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### TutorialTheSunNuclearReactions

Course: PHY 250, Fall 2009
School: University of Dayton
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Word Count: 840

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Nuclear Sun Reactions Sun Nuclear Physics The work of Einstein A new view of mass: 2 E=mc Conceptual Implication: Mass is a highly concentrated form of energy. Therefore mass can be converted to other forms Sun Nuclear Physics How much mass would be required to operate a 200 Megawatt power plant for one year? Note: The total amount of energy required to operate the facility for a year is 6.4 x 1015 Joules....

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Nuclear Sun Reactions Sun Nuclear Physics The work of Einstein A new view of mass: 2 E=mc Conceptual Implication: Mass is a highly concentrated form of energy. Therefore mass can be converted to other forms Sun Nuclear Physics How much mass would be required to operate a 200 Megawatt power plant for one year? Note: The total amount of energy required to operate the facility for a year is 6.4 x 1015 Joules. Solution: m c2 = 6.4 x 1015 Joules m= 6.4 x 1015 (3 x 108)2 = 6.4 x 1015 9 x 1016 = .071 kg = 71 g Note: the mass of a paperclip is about 1 g Sun Nuclear Physics The Suns Core The nuclear reaction that produces the energy in the core of the sun is 4 ( 1H ) 4He + energy + 2 neutrinos Given the following information: Mass of 1H = 1.6736 x 10-27 Kg Mass of 4He = 6.6466 x 10-27 Kg What is the mass on the left side of this reaction? Left Side 1 Total Mass = 4 times the mass of H -27 Sun Nuclear Physics The Suns Core The nuclear reaction that produces the energy in the core of the sun is 4 ( 1H ) 4He + energy + 2 neutrinos Given the following information: Mass of 1H = 1.6736 x 10-27 Kg Mass of 4He = 6.6466 x 10-27 Kg What is the mass on the right side of this reaction? Since there is no mass associated with the energy or the neutrinos on the right side, Right Side -27 Total Mass = 6.6466 x 10 kg Sun Nuclear Physics The Suns Core The nuclear reaction that produces the energy in the core of the sun is 4 ( 1H ) 4He + energy + 2 neutrinos Given the following information: Mass of 1H = 1.6736 x 10-27 Kg Mass of 4He = 6.6466 x 10-27 Kg What is the difference in mass in this reaction? -29 hm = 4.77 x 10 kg Sun Nuclear Physics The Suns Core The nuclear reaction that produces the energy in the core of the sun is 4 ( 1H ) 4He + energy + 2 neutrinos Given the following information: Mass of 1H = 1.6736 x 10-27 Kg Mass of 4He = 6.6466 x 10-27 Kg How much energy is released in this reaction? 2 -12 Energy = um c = 4.3 x 10 Joules per reaction Sun Nuclear Physics The Suns Core How many nuclear reactions per second are required to account for the luminosity of the sun? 26 Recall that he luminosity of the sun is 4 x 10 J/sec. To determine the number of reactions per second, we must know the total energy released per second by the sun, and divide by the amount of energy per reaction, that is, Number of reactions per second = total energy per second/energy per reaction Therefore, 26 -12 Reactions per second = (4 x 10 J/sec) / 4.3 x 10 37 Joules/reaction Sun Nuclear The Physics Suns Core A kilogram of mass is equivalent to how much every (assume a perfect conversion of mass into energy)? Another way to think about it how many joules of energy are contained in 1 kg of mass? Recall 2 E=mc Therefore 2 8 2 16 E/m = c = (3 x 10 m/sec) = 9 x 10 J/kg Sun Nuclear Physics The Suns Core A The units in the calculation of the previous slide should be m2 / sec2 . How did they magically become J/kg? The fundamental MKS units of the Joule is 2 2 Joule kg m / sec If you dont remember this, think about he MKS units on Kinetic Energy It should be clear, therefore, that 2 2 Joule / kg m / sec And that the units on the previous slide are correct Sun Nuclear Physics The Suns Core Given the luminosity of the sun, how many kilograms of mass are being converted to energy in 1 second? The mass converted per second can be determine by knowing the J/sec produced by the sun (luminosity) and dividing that number the by the J/ kg calculated in the previous calculation. Therefore Mass / second = (Luminosity of the Sun) / (Energy Mass Equivalent) 26 16 = (4 x 10 J/sec) / (9 x 10 J/Kg) 9 = 4.4 x 10 kg/sec !!! Sun Nuclear Physics The Suns Core How many hydrogen nuclei are converted into Helium every second in the core of the sun? Our discussions in class show that 4 hydrogen nuclei participate in the creation of each helium nucleus. As a result, the number of hydrogen being converted each second can be determine by mu...

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University of Dayton - PHY - 250
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University of Dayton - PHY - 250
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University of Dayton - PHY - 250
Spectral Types Continuous SpectraStellar SpectraSince for a photonE=hfThe energy carried by the photon determines the position of the electromagnetic wave on in the electromagnetic spectrum. If the resulting frequency is within the visible win
University of Dayton - PHY - 250
Measurements of Star PropertiesFor a refresher on Trigonometry, please consult the Tutorial on Measurement BasicsCommon Name SunScientific NameDistance (light years) -Apparent Magnitude -26.72Absolute Magnitude 4.8Spectral Type G2VPro
University of Dayton - PHY - 250
Keplers Laws 1. The orbits of the planets are ellipses, with the sun at one focus of the ellipse. 2. The line joining the planet to the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times as the plates travels around the ellipse. 3. The ratio of the squares of
University of Dayton - PHY - 250
Trigonometry Tutorial* Right Triangles * Tangents * Small Angle Approximation * Triangulation * Parallax Trianglesr OppositeTrianglesWr Trianglesrd Adjacent TriangleswrdTan = Opposite/Adjacent = w/d
University of Dayton - PHY - 250
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John E. ErdeiINTEGRATED NATURAL SCIENCE SEQUENCE (INSS) SCI190 Fall 2008 Science Center 101B 92318 John.Erdei@notes.udayton.edu Mon Thrs 9:00 am 10:30 am 1:00 pm 2:30 pm Office of the Dean: O'Reilly Hall 104A 92604Physics:Office Hours:Web P
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University of Dayton - SCI - 190
Part 2, B: MOTION Newton's Laws Fnet2Net force is the vector sum of the individual forces7N2N5NPart 2, B: MOTION Newton's Laws2Part 2, B: MOTION Newton's Laws2Part 2, B: MOTION Newton's Laws2Example: An object sits at rest on
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University of Dayton - SCI - 190
University of Dayton - SCI - 190
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15 Part 2, A: THERMODYNAMICS 6 WORK Definition (Young): Energy is the capacity to do work.16 Part 2, A: THERMODYNAMICS 56 WORK Definition (Young): Energy is the capacity to do work. W = Fd W F d is the work done (Joules) is the applied force (Newto
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MotionInertiaPart 2, B: MOTION Newton's Vis Viva - Momentum Momentum: p = mv So what?2Part 2, B: MOTION Newton's Vis Viva - Momentum Recall: av=at ma v = ma t ap=Ft2Part 2, B: MOTION Newton's Vis Viva - Momentum Definition: a p is called
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Part 3(e): Atomic Physics Bohr Model of the Atom Important point: * Each atom has a unique set of orbits * Each atom produces a unique set of wavelengths when it produces em wavesPart 3(e): Atomic Physics Bohr Model of the Atom Important point: * E
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Astrophysics and CosmologyHow do we know what we know about the universe around us?Astrophysics and CosmologyHow do we know what we know about the universe around us? The farthest from the Earth we have been to return direct evidence has been Mar
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Part 2, A: THERMODYNAMICS Ideal Gas Relationships - Equation of State3An equation of state is a relationship between the pressure, volume, and temperature of a system. In thermodynamics, pressure, volume, and temperature define the state of the s
University of Dayton - SCI - 190
E = F/q
University of Dayton - SCI - 190
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1Motion* Why do all objects &quot;seem&quot; to fall at the same rate? * What is the relationship between force and motion? * Why do like really big slow moving ships run into like really big stationary continents?2MotionVis Insita Power of Resting3
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University of Dayton - SCI - 190
E = F/q
University of Dayton - SCI - 190
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University of Dayton - SCI - 190
15 Part 2, A: THERMODYNAMICS 6 WORK Definition (Young): Energy is the capacity to do work.16 Part 2, A: THERMODYNAMICS 56 WORK Definition (Young): Energy is the capacity to do work. W = Fd W F d is the work done (Joules) is the applied force (Newto
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Motion Newton's LawsI'd rather be a hammer than a nail.- Simon and Garfunkel1Motion Newton's Laws1. Every body continues in its state of rest or uniform motion unless it is acted upon by a net external force. 2. The acceleration of a body i
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University of Dayton - PHY - 206
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PHYSICS 202, WINTER 2007 Please note that this syllabus is subject to change!Instructor: Dr. Mo Ahoujja Office: SC013 Phone: 229-2735 Email: Mo.ahoujja@notes.udayton.edu Homepage: http:/campus.udayton.edu/~physics/ma/ma.htm Office Hours: MWF: 1:00-2
University of Dayton - PHY - 202
Practice Test #3- Chapters 23, 24 and 27 from Giancoli 5ed1. A real object is placed 10 cm from a converging lens that has a focal length of 6 cm. Which statement is most accurate? a. b. c. d. The The The The image image image image is is is is rea
University of Dayton - PHY - 202
Practice Test #3- Chapters 23, 24 and 27 from Giancoli 5ed1. A real object is placed 10 cm from a converging lens that has a focal length of 6 cm. Which statement is most accurate? a. b. c. d. The The The The image image image image is is is is rea
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PHY202Practice-Test 1Winter, 20031. What is the magnitude and direction of the electric field at a point midway between a 8 C and a +6.0 C charge 4.0 cm apart? a. b. c. d. 3.2x108 N/C, toward the negative charge 3.2x108 N/C, toward the positive
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Practice Test 2 (chapters 20, 21, 22, and 23 from Giancoli).Mar3, 031. What is the strength of a magnetic field 4.0 cm from a long straight wire carrying 3.0 A of current? 2. Two long parallel wires carry currents of 5.0 A and 8.0 A in the same d
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B due to a moving point charge Biot-Savart law: B due to a current element B on the axis of a current loop B inside a solenoid B due to an infinite long straight wire Ampere's Law: Note: Ampere's law is valid only if currents are continuous with a hi
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SCI190,Fall of 2005Instructor: Dr. Mo Ahoujja Office: Sherman SC013 Phone: 92735 (229 2735 off campus) E-mail: mo.ahoujja@notes.udayton.edu Homepage: http:/www.udayton.edu/~physics/ma/ma.htm Office Hours: Mon. 3-4, Wed. 11-12, Tue. 11:45-12:45, or b
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PHYSICS 206, WINTER of 2006 Please note that this syllabus is subject to change!Instructor: Dr. Mo Ahoujja Office: SC013 Phone: 229-2735 Email: mo.ahoujja@notes.udayton.edu Homepage: http:/www.udayton.edu/~physics/ma/ma.htm Office Hours: MWF: 11:00-
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Review for test4 Chapter 22chapters 22, 24, 25, and 26Like charges repel and unlike charges attract. Electric force between two charges is proportional to the product of the charges divided by the square of the distance between the two charges. G
University of Dayton - SCI - 190
SCI190,Fall of 2008 Note that this syllabus is subject to change!Instructor: Dr. Mo Ahoujja Office: Sherman SC013 Phone: 92735 (229 2735 off campus) E-mail: mo.ahoujja@notes.udayton.edu Homepage: http:/campus.udayton.edu/~physics/ma/ma.htm Office Ho
University of Dayton - PHY - 207
PHY20702 3010827 2863680 3006583 3018016 3079352 3035215 3005433 3006612 3033386 2979889 3060505 3040192 3009359 2823718 3060463 3053660 3006555 3044152 3014471 3018910 3006547 3036672 3060426 3025514 3030896 2774642 2974179 3006526 3227976 3014200 2
University of Dayton - PHY - 207
PHYSICS 207, FALL 2006Instructor: Dr. Mo Ahoujja Office: SC013 Phone: 229-2735 Email: mo.ahoujja@notes.udayton.edu Homepage: http:/www.udayton.edu/~physics/ma/ma.htm Office Hours: MWF: 1-2, or by appointment. Note that this syllabus is subject to ch
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Intermediate Mechanics IIExam2 Take-HomeNovember 14, 2006The following problems are due at the beginning of class on Monday, 4 December 2006. Problem 1. (25 pts.) A massless rigid rod of length l is attached at one end to an electric motor and
University of Dayton - SCI - 190
Chapter 6Momentum = mass times Momentum = m v velocityWhich has a greater momentum, a heavy truck at rest or a moving skateboard? What is the magnitude of the momentum of a 100 kg bike moving at 14 m/s? What is the magnitude of the momentum of a 0
University of Dayton - PHY - 206
PHYSICS 206, Fall of 2008 Please note that this syllabus is subject to change!Instructor: Dr. Mo Ahoujja Office: Sherman SC013 Phone: 92735 (229 2735 off campus) E-mail: mo.ahoujja@notes.udayton.edu Homepage: http:/campus.udayton.edu/~physics/ma/ma.
University of Dayton - PHY - 206
Practice Test#3 (Chapters 8,9, and 10 From Tipler) 1.The center of mass of the system of particles shown in the diagram is at point A) 1 B) 2 C) 3 D) 4 E) 52. A boy and girl on ice skates face each other. The girl has a mass of 20 kg and the boy
University of Dayton - PHY - 206
Practice Test 2 1. A mass m is traveling at an initial speed v0 = 25.0 m/s. It is brought to rest in a distance of 62.5 m by a force of 15.0 N. What is the mass m?2.Which of the following free-body diagrams represents the block sliding down a fri
University of Dayton - PHY - 201
PHY 201 Summer 1st Session, 2008Instructor: Dr. Mo Ahoujja Office: SC 013 Phone: 229-2735 e-mail: mo.ahoujja@notes.udayton.edu Webpage : http:/campus.udayton.edu/~physics/ma/ma.htmTEXT: Giancoli, Physics, 6th Ed. 2005 Course Description and Object
University of Dayton - PHY - 207
Practice Test 3 1. (a) An AC voltage source has an output given by = 200 sin t. This source is connected to a 100 resistor. Find the peak (maximum) and rms current in the circuit. (2 A, 1.41A)(b) An inductor L = 25 mH is connected to a source whos
University of Dayton - PHY - 206
Practice Test#4 (Chapters 11 and 14 From Tipler)1. The moon has a period of 27.3 d (days) and is an average distance from the earth of 3.84 105 km. A communications satellite is placed in an earth orbit at 4.23 104 km from the center of the earth
University of Dayton - PHY - 207
PHY207 Fall 2005Exam1Name(print)NOTE: For full credit, you must show your work! Some useful constants and information:Volume of a sphere of radius R : V = 4/3 R3 Area of a sphere of radius R : A = 4 R2e = 1.60x10-19 C, k = 8.99x109 N.m2/C2
University of Dayton - PHY - 206
Practice Test#3 ( Chapters 8,9, and 10 from Tipler) M r cm = mi ri ;i p = mv ; ;Fnet ,exttf dp = dt = t;1 K = mv 2 2; U = mghI = F dt = P ;tiF avIv2 f - v1 f = -(v2i - v1i );relative speed of particles in an elast
University of Dayton - PHY - 206
Practice Test#4 (Chapters 11 and 14 From Tipler)1. The moon has a period of 27.3 d (days) and is an average distance from the earth of 3.84 105 km. A communications satellite is placed in an earth orbit at 4.23 104 km from the center of the earth