Lecture8_Fungi_notes
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Lecture8_Fungi_notes

Course: BIOL 106, Fall 2009

School: Alaska Anch

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UniKonts - Opisthoknonts Fungi (and closely related Nucleariids) Overview: Mighty Mushrooms Fungi are diverse and widespread 100,000 described spp. of estimated 1.5million They are essential for the well-being of most terrestrial ecosystems because they break down organic material and recycle vital nutrients Honey Mushrooms Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings...

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- UniKonts Opisthoknonts Fungi (and closely related Nucleariids) Overview: Mighty Mushrooms Fungi are diverse and widespread 100,000 described spp. of estimated 1.5million They are essential for the well-being of most terrestrial ecosystems because they break down organic material and recycle vital nutrients Honey Mushrooms Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Nutrition and Ecology Fungi are heterotrophs and absorb nutrients from outside of their body Fungi use enzymes to break down a large variety of complex molecules into smaller organic compounds The versatility of these enzymes contributes to fungis ecological success Fungi - Diversity Variety of Lifestyles Decomposers Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Laminated root rot is caused by the native fungus Phellinus weirii 1 Fungi - Diversity Variety of Lifestyles Parasitic Mutualistic Fungi - Diversity Variety of Lifestyles Coccidioides immitis causes a nasty fungal disease called coccidioidomycosis Body Structure The most common body structures are multicellular filaments and single cells (yeasts) Some species grow as either filaments or yeasts; others grow as both Fungal Morphology The morphology of multicellular fungi enhances their ability to absorb nutrients Fungi consist of mycelia, networks of branched hyphae adapted for absorption Most fungi have cell walls made of chitin Plants: Cellulose Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings 2 Fig. 31-2 Reproductive structure Hyphae Some fungi have hyphae divided into cells by septa, with pores allowing cell-to-cell movement of organelles Coenocytic fungi lack septa Spore-producing structures 20 m Mycelium Interwoven Mass Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig. 31-4a Fig. 31-4b Nematode Hyphae 25 m Fungal hypha Plant cell wall Plant cell Plant cell plasma membrane Haustorium (b) Haustoria (a) Hyphae adapted for trapping and killing prey Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Arthrobotrys rapid constriction of hoop shaped hyphae around prey Extract nutrients from, or exchange nutrients with, hosts 3 Mutualism Mycorrhizae (fungus roots) Mycorrhizae are mutually beneficial relationships between fungi and plant roots Ectomycorrhizal fungi form sheaths of hyphae over a root and also grow into the extracellular spaces of the root cortex Mutualism Mycorrhizae (fungus roots) Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi extend hyphae through the cell walls of root cells and into tubes formed by invagination of the root cell membrane Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Mutualism Mycorrhizae Vascular Plants Almost all have mycorrhizae and rely on fungal partners for essential nutrients. Concept 31.2: Fungi produce spores through sexual or asexual life cycles Fungi propagate themselves by producing vast numbers of spores, either sexually or asexually Fungi can produce spores from different types of life cycles Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings 4 Fig. 31-5-2 Key Pheremones locate other mycelia and ensure they are of a different mating type Heterokaryotic stage PLASMOGAMY (fusion of cytoplasm) KARYOGAMY (fusion of nuclei) Zygote SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Sexual Reproduction Fungal nuclei are normally haploid, with the exception of transient diploid stages formed during the sexual life cycles Sexual reproduction requires the fusion of hyphae from different mating types Fungi use sexual signaling molecules called pheromones to communicate their mating type Haploid (n) Heterokaryotic (unfused nuclei from different parents) Diploid (2n) Spore-producing structures Spores ASEXUAL Mycelium REPRODUCTION GERMINATION Fused myselium contain coexisting, genetically different nuclei Short-Lived diploid (2n) stage Meiosis quickly restores the haploid condition Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Plasmogamy is the union of two parent mycelia In most fungi, the haploid nuclei from each parent do not fuse right away; they coexist in the mycelium, called a heterokaryon In some fungi, the haploid nuclei pair off two to a cell; such a mycelium is said to be dikaryotic Hours, days, or even centuries may pass before the occurrence of karyogamy, nuclear fusion During karyogamy, the haploid nuclei fuse, producing diploid cells The diploid phase is short-lived and undergoes meiosis, producing haploid spores Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings 5 Asexual Reproduction In addition to sexual reproduction, many fungi can reproduce asexually Molds produce haploid spores by mitosis and form visible mycelia Penicillium a mold commonly encountered as a decomposer of food Other fungi that can reproduce asexually are yeasts, which inhabit moist environments Instead of producing spores, yeasts reproduce asexually by simple cell division and the pinching of bud cells from a parent cell Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the stages of budding Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Evolution of Fungi Fungi Clade Opisthokonts Closely related to Nucleariids The Evolution of Fungi Nucleariids Unicellular protists Amoebas that feed on algae and bacteria DNA sequence data reveals their relationship to fungi 6 Fig. 31-9 Are Microsporidia Closely Related to Fungi? Microsporidia are unicellular parasites of animals and protists They have tiny organelles derived from mitochondria but not conventional mitochondria 50 Fungi m Fossil 460 MYA DNA Molecular Clocks Suggest divergence from Animals was ~1 BYA Molecular comparisons indicate they may be closely related to fungi Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Problem for people with AIDS Fungal Diversity 5 phyla Chytrids are paraphyletic Fungal Diversity - CHYTRIDS Chytrids are paraphyletic Lakes, soil, mutualists, parasites Hyphae 25 m Chytrids (1,000 species) Unique among fungi: flagellated spores - zoospores 7 Fig. 31-13-4 Fungal Diversity - ZYGOMYCETES Include fast growing food molds, parasites, and commensal symbionts sexually produced zygosporangia Zygomycetes (1,000 species) Rhizopus growing on bread ZYGOMYCETES Black bread mold Key Haploid (n) Heterokaryotic (n + n) Diploid (2n) PLASMOGAMY Mating type (+) Mating type () Gametangia with haploid nuclei Young zygosporangium (heterokaryotic) 100 m SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Dispersal and germination Spores Sporangium Diploid nuclei Zygosporangium KARYOGAMY Sporangia Zygosporangia, which are resistant to freezing and drying, can survive unfavorable conditions ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION MEIOSIS Dispersal and germination 50 m Mycelium Fig. 31-11c Some zygomycetes, such as Pilobolus, can actually aim their sporangia toward conditions associated with good food sources Fungal Diversity - GLOMEROMYCETES Most form arbuscular mycorrhizae with plant roots Important supply minerals and nutrients to plant roots Fungal hypha Glomeromycetes (160 species) SEM depicts branched hyphae (arbuscule) bulging into a root cell Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings 8 Fig. 31-11d Fungal Diversity - ASCOMYCETES Defining feature - production of sexual spores in saclike asci Most bear their sexual stages in fruiting bodies (ascocarps) Ascomycetes (65,000 species) Ascomycetes include plant pathogens, decomposers, and symbionts Ascomycetes reproduce asexually by enormous numbers of asexual spores called conidia Conidia are not formed inside sporangia; they are produced asexually at the tips of specialized hyphae called conidiophores Neurospora is a model organism with a wellstudied genome Copyright 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fig. 31-17-1 Fig. 31-17-4 Haploid spores (conidia) Key Haploid (n) Dikaryotic (n + n) Diploid (2n) Haploid spores (conidia) Conidia; mating type () Key Haploid (n) Dikaryotic (n + n) Diploid (2n) Dispersal Germination Hypha Dispersal Germination Hypha ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Mating type (+) PLASMOGAMY Conidiophore Conidiophore Mycelia Mycelium Mycelium Germination Dispersal Dikaryotic hyphae SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Eight ascospores Four haploid nuclei Ascus (dikaryotic) KARYOGAMY Not formed inside sporangia Produced externally at typs of specialized hyphae called conidiophores Ascocarp Asci Diploid nucleus (zygote) MEIOSIS 9 Fig. 31-11e Fungal Diversity - BASIDIOMYCETES Mushrooms, puffballs, and shelf fungi Basidiomycetes (30,000 species) Fungal Diversity - BASIDIOMYCETES Mushrooms, puffballs, and shelf fungi Mutualists form mycorrhizae Destructive plant parasites rusts and smuts Fig. 31-19-4 Haploid mycelia Mating type () PLASMOGAMY Dikaryotic mycelium Haploid mycelia Mating type (+) Gills lined with basidia Basidiocarp (n+n) SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Dispersal and germination Basidiospores (n) Basidium with four basidiospores Basidium containing four haploid nuclei KARYOGAMY MEIOSIS Basidium Basidia (n+n) Key Haploid (n) Dikaryotic (n+n) Diploid (2n) 1 m Basidiospore Diploid ...

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