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### Thermo&Enzymes

Course: BIO 202, Fall 2009
School: San Diego State
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Word Count: 670

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small a digression before talking about Enzymes Thermodynamics 2nd Law of Thermodynamics -- for any spontaneous process, the Entropy (disorder) of the universe, Suniverse, must increase. This is very difficult to measure, however ===&gt; we need a criterion of spontaneity which applies to our system (organism). which we exist, more or less) the criterion is the change in At constant Temperature and Pressure...

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small a digression before talking about Enzymes Thermodynamics 2nd Law of Thermodynamics -- for any spontaneous process, the Entropy (disorder) of the universe, Suniverse, must increase. This is very difficult to measure, however ===> we need a criterion of spontaneity which applies to our system (organism). which we exist, more or less) the criterion is the change in At constant Temperature and Pressure (conditions under Gibbs Free Energy = G It is determined by the Entropy change of the system, S, and by the change in Enthalpy, H, or heat content of the system (the energy exchanged with the surroundings) if H < 0 --> the reaction is exothermic and heat is given off H > 0 --> the reaction is endothermic and heat is absorbed G = H - TS What does G Depend Upon? aA + bB cC + dD Given the Following Chemical Reaction The Free Energy Change is: and G = H - TS [C ]c [ D]d o G = G + RT ln [ A]a [ B]b A reaction can be spontaneous even if: Go > 0 -- G can still be < 0 if [C] and [D] are small or [A] and [B] are large S < 0 --if H is << 0 H > 0 --if S is >> 0 1 Equilibrium At Equilibrium there is no net change in free energy ==> G = 0 [C]c [D]d [C]c [D]d = K eq and 0 = G + RT ln a [B] b [A]a [B]b [A] o Therefore... G = RT ln K eq o Figure 6.8: ATP and Hydrolysis of ATP Consider the reaction ATP + H2O ADP + Pi ATP has more free energy than ADP and Pi The free energy change for this reaction, G, is less than 0 and the reaction is favorable, i.e. it is Exergonic. Note: Pi is an abbreviation for phosphate ions. 2 ATP Provides Energy for: Mechanical Work: Muscle contraction, flagella and cilia movement etc. Transport Work: Pumping ions and molecules across membranes against a concentration gradient Chemical Work: Coupling energy from ATP to Endergonic reactions to make them go ATP drives cellular work for Fig. 9-2: A review of how ATP drives cellular work. 3 See Figure 6.7: Energy coupling by phosphate transfer Glutamate Ammonia Glutamine 2 + 2 2 2 Go = +3.4 kcal/mole 1 This reaction is catalyzed by an enzyme in two steps 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Energetically, this can be described as the sum of the following two reactions Glu + NH3 ----> Glu-NH2 + H2O ATP + H2O ----> ADP + Pi Glu + NH3 + ATP ----> Glu-NH2 + ADP + Pi Go = +3.4 kcal/mole Go = -7.3 kcal/mole Go = - 3.9 kcal/mole 4 Figure 6.9: The ATP Cycle Figure 6.11: Activation Energy Initiates Reactions 5 Figure 6.14: Enzymes reduce the energy of activation, Ea, or the energy barrier of a reaction. Characteristics of Enzymes Increase rates (alter kinetics) -- Increase the rate of approach to equilibrium but dont change G Specificity--Enzymes bind specific molecules and not others Induced Fit--Enzyme adapts to bind Substrate and bend it into the transition state whose structure is intermediate between the structures of the substrate and the product. pH Optimum--since enzymes are composed of aa's, their structures and therefore activity (rate at which they catalyze reactions) depend upon the pH which can drastically alter their structures. Temperature--rates of enzyme catalyzed reactions increase with temperature (as do ...

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San Diego State - BIO - 202
X-ray DiffractionFigure 4.1a - How do we look at cells?Usually with some sort of microscope. A light microscope can be used to look at structures as small as 1/4 micron because the wavelength of light is about 1/2 micron. To see smaller details o
San Diego State - BIO - 202
in the ratio CH2OCarbohydrates:Contain Carbon, Hydrogen and OxygenThe simplest Carbohydrates are the Simple Sugars, these are classified by: Type of Carbonyl group Ketone Ketose Aldehyde Aldose or by Number of Carbon atoms: 3 Cs 4 Cs 5 Cs 6 Cs
San Diego State - BIO - 202
Amino AcidsR = one of 20 possible organic compoundsAmino acids have both acidic (carboxyl) and basic (amino) functional groupsStereochemistry - Tetrahedral -Carbon1Hydrophobic Amino Acids have nonpolar R-GroupsPolar Amino Acids have polar
San Diego State - GEO - 580
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San Diego State - PLSYS - 530
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San Diego State - SOLUTION - 1
HEADER TRANSFERASE(PHOSPHOTRANSFERASE) 08-JAN-93 1ATP TITLE 2.2 ANGSTROM REFINED CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE CATALYTIC TITLE 2 SUBUNIT OF CAMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE COMPLEXED WITH TITLE
San Diego State - GEO - 580
Faults and horizonsBasic geometric objects used in interpretation Horizons follow distinct reflectors or sequence boundaries Geometry assumed fairly simple (cannot overlap 1 horizon on itself) Each horizon stored as a separate file Usually use snapp
San Diego State - GEO - 300
Geology 300 Geology 300 Computer applications in GeologyInstructor: Rob MellorsThe purpose of this class is : 1) Learn some of the commonly used software and programs in this department. 2) Learn some statistics as applied to geology and geophy
San Diego State - GEO - 580
Measurement of wave motionUse a geophone (land) or hydrophone (water) Geophones measure particle velocity - mass on a spring - motion measured with a coil - voltage proportional to velocity - voltage as function of time Hydrophones measure pressure
San Diego State - GEO - 300
programmingWhat is it? Tell the computer to do something. Everything a computer does is based on some sort of program Compiled languages (convert to machine code) C, C+ Fortran Java Basic Many others Script languages (input to special pro
San Diego State - GEO - 300
Geology 300 Geology 300 Computer applications in GeologyInstructor: Rob MellorsThe purpose of this class is : 1) Learn some of the commonly used software and programs in this department. 2) Learn some statistics as applied to geology and geophy
San Diego State - GEO - 300
Significant figures and propagation of errors Significant figures This refers to the number of useful digits in a measurement. They are usually determined by the precision of the measuring device. Significant figures are basically a quick way to avoi
San Diego State - GEO - 300
Geology 300 Notes Chapter 1 Computational Basics Computer hardware. A computer consists of a few basic parts: the CPU, memory, disk space, power supply, and IO (input/output) devices. The most important is the CPU (Central Processing Unit), which is
San Diego State - GEO - 300
Geology 300 Notes Chapter 1 Computer hardware. A computer consists of a few basic parts: the CPU, memory, disk space, power supply, and IO (input/output) devices. The most important is the CPU (Central Processing Unit), which is the brains of the co
San Diego State - GEO - 300
Geology 300 Notes Chapter 2 Web pages Web pages. A relatively recent (last fifteen years) innovation has been the development of web-pages. These are text, images, and other files accessible over the internet. These require two things: a computer th
San Diego State - GEO - 300
Geol 300 - The Last Lab of Spring 2008 Part 1 - ArcMap First, download the image Hawaii_321pan_v1.tif of the lava fields on the island of Hawaii. (this is a Landsat image of .Hawaii!). Then load into ArcMap (File, add Data). You will likely get an er
San Diego State - GEO - 300
Lab 7: Excel and statistical tests Due March 20, 20081) T-test: the old-fashioned way. If all the data are available, Excel makes it easy (via ttest() to calculate the probability that two means are significantly different. If we do not have all the
San Diego State - GEO - 300
Lab 8 DEM with Surfer &amp; Matlab Due April 10 Goals: 1.) Learn and use a digital elevation model in Matlab and Surfer. 2.) Learn about formation of marine terraces in the San Diego region. 3.) Estimate uplift rates in San Diego region using least squar
San Diego State - GEO - 300
Significant figures and propagation of errors Significant figures This refers to the number of useful digits in a measurement. They are usually determined by the precision of the measuring device. Significant figures are basically a quick way to avoi
San Diego State - GEO - 300
Lab 12 ArcGISGoals: Learn how to start ArcGIS; make simple maps; Manipulate maps and layers; make reports and nice maps Download and add data; select layers Save the world. All questions and images listed in italics should be in your lab write-up. L
San Diego State - GEO - 300
Excel and statistics Due Feb 28th Part 1. Normal distribution 1)Using Excel, make a plot of the normal distribution for a mean of zero and a standard deviation of 1. Plot from -3 to 3. Use the normdist function. Setting the last argument as TRUE yiel
San Diego State - GEO - 300
GPS scavenger hunt Due May 1Global Positioning Satellites (GPS) GPS works by receiving signals from a set of 24 (or more) satellites orbiting the earth. The most commonly used satellites were constructed by the US Department of Defense, although the
San Diego State - GEO - 300
Lab 6: Schmidt Hammer data analysis Due March 8 Last lab we collected some data with the Schmidt Hammer. This week we will conduct an analysis of the data. The questions we want to answer are: Does our data obey a normal distribution? Is there is
San Diego State - GEO - 300
Chapter 4 Probability and distributions The probability (often referred to as p) of an event is the likelihood that it will occur expressed as a number between 0 and 1. Zero (0.0) means no chance, as in the probability of me winning American Idol is
San Diego State - GEO - 300
San Diego State - ALGEBRA - 08
Mike OSullivan Department of Mathematics San Diego State UniversityFall 2005Math 627A: Modern Algebra IHomework IProblem 1: Use the Euclidean algorithm to express the greatest common divisor as a linear combination of the given 89, 24 24, 10
San Diego State - ALGEBRA - 08
Mike O'Sullivan Department of Mathematics San Diego State UniversityFall 2008Math 627A: Modern Algebra IHomework IIIProblem 8 For an abelian group A and integer m we let mA = {ma : a A} . Verify for yourself that this is a group. Let p be a p
San Diego State - ABSALG - 08
NAME:Abstract Algebra Math 521A Michael E. OSullivan Review of the courseRings and Ideals Know the denitions: ring, commutative, identity, eld; unit, zero divisor, characteristic; homomorphism, isomorphism. Know how to: Prove that a subset o
San Diego State - ALGEBRA - 08
Mike O'Sullivan Department of Mathematics San Diego State UniversityFall 2008Math 627A: Modern Algebra INotes on the Isomorphism Theorems for Groups1Fundamental Results: Up to the First Isomorphism TheoremThe material up to the first isomo
San Diego State - ALGEBRA - 08
Mike O'Sullivan Department of Mathematics San Diego State UniversityFall 2008Homework V due: Wed. 11/26/08Clarity of exposition is crucial in this assignment. You work should be understandable to a fellow student. You may work together to solve
San Diego State - ABSALGB - 08
NAME:Abstract Algebra B Math 521B Michael E. OSullivan Review for rst exam Be able to precisely dene the following terms. Be careful about the logic in the denition! Group, subgroup, cyclic group, generators of a group. Order of an element, orde
San Diego State - DISCRETE - 05
DISCRETE MATHEMATICS Math 245 Michael E. O'Sullivan Suggestions for preparing for the Third ExamI. Know the definitions! Subset. Intersection, union, set difference, complement. Power set, Cartesian product, partition. Relation, inverse of a rel
San Diego State - ABSALG - 08
NAME:Abstract Algebra Math 521A Michael E. OSullivan Review for rst exam Be able to state accurately and precisely these main theorems: Division theorem; The gcd of two integers may be written as a linear combination of them; Unique factorizati
San Diego State - DISCRETE - 05
DISCRETE MATHEMATICS Math 245 Michael E. OSullivan Suggestions for preparing for the Second ExamI. Properties of the integers and rational numbers: Be able to use (and recognize that you are using) commutativity, associativity, the additive and mu
San Diego State - CODING - 04
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San Diego State - CODING - 06
Lecture Notes for Math 696 Coding TheoryMichael E. OSullivan mosulliv@math.sdsu.edu wwww-rohan.sdsu.edu/ mosulliv February 23, 2006Chapter 1Reed-Solomon Codes and the Berlekamp-Massey Algorithm1.1 CodesLet F be a eld and let F n be a vector
San Diego State - DISCRETE - 03
DISCRETE MATHEMATICS Math 245 Michael E. OSullivan Suggestions for preparing for the Second ExamI. Know how to prove the classics: There exist an innite number of primes. 2 is irrational. II. Know the denitions! The sum of a rational number and
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DISCRETE MATHEMATICS Math 245 Michael E. OSullivan Suggestions for Preparing for the Fourth ExamI. Know the basics! State the well-ordering principle. State the principle of induction. Be able to use summation and product notation. Be able to u
San Diego State - INFO - 01
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San Diego State - NUMB - 05
NUMBER THEORY Math 522 Michael E. OSullivan Preparing for the Final ExamI. Cumulative Material Prove simple properties of the Fibonacci numbers. Convert from one base to another. Compute in a given base (addition, multiplication in bases 2, 3).
San Diego State - ABSALGB - 08
Abstract Algebra B Math 521B Michael E. O'Sullivan Review for third exam Be able to define precisely the following terms. Be careful about the logic in the definition! transcendental element, algebraic element, minimal polynomial (Thm. 10.6). alge
San Diego State - ABSALG - 08
Abstract Algebra Math 521A Michael E. OSullivan Review for second examRings Know the denitions: ring, commutative, identity, eld; unit, zero divisor, characteristic; homomorphism, isomorphism. Know how to: Prove that a subset of a ring is a su
San Diego State - DISCRETE - 04
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San Diego State - NUMB - 03
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San Diego State - INFO - 01
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San Diego State - DISCRETE - 03
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San Diego State - CODING - 04
Lecture Notes for Math 696 Coding TheoryMichael E. OSullivan mosulliv@math.sdsu.edu wwww-rohan.sdsu.edu/ mosulliv January 7, 2004Reed-Solomon Codes and the Berlekamp-Massey Algorithm1 CodesLet F be a eld and let F n be a vector space of dimens
San Diego State - DISCRETE - 03
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San Diego State - JAN - 06
Overview of Technology-Based Additions to Chem 200/202 (General Chemistry I)Overview of Technology-Based Additions to Chem 200/202 (General Chemistry I)&quot;Innovation&quot; #1: Showed More Animations During LecturesOverview of Technology-Based Additions
San Diego State - JAN - 06
pICT Project 2005Leading Questions:Describe your assessment approach. I assessed the effectiveness of the technology-based teaching innovations that I implemented in Chem 200/202 by polling student attitudes towards these methods using the Option
San Diego State - JAN - 06
April 20, 2006 Report on pICT 2006 (with Appendix) Emily Hicks, Ph.D. Chicana/o Studies English and Comparative Literature Report: 1. Describe your assessment approach. My assessment approach was student evaluations. 2. What factors contributed to
San Diego State - NUMB - 05
NUMBER THEORY Math 522 Michael E. OSullivan Preparing for the Second ExamThings you should be able to do. I. Chapter 3 The unique factorization theorem is one of the most fundamental results in number theory. Be able to state it precisely and use
San Diego State - DISCRETE - 03
DISCRETE MATHEMATICS Math 245 Michael E. O'Sullivan Suggestions for preparing for the First ExamI. Know how to use truth tables: To show two statements equivalent. To prove a statement is a tautolog or a contradiction. To show that an argument i
San Diego State - NUMB - 05
NUMBER THEORY Math 522 Michael E. OSullivan Preparing for the First ExamThings you should be able to do. I. Chapter 1 Use summation notation and product notation: e.g. change the index of summation. Do induction proofs with recursively dened sequ
San Diego State - CRYPT - 03
Notes on Finite FieldsMichael E. O'Sullivan mosulliv@math.sdsu.edu wwww-rohan.sdsu.edu/ ~ mosulliv March 4, 20031Review of Properties of the IntegersIn this section we will review the main theorems that lead to the unique factorization of inte
San Diego State - ALGEBRA - 08
Mike OSullivan Department of Mathematics San Diego State UniversityFall 2008Math 627A: Modern Algebra IFirst ExamPlease read the following problems and their solutions in Ashs text. Ive grouped (no pun intended) problems that are related. 5.1
San Diego State - CODING - 06
Mike OSullivan Department of Mathematics San Diego State UniversitySpring 2006Math 625: Coding TheoryHomework IIIProblem 1: In the section called Key Polynomials, we 1 1 1 . 2 1 . 1 2 4 . 3 6 . H= 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . n1 n2 . . .
San Diego State - CS - 524
DA P P E N D I XRISC: any computer announced after 1985.A Survey of RISC Architectures for Desktop, Server, and Embedded ComputersSteven Przybylskic A Designer of the Stanford MIPSD.1 D.2 D.3 D.4 D.5 D.6 D.7 D.8 D.9 D.10 D.11 D.12 D.13 D.14 D
San Diego State - CS - 5
Running on SDSU/Rohan/The input code: package testloop is body fib : integer; oldfib : integer; tmpfib, i : integer;begin fib := 1; oldfib := 1; writeln(&quot;This program also calculates the first 7 fibonacci numbers.&quot;);
San Diego State - CS - 524
Running on SDSU/Rohan/The input code: package testloop is body fib : integer; oldfib : integer; tmpfib, i : integer;begin fib := 1; oldfib := 1; writeln(&quot;This program also calculates the first 7 fibonacci numbers.&quot;);
San Diego State - CS - 4
- test b0tpackage b0t is bodyx: integer;y,z: boolean;beginz := true;writeln(&quot;z = &quot;,z);%dmpend;in simple.cToken : PackageToken : Idgrammar: packname -&gt; Id # PutPackNameAfter : PutPackName Semstack is: EMPTYTo