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5 Chapter The Romans Greeks Hubris pride Miora fate Civic duty had to do whatever was called on them to do. Destiny The Grandeur of Rome From republic to empire Romans had very personal hubris, they sort of believed in fate, but they believed they could control fate. They believed that a Roman was destined to rule the world. They never considered that they were too far from home when they went to Great Britain. They never ever assumed they were wrong or that others shouldn't bow down and worship them. o The Roman Timeline C. 1500 B.C. Settlement 753 The city C. 500 BC The Republic 133 27 BC the Roman Revolt 27 476 A.D. The Empire west 27 B.C. 1543 A.D the Empire (east) The Great Copy Cats o Claimed to the world that they invented things.... o Legneds Romulus and Remus twins raised by wolves Romulus kills Remus and then they name the city Rome Aeneas Trojan war hero, ended up hitting the Italian peninsula and hit the city of Rome. o Truth Etruscans Greeks Latins Itali, Etc... Roman Virtues o GENS (clan) eldest male was the leader o FAMILY Paterfamilias father could do whatever he wanted with his family. o Status status, patrician, plebeian, indicated what you would do with your life. o Politics upper class council, two per year, if you didn't make it your status went down. o DUTY Cincinnatus Roman General, guarded a bridge and repelled the invaders o PATRON Client Family Values o Exposure o One Girl, two boys girl used to marry out, and second boy was in hopes that he would be adopted o Education for both o Marriage Distinctions Three levels Forever Marriage with possibility of divorce Let's shack up and then part temporary arrangement o Culture loved the arts and games o Bathing where most business arrangements were made o Dining dinner parties, multi-course banquet, 27 courses, had to eat something at every course Every Roman had a vomitorium Did not bring wives o Conversation was political, gossip, economic, and sometimes governmental decisions were made Status Counts o Patrician if you had history back to 753 B.C. and you could wear a purple stripe on your toga, Thickness of stripe determined how much status you had. GENS had the largest one o Plebeian had status, you were a Roman o Everyone Else Barbaric Tribunes 494 BC o Veto o Stand in senate, not allowed to participate and vote but can veto things they don't like Praetors Roman Magistrate Dictators The struggle of the Orders (check in book) Plebians Guarantees against abuses Wealthy plebeians disfranchised Withdrew, elected tribunes Law of the Twelve Tables written (read) Education spreads to the middle classes Plebeians could hold offices both sacred and political Could marry patricians Created Middle class of knights were not Patrician, but had more rights than Plebeians The Republic King (priest) 794 2 consuls the 2 consuls and 2 tribunes the only thing the Romans could do against Hannibla was sent a Roman general, Scipio to carthage and he attacked Carthage. Hannibal went to save them, that took them out of Italy thus ending the Second Punic War * Roman Senator named Cato Began speeches on Taxation and always say that Carthage must be destroyed Romans decided to destroy Carthage Third Punic war, three years, destroyed the city and transported every citizen as a slave o Carthage was Rome's first Province o Increased the number of slaves in the Roman Empire Down side Roman's didn't have to work because slaves did it for them Hannibal had done a lot of damage to the agriculture because he ruined farmland o Rome compensated for this by taking provinces and making farmers pay grain taxes Farmers could not raise enough money to pay taxes and then moved to Rome and sat around with no jobs because the slaves had them all Riots o Welfare was created Free bread/grain and entertainment for the poor, free entertainment, keep them off the street corners Rome was unbalanced because there was an entire class of citizens that did nothing. THE THING THAT DESTROYED THE REPUBLIC o Romans joined the Army After twenty years of service they were abandoned, no pension Ex-military men began to demand for pension and land Romans didn't want to do that DICTATORSHIPS Roman generals that conquered lands and turned them into provinces Marius violate custom by holding office longer than they should pursued by Senators but were not killed Sula consul 7 times Gracchus Tiberius Roman Senate killed them Gracchus Gaius fell on his sword J.C. great grandmother was Venus Julius Caesar o The First triumvirate Julius Caesar, Pompei, and Crassus Crassus was very right Pompei was accomplished General Pompei went to Egypt Egypt wanted to by free, and Cleopatra and Ptolemy killed Pompei Crassus was killed Julius Caesar had a great ego Senate didn't realize that Caesar helped their country out A LOT Julius' Death brings in the Second Triumvirate o Octavian Caesar's adopted son Was very upset that they killed him o 2nd Lepidas, Mark Antony and Octavian o Lepidas recognized that Octavian was brighter than people thought and went to Africa o Antony goes to Egypt and falls in love with Cleopatra Convinces Cleopatra to build him a fleet to go attack Oct. In a bay called ?????? Antony lost and they killed themselves This leaves Octavian in charge o By taking Egypt, they solved the food problem, there were three crops per year o Everyone assumed Octavian was going to fail and he showed them by becoming the first Emperor of Rome The ROMAN Empire From Octavian to Romulus OCTAVIAN Became Augustus comes down in history as Augustus Caesar o Caesar gets translated into King Pontifex Maximus chief priest Princeps first citizen Never ever used the title Emperor Senate remained powerful o He controlled the Senate by adding more and more people o Assemblies became useless Appointed Provincial Governors Rule Under Octavian Army became powerful Army will eventually choose emperors o Augustus controlled rich provinces and made sure that their tax money was not skimmed off o Rome began garrisoning provinces tried to make "one world" by globalizing They were accepting of different races of people o Augustus Deified on death thus creating the Emperor status o Emperors picked their successor When the provinces started to thumb their noses at Rome is when the fall of Rome came. The Pax Romana Augustus became Princeps in 770 BCE Roman Empire worked well until about 180 A.D. No succession by law Provincial Governors had Legions and so they stayed fairly stable Built baths, temples, roads, and circuses Used Tax Farmers locals The Church Inherits As Rome fell, the Church rose 10/17/2007 8:58:00 AM Eventually....Entire western world is ruled by religion, politics is on the down slide. The Church Appealed to the lower class because as Rome fell, life got tough. Had to work to get food. Basically said put up with this life on earth because you will get your reward in Heaven. Appealed to women for the same reasons, women had no rights and were treated almost equally in the church. Women ran the church at first. o They could go to a nunnery rather than marrying and having children Spread by the apostle Paul through his letter writing Rumors about services because they didn't change the rules...two year apprenticeship before you could be baptized ... Saturday before Easter...Rumors said that Christians ate babies...Eucharist Christianity Took Over by accident It used Roman habits Parish = neighborhood - Priest Diocese = city plus farmland is the plus - Biship Archdiocese = province Arch Bishop Jobs were divided Regular clergy lived by rules, were the real Christians, closed community Bennedictive Rule poverty, chastity, and ??? o Monks o Nuns o Hermits thought God was forgetting about the people SIMEON STYLITES went out in the desert in Judea, built a pillar, made a platform and spent the rest of his life praying on the platform to God. The other clergy, secular clergy, interacted with people. o Too Tithe, 10% of income. o Had Parishes As Life became hard Regular clergy become most important o Provide the bulk of services to the population Monasteries Schools Scriptoria book copying places Hospitals Inns Orphanages Refuges for unmarried Secular Clergy o Provided services Daily Communion Married Buried Took taxes Collected Records only place you could find anything out about the local population was the parish. Church Fathers o St. Jerome Translated Bible from Greek to Latin o St. Benedict Monastic Rule poverty, chastity, obedience o St. Augustine of Hippo Confessions City of God Changed in Structure Dionysius Exiguus o Easter o AD/BC Influence of Ostrogoths, Lombards in Italy Papal States o Donations of Pepin false it was forged Spain became a Kingdom Visigosths 418 711 o Anti-Semitic Muslim Conquest Spread to France Muslim kingdom spread into France Defeated by Charles Martel 732, Tours in north central France o Stayed in Spain and Christianity took over, pushed Muslims down farther and farther and 1492, defeated the Muslims, established the Spanish monarch at that point as the most powerful monarchy in the European world The Middle Ages the early kingdoms create lasting institutions 10/17/2007 8:58:00 AM variety of different small kingdoms that ruled... The Anglo Saxons Germanic tradition customs, Christmas Trees, worshipping Woden?!?! o Island of Britain o 6th or 7th century o collection of varied ethnic groups o anglo islanders o Saxons germanic barbarians that had been living on the edge of the Roman Empire Trial By ordeal not the twelve tables anymore, cut your hand, or stick your hand in boiling water if your wound is healing you are innocent. Most were guilty. Trial by compurgation no actual testimony. Decision based on neighbor's description of her character. o neither has much to do with justice, the rights of the individual or evidence of the crime Wergeld War Gold - personal worth upper class are worth more than lower class and slaves, which are very low. If person that is responsible for the crime cannot pay his wergeld then the other family is entitled to kill him. Accomplishments Monasteries o Scriptoria - scripts o Jarrow one of the largest libraries in the world because Monks were busy copying books, as books were being destroyed, church began collecting The Venerable Bede o The Ecclesiastical History of the English People gives us SOME idea of what is going on o AD/BC Lindisfarne monastery Alfred the Great Wise ruler o Dealt with the issue of continual Irish barbarians moving in. Danelaw o Figured that he couldn't keep them off the island, split the island and gave them their half Converted Guthrum Anglo-Saxon Chronicle had it copied like 10 times and gave a copy to each of the large longstanding monasteries, had them add their own history for the next 150 years Aided by Witan o Representative body only of the nobility The Franks Founded by Clovis, C. 496 Merovingian dynasty not very good at ruling Mayor's Ruled palace butlers Charles Martel, 732, beat Moslems at Poitiers, the thing that stopped Islam from taking over everything if Europe No last names Charles Martel the Hammer each were known for something that made them distinct The Church was Vital Thing that held everything together In 755, Franks gave Pope Rome Donations of Constantine gave Pope title to land. This was proven forgery in Renaissance But Popes still claimed power over everyone, Kings The Greatest Frank Charlemange Carolus Magnus Rex charles the great king Too the title before he actually was a great king Tall, like a foot taller than most Ruled from 768 814 Crowned by the Pope in the year 800 o Went to Rome to see the Pope o Pope made him King of Europe, successor to the Roman Empire Because he saved the city of Rome from a barbarian invasion Interested in the rest of the world o He knew about the Islamic empire o Talked with Baghdad o o o o Haroun al Raschid not interested in expanding his kingdom Charlemange said that they were in his empire Haroun al Raschid said "I will rule for Charlemange" Sent Charlemange an Elephant o Never met because of the distance Government under Charlemange Trial by Ordeal Trial by Compurgation o Eventually everyone will begin to use these two Missi Dominici "representatives of the king" Envoys o Job to travel around his domains and find out what the people wanted and what was going on Palace School to become educated you must go to the monastery or nunnery o If you went there you probably didn't leave o Palace school private school in his palace. It was free, and his nobles took advantage of it. o Charlemange didn't know how to write, so he went to school. Went for thirteen months. Learned one thing, how to write his name. Only king that could actually write his name on the bottom of a parchment rather than stamping it. o Understood the value of the written word Carolingian Renaissance o o o o A time period of flourishing culture, poetry, song, artwork. Encouraged international correspondence Cultural Center Created writing style called Carolingian Miniscule. Eventually became the way we write today. o created Feudalism and manorialism. Alcuin Trivium Freshman and sophomore subjects o Grammar, rhetoric, logic Quadrivium Upper level classes o Arithmetic, Music, Geometry, Astronomy Carolingian miniscule Doctors did not study medicine, they did the Trivium and Quadrivim, then did internships 1 of 20 Who restored order to the Roman Empire after the troubles of the mid-third century by establishing the most autocratic system of rule yet? a. Justinian b. Maximian c. Diocletian d. Constantine 1 out of 1 Correct. The answer is c. Diocletian (r. 284305) replaced the principate with the dominate, which dispensed with any illusion that the emperor was anything but an autocrat. 2 of 20 Which of the following statements regarding the emperors of the dominate is false? a. They rarely sought advice from the elite. b. Their word was law, and they came to be above the law, not even bound by the decisions of their predecessors. c. They visibly distinguished themselves from ordinary people with ceremony and special clothes. d. They punished both "better people" and "humbler people" with equal severity. 1 out of 1 Correct. The answer is d. Emperors of the dominate visibly distinguished themselves from ordinary people, and were above the law, although they did seek advice from the elite. Legal punishments depended on a person's social status. 3 of 20 What process was begun by Diocletian and completed by Constantine? a. The elimination of Christians from public office b. The refortification of traditional Roman borders c. The separation of civil and military authority d. The reestablishment of peaceful transitions of power 1 out of 1 Correct. The answer is c. The process of separating civil and military authority was meant to prevent rebellion and ease the political unrest Diocletian's reign. Civil authorities controlled only legal and financial affairs, while generals were responsible only for defense. 4 of 20 What was the result of the 301 Edict on Maximum Prices? a. Financial stability was finally reestablished in Rome. b. Many merchants cooperated, were bankrupted by it, and there was a commercial crisis. c. The edict was ineffective because merchants refused to cooperate. d. The edict instigated disaffection in the army, and civil war once again erupted in Rome. 1 out of 1 Correct. The answer is c. The Edict on Maximum Prices had minimum effect because merchants refused to cooperate. 5 of 20 Why was the movement of the coloni, or tenant farmers, restricted? a. To help tax collectors keep track of taxpayers b. To prop up the stability and status of the traditional elite c. As a punishment for insurrection d. As a precaution against the expansion of client-armies 1 out of 1 Correct. The answer is a. Tenant farmers, or coloni, were the financial base of the empire, so Diocletian restricted their movement so that tax collectors could keep track of them better. 6 of 20 Christianity grew to be the religion of the majority of the empire's population during the fourth and fifth centuries for all but one of the following reasons: a. It maintained a loose, decentralized organization. b. It drew believers from women and men of all classes. c. It offered social advantages and security because it was the emperors' religion. d. It nourished a strong sense of community. 1 out of 1 Correct. The answer is a. Christianity drew followers from men and women of all classes, provided a sense of community, and offered social advantages when it became the emperor's religion. Christianity was administered by a hierarchy of bishops and priests. 7 of 20 The Council of Chalcedon convened in 451 to a. address Arian's views on the nature of the Trinity. b. settle the Christian church's orthodoxy; most western Christians still accept its conclusions. c. organize the church's hierarchy: archbishops, priests, bishops, monks, and laypeople. d. decide the fate of Christians who had cooperated with the authorities during the Great Persecution. 1 out of 1 Correct. The answer is b. The Council of Chalcedon met to forge an agreement on religious orthodoxy. The Arian controversy was settled at the Council of Nicaea. The solidification of the church hierarchy was a gradual process, and by 451, the issue of Christians who had cooperated with authorities one hundred and fifty years earlier was no longer important. 8 of 20 Which emperor rebelled against his family's Christianity and restored the traditional state gods? a. Constantius II b. Julian the Apostate c. Nestorius I d. Donatus the Pious 1 out of 1 Correct. The answer is b. Julian (r. 361-363) tried to restore the traditional gods and replace Christianity with a philosophical brand of polytheism. 9 of 20 All of the following functions were performed by bishops except a. ordaining priests with the power to administer the sacraments. b. controlling congregations' memberships and finances. c. distributing imperial subsidies in the empire's cities and towns. d. collecting imperial taxes in their dioceses. 1 out of 1 Correct. The answer is d. Bishops ordained priests, controlled their congregations' finances, and distributed imperial subsidies in the cities and towns. They did not, however, collect taxes for the emperor. 10 of 20 Who replaced traditional polytheism with Christianity as Rome's official state religion? a. Constantine b. Julian c. Theodosius d. Justinian 1 out of 1 Correct. The answer is c. Theodosius (r. 379395) replaced traditional polytheism with Christianity in 391. 11 of 20 Which of the following statements about the Huns is false? a. Their prowess as horsemen made them legendary. b. They were distantly related to a people from central Asia. c. The emperors in Constantinople bribed them to spare eastern territory. d. They had little effect on other non-Roman peoples. 1 out of 1 Correct. The answer is d. The Huns, horsemen distantly related to a people from central Asia, had a great impact on other non-Roman peoples, setting in motion the migrations of many tribes who were displaced by the invading Huns and fled into the empire. 12 of 20 Which of the following statements about the immigrating nonRomans is false? a. Tribal society was patriarchal, but women had certain rights of inheritance and could control property. b. Tribal groups were led by men adverse to strong central authority. c. There was a clear division of labor according to gender: Women were responsible for crafts and agriculture, and men worked iron and herded cattle. d. Young men were expected to assert their status through violence against fellow members of the tribe. 1 out of 1 Correct. The answer is d. Young men in tribal societies were expected to assert their status in warfare with other tribes. Fighting within the tribe was a grave offense. 13 of 20 Which of the following statements is false? a. Visigothic kings were the first of the tribal leaders to develop a written law code. b. The Visigoths sacked Rome in 410. c. The Visigoths never established an ethnic identity or organized into a state. d. After killing the emperor Valens, the Visigoths negotiated with the next eastern emperor for better terms. 1 out of 1 Correct. The answer is c. The Visigoths, who sacked Rome in 410, settled in southwestern Gaul and established a formal kingdom. No other Germanic group had yet succeeded in organizing a state and establishing an ethnic identity. 14 of 20 Who founded the Ostrogothic kingdom in Italy? a. Odoacer b. Theodoric c. Clovis d. Orestes 1 out of 1 Correct. The answer is b. Theodoric (r. 493526) founded an Ostrogothic kingdom that ruled Italy from Ravenna. 15 of 20 Which of the following is not true about Clovis? a. He was named an honorary consul by the eastern emperor. b. He overthrew the Visigothic king in southern Gaul. c. He converted from Arianism to orthodox Christianity. d. His dynasty quickly disintegrated after his death. 1 out of 1 Correct. The answer is d. Clovis (r. 485-511) was king of the Franks. He overthrew the Visigothic king in southern Gaul in 507, and was named honorary consul by the eastern empire. He also converted to orthodox Christianity. His Merovingian dynasty ruled for two centuries after his death, far longer than any other Germanic kingdom in the West. 16 of 20 What was the general attitude of the Byzantine emperors towards religion? a. They were nominally Christian, but they generally preferred to stay out of religious affairs. b. They were often Arians personally, but promoted orthodox Christianity to combat polytheism. c. Although personal beliefs varied, they supported a policy of religious toleration. d. They tried to impose orthodox Christianity, using violence when persuasion failed. 1 out of 1 Correct. The answer is d. Byzantine emperors linked their authority to orthodox Christianity. Although they preferred to enforce orthodoxy through persuasion, they resorted to violence when necessary. 17 of 20 What was the economic status of the Byzantine Empire's civil servants? a. They were paid paltry salaries but supplemented their incomes through large bribes. b. They were paid generously by the emperors to retain their loyalty. c. They were well-paid veterans of the army noted for their incorruptibility. d. They were personal servants of the emperors and were unable to own property or wealth of their own. 1 out of 1 Correct. The answer is a. Civil servants in the Byzantine Empire earned most of their income from bribes. 18 of 20 What issue caused the major Nika Riot in 532? a. Unpopular and crippling taxes b. Religious dissention c. Increasing political corruption d. Repeated military campaigns 1 out of 1 Correct. The answer is a. The emperor Justinian embarked on an expensive and ambitious campaign to restore the former glory and territories of the Roman Empire. The crushing taxes on his subjects fueled social unrest and the Nika Riot. 19 of 20 What was the result of Justinian's efforts to produce religious unity between the eastern and western churches? a. He only drove Christians further apart. b. He united the eastern and western churches but only temporarily. c. He offended both churches so deeply by criticizing their division and hostility that they boycotted his council. d. He had little effect except to preserve the Edict of Milan. 1 out of 1 Correct. The answer is a. The bishops of Rome and Constantinople were bitterly divided and jealous of each other's prominence. After a council in 553 intended to heal the division failed, Justinian jailed Rome's defiant Pope Vigilius, which only made things worse. 20 of 20 Why were classical works seen as potentially subversive of Christianity? a. Works like The Iliad and The Odyssey glorified war, which was contrary to Jesus' teachings. b. They were thought to be too irreverent toward authorityespecially comedies and satires. c. It was feared that they might distract people from worship or undermine doctrine. d. Christians still associated classical works with the regime that once persecuted them. 1 out of 1 o Correct. The answer is c. Classical literature was seen as a distraction from Christian worship and a threat to orthodox doctrine. o o o o o o o 1 of 19 What title did Diocletian choose for himself? a. Princeps b. Dominus c. Tetrarch o d. King o o 1 out of 1 o Correct. The answer is b. The title of dominus, meaning "master", emphasized the fact that he was an autocratic ruler. o o 2 of 19 o Which of the following men was not a part of the original tetrarchy of Rome? o a. Constantius o b. Maximian o c. Diocletian o d. Constantine o o 1 out of 1 o Correct. The answer is d. Diocletian appointed Constantius, Galerius, and Maximian in 293 to assist him as corulers of the empire. o o 3 of 19 o What were the capital cities of the eastern and western Roman Empires? o a. Constantinople was the capital of the East, and Ravenna was the capital of the West. o b. Constantinople was the capital of the East, and Rome was the capital of the West. o c. Antioch was the capital of the East, and Milan was the capital of the West. o d. Sirmium was the capital of the East, and Rome was the capital of the West. o o 1 out of 1 o Correct. The answer is a. When the empire was divided into eastern and western halves in 395, the East was ruled from Constantinople, and the West was ruled from the more easily defended city of Ravenna. o o 4 of 19 o Which of the following groups was not one of those whose movement was restricted during the dominate? o a. Curiales o b. Coloni o c. Soldiers o d. Merchants o o 1 out of 1 o Correct. The answer is d. Merchants were allowed to move freely while the curials and coloni were restricted to ensure tax collection. Soldiers moved according to orders. o o 5 of 19 o Constantine tried all of the following means to appease the polytheists except o a. he called the Lord's Day "Sunday" to blend Christian and traditional notions. o b. he adorned his new capital with many statues of traditional gods. o c. he made both the traditional Roman religion and Christianity official religions of the empire. o d. he respected imperial tradition by continuing to hold the office of pontifex maximus. o o 1 out of 1 o Correct. The answer is c. Although Constantine converted to Christianity, he did not make it the official religion of the empire. He continued to sponsor the traditional cults and retained the title of pontifex maximus, which the emperors had held since the time of Augustus. o o 6 of 19 o All of the following theologians are known as "church fathers" except o a. Ambrose. o b. Nestorius. o c. Augustine. o d. Jerome. o o 1 out of 1 o Correct. The answer is b. Nestorius started a nonorthodox sect of Christianity that believed that the human nature of Christ was separate from his divine nature. o o 7 of 19 o How were Jews treated by the early Christian emperors? o a. Jews were burdened with various legal restrictions to pressure them to convert. o b. Jews were seen as fellow monotheists and were therefore given some special considerations. o c. Jews saw the closure of their synagogues and suffered great physical abuse if they refused to convert. o d. Jews, a very small minority, were ignored. o o 1 out of 1 o Correct. The answer is a. The early Christian emperors imposed several legal restrictions on Jews and other nonChristians to pressure them to convert. o o 8 of 19 o Which of the following best describes the views of theologians such as Augustine and Jerome on sexuality? o a. It was a normal part of the human condition, so there was nothing wrong with it. o b. It should be enjoyed but only within the limits of marriage. o c. Abstaining from it was best; however, married couples could have sex for procreation but not for pleasure. o d. It was only acceptable for the young; older Christians were expected to avoid it. o o 1 out of 1 o Correct. The answer is c. Both Augustine and Jerome advocated ascetic abstinence as a form of "daily martyrdom" and taught that married couples should have sex only for the sake of procreation. o o 9 of 19 o Which of the following best describes the motivation for the development of monasticism? o a. Many people were alienated from public life by the authoritarian imperial government. o b. People wanted to escape the unhealthy living conditions of the cities. o c. It was a good means of advancing in the church hierarchy. o d. Monasticism was a recognized path to holiness. o o 1 out of 1 o Correct. The answer is d. When the persecution of Christians ended, monasticism became a way for ordinary people to achieve recognition and express their faith through sacrifice. o o 10 of 19 o What was Augustine's view of secular authority? o a. He felt that secular authorities had no place in an ideal, religious society. o b. He believed that civil government was required to impose moral order on the chaos of human life. o c. He felt that Christians had no obligations to obey the emperors or participate in political life. o d. He believed that secular authorities should force people to live upright lives, using torture and capital punishment if necessary. o o 1 out of 1 o Correct. The answer is b. Augustine believed that since humans were inherently imperfect, secular law and government were necessary to impose moral order and prevent chaos. o o 11 of 19 o Why were the non-Roman tribes able to occupy imperial territory so easily in the late fourth century? o a. They had efficient organization and commanders. o b. They were executing carefully calculated plans of invasion. o c. They were facing a Roman Empire without enough soldiers to control the situation. o d. They were highly motivated to avenge centuries of attacks by Roman armies. o o 1 out of 1 o Correct. The answer is c. Persistent economic weakness since the thirdcentury crisis and loss of revenue as farmers and landlords fled crushing taxes had left the western empire unable to afford enough soldiers to repel the tribes. o o o o o o 12 of 19 The Vandals accomplished all of the following except a. plundering Rome in 455. b. capturing North Africa in 429. c. cutting a swath through Gaul all the way to the Spanish coast beginning in 406. o d. invading Britain in the 440s. o o 1 out of 1 o Correct. The answer is d. The Angles and the Saxons invaded Britain, not the Vandals. o o 13 of 19 o Which of the following is an achievement of King Clovis (r. 485-511)? o a. He carved out western Europe's largest kingdom of the time. o b. He overthrew the last western emperor. o c. He instituted the first written law code in Frankish history. o d. He married a distinguished Roman noblewoman of ancient lineage. o o 1 out of 1 o Correct. The answer is a. Clovis's kingdom was the largest in western Europe at the time, and his Merovingian dynasty lasted for two centuries, longer than any other Germanic kingdom. o o o o o o o o o 14 of 19 What was the wergild? a. A group of elite soldiers b. The rent peasants paid for their land c. A fine that murderers paid to their victims' families d. A tax collected by the church 1 out of 1 o Correct. The answer is c. By compelling murderers to may a fine for their crime, the wergild helped limit vendettas between different tribes. o o 15 of 19 o What were the two main competing religions in Constantinople? o a. Orthodox Christianity and Monophysitism o b. Arianism and Nestorianism o c. Christianity and polytheism o d. Donatism and Arianism o o 1 out of 1 o Correct. The answer is a. The Monophysites believed Christ was of an exclusively divine nature. o o 16 of 19 o Who do historians believe was the most influential advisor to the emperor Justinian? o a. The Ostrogothic king Theodoric o b. His wife Theodora o c. His tax collector, John of Cappadocia o d. Ambrose, the bishop of Milan o o 1 out of 1 o Correct. The answer is b. Theodora (d. 548) was an extremely influential figure in Justinian's court. o o 17 of 19 o How did Justinian contribute to the field of law? o a. He simplified the legal system by enacting a new law code that invalidated all previous ones. o b. He had the laws and regulations of the empire codified in the Codex and Digest to expedite legal cases and had the Institutes compiled as a textbook on law. o c. He instituted a rigorous education program for all lawyers and judges culminating in an examination that determined positions and salaries. o d. He banned capital punishment and torture within the empire and reduced the punishments for most crimes against property. o o 1 out of 1 o Correct. The answer is b. The codification and organization of existing law was one of Justinian's greatest contributions. The Institutes remained on law school reading lists until modern times. o o 18 of 19 o Which of the following statements regarding women in the Byzantine Empire is false? o a. Divorce became more difficult and remarriage was discouraged even for widows. o b. Women veiled their heads to show modesty. o c. Female prostitution became illegal. o d. Laws barred women from fulfilling many public functions, such as witnessing wills. o o 1 out of 1 o Correct. The answer is c. Female prostitution remained legal. o o 19 of 19 o Which of the following did not contribute to the survival of classical literature in the East? o a. Byzantine scholars valued classical literature because they regarded it as a crucial part of a high-level education. o b. The principles of classical rhetoric provided the guidelines for the most effective presentation of Christian theology. o c. The technological innovation of bound books made preservation easier. o d. Vigorous institutions of learning like the Academy in Athens blended older literature with the new literature of Christianity. o o 1 out of 1 o Correct. The answer is d. The Academy in Athens, which was founded by Plato nearly nine centuries earlier, was closed around 530. ... View Full Document

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