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Course Number: PSY 241, Fall 2009

College/University: University of Great Falls

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PSY 241 Introduction to Counseling Final Examination Student's Name:_________________________________________________________ Date:__________________ Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. ____ 1. Person-centered therapy is best described as: a. a completed and fixed "school" of counseling. b. a dogmatic set of therapeutic principles....

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241 PSY Introduction to Counseling Final Examination Student's Name:_________________________________________________________ Date:__________________ Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. ____ 1. Person-centered therapy is best described as: a. a completed and fixed "school" of counseling. b. a dogmatic set of therapeutic principles. c. a systematic set of behavioral techniques. d. a set of tentative principles describing how the therapy process develops. e. none of the above 2. What is the central variable related to progress in person-centered therapy? a. defining concrete and measurable goals b. the therapist's technical skills c. the relationship between the client and therapist d. the client's ability to think logically and employ the scientific method to solving problems 3. Which statement(s) is (are) true of the person-centered approach? a. Therapists should give advice when clients need it. b. The techniques a therapist uses are less important than his or her attitudes. c. Therapists should function largely as teachers d. Therapy is primarily the therapist's responsibility. e. both (c) and (d) 4. The person-centered therapist is best described as a: a. facilitator. b. teacher. c. human engineer. d. friend. 5. Which of the following personal characteristics of the therapist is most important, according to Rogers? a. unconditional positive regard b. acceptance c. genuineness d. accurate empathic understanding e. accurate active listening 6. Carl Rogers drew heavily from existential concepts, especially as they apply to: a. the transference relationship. b. countertransference, or unfinished business of the counselor. c. the client/therapist relationship. d. guilt and anxiety. e. death and nonbeing. 7. Person-centered therapy is best conceived as: a. a dogma. b. a fixed and completed approach to therapy. c. a set of techniques to build trust in clients. d. all of the above e. none of the above ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ Page 1 of 13 PSY 241 Introduction to Counseling Final Examination ____ 8. From Rogers's perspective the client/therapist relationship is characterized by: a. a sense of equality. b. a reliving of the transference relationship. c. the therapist functioning as the expert. d. a clearly defined contract that specifies what clients will talk about in the sessions. e. none of the above 9. As a result of experiencing person-centered therapy, it is hypothesized that the client will move toward: a. self-trust. b. an internal source of evaluation. c. being more open to experience. d. a willingness to continue growing. e. all of the above 10. According to Rogers, the three core conditions that create a growth-promoting climate are: a. congruence, conditional acceptance, faith in a client. b. congruence, unconditional positive regard, empathic understanding. c. total love and caring, therapist transparency, and empathy. d. realness, objectively viewing the client's world, full acceptance. e. commitment, compassion, and confrontation. 11. The founder of Gestalt therapy is: a. Carl Rogers. b. Carl Whitaker. c. Albert Ellis. d. William Glasser. e. none of the above 12. The impasse is the point in therapy at which clients: a. avoid experiencing threatening feelings. b. experience a sense of "being stuck." c. imagine something terrible will happen. d. all of the above e. none of the above 13. The Gestalt therapist: a. freely makes interpretations for the client. b. pays attention to the client's nonverbal language. c. is mainly nondirective. d. helps the client understand why he or she is behaving in self-defeating ways. e. all of the above 14. Gestalt therapy can best be characterized as: a. an insight therapy. b. an experiential therapy. c. an action-oriented therapy. d. all of the above e. none of the above 15. The Gestalt approach to dreams: a. rests with the therapist's skill in interpreting the meanings of the dreams to the client. b. consists of teaching the client the universal meanings of symbols in dreams. c. asks the client to become all parts of his or her own dream. d. has the client interpret and discover the meaning of the dream for himself or herself. e. both (c) and (d) ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ Page 2 of 13 PSY 241 Introduction to Counseling Final Examination ____ 16. In Gestalt therapy, the relationship between client and counselor is seen as: a. a joint venture. b. an existential encounter. c. an I/Thou interaction. d. both (a) and (b) e. all of the above ____ 17. Gestalt therapists say that clients resist contact by means of: a. retroflection. b. projection. c. introjection. d. all of the above e. both (a) and (c) ____ 18. The process of distraction, or fleeting awareness, that makes it difficult to maintain sustained contact is the definition of: a. introjection. b. projection. c. retroflection. d. confluence. e. deflection. ____ 19. What is a limitation (or limitations) of Gestalt therapy as it is applied to working with culturally diverse populations? a. Clients who have been culturally conditioned to be emotionally reserved might not see value in experiential techniques. b. Clients may be "put off" by a focus on catharsis. c. Clients may believe that to show one's vulnerability is to be weak. d. all of the above ____ 20. Behavior therapy is grounded in: a. the psychodynamic aspects of a person. b. the principles of learning. c. a philosophical view of the human condition. d. the events of the first five years of life. ____ 21. Behavior therapy is based on: a. applying the experimental method to the therapeutic process. b. a systematic set of concepts. c. a well-developed theory of personality. d. the principle of self-actualization. e. both (b) and (c) ____ 22. Behavior therapy techniques: a. must be suited to the client's problems. b. are assessed to determine their value. c. are geared toward behavior change. d. all of the above e. none of the above ____ 23. Behavior therapy is suited for: a. individual therapy. b. group therapy. c. institutions and clinics. d. classroom learning situations. e. all of the above Page 3 of 13 PSY 241 Introduction to Counseling Final Examination ____ 24. Which of the following is not one of the seven major areas of personality functioning described by the acronym "BASIC ID"? a. behavior b. cognition c. interpersonal relationships d. aspirations e. sensation ____ 25. Which of the following is credited with initially developing the progressive relaxation procedure? a. Bandura b. Mahoney c. Wolpe d. Jacobson e. Alberti ____ 26. Multimodal therapy is a therapeutic approach that is grounded on: a. cognitive behavior therapy. b. social learning theory. c. applied behavior analysis d. operant conditioning e. both (c) and (d) ____ 27. A limitation of behavior therapy is: a. the overemphasis on feeling and the neglect of cognition. b. the overemphasis upon insight. c. the lack of empirical research validating its techniques. d. the need for long-term treatment to effect change. e. none of the above ____ 28. The situation in which behaviors are emitted from an active organism is known as: a. classical conditioning. b. operant conditioning. c. either (a) or (b) d. neither (a) nor (b) ____ 29. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is: a. considered a passing fad. b. not really accepted by most practicing behavior therapists. c. now established as a part of mainstream behavior therapy. d. declining in popularity. ____ 30. Behavior therapists tend to: a. be active and directive. b. function as consultants. c. function as problem solvers. d. all of the above ____ 31. From a multimodal therapy perspective, enduring change is seen as a function of: a. gaining emotional and intellectual insight into one's problems. b. a client's ability to experience catharsis. c. the level of self-actualization of the therapist. d. combined techniques, strategies, and modalities. Page 4 of 13 PSY 241 Introduction to Counseling Final Examination ____ 32. Who is the developer of multimodal therapy? a. Albert Bandura b. Robert Goulding c. Joseph Wolpe d. Arnold Lazarus e. Rollo May ____ 33. In vivo flooding consists of: a. brief and graduated series of exposures to feared events. b. intense and prolonged exposure to the actual anxiety-producing stimuli. c. phases commonly used in behavior therapy. d. none of the above ____ 34. EMDR is used to help clients: a. restructure their cognitions or to reprocess information. b. resuscitate an individual who has experienced a heart attack. c. reexperience repressed material. d. none of the above ____ 35. REBT views emotional disturbances as the result of: a. inadequate mothering during infancy. b. failure to fulfill our existential needs. c. excessive feelings. d. irrational thinking and behaving. ____ 36. REBT contends that people: a. have a need to be loved and accepted by everyone. b. need to be accepted by most people. c. will become emotionally sick if they are rejected. d. do not need to be accepted and loved. e. both (b) and (c) ____ 37. According to REBT, we develop emotional disturbances because of: a. a traumatic event. b. our belief about certain events. c. the abandonment by those we depend on for support. d. the withdrawal of love and acceptance. ____ 38. The main function of the rational emotive behavior therapist is to: a. become an "existential partner" with the client. b. create a climate of safety and freedom from threat. c. challenge clients to reevaluate their ideas and philosophy of life. d. encourage the client to experience fully the here-and-now. e. help the client relive past emotional traumas. ____ 39. Beck's cognitive therapy involves: a. helping clients recognize and discard self defeating thinking. b. looking at a client's "internal dialogue." c. correcting erroneous beliefs. d. all of the above e. all but (b) Page 5 of 13 PSY 241 Introduction to Counseling Final Examination ____ 40. According to Ellis, we develop emotional and behavioral difficulties because: a. we think of simple preferences as dire needs. b. we live by the values our parents gave us. c. we refuse to deal with unfinished business. d. we have learned maladaptive behaviors. e. we do not possess any self-actualizing tendencies. ____ 41. An REBT therapist would contend that anxiety stems from: a. unresolved issues of the past. b. inadequate ego-defense mechanisms. c. the internal repetition of irrational sentences. d. a normal human condition that should be accepted. e. none of the above ____ 42. All of the following are cognitive methods of REBT except for: a. shame-attacking exercises. b. disputing irrational beliefs. c. changing one's language. d. completing homework assignments. ____ 43. Which of the following is not true of Beck's cognitive therapy? a. It is an insight therapy. b. It is a short-term or time-limited structured approach. c. It is an active and focused form of therapy. d. It asserts that irrational beliefs lead to emotional problems. e. It is based on the assumption that the way people feel and behave is determined by the way they structure their experience. ____ 44. Beck's cognitive therapy differs from Ellis's REBT in that Beck's approach emphasizes: a. more of a Socratic dialogue. b. helping clients to discover their misconceptions by themselves. c. working with the client in collaborative ways. d. more structure in the therapy process. e. all of the above ____ 45. To a large degree, cognitive therapy is: a. an experiential model. b. a psychoeducational model. c. a psychodynamic model. d. based on principles borrowed from Gestalt therapy. ____ 46. The founder of reality therapy is: a. Albert Ellis. b. Albert Bandura. c. Joseph Wolpe. d. none of the above ____ 47. Reality therapy is best categorized as: a. a brand of psychoanalytic therapy. b. a form of nondirective therapy. c. a derivative of Gestalt therapy. d. a derivative of Adlerian therapy. e. a form of cognitive behavior therapy. Page 6 of 13 PSY 241 Introduction to Counseling Final Examination ____ 48. Reality therapy is best described as: a. an intensive and long-term therapy. b. a rational therapy. c. an insight therapy. d. a short-term therapy that stresses doing. e. an experiential therapy stressing feelings and attitudes. ____ 49. Regarding the goals of reality therapy: a. it is the therapist's responsibility to decide specific goals for clients. b. clients are helped to get connected or reconnected with the people they have chosen to put in their quality world and are taught choice theory. c. the goals of therapy should be universal to all clients. d. society must determine the proper goals for all clients. ____ 50. Concerning the role and place of evaluation in therapy: a. it is the therapist's function to evaluate the appropriateness of the client's behavior. b. it is the client's place to make his or her own evaluation concerning his or her behavior. c. evaluation should not be a part of therapy. d. therapist evaluation should be given only when clients ask their therapists for such feedback. ____ 51. Which of the following would not be used by a reality therapist? a. the use of drugs and medication b. the use of hypnosis c. the analysis of dreams d. the search for causes of current problems e. none of the above would be used ____ 52. All of the following are true about planning and commitment in reality therapy, except: a. Clients make a commitment to carry out their plans. b. There is a connection between a person's identity and their level of commitment. c. A great deal of time is spent on this step of reality therapy. d. Commitment puts the responsibility for on changing the client. e. Therapists only ask for commitments that are reasonable. ____ 53. When reality therapists explore a client's past, they tend to focus on: a. relationships within the family. b. early traumatic events. c. problems in school performance. d. past successes. e. developmental problems. ____ 54. In reality therapy, the purpose of developing an action plan is: a. to encourage clients to stretch beyond their limits. b. to teach clients to "think big." c. to arrange for successful experience. d. to arrive at the ultimate solution to a client's problem. e. both (a) and (b) ____ 55. Glasser identifies four psychological needs, which are the forces that drive us. Which of the following is not one of the needs that he focuses on? a. self-actualization b. belonging c. power d. freedom e. fun Page 7 of 13 PSY 241 Introduction to Counseling Final Examination ____ 56. All of the following are procedures that are commonly used in reality therapy except: a. exploring wants, needs, and perceptions. b. exploring early recollections. c. focusing on current behavior. d. planning and commitment. e. skillful questioning. ____ 57. Which of the following procedures would a reality therapist be least likely to employ? a. self-help procedures b. the use of humor c. homework assignments d. asking a client to emotionally reexperience a childhood experience e. asking questions to get a better sense of the client's inner world ____ 58. According to Glasser, all of the following are basic psychological needs except: a. competition. b. belonging. c. power. d. freedom. e. fun. ____ 59. According to Glasser, many of the problems of clients are caused by: a. unfinished business with parents. b. sibling rivalry. c. early childhood trauma. d. their inability to connect or to have a satisfying relationship with at least one of the significant people in their lives. e. the failure to receive praise and approval from the members of their family. ____ 60. From the perspective of feminist therapy, the socialization of women inevitably affects their: a. identity development. b. self-concept. c. goals and aspirations. d. emotional well-being. e. all of the above ____ 61. Which of the following themes would clients in feminist therapy be least likely to explore? a. messages received in growing up b. critically evaluating social dictates and expectations c. power and control d. transference reactions toward their therapist e. external forces influencing behavior ____ 62. Of the following, which intervention would a feminist therapist probably consider most essential? a. challenging irrational beliefs b. making use of the empty-chair technique c. conducting a lifestyle analysis d. social action e. interpretation of resistance ____ 63. Which of the following interventions involves a shift from "blaming the victim" to consideration of social factors in the environment that contribute to a client's problem? a. paradoxical intention b. reframing c. relabeling d. cognitive homework Page 8 of 13 PSY 241 Introduction to Counseling Final Examination ____ 64. All of the following strategies are unique to feminist therapy except for: a. cognitive restructuring. b. encouraging clients to take social action. c. being an advocate in challenging conventional attitudes about roles for women. d. power analysis and intervention. e. gender-role analysis and intervention. ____ 65. A defining theme in the practice of feminist therapy is: a. the inclusion of the client in the assessment process. b. the inclusion of the client in the treatment process. c. the therapist conducting a lifestyle analysis early during the therapy process. d. expecting clients to be willing to engage in long-term therapy. e. both (a) and (b) ____ 66. The constructs of feminist theory, in contrast to traditional theories, include all of the following except for which characteristic? a. intrapsychic orientation b. gender-fair c. flexible/multicultural d. life-span oriented e. interactionist ____ 67. The feminist perspectives on the development of personality: a. encompass the diversity and complexity of women's lives. b. attend to the ways in which diversity influences self-structures. c. recognize the inextricable connection between internal and external worlds. d. acknowledge the political and social oppression of women. e. all of the above ____ 68. Which of the following is true of narrative therapy and solution-focused therapy? a. The client is an expert on his or her own life. b. The therapeutic relationship should be hierarchical. c. The therapist is the expert on a client's life. d. Clients should adjust to social and cultural norms. e. For change to occur, clients must first acquire insight into the cause of their problems. ____ 69. Two of the major founders of solution-focused brief therapy are a. Michael White and David Epston. b. Insoo Kim Berg and Steve deShazer. c. Harlene Anderson and Harold Goolishian. d. Tom Andersen and Bill O'Hanlon. e. John Walter and Jane Peller ____ 70. Two of the major founders of narrative therapy are a. John Walter and Jane Peller b. Insoo Kim Berg and Steve deShazer. c. Harlene Anderson and Harold Goolishian. d. Tom Andersen and Bill O'Hanlon. e. Michael White and David Epston. ____ 71. In solution-focused therapy, which of the following kind of relationship is characterized by the client and therapist jointly identifying a problem and a solution to work toward? a. customer-type relationship b. the complainant c. a visitor d. a compliant client Page 9 of 13 PSY 241 Introduction to Counseling Final Examination ____ 72. Which of the following statements about strategic family therapy is not true? a. Therapy is brief, process-focused, and solution-oriented. b. Change results when the family follows the therapist's directions and change transactions. c. The focus is on solving problems in the present. d. The therapist designs strategies for change. e. Presenting problems are viewed as being symptomatic of a dysfunction within the system. ____ 73. A major contribution of Bowen's theory is the notion of a. birth order as a determinant of personality. b. differentiation of the self. c. family rules and communication patterns. d. spontaneity, creativity, and play as therapeutic factors in family therapy. ____ 74. Which is(are) a key role (or roles) of most family therapists? a. teacher b. model c. coach d. consultant e. all of the above ____ 75. A major contribution of Whitaker's approach to family therapy is a. birth order as a determinant of personality. b. differentiation of the self. c. genogram work. d. spontaneity, creativity, and play as therapeutic factors in family therapy. e. none of the above ____ 76. What best defines the focus of family therapy? a. Most of the family therapies tend to be brief. b. Family therapy tends to be solution-focused. c. The focus is on here-and-now interactions in the family system. d. Family therapy is generally action-oriented. e. all of the above ____ 77. A family systems perspective is grounded on the assumption(s) that a client's problematic behavior may: a. serve a function or purpose for the family. b. be a function of the family's inability to function productively. c. be a symptom of dysfunctional patterns handed down across generations. d. all of the above e. none of the above ____ 78. Which of the following therapies emphasizes that a person's belief system is the cause of emotional problems? a. solution-focused brief therapy b. existential therapy c. Gestalt therapy d. behavior therapy e. rational emotive behavior therapy ____ 79. Which of the following therapies is most recommended for the treatment of phobic disorders? a. behavior therapy b. narrative therapy c. existential therapy d. rational emotive behavior therapy e. solution-focused brief therapy Page 10 of 13 PSY 241 Introduction to Counseling Final Examination ____ 80. Which of the following approaches to therapy is based on the A-B-C theory of personality? a. reality therapy b. rational emotive behavior therapy c. psychoanalytic therapy d. solution-focused brief therapy e. none of the above True/False Indicate whether the sentence or statement is true or false. Decide if each of the following statements is "more true" or "more false" from the person-centered perspective. ____ 81. Rogers's original emphasis was on reflection of feelings expressed by the client. ____ 82. The person-centered approach is based on a set of specific therapeutic techniques designed to promote behavior change. ____ 83. Concepts developed by Rogers have been applied to schools, business, international relations, community development, and marriage and family life. ____ 84. Accurate empathic understanding implies an objective understanding of a client and some form of diagnosis. ____ 85. A major contribution of this approach is Rogers's willingness to state his formulations as testable hypotheses and submit them to research. Decide if each of the following statements is "more true" or "more false" from the perspective of Gestalt therapy. ____ 86. Gestalt therapy makes use of a wide variety of techniques that are designed to increase the client's awareness of his or her present experiencing. ____ 87. Gestalt therapy relies mainly on psychoanalytic techniques. ____ 88. The goal of Gestalt therapy is to solve basic problems, to resolve one's polarities, and to help the individual to adjust to his or her environment. ____ 89. Gestaltists typically ask why questions in the attempt to get clients to think about the source of their problems. ____ 90. In Gestalt therapy, resistance refers to defenses we develop that prevent us from experiencing the present in a full and real way. Decide if the following statements are "more true" or "more false" as applied to rational emotive behavior therapy. ____ 91. Ellis contends that research has shown that REBT is effective in helping all types of clients. ____ 92. Ellis maintains that in order for clients to change their behavior, they must be willing to actively carry out assignments in everyday life. ____ 93. REBT contends that humans need the love and acceptance of significant others in order to feel worthwhile. ____ 94. The cognitive-behavioral therapies are largely based on the idea that the reorganization of clients' selfstatements is a key to changing their behavior. Page 11 of 13 PSY 241 Introduction to Counseling Final Examination ____ 95. From a cognitive perspective, depression is largely due to one's attitudes and beliefs. Decide if the following statements are "more true" or "more false" as applied to the perspective of family systems therapy. ____ 96. Experiential family therapy relies on the expert use of directives aimed at changing dysfunctional patterns. ____ 97. Satir's human validation model focuses on functional versus dysfunctional communication in families. ____ 98. Because Bowen's multigenerational approach looks at families from a three-generational perspective, the therapist is mainly interested in past happenings and does not pay much attention to present issues. ____ 99. Strategic family therapy stresses some of the same basic concepts as the structural approach to family therapy. ____ 100. Understanding family process is almost always facilitated by "how" questions. Page 12 of 13 PSY 241 Introduction to Counseling Final Examination Essay Questions On a separate piece of paper, answer three (3) of the following questions with an essay answer with your name on each page: REMEMBER: Be clear and complete! 1.Using a personal issue, follow Albert Ellis' method of "ABC" to demonstrate how Rational-Emotive Behavioral Therapy (REBT) works: A - (Activating event): B - (Belief system): C - (Consequences) 1) feelings : 2) behavior : 2. Gestalt therapy discourages "why" questions and focuses on the "what" and "how" of experiencing. What are your reactions to this emphasis? Do you agree or disagree that "why" questions lead to heady ruminations? 3. Compare and contrast Reality therapy with the psychoanalytic approach. What are your reactions to Reality therapy's focus on current behavior and its lack of interest in exploring the past? 4. We studied the existential view of therapy earlier this semester. Describe the key concepts of this theory and explain how this view is reflected in other therapies. 5. After reviewing your text on Family Systems Therapy, briefly discuss the difference between family therapy and individual therapy. 6. Carl Rogers emphasized the importance of understanding clients from an internal frame of reference. To do that, the therapist must be able to discriminate the client's feelings, hear accurately what messages they are sending, and reflect the deeper meanings that they are attempting to communicate. In the following exercises, first write down the feelings of the client, and then provide your response to reflect what you are hearing back to the client: Woman, 33, says: I just dread getting up every morning. Everything seems like such a chore. I see no sense in going on. I have constant thoughts of ending my life. No matter what I do or try, I just can't see any light at the end of that long, dark, cold and scary tunnel. If I would die tomorrow, at least I wouldn't have to suffer anymore. Man, 45, tells you: Damn, I am so preoccupied since my wife left me that I can't think of anything but her. I keep going over in my head what I could and should have done so she would have stayed. I am frustrated that I can't get her out of my mind and go about my life! Page 13 of 13