midterms
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midterms

Course Number: HISTORY 11, Fall 2007

College/University: Berkeley

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Art History Midterm Notes Saturday, October 13, 2007 2:38 PM ART HISTORY STUDY GUIDE fresco - Buon fresco technique consists of painting in pigment mixed with water on a thin layer of wet, fresh, lime mortar or plaster. Used in 14th 16th (ish) cen for wall/ceiling paintings usually in churches/chapels. "must be painted on the wall while the plaster is still fresh/wet" Enrico Scrovegni - A money - lender...

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History Art Midterm Notes Saturday, October 13, 2007 2:38 PM ART HISTORY STUDY GUIDE fresco - Buon fresco technique consists of painting in pigment mixed with water on a thin layer of wet, fresh, lime mortar or plaster. Used in 14th 16th (ish) cen for wall/ceiling paintings usually in churches/chapels. "must be painted on the wall while the plaster is still fresh/wet" Enrico Scrovegni - A money - lender (which meant he was eeeevil or at least considered evil), who commissioned Giotto to paint his Arena Chapel. Usury - interest. Money is lent then paid back w/ursury = interest. Renaissance - literally "re-birth" beginning around 15th century, Italy Florence, a sudden turn from middle ages art. Focus on the classical age, but also a synthesization of the past with the present. A look away from the middle ages into a better art. Clients/patrons - people who commissioned paintings based upon their own specifications. Contracts - legally binding documents between artist and patron regarding commissioned painting. Content of contracts - materials and labor. Trend from material to labor-based. What material used and how much labor done by artist himself instead of workshop. Ultramarine made of crushed Lapis Lazuli. Incredibly expensive: shipped from Afghanistan and used to paint in strong blues. I.E. Mary's robes. More stable than German Blue. Shows the wealth of the patron/painting. German Blue cheaper cousin of Ultramarine. Copper oxidizes over time and turns the painted blue into a greener tint. Reasons patrons commissioned art commissioned art b/c "The pleasure of possession, an active piety, civic consciousness of one or another kind, self-commemoration, and perhaps self-advertisement, the rich man's necessary virtue and pleasure of reparation, a taste for pictures" 1."satisfaction about owning what is good" 2."the glory of God" 3. "the honour of the city" 4." and commemoration of myself [patron]" 5."buying such things is an outlet for the pleasure and virtue of spending money well, a pleasure greater than the admittedly substantial one of making money" Materials and skills - Originally, the contracts specified the importance of materials (due to their indication of wealth), but as time progressed to Renaissance, the focus on materials (quantitative) began to shift towards skill of illusion (qualitative). Period Eye - seeing painting in that era's perspective. i.e. Cognitive style the artist's recognition of the artist's skill of gauging things (measurements, biblical sources, etc. in paintings) Fra Roberto - wrote about gesturing in early Renaissance paintings. Specified the systematic expressions and what they meant. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. States of Mary response to Gabriel Disquiet - "she in her humility was astonished and amazed" Reflection - "she cast in her mind what manner of salutation this should be" Inquiry "this modest, pure, chaste, maidenly lover of virginity inquired how a virgin could conceive" Submission "Lowering her head...And then lifting her eyes towards heaven, and bringing her hands with her arms in the form of a cross." Merit "her soul rose...raised her eyes and then lowered them towards her womb with many tears." Festaiuolo - the little cherubs that point to the main subjects of the painting. Leon Battista Alberti - considered first person to write on art theory/first art theorist. He set the standards for what is considered "good art" and "bad art". Italian. Implications of Alberti's method of creating linear perspective Orthogonal - the line leading up to the vanishing point in the horizon. Transversal Vanishing point - point to all orthogonal converge. Istoria and colossus -As said by Alberti = Colossus: crap, no perspective, lots of info which makes eye wander a lot. Istoria: perspective = nice. i.e. Botticelli drew vanishing point and lines for columns. Perspective allows person to focus in and on main subject/figure. Figures are placed in a logical space. Boticelli makes it where the viewer feels in the scene and moves to the gap. Gap in foreground are made by way figures are organized. Istoria has consistent light source, body with convincing mass and light in logical fashion. No use of gold leaf, instead, yellow is used for illusionistic feel of gold. This ultimately shows the artist's skill. Qualities that, according to Alberti, identify a good painter - Istoria with narrative is good, genre painting is bad, decorative painting is bad, textual sources as subjects is good, quasiclassical decorative shceme is bad, male nude is good to show artistic prowress. Invention - written by Alberti, the idea that the artist is genius. That he is capable of creating a scene, coming up with setting, instead of patrons telling them/no more contracts. Lume/lustro Lume: "illumination" consistent light and mass, idealized rendering at expense of detailed texture. Associated to Italian painting. Lustro: "luster/gleam" detail in textures/textiles. Associated to Northern painting. Differences between Northern and Italian constructions of illusionism How Italians in the 16th century viewed Northern painting Telescopic microscopic - In which things in the foreground are so detailed, it's as if seen through microscope, and in which the things in background are so detailed, it's as if seen through a telescope. Often characteristic of Northern painting. Giorgio Vasari - Considered the first art historian. Vasari's conception of the history of art from Giotto to Michelangelo Manu fortis - "hand of strength" Palazzo Vecchio - Town Hall of Florence, showcased Michelangelo's David. Contrapposto - i.e. Michelangelo's David. Pose of sculpture that emulates motion without having the figure in motion. Ignudi - male nudes on the Sistine chapel, in contorted poses. These were seen as Michelangelo's example of utmost skill. Sistine Chapel Mannerism - cultural malaise, Bellori on art after Michelangelo da Caravaggio Reformation - Northern Reformation of Protestant. Shift away from biblical to Sack of Rome The Sack of Rome on 6 May 1527 by the troops of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, marked a crucial imperial victory in the conflict between the Holy Roman Empire and the League of Cognac (15261529) -- the alliance of France, Milan, Venice, Florence and the Papacy. Pasted from <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sack_of_Rome_%281527%29> St. Anthony St. Anthony's fire -plague of rotting flesh, gangrene, treated with amputation and caused by bad rye (Ergot; fungus grown on rye) The role of physicians and saints in early modern sickness - Saints were believed to be the only ones who could heal the sickness (usually associated to them) since the sickness was seen as both physically and spiritually afflicting and caused by God as punishment. Physicians simply cared/treated the sickness. Woodcuts - pictures carved into wood. The spaces carved out would be the areas of white Engraving - scratched Iconoclasm - "breaking icons" , associated to Sack of Rome Exodus 20 The Ten Commandments 1 And God spoke all these words: 2 "I am the LORD your God, who brought you out of Egypt, out of the land of slavery. 3 "You shall have no other gods before [a] me. 4 "You shall not make for yourself an idol in the form of anything in heaven above or on the earth beneath or in the waters below. 5 You shall not bow down to them or worship them; for I, the LORD your God, am a jealous God, punishing the children for the sin of the fathers to the third and fourth generation of those who hate me, 6 but showing love to a thousand {generations} of those who love me and keep my commandments. 7 "You shall not misuse the name of the LORD your God, for the LORD will not hold anyone guiltless who misuses his name. 8 "Remember the Sabbath day by keeping it holy. 9 Six days you shall labor and do all your work, 10 but the seventh day is a Sabbath to the LORD your God. On it you shall not do any work, neither you, nor your son or daughter, nor your manservant or maidservant, nor your animals, nor the alien within your gates. 11 For in six days the LORD made the heavens and the earth, the sea, and all that is in them, but he rested on the seventh day. Therefore the LORD blessed the Sabbath day and made it holy. 12 "Honor your father and your mother, so that you may live long in the land the LORD your God is giving you. 13 "You shall not murder. 14 "You shall not commit adultery. 15 "You shall not steal. 16 "You shall not give false testimony against your neighbor. 17 "You shall not covet your neighbor's house. You shall not covet your neighbor's wife, or his manservant or maidservant, his ox or donkey, or anything that belongs to your neighbor." 18 When the people saw the thunder and lightning and heard the trumpet and saw the mountain in smoke, they trembled with fear. They stayed at a distance 19 and said to Moses, "Speak to us yourself and we will listen. But do not have God speak to us or we will die." 20 Moses said to the people, "Do not be afraid. God has come to test you, so that the fear of God will be with you to keep you from sinning." 21 The people remained at a distance, while Moses approached the thick darkness where God was. Idols and Altars 22 Then the LORD said to Moses, "Tell the Israelites this: 'You have seen for yourselves that I have spoken to you from heaven: 23 Do not make any gods to be alongside me; do not make for yourselves gods of silver or gods of gold. 24 " 'Make an altar of earth for me and sacrifice on it your burnt offerings and fellowship offerings, [b] your sheep and goats and your cattle. Wherever I cause my name to be honored, I will come to you and bless you. 25 If you make an altar of stones for me, do not build it with dressed stones, for you will defile it if you use a tool on it. 26 And do not go up to my altar on steps, lest your nakedness be exposed on it.' Footnotes: a. Exodus 20:3 Or besides b. Exodus 20:24 Traditionally peace offerings Pasted from <http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?book_id=2&chapter=20> Genres of painting Counter-Reformation - a response to Protestant Reformation. Castiglione, Book of Courtier, 1528 The Courtier is a dialogue in four books on the subject of what constitutes a perfect courtier, and in book three, a perfect lady. Pasted from <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Book_of_the_Courtier> Hierarchy of genres Bellori on Caravaggio - "...he began to paint according to his own inclinations; not only ignoring but even despising the superb statuary of antiquity and the famous paintings of Raphael, he considered nature to be the only subject fit for his brush. As a result, when he was shown the most famous statues of Phidias and Glykon in order that he might use them as models, his only answer was to point toward a crowd of people saying that nature had given him an abundance of masters." - Bellori on Caravaggio Tassi - 16th century Italian landscape artist. Status of women artists Image Analysis 14th Century Saturday, October 13, 2007 2:44 PM Giotto Annunciation to St. Anne from Arena Chapel, 1303-06 Although perspective is not completely foreshortened in realistic space, compared to the previous Byzantium art, it is incredibly realistic. Since the house is in a box-shape with Anne in the center, the painting presents Anne in a convincing 3-dimensional space that incorporates and recognizes her mass. Giotto's ability to tell narrative in the painting based off of familiar setting in 14th century Italy. Uses Ultramarine and gold in halo, strong focus on material over skill. Superfluous information makes picture more realistic (i.e. extra lady in the left) Giotto Last Judgment, from the Arena Chapel, 1303 - 06 Commissioned by Enrico Scorvegni because he believed it would absolve him and his family since his family were money-lenders. A very heavy emphasis on material. Ultramarine/gold leaf. Overly ornate, incredibly detailed (specifically hell). Very graphic, bleak, etc. and overlapping saints. Crowded, but Jesus is still central figure. Lots of information, but still focuses in on main subject. Giotto Betrayal of Christ, from Arena Chapel 1303-06 Image Analysis 15th Century Saturday, October 13, 2007 7:31 PM Sassetta, St. Francis Renouncing His Heritage, 1437-44 Return to the classical in terms of architecture, similar to Giotto's perspective. Clothing on ground is Ultramarine, he's shedding his wealth in order to follow Jesus. People on the ground give a sense of realism, and organization of figures and architecture gives convincing space. Pregnant moment as the father reaches for St. Francis after Francis sheds clothing. . There's extra information which adds sense of realism. Botticelli, Madonna and Saints, 1485 Shift away from material to skill. More skilled, but still Ultramarine on Mary. Stronger on idealized features. There is a stronger focus on rendering of body/mass. Jesus and Mary on separate plane/pedestal. Makes them centralized figures. Early example of Lume. Plants in background, classical Roman setting (associated to Lume). Quote the past/better the past. Very interested in rendering the body. He consciously mimics aspects of Giotto, mimics the perspective and bodily mass, but the mass is more convincingly rendered. Pierro della Francesca, Madonna della Misericordia 1445/62 Geometric shapes, heavy emphasis on ultramarine, gold leaf. Emphasis on material, but skill present specifically in geometrical shapes of figures (knowledge geometry), flowing drapery to render mass, and representation of the almost-nude male to show off skill as painter. Lippi, Annunciation, 1440-60 Return to classical, heavy emphasis on classical architecture. Lume style, emphasis on body/cloth. Not heavy emphasis on detail. White lily = virginity of Mary. One palm up, stagnant wave = disquiet. Generic idealized faces. Definite vanishing point, where all buildings converge. Correct linear perspective. Example of Foreshortening. The halos are less stylized, but still present to show the divinity of subjects. Baldovenetti, Annunciation, 1440-60 Rays of light, gesture of welcome, halos yet again, emphasis on material Classical architecture, vaulted arches, synthesis of classical style with present. Primary colors, ultramarine, but more towards shift toward skill b/c less gold. Linear perspective is a little odd due to where first column reaches to other column. The cloth draping over leg = unrealistic. Generalized/idealized features of the face. White lilies in bg. Vaulted arches. Fra Angelico, Annunciation, 1440-60 Broadened style halos. Gothic style arches. Submission gesture, no ultramarine, gold leaf. Vaulted ceilings reminiscent of Gothic style (vaulted). Drapery, but undefined mass. Faded primary colors. International style = stylized, simple. Massacio, Expulsion, c. 1427 Hand gesture. Eve = grief, Adam = shame. Adam and Eve are being banished from Eden by angel of God. Specific example of gesturing/ body movements. He renders the male nude better than the female body. Arms short, legs long. Lume style. Primary colors. She's grieving because she's banished, but Adam's shame because he's gave into temptation of the fruit. Fra Angelico, Coronation of the Virgin, 1440s Emphasis on religious gestures. "And whan though spekest of any holy mater or devocyon to holde up thy handes". Lippi, Adoration with St. Bernard and the Young St. John, early 1460s Triangle shape made with God's hands. Mary and Jesus are brighter = central figures. Style = staged where St. Bernard is off to the side. May have been cut because St. Bernard is cut off. St. John the Baptist, the pointing at main figure, the cross foreshadows Jesus's. Festaiuolo next to hands. Halos. Father, son and holy spirit. Recognizable as john the Baptist due to wearing camel skin/fur, cross, and scroll. Nature is detailed Pierro della Francesca, Constantine's Dream, 1447 Gauging Cognitive style. Appeals to mercantile eyes b/c it appeals to their gauging skill of looking at volume. The geometric shapes specifically appeals to it. The pointing angel shows Constantine's divine duty to bring Christianity to the Empire. Massacio, Trinity, 1425-7 Revolutionary in sense of rendering perspective via Architectural space. There is a realistic rendering of space due to perspective/use of vanishing point. Ceiling =barrel vault. Foreshortened architecture, foreshortened halos. Illusionistic. Showed that he studied mathematics with geometry in terms of architecture. Architecture = technical proficiency (puts realistic body into space), sense of proportion in architecture = system of measurement, clean lines by barrel vault. His ability to render contemporary architecture in a convincing/realistic manner means its present. Skeleton on bottom tilted b/c viewer is looking up/roof of the barrel vault is also tilted up, and means Massacio recognized where viewer was standing. Next to skeleton "I was what you are and what I am you shall be". Skeleton symbolizes mortality. Vanishing point around knees. Master of Barberini Panels, Annunciation, 1440-60 Example of istoria . Example of what Alberti thought was good. Idealized features. Linear perspective through classical architecture (contemporary architecture) into vanishing point that shows convincing space. Subjects on same ground plane. White lilies yet again. Foreshortened halos. There's emphasis small on materials of ultramarine and gold. Merit gesture b/c eyes lowered, or submission just because. Vivarini, Adoration, 1445-7 Example of colossus Alberti would say "REALLY BAD". Lots of information/ figures that makes the eye wander away from main subjects. Ornate, gold leaf, ultramarine. Pollaiuolo, Matyrdom of St. Sebastian, 1475 Example of rendering body accurately/ rendering male nude. Alberti would consider this as showing Pollaiuolo's artistic skill. Same figure, but same figure posing differently. Landscape background instead of typical architecture. Jan Van Eyck, Arnolfini Wedding Portrait, 1434 Northern painter. Legal witness document/painting, which goes along with detail of the mirror in which there is witness in mirror reflection/ "Jan van Eyck" was here over mirror. Dog = fidelity. Room is divided in half. Soon to be wife = domesticity. Male = world. Single candle represents the soon to be consummation of marriage b/c candle would be blown out after consummation. The shoes on the ground and not on feet represents the importance of the event as a sacred moment. This would only be of value to those in the family lineage and not have any value on the art market because it was not histori painting. Representative of the "lustro" style of Northern painting with the luster and the gleaming chandelier and the details and the texture of the shoes, clothes, and dog. Detail of the mirror drawn in mirror perspective. Mirror and chandelier are both drawn way too low. Jan and Hubert van Eyck, Ghent Altarpiece, 1432 Upper panel= annunciation. Below: representative of the patrons, put there because the painting guarantees their absolution into heaven. Patrons' juxtaposition with the saints heightens them to a level of saintlihood. Adam and Eve are not idealized. Adam looks gaunt has facial hair and is not tan. Eve coarse hair, she has a curvature of her belly which shows her potential for pregnancy, future punishment. Has a rounded face. Open: shows Christ (center), Mary (left), John the Baptist (right). The architecture in the background reveals typical Northern architecture because of the gothic points and vaulted arches, and density of the forests. Detail= realism. Less emphasis on the body more emphasis on the textile nature of clothing. Veneziano, St. Lucy Altarpiece, c. 1445 Vaulted, gothic-style ceilings and architecture with classical style ceilings. Mary and Jesus are on a separte plane, and compared to the other figures in the paintings, Mary is much larger in size if she were to stand up. Mary and Christ are portrayed with idealized features and there is an emphasis on the rendering of body mass. The painting is drawn in perspective and lume. Pope Image Analysis 16th Century Saturday, October 13, 2007 8:28 PM Raphael, Deposition of Christ, 1508 Not a lot of variety in color, Raphael was considered original, and unforced. His paintings were unstaged and not contrived. Softer, less harsh features in the face--more naturalistic appearance. Raphael, Alba Madonna, 1510 Sense of actual flesh in the body. Looks more realistic. Sfumato makes things appear more vague which in turn, makes the figure look more naturalistic. There is also a sense of musculature. Michelangelo, David, 1504 Larger proportion of head and face (manu fortis). Head is larger either due to David's intellect as the thinking warrior or either because the statue was elevated. The little tree thing to support figure. It almost got destroyed b/c it was a representation of the Republic (the people) which was anti-Medici (ruling family at the time). Representative of people rising against Medici (who are represented as Goliath). Large hands have lots of veins (detail), shows strength of David. Vasari said that if you see this sculpture, you won't have to see anything else. The calves are a judge of immense manliness. "Synthesized lessons of the past in an exmplary work". This was the pinnacle of art. Contrappasto emulate motion without having the figure moving. Represents the intellect that has begun to emerge in the artist genius. Less detail on backside since it was up against a wall in an enclave up high. Contrasting to Bernini's. Special because it doesn't look like stone, actual flesh. Michelangelo, Sistine Chapel Ceiling, 1508-12 Hypermuscular figures. Depicted religious imagery. The church told them how to draw them. Usually other churches had blue ceilings, but this was one of the first to have biblical scenes in it. Good depiction of male nude. Not so much of the female since the females look uber male. Illusion of sculptures/architecture. Believed to be the same exact dimensions as temple of Jersualem by Solomon. Separation of light and dark was rendered with broad brushstrokes. Bodies were rendered kbased on how one might observe these gestures in everyday life. History of mankind: creation of world and man, man's sin and fall, echo of sin and fall with second sin of Noah. Creation of planets Separation of land from water Third section: more figures composition much more crowded. Last panel is drunkeness of Noah: Noah's children are not worthy of the ideals that mankind should have which presents why there is a need for a pope. WHICH connects to the fact that the Sistine chapel is where cardinals pick new pope. Creation of Adam One of the first actual representation of God. Julius II commands Michelangelo to paint his personal chapel (that looks like a fortress). Beginning of "creation of world and man". Separation of light and dark was rendered with broad brushstrokes. Creation of Eve Creation of Sun and Moon Ignudi Revolutionary since Michelangelo achieved the pinnacle of perfecting the male nude in many different contorted poses. It was amazing since the paintings looked like real sculptures. Pontormo, Entombment, 1525-28 Example of mannerism post/late Renaissance. Mannerism - response to sack of rome and Reformation. Threw aside laws of logic, proportion, whatever Alberti said. Bodies weird. i.e. Jesus contorted torso, short legs, primary colors, the colors are primary but still lighter, more vibrant. (The painter knew how to draw figures proportionately, but decided not to). Figure behind Jesus, confusion regarding whose arm is whose. All figures are cluttered together into one single frame in illogical way, ground plane dramatically tipped up, lots of tertiary secondary colors, deliberate distortion of bodies, jumble of hands and heads in defiance of previous Italian artists, uncharacteristic of Italian art. They studied older painters which distorted their own painting. Parmigianino, Madonna of the Long Neck, c 1525 Example of mannerism Distortion of bodies. Distortion of linear perspective noticeable by the column and figure in background. Mary has long neck, big hands, lap is tilted so much that it seems Jesus should be slipping off. Jesus has a long torso, long legs, and is creepy. Packed heads to the left of Mary. Mary = HUGE. Girl's leg is incredibly long. Shows that artist skilled at rendering anatomy, however, deliberately distorts bodies. Michelangelo, Last Judgment, 1536-41 Later work. Michelangelo's hugest achievement in rendering hypermuscular body. The church disliked the copious amounts of nudity, so some figures may have been painted over. The flayed skin may have been a self-portrayal since Michelangelo was tortured over his love of men and sexuality. Bronzino, Allegory with Venus and Cupid, 1540s Example of mannerism People would buy and put it into their home and talk about it, since interpretation is ambiguous. This relates to specifically the genius of the artist's artwork since the work needs to be interpreted instead of straightforward narrative. Mythological painting. The way cupid's body is curved is unusual, the man in background has syphilis since he is sick and pale (also since syphilis is rampant at the time). The children look muscular. This is time also when patrons want drawings because the artist is a genius. Venus has huge toes, unusual breasts. Cupid is posed rather awkwardly. Man at top right represents sleep. Many interpretations may have been about illicit love/incest/syphilis. Grunewald, Isenheim Altarpiece, 1515 1st stage St. Anthony founder of Christian monasteries, and isolates himself in a deserted tomb and is conflicted with demons and monsters and moves to abandoned for where he is a recluse. He begins to form a colony of monks to help those who are sick and live in solitude and serve god. Jesus looks gaunt and ill to represent his suffering @ crucifixation. Physicians gave relief, but Saints cured. The state of Jesus (decayed, putrid) helped patients associates themselves with Jesus, and understood through Christ's sacrifice, they could be redeemed. 2nd stage Emphasis on music as part of healing factor. Trippy colors maybe an inidication of LSD poison in Ergot. 3rd stage Plants in Plants here represent the healing medicine. Some of the monsters are "trippy" (LSD?). Telescopic microscopic quality. The superfluous figure may have been proposed to be a representation of the patient's suffering which connects the patients to St. Anthony's own suffering in the forest. The light coming from Jesus was thought to heal the patients. (light and gold) Christ looks healed, so patients believed that through suffering, redemption from Jesus and going to heaven, they would be free of St. Anthony's fire. Durer, Adam, 1507 Durer believed that Italian style of body rendering = good. He constructed bodies out of shapes. He went south and went to reform modern art. He wanted it to be more geometrically systematic. He emphasized the technical. He imposes geometry on the human body. Says northern artists were taught improperly. Apollo Belveder. Medici Venus body for Eve's body. Leaf hints at shame that he'll eventually feel. Not a lot of emphasis on texture. Italian ideal of hair. Intricate hair, but not a lot. Looks youthful. Sort of feminine. Sort of contrapposto but not really. Emulates motion. Shows potential for motion. Durer, Eve, 1507 Body is not as well put together as Adam's because it's a female nude. Sloping shoulder. Not contrapposto (masculine pose). She's really pale. Tacked on boobs. Good physiognomy. There's a fruit and a snake. Durer, Adam and Eve, 1504 Engraving: Durer's achievement to art. Animals represent the humors. Melancholy, Lethargic, Sanguine, Choleric. Choleric is the cat. Lethargic is the ox. Sanguine is the rabbit. Melancholy is the elk. The engraving is in a dense northern forest. Durer, Melancholia, 1514 One of the first indications of the artistic "genius"/tortured soul of the artist. Turn of the artist from what is asked to be drawn, to their own mind for Art. Creative impulse is a double edged sword. Melancholia is dreaded. The artist was trying to channel beauty through God. Artists always got melancholy. Hugo Van der Goes, Portinari Altarpiece, 1434-40 (obviously not 16th century...) Portinari commisioned an altarpiece to get into heaven and show off wealth No linear perspective, not idealized. There are slack jawed, slimy teeth, attention to the everyday people. The bg = typical of northern landscape. Still life in foreground. Violets= humility. One of the first examples of still life. Centerpiece Detail of Shepherds. Attention to light through water. Response to reformation. Didn't paint things as idols, but rather as ordinary people. Pieter Brueghel, Christ Carrying the Cross, 1564 Lot of information since response to reformation. Didn't want to focus specifically on Christ, but also on the moment of normal people around Christ. Durer, Last Supper, 1523 Engraving response to Reformation, mass distributed. Not idol if mass distributed. Gerard David, Virgin and Child with Milk Soup, c 1515 This was a representation of the rise of the middle class in the North, and response to Reformation. The Dutch began to have commercialized society, so there was a shift from representing Mary/Jesus as divine to earthly. Frans Floris, Fall of the Rebel Angels, 1554 Counter-Reformation painting. Representation of rebel angels is Protestant Reformation, and other angels banishing others is Catholic Church. Bodies are hypermuscular. Brueghel, Peasant Wedding, 1564 Genre painting. Interest in lower class life (peasants). First painting to include specifically peasants. People began to have an interest in peasant life in realistic manner. Shows shift from religious to genre painting in North, because of Counter-Reformation (and didn't want to idolize religious paintings). Durer, A Small House, in the Middle of a Pond, 1502 Another example of landscape painting. Careful rendering of detail in landscape. One of the first of its kind (in detail) to attain recognition despite being a landscape genre paintings, and example of how other people lived. Female artists. Durer, Emperor Maximillian, 1526 Portraiture. Another example of shift away from religious to other types of painting. Commanding and regal since he is a man/ruler also. Contrast with female subjects BELOW. Titian, Venus of Urbino, 1538 Looks at audience in coy fashion oozing sexuality. Give a sense of erotic and myth. Dog = fertility. Men were representative of culture, and women of nature. Male point of view painted by male artist, for male patron. Sexual in terms of bare breasts and touching herself. She is "naked", not "nude" (which implies innocent/purity). Sofonisba Anguissola, Self-Portrait, late 1550s Father got her into painting Could not show her skills as an artist shows that she couldn't Shows that she recognizes and is also challenged by the viewer The fact that she is looking at the viewer and simultaneously in control Image Analysis 17th Century Sunday, October 14, 2007 12:50 AM Artemisia Gentileschi, Susannah and the Elders Susannah = realistic female body. The aversion of male roles. Shows her recoiling from the elders, she does not want attention, unlike earlier version of Susannah want of attention and sexual innuendo, but this shows her not wanting of it and no hint of sexuality. Artemisia Gentileschi, Judith and Holofernes, 1612-13 Strong women, head higher than man's. portrayal of realistic blood in response to cloth. Colors are sharp. Doesn't hold back on images. Shows strong bond between women, strength of Judith's forearm and the action between her handmaiden and the General. Veronese, Feast in the House of Levi 1573 Originally the last supper, but since were too many drunks, midgets, children, too much court life overall, the title had to be changed. He was simply asserting artistic genius to make picture interesting. But the Catholic laid the smack down since they were amidst the CounterReformation and had to be careful of way subjects represented in images. Detail Caravaggio, Mary Magdalene, 1595 Looks strikingly down to earth and very ordinary. She has ordinary props, dramatic lighting, part of Counter-Reformation, showed Caravaggio's interest in nature, everyday life. Bellori said while this was illusionistic rendering, it wasn't actually good by Alberti standards. Caravaggio, Supper at Emmaus, 1599 Again common representation of genre painting and still life. Focused on texture. The chicken skin and grapes have a haze. Focus of ordinary people, so catered to middle/lower class. Combination of lume and lustro. Textile detail and rendering of mass. (lack of distinction between northern style and Italian style) Uses linear perspective to dramaticize religious figures. On the fact of the divine coming down to earth defines a heroism. Artist is aware of where viewer is to be. Caravaggio, Conversion of St. Paul, 1600-01 Dramatic lighting, central figure not centralized. Really good foreshortening. Very interesting to look at. The horse is naturalistic. Realistic. Caravaggio, St. Matthew and the Angel, 1602 Shows St. Matthew as peasant. The church disliked it because it seemed that Matthew was crude and stupid and angel had to basically guide Matthew's hand to write the Bible. Matthew was not "saintly" looking. Caravaggio, Inspiration of St. Matthew, 1602 Repainting of previous picture. Makes Matthew more "saintly", shows less of feet, halo, makes him look smarter, but still has wrinkles in face. The angel is instead coming from the sky as divine inspiration, and does not literally guide Matthew's hand to write. Bernini, David, 1622 Sculpture is no longer static in space. Info in back. Type of self-portrait for Bernini. Pregnant moment in narrative which represents the early moment in his career and the imminence of his success Expression less idealized. Body like corkscrew ready to fling rock, rewards viewer from all aspects Even as the sculpture does not change the lighting is always changing Merges sculpture and painting for the most believable rendering Strong emotional reaction give an in depth understanding of the story Bernini, Ecstasy of St. Theresa, Coronaro Chapel, 1645 Makes a theatrical environment for the viewer to understand the supernatural and the real paradoxes of the texts. Rays of light represent the holy light of the angel Transcends the limitations of sculpture being static The windows allow the light to have an ever-changing element so that the sculpture does not have a static presence The Coronaros are witnessing the event however they do not acknowledge its importance. Multiple materials allow for a more complicated and dramatic depiction Angels out of the pane are reaching out to the viewer

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Berkeley - HISTORY - 11
Eye is always scanning, so this is a particular problem for artists, who want you to return to the main focal area. Composition tries to control the eye. Applies geometric shapes to break down the body into masses. Perspective Alberti is not the firs
Berkeley - HISTORY - 11
The 15th CenturyRead to 108 in Baxanall, not 81 Enrico Scrovegni -Commissions Giotto to do the last judgment -does it to make up for his money-lending days, the sins of his father -puts himself in the painting, being forgiven for his sins -hell is i
Berkeley - HISTORY - 11
Arnolfini Wedding Portrait Husband a tax collector, wife from Paris Fairly large painting, for a wedding portrait Portrait-Unique idiosyncratic physiognomy. Unique to each person. Not using linear perspective in a strict geometric sense o Orthogonals
Berkeley - HISTORY - 11
Louis XIV Exerts his authority politically economically etc, but also through culture Model might stand in for the king's body Desire to control and regulate nature due to a geometric plan/ Versailles palace o Expression of King's power o Ruled by di
Berkeley - HISTORY - 11
Artonesia Paintings appealing because they were understood to be more truthful because artonesia was a strong woman Deals with the burden of sexuality, but turns it to her advantage Feast in the House of Levi Painting was changed as a result of an in
Berkeley - HISTORY - 11
West Born in Philadelphia, grows up within the Quaker community (he is not a Quaker) Given lots of encouragement to paint In the 18th century portraits are the main form of art o Colonies are Protestant o No king or sovereign Want portraits to descri
Berkeley - HISTORY - 11
Albrecht Drcher Goes South, and his goal is to reform Northern art Wants to make Northern art more systematic through geometry Emphasizes the technical, in particular the geometric Imposes geometry on the human body, finds it in the human body Says N
Berkeley - HISTORY - 11
Northern art is Protestant, with the exception of Rubens Rubens The Netherlands, under the control of the Spanish crown A northerner who does Italian style o North/south barrier has collapsed Organized composition so that figures fall into space Uses
Berkeley - HISTORY - 11
Durer engraving from 1514 Idea of an artist's state of mind Idea of genius, consequences when you cannot produce The creative impulse is a double-edged sword Melancholy was much-feared and debilitating Counter-Reformation Italy recovers from Manneris
Berkeley - HISTORY - 11
Needs paintings for hotel-like small rooms Don't want history paintings Very brushy application of paint, does not delineate figures meticulously Landscape dominates the scene, not figures Organized in an undulating line, a little more like Baroque W
Berkeley - HISTORY - 11
Two approaches to painting: 1. artists are very concerned with structure, how does one explore the motives of structure to arrive at abstraction 2. emphasis on color, emotions Van Gough Biography is important to understanding Van Gough Not a success
Berkeley - HISTORY - 11
David Strictly archaeological means of rendering subject matter When doing contemporary history, how does artist show skill in rendering male body? King of France beheaded, napoleon comes to power o Kind of a boring painting o All figures detailed, b
Berkeley - HISTORY - 11
BRING A BLUEBOOK TO THE EXAM Caravaggio Draw on the Northern style of lustro Lume/lustro division collapsing Isn't interested in idealizing Composition organized so that it falls into our space Drama of the extended space Bernini Desire for unity a p
Berkeley - HISTORY - 11
Venus of Urbino Domestic setting of the 16th century Two large wedding chests in the background Commissioned by the duke of Urbino in 1538 More of an ordinary woman based on the way she is dressed She is not nude, but naked Tilts towards the beholder
Berkeley - POL SCI - 1
Problem of the Bureaucracy: how to remain neutral, efficient, and technically competent when facing pressures from political actors like the president and congress Pros Specialization/ expertise Professionalism meritocracy Division of labor Cons High
Berkeley - POL SCI - 1
The Problem of Congress: How can it fulfill its constitutional responsibility to make national policy, oversee the executive branch and serve local constituents when the institution is structured as such that it fragments power and creates incentives
Berkeley - POL SCI - 1
Civil Rights: protections from the government Everybody equal under the law o Due process o Equal protection clause Positive actions that the government has to take Civil Liberties: saying things that the government can't do Affirmative action Jobs U
Berkeley - POL SCI - 1
Party FederalistsEra17881816Key Issues -Strong federal gov't -Ratify constitution -National bank -Resume ties with Great Britain -Favored a Tariff -Free Trade -Promote agrarian local interests over large national ones -Wanted to re-align with F
Berkeley - ANTHRO - 1
Tuberculosis can go into your skull, expands and causes tissue to become infected Had TB at 500,000 y? Know the features of KNM-ER 3733 Know the features of bones, thickenings, super orbital Taurus DO NOT confuse features with bones Olduvai Hominid 1
Berkeley - ANTHRO - 1
Tethys sea goes through where is now Saudi Arabia, top of Africa Electron-spin resonance dating-form of absolute dating Fission track dating Idiosyncratic-individual variation Faunal succession Owen Lovejoy locomotion specialist, done all the work o
Berkeley - ANTHRO - 1
Single nucleotide Polymorphism -a nucleotide that is a variation of the sugar phosphide base Ales Hrdlicka -first American physical anthropologist Primitive OR derived traits -primitive came from the common ancestor -derived did not Shared derived -o
Berkeley - HISTORY - 11
ART HISTORY STUDY GUIDEfresco - Buon fresco technique consists of painting in pigment mixed with water on a thin layer of wet, fresh, lime mortar or plaster. Used in 14th 16th (ish) cen for wall/ceiling paintings usually in churches/chapels. &quot;must
Berkeley - POL SCI - 1
Constitutional powers 1. Delegated Powers a. Take care clause b. Commander and chief 2. Expressed powers a. Make treaties b. Grant pardons i. Makes them king-like c. Nominate judges and other public officials d. Military 3. Inherent Powers a. Lincoln
Berkeley - POL SCI - 1
The Problem of Congress: How can it fulfill its constitutional responsibility to make national policy, oversee the executive branch and serve local constituents when the institution is structured as such that it fragments power and creates incentives
Berkeley - POL SCI - 1
1. Articles/ current events 2. readings 3. constitution 4. group activity Collective Action Group size Motivation-NRA (small, organized groups exert most influence) How high are the stakes? How to overcome Incentives/ coercion o Hybrid cars can drive
Berkeley - POL SCI - 1
Activism Don't defer to other branches Not bound by president Protect the legitamy/ independence of the court Helps political minoritities exercise rights Constitutional interpretation determines legitimacy of leg. The courts must declare the &quot;sense&quot;
Berkeley - POL SCI - 1
Manuport an object that has been moved from its original context but otherwise remains unmodified Aucheulean and Mousterian no big change, except go from big tools to small flakes Suddenly, 30,000y in Europe is a culture explosion, thought to be di
Berkeley - HISTORY - 11
Strada 3:30-5:00 Bring 2 blue books to exam Check announcement on bspace Exam 12:30 on Saturday
Berkeley - HISTORY - 11
In performance, artist's body essential to the work Use their body to see bodies differently Homemade aesthetic Video does not have the corporate slickness New version of &quot;my kid could do that&quot; Ant Farm A collective of bay area origins
Berkeley - HISTORY - 11
David 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.focus on the representation of the human body, male nude make stone look like flesh traditional sculpture has a vertical orientation depicted in such a way to convey a narrative limited points of view from which one is to see it
Berkeley - HISTORY - 11
Popular arts taken over the role of the traditional art Post-Modernism Not concerned with any particular style Attitude towards art and culture Don't think the history of art or culture is a narrative of progress Denies the hallow status of originali
Berkeley - HISTORY - 11
Pollock Born in Wyoming, spent time in LA In 1950 goes to NY to study with Benton o Benton= regionalism, local American landscapes o The west Local distortion of form, exaggeration of color In NY o A really important gathering place for artists in NY
Berkeley - HISTORY - 11
Andre Masson, Automatic Drawing o Let the pen go where it would, without any effort on his part to control it o Bypassed all that he knew Internalized social values, morals Called &quot;automatism&quot; The Lovers o Goes back and fills in what the earlier me
Berkeley - HISTORY - 11
Duchamp Wants to be a painter, begins with impressionist landscape Studies at private art school in Paris in 1904 1910 Laundry Barge-Fauve, Matisse-like landscape, thickly applied strokes of paint Nude descending the staircase o Affinity with Picasso
Berkeley - HISTORY - 11
Two approaches to painting: 1. artists are very concerned with structure, how does one explore the motives of structure to arrive at abstraction 2. emphasis on color, emotions Van Gough Biography is important to understanding Van Gough Not a success
Berkeley - HISTORY - 11
After abstraction there is the pop movement Inflated women with consumption in the way that consumer advertising equated objects with sexuality o Not possible for women to use advertising to get a critical edge o Changes for women in the 60s and 70s
Berkeley - HISTORY - 11
Pollock is the hot American painter after the war Lee Krasner Married Pollock How is she going to make a reputation for herself when she is seen as Mrs. Jackson Pollock Partnerships are not necessarily equal Wanted to be seen as someone other than Po
Berkeley - HISTORY - 11
Matisse Age of 22 becomes an artist, when he convinces his father that he does not need to be a lawyer Starts studying with an academic painter (old school illusionism) Discovers impressionism, but not purely impressionist Not entirely interested in
Berkeley - HISTORY - 11
Picasso Early training developed on looking at renaissance painting 1899 begins to associate with modernist artists o Paris, center of the art world To be avant-garde is to not repeat what came before, a real burden Turn to non-western form as an alt
Berkeley - HISTORY - 11
Exposition art Degas, Monet, Renoir, etc. o Independent society of artists o Planned an exposition to correspond with that of the salon o Critic dealer system o No direct relationship to patrons o Viewer-ship for this art very small, only about 3,500
Berkeley - HISTORY - 11
Edouard Manet One of the places where modern art begins 5,000 paintings submitted by 3,000 artists, 70% of them rejected o Caused quite a stir among the artists Created another salon for the &quot;losers&quot; who did not get into the original salong o Manet e
Berkeley - HISTORY - 11
Seurat and Cezanne Both responding to impressionism o Impressionism = new theories of vision Allows artists to reconfigure the nature of painting Vision is very unsatisfactory, very transitory Impressionists not concerted with mass and volume, or the
Berkeley - HISTORY - 11
Mounted officer of the imperial guard 21 years old, no academic training Very ambitious, but too much dynamism Meant for greater things, but does not have the fundamentals to execute them Equestrian portrait of Charles V Grows up under the era of Nap
Berkeley - HISTORY - 11
English landscape painting No academy in England Changes in attitudes towards aesthetics of the real landscape Economic changes in society Brueghel o Landscape as a terrifying place o Isenheim altarpiece o Not a pleasant experience o Wilderness under
Berkeley - HISTORY - 11
Courbet, The Stonebreakers Realism is contemporary subjects combined with Left of center, rather than right, or even center Social problems could be solved with scientific methods Could construct a golden age of humanity Realism aims to give a truthf
McGill - PHGY - 210
Respiration TutorialWeek 1Physiology 210 Exams Memorize normal values Memorize abnormal values Memorize lists Understand the difference between directly proportional and inversely proportional Be aware of absolute words (i.e. always and never
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Cardiovascular Physiology Tutorial 1Contact InfoRyan Luther ryan.luther@mail.mcgill.ca Jessie Chai zhijin.chai@mail.mcgill.ca Feras Al Halabi feras.al-halabi@mail.mcgill.caHow to Study for CardioGo to class! Read the textbook Memorize impo
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Contact InfoRyan Luther ryan.luther@mail.mcgill.ca Jessie Chai zhijin.chai@mail.mcgill.ca Feras Al Halabi feras.al-halabi@mail.mcgill.ca Please try to present all you questions and doubts by 10 pm on Tuesday the 11th of March to give us enough ti
Santa Monica - ACCTG - 101
Accounting 1 Review for Test 1 Bring a Scantron form 882. Bring a non-programmable calculator if you like, but you can do most of the math on paper. You will not be able to use a cell phone for a calculator. The test has five sections on it: 1. Debit
Santa Monica - ENGL - 102
The LotteryBY SHIRLEY JACKSONThe morning of June 27th was clear and sunny, with the fresh warmth of a full-summer day; the flowers were blossoming profusely large in quantity and the grass was richly green. The people of the village began to gather
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PLATO The Allegory of the Cave[Socrates] And now, I said, let me show in a figure how far our nature is enlightened or unenlightened: -Behold! human beings living in a underground cave, which has a mouth open towards the light and reaching all along
Santa Monica - ENGL - 102
There is truly a sense of awe when you experience the vastness of these unfathomably man-made structures. Their beauty and greatness really can't be explained by words. Plus, the architecture is so complex, where would you even begin to describe thei
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This poem talks about the racism in America. The world need to know that racism still exist in this country. Regardless of advances at this particular time,still racism is the diet of this country. Why did people such as Stokley Carmmichael,ect., lef
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Cathedral Raymond Carver This blind man, an old friend of my wife's, he was on his way to spend the night. His wife had died. So he was visiting the dead wife's relatives in Connecticut. He called my wife from his in-laws'. Arrangements were made. He
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Chapter 43Lecture OutlineThe Immune SystemOverview: Reconnaissance, Recognition, and Response An animal must defend itself against unwelcome intruders-the many potentially dangerous viruses, bacteria, and other pathogens it encounters in the a
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