carb Laboratory report
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carb Laboratory report

Course: CHM 327, Fall 2008

School: Cal Poly Pomona

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Nurul Nadzirah Roslan 007544407 Carbohydrate Chemistry Laboratory Report Part I: Galactaric Acid Test Purpose: Galactaric acid test differentiates galactose containing sugars from other sugars, can differentiate lactose and galactose by time and amount of precipitate formation. Reaction: Five test tubes are labeled with the four known carbohydrate names or the unknown number. 0.5 g carbohydrate is weighed into a...

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Nadzirah Nurul Roslan 007544407 Carbohydrate Chemistry Laboratory Report Part I: Galactaric Acid Test Purpose: Galactaric acid test differentiates galactose containing sugars from other sugars, can differentiate lactose and galactose by time and amount of precipitate formation. Reaction: Five test tubes are labeled with the four known carbohydrate names or the unknown number. 0.5 g carbohydrate is weighed into a heat resistant labeled test tube. 1 mL DI H2O and followed by 1 mL concentrated nitric acid is added into the carbohydrate. The test tubes is mixed and placed into a beaker with water, boiling water bath in the hood. Tubes are leaved in water bath for 1.0 to 1.5 hours. The beaker is then carefully removed off from the plate. Allowed to cool. Parafilm tubes and the tubes are kept in the beaker. The beaker is kept in the hood until next week. Next week: observation of presence (or absence) of white crystal as + or result is recorded. Carbohydrates: glucose, galactose, lactose, sucrose and unknown Y-319C Tested Results: A positive result was the formation of white crystal, which was the result for galactose, lactose and unknown Y-319C. A negative result is solution with no precipitate formed which was the result for glucose and sucrose. Benedict's Acid Test Purpose: Benedict's test differentiates between reducing and non-reducing sugars. Reaction: Procedure: Procedure: 11 heat resistant test tubes is used and labeled with the appropriate carbohydrate tested. 2 mL Benedict's reagent is added into each test tube. 0.2 mL of the 10% carbohydrate solution to the appropriate tube. Mixed well. Test tubes are placed into boiling water bath. Any change in color of the solution and any precipitated is noted. Carbohydrates: Ribose, arabinose, fructose, glucose, galactose, mannose, lactose, sucrose, Tested maltose, starch, and unknown Y-319C 1 Results: A positive result was the formation of red precipitate, which was the result for ribose, lactose, mannose, glucose, maltose, fructose, arabinose and unknown Y319C A negative result is when the solution is remaining blue, which was the result for sucrose and galactose. Barfoed's Acid Test Purpose: Barfoed's test differentiates between monosaccharides. Disaccharides and polysaccharides by using 10% solutions. Reaction: Procedure: 11 heat resistant test tubes are used and each one of it is labeled with appropriate carbohydrate being tested. 2 mL Barfoed's reagent is added to each tube. 0.2 mL (2-3 drops) of the 10% carbohydrate solution is added to the appropriate tube. Mixed well. The tubes is placed into boiling water bath (start time is recorded). Any changes in color and any precipitated formed are recorded. Tubes are allowed to sit for 20 minutes before recording a negative result in the data table. The time and the relative amount difference are noted. Carbohydrates: Ribose, arabinose, fructose, glucose, galactose, mannose, lactose, sucrose, Tested maltose, starch, and unknown Y-319C Results: A positive result was the formation of red precipitate, which is divided to two parts, one with some red precipitate which is lactose and maltose and the second one is with amount large of red precipitate which is results for ribose, mannose, glucose, galactose, fructose, fructose, arabinose, and unknown Y319C. A negative result was obtained for the solutions that remain blue, which was the result for sucrose only. Seliwanoff's Acid Test Purpose: Seliwanoff's test differentiates fructose containing sugars from non-fructose sugars. Reaction: Procedure: 6 heat resistant test tubes is labeled with the appropriate carbohydrate being tested and used. 2mL (2-3 drops) of the 10% carbohydrate solution is added to the appropriate tube. Mixed well. The test tubes is placed into boiling water bath (start time is recoded). Any changes in color and any precipitate formation are noted. The approximate time of any of these change occurred is recorded. 2 The tubes are allowed to sit for 1 minute before recording a negative result in the data table. The time and the amount of difference and other color present are noted. Carbohydrates: Glucose, fructose, sucrose, maltose, starch and unknown Y-319C Tested Results: A positive result was when the solution turns cloudy or dark orange, which was the result for fructose, sucrose and unknown Y-319C. A negative result was obtained for glucose, maltose and starch when the solutions are remain light orange. Bial's Orcinol Test Purpose: Bial's orcinol test differentiates pentoses from hexoses and can differentiate arabinose and ribose by the time of color change. Reaction: Procedure: 7 heat resistant test tubes are used and it is labeled with appropriate carbohydrate being tested. 0.2 mL (2-3 drops) of the 1% carbohydrate solution to the appropriate tube. 2 mL Bial' reagent is added to each tube. Mixed well. Test tube is placed into boiling water bath (start time is recorded). Any changes in color and any precipitate formation at the time of occurrence are noted. The approximated time of any change occurring is also noted. Tubes are allowed to sit for 15 minutes before recording a negative result in the data table. The time and amount difference and any color present at the time of change are noted (not at 15 minutes). Carbohydrates: Arabinose, ribose, glucose, fructose, sucrose and starch. Tested Results: A positive result was the changes of the color of the solution to black or blue color, which was result for arabinose and ribose. A negative result was obtained for glucose, fructose, sucrose, starch and unknown Y-319C when there is no change in the color of the solutions. 3 Part III Conclusion Unknown Y-319C was determined to be fructose. This was based on a positive Benedict's test, showing it is a reducing sugar, eliminating sucrose and starch. A positive Barfoed's test, showing the unknown was a monosaccharide's, leaving us with ribose, arabinose, fructose, glucose, galactose and mannose. The negative Galactaric acid test for the unknown confirmed the unknown is neither galactose nor lactose. The negative results in Bial's orcinol test be evidence for that the unknown is not a pentoses but hexoses. These leave us with fructose, glucose and mannose. The positive results on Seliwanoff's test verified that the unknown is actually a fructose. 4

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