 Motionin One Dimension2008 by W.H. Freeman and Company2-1 DisplacementThere is a distinction between distance and displacement.Displacement (blue line) is how far the object is from its starting point, regardless of how it got there.
University of Dayton - PHY - 206
Chapter 3 Motion in Two and Three Dimensions; VectorsVectors and ScalarsA vector has magnitude as well as direction. Some vector quantities: displacement, velocity, force, momentum A scalar has only a magnitude. Some scalar quantities: mass, time,
University of Dayton - PHY - 202
Chapter 27 Early Quantum Theory and Models of the Atom27.2 Plancks Quantum Hypothesis; Blackbody RadiationAll objects emit radiation whose total intensity is proportional to the fourth power of their temperature. This is called thermal radiation;
University of Dayton - PHY - 202
Wave Nature of LightRefraction Interference Young's double slit experiment Diffraction Single slit diffraction Diffraction grating24. Wave Nature of Light24.1 Waves Versus Particles; Huygens' Principle and DiffractionHuygens' principle: Every
University of Dayton - PHY - 202
PHYSICS 202, WINTER 2007 Please note that this syllabus is subject to change!Instructor: Dr. Mo Ahoujja Office: SC013 Phone: 229-2735 Email: Mo.ahoujja@notes.udayton.edu Homepage: http:/campus.udayton.edu/~physics/ma/ma.htm Office Hours: MWF: 1:00-2
University of Dayton - PHY - 202
Practice Test #3- Chapters 23, 24 and 27 from Giancoli 5ed1. A real object is placed 10 cm from a converging lens that has a focal length of 6 cm. Which statement is most accurate? a. b. c. d. The The The The image image image image is is is is rea
University of Dayton - PHY - 202
Practice Test #3- Chapters 23, 24 and 27 from Giancoli 5ed1. A real object is placed 10 cm from a converging lens that has a focal length of 6 cm. Which statement is most accurate? a. b. c. d. The The The The image image image image is is is is rea