Earthships
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Earthships

Course Number: ARCH 484, Fall 2008

College/University: Oregon

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& EARTHSHIP WATER, WASTE AND ENERGY SYSTEMS THE GREATER WORLD EARTHSHIP COMMUNITY ERIK LAWRENCE, TOMMY WHITE & JESSE FIGGINS ARCH 584 STUDIO, UNIVERSITY OF OREGON - PORTLAND CENTER, SPRING 2006 - PROFESSOR NANCY CHENG A CASE STUDY COMPILED BY SUSTAINABLE/ ECOLOGICAL DESIGN EARTHSHIPS ARE SELF-SUSTAINING DWELLING UNITS Earthships are completely independent, globally oriented dwelling units made from...

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EARTHSHIP & WATER, WASTE AND ENERGY SYSTEMS THE GREATER WORLD EARTHSHIP COMMUNITY ERIK LAWRENCE, TOMMY WHITE & JESSE FIGGINS ARCH 584 STUDIO, UNIVERSITY OF OREGON - PORTLAND CENTER, SPRING 2006 - PROFESSOR NANCY CHENG A CASE STUDY COMPILED BY SUSTAINABLE/ ECOLOGICAL DESIGN EARTHSHIPS ARE SELF-SUSTAINING DWELLING UNITS Earthships are completely independent, globally oriented dwelling units made from units that are indigenous to the whole planet. They are designed to reduce our impact on the planet and increase our connection to it in doing so, earthship architecture strives to constantly make small, believable steps toward slowing down and ultimately reversing the negative impact of human development. Earthship Biotecture empowers people to make positive changes in their own lives and reduce their personal effects on global warming. EARTHSHIP ONE 2 Bedroom/ Bath 1700 SF Solar/ Wind Power EARTHSHIP TWO 1800 SF Ready to finish shell EARTHSHIP CHARACTERISTICS Built with natural and recycled materials. Solar/ Wind/ Electricity (Thermal heating and cooling). Food production Water harvesting/ Contained sewage treatment. CHARACTERISTICS SPECIFIC TO GREATER WORLD EARTHSHIP COMMUNITY Manufacturing own bio-desiel fuel. Commonly owned community land. Minimal automobile impact. Slow growth- 20 year plan. EARTHSHIP TWO 2 Bedroom/ Bath Double Greenhouse Construction Interior growing areas Fully off-grid systems GREATER WORLD EARTHSHIP COMMUNITY A sustainable community which contributes to its surroundings in the world at large and is constantly reinforcing the strength of its own existence. Since most earthships are singular in their focus or sustainability, this community is of particular interest due to the fact that it is a conglomeration cohousing philosophy. BACKGROUND Location: Taos, New Mexico Size: 634 Acres Become a legal subdivision in 1998 First and only approved utility- free subdivision in the developed world (completely off-grid) A gravel pit reclamation project in which a water catch-and-reuse system combines with permaculture techniques to trap and direct surface water runoff in order to demonstrate how to rejuvenate/ reclaim a formerly worthless piece of discarded land. PHASE ONE (Gravel-Pit Reclamation) Housing Recreation Area - Ampitheater - Sport Park - Basketball Court Recycling/ Transfer Stations One major through roads and several smaller arteries. Hiking and Horseback riding trails (throughout). SITE 634 acres, 347 acres common, natural park land 130 total home sites79 Standard home sites (5 acres mean) 42 Affordable home sites (3 acres mean) 9 Home/ light commercial sites 4 Phases of development to occur over 20 year span. PHASE TWO, THREE and FOUR TO COME (Proposed) Public Education Facility Sustainable Living Institute SITE PLAN SOCIAL/ ECONOMIC/ ENVIRONMETAL FACTORS The greater worlds objective is to reduce the economic and institutional barriers between people and sustainable housing while reversing the negative effect conventional housing has on the planet. Its goal is to interface economics and ecology in a way that immediately/ tangibly affects current pressing problems with existing lifestyles. ECONOMIC FACTORS Provision of custom high end and affordable housing. Light commerical area to promote and encourage cottage industries and office/ studio space to accomidate future growth. No public funding- actual community employment created from region catering to Greater World. ENVIRONMENTAL STEWARDSHIP International Institute for sustainable living with public education facility planned for direction of these interested. Research will be avalable international through: - Schools, seminars, tours, web-site and nightly earthsip rentals - earthships will be explored in a fashion that brings them architectural/ social economic legitimacy. SOCIAL FACTORS Land administrated by lboard of directors elected by community at large. Privately owned land/ publically owned community land provide sense of community while preserving personal identity. Attainable living through provision of: - Different size lots - Various densities - Owner participation - Elimination of utilities - Growing own food - Recycling - Eliminating unnecessary infrastructure. ARCHITECTURAL INSPIRATION ADAPTABLE- not singlar in application EARTHSHIP SYSTEMS Most earthship systems provide for two levels of compliance with resource and money saving strategies. Some system strategies are essentially free after initial capital costs, but may require significant changes in lifestyle to be effective. Michael Reynolds, inventor of Earthships, calls this the fanatic strategy. Other strategies take a somewhat more relaxed approach to sustainability. These tend to be more consistent with the ways Americans are accustomed to living, but employ methods that reduce utility costs and help promote living in a more environmentally responsible way. DOMESTIC WATER SYSTEMS - COLLECTION AND DISTRIBUTION EARTHSHIP WATER & WASTE SYSTEMS Earthship water systems are a reaction to the paradigm of what most American have come to expect: an endless water supply. Any analysis of sustainable water collection and distribution systems must therefore also address current use patterns and how these can be made more conservative. If the human occupants of a dwelling used less water, less water would need to be harvested or collected in order to meet new standard requirements. In addition, the conventional well system used in most American homes has been re-evaluated by proponents of the Earthship. Each of the three alternatives discussed below use far less electricity than a typical water distribution system, especially in the pump startup phase where electrical surges can be caused in a standard home. Indoor Water Storage Cistern Ground Water Silt Catch ALTERNATIVE 1 - SOLAR WELL AND CISTERN THE STANDARD OFF-GRID SYSTEM Like conventional well, water is pumped up from the water table but, in this case, is pumped continuously and slowly all day by a small solar powered pump. The pump only operates during daylight hours, therefore limiting electrical surge to only once per day. Pump connects directly to solar cells instead of through a larger pwer system, alleviating the need for storage batteries for the pumps electricity. Small pump trickles water into cistern. Water then pumped from cistern into conventional pressure tank by a second small pump. Both pumps are DC and use far less energy than AC pump Ground Water Gravel and Rock Catch Outdoor Water Storage Cistern ALTERNATIVE 2 - GRAVITY CISTERNS Like a solar well and cistern system but one of the pumps and the pressure tank are eliminated (free natural energy from downhill motion/pressure) Can be used with a cistern or a reservoir (see water catchment) ALTERNATIVE 3 - WATER CATCHES Includes both ground and roof catches - eliminates the need for a well and pump Ground catches (outdoor) need silt catches to trap dirt and marjor particles from water. Small dam blocks runoff and lets the water overflow into the cistern after particles have -psettled to the bottom of the silt catch. Can also use rock in decreasing sizes to filter out various scales of particles Outdoor cistern will always get some debris on top and silt on the bottom. A floating intake keeps the intake pipe away from these hazards. Should be placed on the south facing slope in cold climates to catch snow melt. This allows snow to melt and be harvested before it evaporates. Can have a structure built over it to create a humid growing space while protecting the water from freezing in the winter. Solar Well and Underground Cistern Roof Water Catch System Standard Gravity Cistern with Solar Pump Roof Water Storage Tanks Roof Water Storage Tank Inlet WASTE WATER SYSTEMS - GRAY AND BLACK WATER PROCESSING EARTHSHIP WATER & WASTE SYSTEMS Existing homes have two types of waste water - gray and black. Black water is from the toilets and needs treatment of some kind before it can be delivered back to the earth. Gray water is from sinks, tubs, showers, washing machines, etc. and can be returned directly to the earth if care is taken to use reasonably environmentally safe soaps and detergents. Care must also be taken to put nothing but water down the drain. Earthships recycle water and re-use it four times 1. Daily uses (except toilets) 2. Interior plants 3. Toilets 4. Exterior plants ALTERNATIVE 1 - COMPLETELY ELIMINATE BLACK WATER Many earthships eliminate black water all together by using composting Toilets or solar toilets. Technology of these toilets has gotten to the Point where they no longer smell or produce undesirable effects. Composting toilets require daily addition of peat moss but eventually Produce a fertilizer that can be returned directly to the earth. Solar toilets produce ash which is also used as a fertilizer. Composting Toilet Models: Self-Contained Composting Unit Remote Unit Hatch For Admitting Sunlight Into Solar Toilet Solar Toilet Turns Solid Waste Into Fertilizer Ash ALTERNATIVE 2 SEPARATION OF BLACK AND GRAY WATER GRAY WATER STRATEGIES Each source of gray water is separated so there is no large quantity of gray water in any one place Kitchen sinks, bathroom sinks, showers and tubs, washing machines and dishwashers can all be drained into large planting beds This re-uses the water and organic soaps and detergents can be ok for plants Kitchen and bathroom sinks can have planters directly adjacent to the drains, eliminating excessive piping. Because of the large volumes of water that shower, tubs and washing machines produce, these are drained to larger planters outside the dwelling. BLACK WATER STRATEGIES If a composting or solar toilet cannot be used, modified traditional septic thanks are fthe best alternative Solid an liquid waste (and water) drain into a septic tank which at a certain capactiy enters a drainfield and goes back into the earth Storage of the black water in the tank for a period of time allows all the solids and paper to become sludge and begin an anaerobic process with natural bacteria For Earthships, the reduced amount of water used in the creation of black water allows for smaller septic tanks. Because septic size is typically determined by code, inventor and patent holder Michael Reynolds suggests several outlaw septics Two main outlaws are the aluminum can and tamped earth/tire septics Earthship Water Lifecycle Diagram Gray Water Planting Bed Planting Bed Detail Showing Sink Outlet Outlaw Cistern 1 - Aluminum Can Septic Aluminum Can Septic Photo Tamped Earth and Tire Septic HOT WATER SYSTEMS - INEXPENSIVE HOT WATER DAY OR NIGHT EARTHSHIP WATER & WASTE SYSTEMS Production of inexpensive hot water of a consistent temperature presents perhaps the greatest challenge when building sustainably, especially in climates with low levels of sunlight or on cloudy days when solar hot water may not be a good option. Americans have become accustomed to always-on/instantly hot water systems and have been willing to sacrifice $40-$60 a month of electricity to have them. A typical 2 person dwelling, even with serious conservation measures in place, has need of about 800 gallons per month of non-potable water. Earthships primarily use two methods to heat water. The Solar Batch Heater becomes a good alternative for those who do choose to live in Americas Sun Belt, an area typically thought of as being in the Southwest and having sun 300+ days a year. For the rest of the country, the Gas Demand Heater takes the typical gas hot water heater one step further, adding the ability to control when water is being heated and when it is not, therefore conserving large amounts of electricity. Both units pay for themselves within a few years with utility cost decreases. ALTERNATIVE 1 - SOLAR BATCH HEATERS Simplest, low-tech and maintenance-free method of obtaining hot water anywhere near the sun-belt. This is not a good option anywhere else in the country unless a backup Gas Demand Heater is installed. Called Batch Heater because the unit is both the heater and the storage tank for a batch of hot water Very thin proportion to allow water to heat fast (maximum surface area exposed directly to the sun) Covered with tempered glass which forms a thin air cavity between the glass and the tank itself. This air heats up and in turn heats the tank Depends almost entirely on gravity flow for water pressure. Therefore pressure tends to be lower than that typically supplied in a modern home. Placed in one of two ways. Toward summer equinox provides maximum performance of the unit. Toward winter equinox makes more sense in cooler climates because you get better winter performance (when you need more hot water) and reduced performance in summer (when demand for hot water is lower) Since a batch of hot water may be limited in size, many units may be necessary to supply many fixtures Solar Heater Batch Schematic Diagram A Bank of Gas Demand Heaters In Action ALTERNATIVE 2 - INSTANT-ON GAS DEMAND HEATER Very small wall mounted unit - 18 wide, 13 deep, 36 high. Natural gas produces flame for heating water Located so that exhaust from the unit can be easily vented through the roof, and so that fresh air for combustion of gas can flow freely through the intakes Placed near fixtures they are servicing to minimize the time for hot water to get to the tap. This may, as with the Solar Batch Heater, result in a multitude of units being used throughout the house servicing various fixtures. Limitation: too small to service more than 1 fixture at a time (no washing dishes while showering) Heat water in a coil as it is called for. Only a pilot burns until you turn on the tap. The tap acts as a trigger for the unit, producing a burst of flame and passing water through the flame in a copper coil. The flame remains on, heating the water in the coil as long as the tap is left on. Mirrors Can Be Used To Assure Maximum Performance ALTERNATIVE 3 - COMBINATION OF SYSTEMS (PREFERRED) This is the best solution because it allows you to have free hot water from a batch heater when there is sun, but keeps you covered in case of clouds or bad weather. Gas Demand Heater Schematic Solar Shower with Integral Batch Water Heater THERMAL MASS and PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING EARTHSHIP COMFORT SYSTEMS The earth is a thermally stabilizing mass that receives energy from the sun. The outer few feet of the earth are heated and cooled in response to surface weather. Around 4-5 feet below the surface temperature is constant at about 58 degrees and this is where the earth can be used to both cool and stabilize temperature of the earthship. THE EARTHSHIP WILL PROVIDE COMFORT IN ANY CLIMATE THROUGH: A relationship of mass and insulation. interaction with the earth for coolness and to stable temperatures through thermal mass. Interact with the sun for solar gain though passive solar gain. Orientation of the structure must be east-west with south facing opening. Open floor plans for natural ventilation. EARTHSHIPS ARE THERMAL MASS FIRST AND PASSIVE SOLAR HOMES SECOND. When sunlight strikes a building, the buildings materials can reflect, transmit or absorb the solar radiation. The basic natural process that are used in passive solar energy that flows in accordance to radiation, conduction and natural convection. THERMAL MASS: Thermal mass materials have the ability to conduct and store energy, both hot and cold, and to release that energy back into the living space when its needed. Heat always moves to colder surfaces. In the solar home, the free solar energy first heats up the air. Since the mass floors and walls are cooler, the heat is absorbed and conducted into these materials. Later, when the sun has set and the room air temperature falls, it will reach a point where the mass materials are warmer than the room air temperature. Since heat seeks out cold, the stored energy will now return to the room. The more mass in the home, the more energy that can be stored. PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING EARTHSHIP COMFORT SYSTEMS PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING REQUIRES TWO PRIMARY ELEMENTS: South facing openings Thermal mass to absorb, store and distrubute heat There are three approaches to passive systems - direct gain, indirect gain, and isolated gain. The goal of all passive solar heating systems is to capture the suns heat within the buildings elements and release that heat during periods when the sun is not shining. At the same time that the buildings elements are absorbing heat for later use, solar heat is available for keeping the space comfortable. DIRECT GAIN: Radiant heat from the sun admitted directly to the thermal mass floors and walls of the living space through south-facing windows, warming interior surfaces. The thermal mass will temper the intensity of the heat during the day by absorbing the heat. At night, the thermal mass radiates heat into the living space. INDIRECT GAIN: An attached thermal mass is located between the sun and the living space. The thermal mass absorbs the sunlight that strikes it and transfers it to the living space by conduction. The thermal mass is located immediately behind south facing glass in this system. Operable vents at the top and bottom of a thermal storage wall permit heat to convect from between the wall and the glass into the living space. When the vents are closed at night radiant heat from the wall heats the living space. ISOLATED GAIN: An isolated gain system has its integral parts separate from the main living area of a house. The ability to isolate the system from the primary living areas is the point of distinction for this type of system. Sunrooms employ a combination of direct gain and indirect gain system features. Sunlight entering the sunroom is retained in the thermal mass and air of the room. Sunlight is brought into the house by means of conduction through a shared mass wall in the rear of the sunroom, or by vents that permit the air between the sunroom and living space to be exchanged by convection. NATURAL VENTILATION and ALTERNATE POWER SOURCES EARTHSHIP COMFORT SYSTEMS VENTILATION AND COOLING: Gravity skylights are an integral part of ventilation and cooling of the earthship. The controlled movement of air aligns with a natural tendency of warm air to rise. Gravity skylights therefore should be in the highest possible place to allow warm air to escape. Fresh air must be allowed to enter in the lowest place through operable windows or vents. This creates a natural exchange of air throughout the space. When outside conditions are too hot for comfort, inlets for incoming air can be submerged in the earth. This allows the temperature of the earth to cool the incoming air before it enters the structure. ALTERNATE POWER SOURCE: Earthships are not without the need for power to operate appliances, lighting and automatic watering systems. Since the concept is to be off grid, alternate sources of power are required. There are two sources of electricity, the sun and the wind. Most commonly used source is the sun due to the complexity and inadequate frequency of wind for harvesting. PHOTOVOLTAICS Photovoltaic cells produce electricity directly from sunlight, a free and unlimited energy source. Photovoltaics are distinct from other kinds of solar energy in that it harnesses the suns light, rather than its heat. This collected energy must be before it can be utilized in DC battery packs collect the energy and store it as 12 or 24 volt current. Most conventional appliances can not run on DC power so an inverter box is employed to convert energy to AC power for use. EARTHSHIP COMMUNITY CONCLUSIONS While it is clear that the Earthship concept has the potential to be one of the must self-sufficient, sustainable systems in the world, the concepts employed within may not always be directly applicable to every geography. In this study we have identified many sociological, economic and practical systems that operate well within existing communities like the Greater World Earthship Community. We will now explore how these concepts can be directly translated for use in the Pacific Northwest. CURRENT APPLICATION OF EARTHSHIP PRINCIPLES IN A PACIFIC NORTHWEST CONTEXT - THE KINZER EARTHSHIP NEAR BEND, OREGON SOCIO-ECONOMIC PRINCIPLES Earthship can become didactic- they inform inhabitants about a sustainable lifestyle that brings a broader awareness of their surroundings. Earthships can be adapted to many application, yet in a cohousing context they become quite significant due to their ability to promote social, economic and environmental complexity. Earthships are self contained ships that can sail the seas of tomorrow and then into space. WATER AND WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Given the amount of rainfall the Portland area receives annually (about 36), the water collection strategies discussed in this case study seem directly applicable to our region. Separation of Gray and Black water should be a relatively easy strategy to implement in all new construction. Though it will add some additional piping and therefore cost, the cost benefit of water savings over time would certainly offset this minimal initial investment. Composting and Solar toilets seem like two principles many people may not be willing to implement. Therefore, in the context of our region new extreme low-flow toilets seem like a good way to reduce black water. Since much of our region is already supplied heat by methods of natural gas, converting existing hot water heaters to On Demand Gas Hot Water Heaters would be an excellent way to reduce monthly electric utility bills. Solar batch heaters are probably not a good option for our region due to the number of cloudy days we typically have in a year. Paula Kinzer and her son Jacob The Kinzer Earthship Fortunatly, there is precedent for Earthship systems operating within a Pacific Northwest context. Beginning in 1994, Paula Kinzer and her husband Kevin began construction on an Earthship near Bend, Oregon. They chose Bend for the amount of sun the city gets on an annual basis and chose to build an Earthship because of their dedication to living ecologically responsible lives. Construction was finished in 2003 and in an article in the University of Oregon journal FLUX, writer Anne Austin discusses some of the challenges the Kinzers have faced while living drastically different lives, as well as some of the rewards they have experienced living green. While the Kinzers have tried to stay true to the Earthship concept, logistics have hindered their progress. Six-yearold Jacob and four-year-old Quinn mean more loads of laundry, more gas-guzzling car trips into town and more solar power consumption. The prescribed composting toilets that convert excrement into usable compost drained too much of their limited solar power, so they opted for low-flush toilets. City codes required that they filter their gray waterused water from faucets and showersdeep into soil, offering little nourishment for plants. They attempted to catch rainwater, but a leak in their roof forced them to postpone that idea... ...Still, Paula and Kevin make frequent visits to the small electrical room just off the kitchen to monitor their power levels, though they worry less since making the switch. Even in the dead of winter the family uses only 112 kilowatts of grid electricity per monthabout 90 percent less than a conventional home of the same size... ...Paula continues to do the bulk of her energy-dependent work during the day, when the sun is out. She and Kevin know that if they organized their energy use perfectly, they would rely only on solar power. Yet they take comfort in knowing that they can use the microwave or the television or run an emergency load of laundry after the sun goes down. THERMAL COMFORT AND ENERGY SYSTEMS To maximize effective comfort from the Earths natural phenomenons the structure must be oriented East-West with lots of south facing opening and constructed 4 to 5 feet below ground. Since the sun light is scarce and the earth is typically wet in Portland, relying on these natural systems for comfort is not reliable or feasible. Earthships could not follow their traditional concept of off-grid and alternate sources of power would have to applied for comfort and running appliances. Earthships would not be feasible in an urban setting such as Portland because of close proximity to the ground and need separation between units for limited energy source to be utilized. We are encouraged by these statements made by the Kinzer family in this article from FLUX. While building and living the Earthship Lifestyle is no easy task, this family has shown that even in an area with limited sunlight, thermal gain and extra land, it is possible to life much more sustainably than the average American family. 90% savings on ones monthly electrical bill is no small matter, especially as energy prices continue to climb and supplies of fossil fuels continue to dwindle. BIBILIOGRAPHY BOOKS Peterson, Erik Nissen and John Gould. Rainwater Catchment Systems for Domestic Supply: Design, Construction and Inplementation. London: ITDG Publishing, 2000. Reynolds, Michael. Earthship Volume 2: Systems and Components. New Mexico: Solar Survival Press, 1990. INTERNET WEB REFERENCES Austin, Anne. It Aint Easy Being Green, Flux Student Magazine, 2003. http://influx.uoregon.edu/2003/green.html (2006-APR-10). Reed, Ryan. Extreme Green:A Pair of Projects Point to Differing Paths to Sustainable Design, Builder News Magazine, 2004. http://www.buildernewsmag.com/viewnews.pl?id=120 (2006-APR-14) Reynolds, Michael. Earthship Biotechture, Entire Website, 2005. http://www.earthship.org/ and http://www.earthshipbiotecture.com (2006-APR-10) Chrisensen, Bill. A Sourcebook for Green and Sustainable Buildings , Passive Solar Guidelines, http://www.greenbuilder.com (2006-APR-08)

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Nanometer Imaging with a High Brightness Source Dr. Wenbing Yun Xradia, Inc., 4075A Sprig Drive, Concord, CA 94520 The future high brightness synchrotron sources will permit development of x-ray imaging techniques with sub-10 nm resolution and unprec
Cornell - WORKSHOP - 2003
Workshop on X-ray Science with Coherent Radiation August 22-23, 2003, Berkeley, USACoherent Hard X-ray Scattering experiments at Large Diffraction AnglesF. Yakhou , F. Livet , M. de Boissieu , F. Bley , A. Ltoublon , C. S. Nelson 3 and J. P. Hill
Cornell - WORKSHOP - 2003
Focusing X-Ray Beams to Nanometer Dimensions1LaboratoriumC. Bergemann1, H. Keymeulen2, and J.F. van der Veen1,2 fr Festkrperphysik, ETH-Zrich, Switzerland 2 Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, SwitzerlandAt synchrotron radiation sources, focusing
Cornell - WORKSHOP - 2003
Coherence Preserving Reflecting and Crystal OpticsTetsuya Ishikawa SPring-8/RIKEN Kouto 1-1-1, Mikazuki-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148; e-mail: ishikawa@spring8.or.jp Perfect preservation of x-ray coherence requires x-ray mirrors with atomic scale sm
Cornell - SRI - 2001
DIFFRACTION LIMITED FOURTH GENERATION VUV and X-RAY SOURCE BASED on a ACCELERATOR RECUPERATOR G.N. Kulipanov, A.N. Skrinsky, N.A. Vinokurov Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics Novosibirsk, Russia Important tasks for the future generation of the VUV
Cornell - CWC - 191
CISEREDIISSCHESSThe Cornell Institute for Social and Economic Research (CISER) now houses a Research Data Center (RDC) under the auspices of the U.S. Census Bureau. Cornells RDC operates as part of the New York Census Research Data Center (NY
Cornell - CWC - 171
Economic DevelopmentGene Network Sciences Advances Drug Discovery Via Computer Cell SimulationsThe pharmaceutical industry's R&D process is excruciatingly slow and staggeringly expensive. Creating a new drug takes approximately 15 years and cost
Cornell - CWC - 181
Robert Barker/CUA NEW PHYTASE ENZYME TO BENEFIT THE ENVIRONMENT, NATURAL RESOURCES, AND NUTRITIONRobert Barker/CUFood-producing animals such as swine, poultry, and pre-ruminant calves do not have the necessary enzyme in their gastrointestinal t
Cornell - CWC - 181
SICCRLEPPLSECCMRComparative Cancer ResearchElementary-Particle PhysicsLife Science EnterpriseMaterials ResearchThe Sprecher Institute for Comparative Cancer Research provides cancer education, research, and clinical cancer management
Cornell - CWC - 162
Research in PROGRESSMario Einaudi Center for International StudiesScholars rooted in the area-studies tradition of social science celebrate grounded knowledge.47}Grounded Knowledge, Disciplinarity, and International Studies Converge to Impro
Cornell - CWC - 172
center SpectrumBiotech CATCAMCCMRCHESSHelp for Entrepreneurs Is AvailableThe Grant Resource Center for Entrepreneurs is open for business at the NYS Center for Advanced Technology in Biotechnology. The Center's mission is to assist Cornell
Cornell - CWC - 181
LEVERAGING TALENTS, SKILLS, AND KNOWLEDGE FOR PUBLIC SERVICEThe Iscol Family Program for Leadership Development in Public Service, created in 2000 by Jill and Kenneth H. Iscol '60, endeavors to inspire and educate a new generation of community lead
Cornell - CWC - 161
Research in PROGRESSAlliance for Nanomedical TechnologiesPositioning New York State As a Premier Site for a New IndustryThe Alliance for Nanomedical Technologies, established in 2001, brings together academia and the private sector of New York Sta
Cornell - FDA - 2007
BSCB 694: Functional Data analysisClass DiscussionApril 5The class discussion will center around the seminal article: Brumback, B. A. and Rice, J. A., 1998, Smoothing Spline Models for the Analysis of Nested and Crossed Samples of Curves. Journa
Cornell - ILC - 92
International Labour ConferenceProvisional RecordNinety-second Session, Geneva, 200425Reply by the Director-General to the discussion of his Report1. IntroductionThe President of this years session of the International Labour Conference, Min
Cornell - SJC - 9
Stephen J. Ceci to receive APS lifetime awardBy Susan S. Lang Cornell developmental psychologist Stephen J. Ceci is the recipient of the 2004-05 American Psychological Society's (APS) James McKeen Cattell Award "for a lifetime of outstanding contrib
Cornell - CJC - 1006
Math 1006 Academic Support for Math 1106 Spring 2009Sponsored by the Learning Strategies Center (LSC)Math 1006 reviews material presented in Math 1106 lectures, provides problem solving techniques and tips as well as some prelim review. The cours
Cornell - CJC - 258
Math 1006 Academic Support for Math 1106 Spring 2009Sponsored by the Learning Strategies Center (LSC)Math 1006 reviews material presented in Math 1106 lectures, provides problem solving techniques and tips as well as some prelim review. The cours
Cornell - JC - 476
JEEYOUNG CHA#1-6539 Royal Oak Avenue Burnaby, BC, Canada, V5H 3P3 Email: jcha@alumni.sfu.ca Phone: (604) 436-1618EDUCATIONAug 2003 Sep 1998 Jun 2003 Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA Ph.D. candidate in Applied Physics Simon Fraser University,
Cornell - DDW - 26
Brigham Young University 198182SpeechesRevelationDALLIN H. OAKS 29 September 1981speeches.byu.edu (801) 422-2299 More than a thousand individual speeches downloadable for free. Purchase books, DVDs, CDs, MP3CDs, and more for your personal libra
Cornell - EDT - 9
16-QAM Receiverby David Maumau (dtm65) Eric Tobis (edt9) Simon Wong (scw36)Objective Build upon a QPSK radio to receive 16-QAM signals Satisfy the performance threshold for 6 test signals Performance measure is the cluster variance at the equal
Cornell - CS - 519
Recall our protocol layers . . .CS519: Computer NetworksLecture 5, Part 1: Mar 3, 2004 Transport: UDP/TCP demux and flow control / sequencingCS519. . . and our protocol graphCS519 CS519IP gets the packet to the hostReally the interfaceNo
Cornell - CS - 415
Message Passing LibraryProgramming Project 4 - Design PhaseRemember to check the function comments in provided header lesthese dene more precisely the interfaces you will be implementing. As always, some behaviors may not be dened as well as they n
Cornell - CS - 519
CS519: Computer NetworksLecture 5, Part 1: Mar 3, 2004 Transport: UDP/TCP demux and flow control / sequencingRecall our protocol layers . . .CS519. . . and our protocol graphCS519CS519IP gets the packet to the hostReally the interfaceNo