03 A Methodical History of Language Teaching
30 Pages

03 A Methodical History of Language Teaching

Course Number: ESL 7776, Spring 2008

College/University: Hamline

Word Count: 1244

Rating:

Document Preview

A Methodological History of Language Teaching Changing Winds and Shifting Sands Grammar Translation Also called "Classical Method" Focus on grammatical rules, memorization of vocabulary, text translations, written exercises. Language learning was for "scholarly" purposes, not communicative. Requires few specialized skills by teachers. Characteristics of Grammar Translation Classes taught...

Unformatted Document Excerpt
Coursehero >> Minnesota >> Hamline >> ESL 7776

Course Hero has millions of student submitted documents similar to the one
below including study guides, practice problems, reference materials, practice exams, textbook help and tutor support.

Course Hero has millions of student submitted documents similar to the one below including study guides, practice problems, reference materials, practice exams, textbook help and tutor support.

Methodological A History of Language Teaching Changing Winds and Shifting Sands Grammar Translation Also called "Classical Method" Focus on grammatical rules, memorization of vocabulary, text translations, written exercises. Language learning was for "scholarly" purposes, not communicative. Requires few specialized skills by teachers. Characteristics of Grammar Translation Classes taught in mother tongue with little active use of target language. Isolated lists of vocabulary. Elaborate grammatical explanations. Reading difficult classic texts begins right away but little attention to content. Little to no attention to pronunciation. Much translation between L1 and L2. The Introduction of Modern Foreign Language Instruction. A More Natural Approach to Learning The Direct Method Sequencing based on Gouin: his personal experiences with learning German and observations of children learning L1. "Naturalistic" in simulating the way in which children learned L1. Emphasized oral interaction and spontaneous use of language. Early 1900's. Characteristics of the Direct Method Classroom instruction exclusively in the target language. Everyday vocabulary and sentences taught. Oral skills built up through carefully constructed question-answer exchanges between teachers and students in small classrooms. Grammar taught inductively. Heavy use of modeling and practice. Concrete vocabulary taught through demonstrations, objects, pictures; abstract vocabulary taught by association with ideas. Speech and listening comprehension taught. Correct pronunciation and grammar emphasized. Best known: Charles Berlitz The Audiolingual Method A Language Teaching Revolution Audiolingual Method Known as the "Army Specialized Training Program" based on the need for W.W.II soldiers to be orally proficient in the languages of allies and enemies. Firmly grounded in linguistic and psychological theory. Very popular throughout the 40's, 50's and early 60's. Characteristics of the Audiolingual Method Classes are taught in the target language. New material presented in dialog form. Heavy dependence on mimicry, memorization of set phrases, and overlearning. Contrastive analysis base for teaching structures. Grammar taught inductively. Heavily reliance on structural drills. tapes, language labs and visual aids. Vocabulary is strictly limited and always learned in context. Pronunciation is very important and great effort is made for students to produce errorfree utterances. Manipulating language more important than content. The Designer Methods Saved by the Seventies The Designer Methods: Late Sixties and the Seventies Historically significant on several counts: Research on second language learning became a legitimate discipline separate from linguistics and SLA research contributed tremendously to our understanding languages learning. The spirit of innovation and revolution roused the language teaching world out of its Audiolingual sleep. The Chomskyan revolution in linguistics turned linguists and language teachers away from the surface structures and toward the "deep structure" of language. Psychologists began to recognize the fundamentally affective and interpersonal nature of all learning. The affective domain was born. Community Language Learning (CLL) A classic example of an affectively based method. Curran - "Counseling-Learning" model, based on Carl Roger's view of education. Based on interpersonal relationships, social dynamics of the learning group, teacher and students joining together in learning that values the contributions of all members. Students build community in the L1. As students (clients) are ready, they begin to speak. The teacher (counselor) translates. Clients repeat. Another client responds in L1. Counselor translates, client repeats in L2, eventually needing less translation. Method can be more or less directive which is a strength and weakness. Suggestopedia Derived from Bulgarian psychologist Georig Lozanov who claimed the human brain could process great quantities of material if simply given the right conditions for learning; a state of relaxation, and giving control to the teacher. Relied on Baroque music to lead students into a "relaxed concentration" necessary a prerequisite for "superlearning." Classrooms were comfortable environments to help move students into relaxed states of consciousness. No particular types of activities...including role plays, readings, drama, dialogs. No homework, just a re-reading of material before bed and upon rising in the morning. Frequently criticized, no empirical data. The Silent Way Relies on cognitive theory more than affective. Gattegno, the founder, claimed to be a humanist and believed learners should develop independence, autonomy, and responsibility in their learning. Characterized by a problem-solving or "discovery-learning" approach to learning. Characteristics of the Silent Way The teacher is seen as a stimulator and is silent most of the time. Little correction. Learning happens through discovery. Learning is facilitated by problem solving with materials. Cuisinere rods and wall charts introduce vocabulary, pronunciation models, grammatical structures. Total Physical Response James Asher developed TPR in the 60's integrating first language acquisition, physical response, and right-brained learning. Heavy reliance on imperative mood, even at advanced levels. Teacher is director, students are the actors. Reduces stress through activity and humor. The Natural Approach Based on Krashen's theories of second language acquisition, developed by Terrell. Delays production until speech "emerges" on its own. Makes use of TPR in initial stages of development to ensure "comprehensible input." Affective domain, comfortable learning are important. Characteristics of the Natural Approach Three stages of language development: 1. Pre-production: (the silent period), listening comprehension skills develop, teacher responsible for comprehensible input. 2. Early-production: marked with errors. Teacher focus on meaning, not form. 3. Extending discourse: role-plays, games, discussions, small-group work, open-ended dialog. Errors only corrected if necessary. Notional-Functional Approach Focus on pragmatic purposes of language. "Notions" = general and specific concepts representing existence, space, time, quantity, and quality; narrowing to more specific notions of location, health, education, shopping, free time, personal identification; narrowing to most specific notions of name, address, phone number, etc. Functions correspond to language functions such as identifying, reporting, denying, accepting, declining, asking permission, apologizing, etc. Over 70 communicative language functions were identified and communicative textbooks organized around themes. Not a method, but a precursor to Communicative Language Teaching The Post-Modern Era Beyond Methods The search is abandoned The mid 1880's to the mid 1980's comprise the era of the great search for a single, ideal method generalizable across widely varying audiences, that would successfully teach students a foreign language in the classroom. The Demise of Methods Traditionally Methods are too prescriptive, assuming too much about a context, overgeneralizing application to students. Methods are distinctive at the beginning of instruction but fade into indistinguishable differences. Methods, once believed to be empirically testable to provide BEST instruction, are not so. There is an art and intuitiveness to teaching that is not always empirical. The Demise of Methods According to Pennycook (1989), there is an "interested knowledge," a quasi-political or even mercenary agendas by proponents of Methods...a type of "linguistic imperialism." David Nunan (1991, p.228) states: It has been realized that there never was and probably never will be a method for all, and the focus in recent years has been on the development of classroom tasks and activities, which are consonant with what we know about second language acquisition, and which are also in keeping with the dynamics of the classroom itself. Approach? Method? Techniques? Approach: a set of assumptions dealing with the nature of language learning and teaching. Method: Designed as an overall plan for systematic presentation of language, based on a selected approach. Techniques: Specific classroom activities consistent with method, and therefore in harmony with an approach.

Find millions of documents on Course Hero - Study Guides, Lecture Notes, Reference Materials, Practice Exams and more. Course Hero has millions of course specific materials providing students with the best way to expand their education.

Below is a small sample set of documents:

Hamline - ESL - 7776
Assessment for ESL MethodsJulie M. Henderson, Ed.D. September 24, 2007 Hamline UniversityThe word assess Comes for the Latin verb assidere meaning to sit with. In assessment one is supposed to sit with the learner. This implies it is something we
Hamline - ESL - 7776
Thematic InstructionTheoretical Base Grounded in constructivism and the educational philosophies of John Dewey and Elliot Eisner. Genuine education comes through quality experiences. Education experiences must be connected with the life experien
Hamline - ESL - 7776
Teaching VocabularyWords Words Words Words Words Words Words WordsWhats involved in knowing a word?Paradigmatic relationships referential meaning synonyms antonyms hierarchiesSyntactic Relationships word sequences part of speech colloc
Hamline - ESL - 7776
Thinking About Standards Standards are big picture ideas about what is important for students to know and be able to do. Standards are value driven and influenced by educational stakeholders: business, government, community. Standards are big pict
Cornell - GOVT - 3313
Development in the Wadi Rum? State Bureaucracy, External Funders and Civil Society By Laurie Brand I. Article seeks to highlight the diverse nature of the problems and possibilities that NGOs, may face in the context of a national push for economic d
Cornell - GOVT - 3313
Certain ME institutions, including ones rooted in the regions dominant religion, are the cause for the ME underdevelopment. I. Central Causes A. 1) 2) The Islamic law of inheritance, which inhibited capital accumulation The strict Individualism of Is
Cornell - GOVT - 3313
1/25/08-----Ottoman Empire o Longest imperial dynasty in human history o A multi-ethnic, multi-religious, bureaucratic, Islamic empire ruled by a Turkish dynastic family o Constantinople (Istanbul) in 1453 o Sultan/caliph o Most of the Ar
Cornell - GOVT - 3181
Congress Final Review (Definition, Significance, Example) 1. Killer Amendments: a. Book: Congress and Its Members b. Definition: i. Amendment which will make a bill so unfit that it will fail ii. Politicians try to attack killer amendments in order t
Hamilton College - PE - 101
NATIONAL SPORTS CENTER FOR THE DISABLED2008 SUMMER VOLUNTEER APPLICATIONName: _Date: _ Address: _City: _ State: _ Zip: _ Telephone: H: _ W: _ C: _ E-mail address: _ Employer: _ Occupation: _ THERAPEUTIC HORSEBACK RIDING YMCA of the Rockies, Snow M
Hamilton College - PE - 101
Monthly BudgetIncome Fixed Expenses Variable Expenses Totals Allowance $640.00 AT&T $110.00 Food (going out) $120.00 Income Alumni Office $100.00 Food (groceries) $160.00 Weekend $100.00 Fixed Exp. School Supplies $120.00 Misc. $120.00 Variable Exp.
Hamilton College - PE - 101
2 -Campus Ch. 3 -(3)WSTM NBC SYR 4 -C-SPAN 5 -(5)WTVH CBS SYR 6 -(2)WKTV NBC UTICA 7 -A&E 8 -TBS 9 -(9)WIXT ABC SYR 10 -TLC 11 -(43)WYNS MNT 13 -Hamilton Bulletin Board 12 -(53)WPNY UTICA 14 -G4 VideoGame TV 15 -TDC 16 -TNT 17 -SciFi 18 -MTV 19 -Rese
Hamilton College - PE - 101
Civil War discourse has been dominated by the idea that the North defeated a racist, slave-owning people devoid of rational culture. Recent scholarship, however, has posited that antebellum Southern society and culture, despite its affiliation with l
Hamilton College - PE - 101
DWB 24 Hour Schedule12/3 Time 9:00 AM 9:30 AM 10:00 AM 10:30 AM 11:00 AM 11:30 AM NOON 12:30 PM 1:00 PM 1:30 PM 2:00 PM 2:30 PM 3:00 PM 3:30 PM 4:00 PM 4:30 PM 5:00 PM 5:30 PM 6:00 PM 6:30 PM 7:00 PM 7:30 PM 8:00 PM 8:30 PM 9:00 PM 9:30 PM 10:00 PM
Northeastern - BIO - 103
Principles of Biology 2 What is Biology?BIOU1031-8-07Biology is the scientific extension of the human tendency to connect and to be curious about life Biology studies the structure and function of living organisms. Levels of Biology o Atoms CH
Northeastern - BIO - 103
Principles of Biology 2 What is life?BIOU1031-10-07Other planets o Mars Has life existed on Mars? There is evidence of the past existence of water flow on the surface of mars NASA's Spirit rover-probe sent to Mars Searched for signs of wate
Northeastern - BIO - 103
Principles of Biology 2BIO U1021-11-07Origins of Life Calendar analogy Clock analogy o The earth originated between 5-4.5 billion years ago; however meteorites bombarded the earth making it unlikely for life to survive o Life on Earth origina
Northeastern - BIO - 103
Principles of Biology 2 Evolution by Natural SelectionBioU1031-17-06Charles Darwin o Brought information from all different, seemingly unrelated disciplines together (natural history, geology, economics, etc.) and was able to build up a framewo
Northeastern - BIO - 103
Principles of Biology EvolutionBio U1031-18-07Three prerequisites of Natural Selection o Organisms must over-reproduce Therefore, must compete for resources o Characteristics must be inherited from parents o Organisms are not identical-Variabi
Northeastern - BIO - 103
Evidence supporting Evolution Comparative anatomy, embryology, and development o Related organisms have homologous trits, ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny, homeobox genes o Homologous Structures Structures found in multiple species in which function
Northeastern - BIO - 103
Misconceptions about Evolution Misconception: Humans are the pinnacle of evolution o We are one of the most recently evolved species o However, humans are only part of a great diversity of living organisms o Evolution has no ultimate goal or purpose,
Northeastern - BIO - 103
Principles of Biology 2BioU1031-25-07Population Genetics Hardy-Weinberg Theorem o States that the frequency of alleles and genotypes in a population's gene pool will remain constant over generations. However, this is only true if certain condit
Northeastern - BIO - 103
Principles of Biology 2BioU1031/29/06Population Genetics In normal situations, there is a shuffling of alleles between generations- mutations, crossing over, selective mating, etc. change the allele frequency of the gene pool of a population Th
Northeastern - BIO - 103
Principles of Biology 2BioU1031-31-07Causes of Microevolution o Natural Selection Variation within a population allows some individuals to be better at survival and reproducing-enabling them to spread their genes more. Natural selection is a
Northeastern - BIO - 103
Principles of Biology 2BIO U1032/1/07Natural Selection o Acts on phenotypes, but results in change of genotype frequency within a population o Acts on the individual-differential reproductive success amongst an individual o Evidence of evolutio
Northeastern - BIO - 103
Principles of Biology 2 Animal EvolutionBIO U1031/7/07How do we get such diversity? Characteristics of animals o Eukaryotes o Multicellular o Heterotrohs o No cell walls First evidence of animals comes from 700 million years ago (fossil evidenc
Northeastern - BIO - 103
Principles of Biology 2BIO U1032/8/07Animals are classified into different taxanomic groups depending on: o Physical characteristics organism shows o Embryo development o Body symmetry o Architectural evolutionary innovation Embryology Embryolo
Northeastern - BIO - 103
Principles of Biology 2BIO U1032/12/07Animal Evolution Fate of a cell is determined by: o Presence of cytoplasmic determinants o Connection and contact with neighboring cells o Amount and distribution of yolk o Genes: homeobox genes-regulate de
Northeastern - BIO - 103
Principles of BiologyBIO U1032/14/07Animal Evolution Once you have a mesoderm you can develop a body cavity: Coeolum. o Formation: Begins during gastrulation There are two ways coelom forms: Schizocoelomate (schizo=split) Mesoderm initially
Northeastern - BIO - 103
Principles of Biology 2BIO U1032/15/07Where stem cells are acquired o Adult tissue: bone marrow, fat, etc o Fetal tissue: umibilical cord, placenta o Fertilized human embryos o Parthenogenetic eggs o Nuclear transplants (cloning) Parthenogeneti
Northeastern - BIO - 103
Principles of Biology 2BIO U1032/21/07Multicellularity o The animal kingdom evolved from a Colonial flagellated protest o This ancestor most likely lived over 700 million years ago in Precambrian era o Choanoflagellates Probably gave rise to t
Northeastern - BIO - 103
Principles of Biology 2BIO U103February 22, 2007Digestive Tract o No digestive tract-cellular digestion Cells consume food via phagocytosis Porifera o Blind Sac No exit to gastric cavity Cnidaria, platyhethimis o Tube within a tube No diges
Northeastern - BIO - 103
Principles of Biology 2 Survey of the Animal KingdomBIO U103February 26, 2007Porifera Choanocytes o Choanocytes are only found in sponges and in choanoflagellets o The hair-like portion is called the colar o The body produces mucus which is sme
Northeastern - BIO - 103
Principles of BiologyBIO U103February 28, 2007Protostomes Spiral cleavage Schizocoelous Blastopore becomes mouth Mollusca Common names o Snails, slugs, oysters, clams, octopuses, squid Habitat o Most are marine o Some inhabit fresh water o Some
Northeastern - BIO - 103
Principles of Biology 2BIO U103March 1, 2007Echinodrms Deuterostome Radial cleavage Develop a coelom from the archenteron Blastopore becomes the anus No brain or ganglia Really simple structure Common names o Sea stars, brittle stars, sea urchi
Northeastern - BIO - 103
Principles of Biology 2BIO U103March 12, 2007Vertebrates o Phylum: Chordate o Origin o May have evolved from urochordates via paedogenesis o Cephalochordates may have given rise to vertebrates-fossil and molecular evidence supports this o All v
Northeastern - BIO - 103
Principles of Biology 2 Animal Form and FunctionBIO U103March 15, 2007o Tissues (connective, muscle, epithelial, and nervous), organs, and organ systems o Systems: responsible for maintaining homeostasis: ability to keep internal conditions con
Northeastern - PSY - 101
Introduction to Psychology 1. This course will give you an overview of contemporary psychology: a. History b. Fields of psychology c. Discoveries and future discoveries d. The application of psychological research 2. What is psychology? a. The scienc
Cal Poly Pomona - EGR - 402
Ethics Bowl Cases for Fall 2006 (CNX Module)1. Disposable Cartridges and Disposable Jobs By Ivn BaigsIn the early 1990's there were two basic printing technologies: dot matrix and laser. The development of inkjet cartridges revolutionized printing
Cal Poly Pomona - PSY - 201
1. Discuss the importance of gender role, and explain how social and cognitive factors contribute to gender identity and gender-typing. Ans - Society assigns even those few whose biological sex is vague at birth to a gender, the social category of ma
Cal Poly Pomona - EGR - 402
Paper#1ILHAM BUHARIE EGR 402 04/15/08My name is Ilham Buharie, and I am a senior in electrical engineering at California State Polytechnic University, Pomona. I am a citizen of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri-Lanka, and was born in the c
Penn State - MATH - 141
Penn State - ART - 003
Introduction In this course you will working with images, both bitmap and vector-based, both still and moving. Most will be designed to be presented on the Web using HTML (Hypertext Markup Language). The primary software you will using is Photoshop C
Penn State - PSYCH - 238
Psychology 238, Section 001 - Fall 2007INTRODUCTION TO PERSONALITY PSYCHOLOGY Tuesday & Thursday 9:45am to 11:00am 160 Willard Bldg.Instructor: Aaron M. Rosenbaum, M.S. Office: 208 Moore Bldg. Phone: TBA Email: amr262@psu.edu Office Hours: Monday
Penn State - CSE - 121
COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING 121 Spring 2007Professor: Dr. Susan L. Quick Office: 111J IST Phone: 865-9507 E-mail: quick@cse.psu.edu or through ANGEL (Do not use any other e-mail address!) Office Hours: M 1:30 2:30, W: 3:30 5:30 or by appointmen
Penn State - PSYCH - 221
Chapter 7 - AttitudesLecture Notes for 10/4/07Definition of An AttitudeThree Components Affect (emotion) Cognitions (beliefs) BehaviorCognitively Based Attitudes Beliefs about the properties of the "attitude object" (the thing we have
Penn State - PSYCH - 221
Chapter 7 - AttitudesLecture Notes for 2/28/06Effects of the Media on AttitudesPeople draw inferences from how people are portrayed in the media, even when no one is trying to shape their attitudes This can lead to promoting stereotypesSt
Penn State - PSYCH - 221
Chapter 5 Self-Understanding Chapter 6 Self-JustificationLecture Notes for 2/9/06Revisiting the SelfWilliam James (1890)Self-Concept the "Me"The objective expression of the self The things were call ourselves"Me" as a thingSe
Penn State - PSYCH - 221
Chapter 5 - Self-UnderstandingLecture Notes for 9/25/07What is the self?Write 15 responses to "I am." What you wrote is a reflection of your Selfconcept (the "me")Knowledge about who we areThe act of thinking about it is Self-Awarene
Penn State - PSYCH - 221
Cognitive Dissonance and Self-Esteem MaintenanceLecture Notes for 10/2/07Modern Approaches to Self-Esteem MaintenanceSelf-Affirmation Theory (Steele, 1988)People try to view themselves as good, competent, moralWhen this view is threatene
Penn State - PSYCH - 253
Muller-Lyer: Method of AdjustmentMuller-Lyer: Method of Adjustment150140Line Length130 Ascending trials 120 Descending trials Mean 110100reference line length0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1190 TrialMuller-Lyer: Method of LimitsMuller-Lyer:
Penn State - PSYCH - 253
Psychology 253 Fall 2007 Calculating the size of a visual stimulus, in degrees of visual angleStimulus dimensions (cm) Horizontal Vertical Distance to observer (cm)Total 2.5 3.0 70.0Half 1.25 1.50Size on the Retina (deg) 2.046 The atan() func
Penn State - PSYCH - 260
BBH203/PSY260 NEUROLOGICAL BASES OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR Chapter 10: Sexual Behavior Outline of Major Terms and Considerations1. The Genetics of Sex a. Turner's Syndrome b. Klinefelter's Syndrome 2. Stages of Prenatal Development a. Development of Gonads
Penn State - ACCTG - 211
Part 1: True or False. Provide explanations1. Debt financing means obtaining capital from investors. 2. Principal = rate x time x interest. 3. A bond is a written agreement that specifies a company's responsibility to pay interestand to repay the
Penn State - PSYCH - 238
Personality & Environment Paper Throughout the semester, we have covered many topics related to personality. If you choose to pursue a career as a psychologist, you may be doing formal personality assessments as part of your job. If you don't choose
Penn State - PSYCH - 260
BBH203/PSY260 NEUROLOGICAL BASES OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR Chapter 5: Development of the Human Brain Outline of Major Terms and Considerations1. Prenatal Stages a. Period of the Zygote b. Period of the Embryo c. Period of the Fetus 2. Early Differentiation
Penn State - PSYCH - 260
BBH203/PSY260 NEUROLOGICAL BASES OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR Chapter 6: Vision Outline of Major Terms and Considerations1. Anatomy of the Eye a. Sclera b. Cornea c. Anterior Chamber d. Pupil and Iris e. Lens f. Vitreous Chamber g. Retina 2. Closer Look at the
Penn State - PSYCH - 260
BBH203/PSY260 NEUROLOGICAL BASES OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR Chapter 8: Movement Outline of Major Terms and Considerations1. Types of Muscles a. Smooth b. Striated 2. Muscle Fibers a. Myofibrils b. Sarcomeres c. Actin d. Myosin 3. Muscle Fiber Contraction 4.
Penn State - PSYCH - 260
BBH203/PSY260 NEUROLOGICAL BASES OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR Chapter 9: Motivation and Regulation Outline of Major Terms and Considerations1. Homeostasis a. Walter Cannon b. Equilibrium c. Set Point 2. Motivation a. Deviations b. Drive State 3. Regulating Bod
Penn State - PSYCH - 253
Psychology 253: Sensation and Perception Fall 2007Dr. M. J. WengerTopic 01: Background and ContextCritical QuestionsWhat is it?The Perceptual Process(See Figure 1.2, p. 4)Wuzzis "levels of analysis"?Three Levels of AnalysisInner and Ou
Texas A&M - ANTH - 205
Berkeley - UGBA - 103
Introduction to Finance Lecture 1 (1/23/08)FINANCIAL CALCULATOR: HP 12 C! Instructor: Mark Rubinstein Class meetings: Monday, Wednesday 8:00-9:30 (F295) [2/18, 3/24, 3/26 no class] Office Hours: Monday, Wed 9:30-10:15 9F690) Email: mr@in-the-money.c