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NEUROLOGY CLINICAL IN A NUTSHELL Preface The following material represents a simplified version of the nervous system. This is by design, since the beginning student can benefit from such a simplification. On the other hand, it is intended that the facts presented here are true, accurate and clinically functional. Those students who master this material should have little difficulty adapting to more complex views of the nervous system during future studies. In addition to providing a "bird's eye" view of the nervous system, this work will attempt to demonstrate analogies which may assist the student in remembering the complex functions which are contact herein. It is hoped that the student will have fun mastering this material. Enjoyment is the key to enlightenment. Functional Neurophysiology and Neuroanatomy Introduction: What makes the nervous system unique is that it is made up of a network of interconnected electrically active cells called neurons. These cells endow the nervous system with the capability to form complex electrical pathways and to transport this integrated information throughout the body. Most of the cells interact through substances released from their synaptic terminals and these chemicals alter the membrane potentials of a variety of post-synaptic cells (including other neurons, skeletal muscles, smooth muscles, cardiac muscles and glands). The chemical transmission of neurons results in alteration in transmembrane ion channels. This results in ion movements across membranes, leading to alterations in the activities of the post-synaptic cell. The central nervous system receives information about the external environment, using complex behaviors to allow the animal to negotiate this environment. This function is carried out by the somatic nervous system which regulates skeletal muscle activity. In addition, the central nervous system listens to the internal workings of the body and regulates those function which maintain the animal's health. These functions are performed by the autonomic nervous system. These two basic activities of the central nervous system are not completely separated, since the integration of the whole organism is carried out seamlessly. The central nervous system functions in concert with the body. Disease of many other body parts can affect the nervous system and disease of the nervous system can result in dysfunction of other parts of the body. While this may appear to lead to undue difficulties in understanding the relationship between the central nervous system and the rest of the body, it also provides the challenge by which neurology becomes an exciting clinical discipline. The diversity by which neurologic disease can manifest makes neurology an interesting field of endeavor. Cells of the Nervous System: Neurons. One of the important distinguishing cells of the nervous system is the neuron. It is the electrica...

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University of Florida - VEM - 5208

TCM 24-hour ClockLIV GB TH1-3 AMLU3-5 AM11-1AMLI 5-7 ST SP HT3-5 PMAM9-11 PM7-9 AMPC7-9 PM 5-7 PM9-11 AMKID11-1 PMBLSI1-3 PMChinese Body inches (cun)9 cun 13 cun18 cun12 cun16 cun1

University of Florida - VEM - 5384

Quadriparesis & QuadriplegiaMy Dog Has Fallen and Cant Get UpLocalization of Lesion=Normal Head Signs =BAR No seizures No head tilt No tremors No CN abnormalitiesAtaxia in all 4 legs1Localization of Lesion: the 4 choices=Reflex

University of Florida - VEM - 5384

Selected Neurologic DiseasesR.M. Clemmons, DVM, PhD Associate Professor of Neurology & Neurosurgery Certified in Veterinary Acupuncture SACS, University of FloridaNeurologic diseases can be complex in terms of their diagnosis and therapy. On the o

University of Florida - VEM - 5384

Posterior Paresis or ParalysisMy Dog is Draggin'Location of Lesions: the 2 possibilities=Reflexes present in the rear legs=T3-L3Reflexes are diminished or absent in the rear legsL4-S2Intervertebral Disc Disease: chondrodystrophic dogs

University of Florida - VEM - 5384

Cranial Nerve SyndromesA look at the brainstemTrigeminal Problems Cant open Mouth Muscle Cant close Mouth Nerve1Masseter Muscle Myositis Immune-mediated Acute, painful muscles of mastication Elevated 2M antibody levels Chronic, atr

University of Florida - VEM - 5384

Veterinary NeurologyAdventures in the Nervous SystemWhat Makes the Nervous System Unique?= ===Contains neurons Connects to and influences all parts of the body Electrically active and sends information great distances The ethereal brainC

University of Florida - VEM - 5384

Seizure Disease in Dogs & CatsShake, Rattle and RollSeizures in Small Animals It is estimated that the overall incidence of seizure disorders in dogs and cats is around 1% In pure breed dogs, this incidence may increase to 1520%, due to the pres

University of Florida - VEM - 5384

Ancillary Diagnostic Tests for Neurological PatientsPatient Evaluation= = = = = = = =Signalment History Physical and Neurological Exams Localization of Lesion Differential diagnosis Diagnostic plan Diagnosis/Prognosis Treatment/EvaluateMinimum

University of Florida - VEM - 5384

Veterinary NeurosurgeryA Chance to Cut is a Chance to CureBasic Neurosurgical Techniques=Spinal Surgery =Cranial SurgeryVentral slot Hemilaminectomy Dorsal Laminectomy IVD fenestration AA luxation Fracture Repair Lateral Craniotom

University of Florida - VEM - 5384

Neurologic ExaminationLast of the Physical DiagnosticsNeurologic ExaminationObservation Cranial Nerve Examination Postural Reactions Spinal Reflexes Palpation Sensation= = = = = =Observation= =Mental Status Posture Head Body=Movement/

University of Florida - VEM - 5384

HemilaminectomyAccess to the spinal columnHemilaminectomy First performed and described by Dr. Horlein at Auburn University Best method to access the ventral canal and remove IVD material Affords access to the IVD spaces for fenestration Best

University of Florida - VEM - 5384

THE NEUROLOGIC EXAMINATION As with all other examining procedures, the neurological examination should be carried out in a systematic fashion and with patient comfort in mind. No examination should be performed without consideration to the patient. I

University of Florida - ZOO - 3713

Lab 2: Vertebrate Embryology Lab/Reading Objectives:1) Understand the development of the vertebrate body plan using the embryonic chick as a model system 2) Identify the characteristics that classify the chick as a chordate/craniate/vertebrate. 3) C

University of Florida - ZOO - 3713

Felis domestica Muscular SystemLab/Reading Objectives: 1) Become familiar with the external anatomy of both Felis and Squalus 2) Become familiar with the muscular system of vertebrates through the dissection of Felis. 3) Understand the interplay bet

University of Florida - PHY - 1033

Phy 1033 Laboratory #6 Absolute ZeroDiscovering PhysicsIn this laboratory we will use very simple equipment to see that the volume of a xed amount of gas is proportional to the temperature as long as the pressure of the gas doesnt change. And we

University of Florida - OCP - 6168

H OMEWORK 1.2 I) If events A and B are independent, then events A and B are independent, and events and B are also independent . A Proof. By denition, A and B independent P (A B) = P (A)P (B). But B = (A B) + A B , so P (B) = P (A B) + P A

University of Florida - OCP - 6168

H OMEWORK 1.4I) Let X be an RV with CDF FX and probability density fX . Calculate the CDF and density function of RV Y = X 1 . Proof. 1) Cumulative probability distribution (CDF): follow the procedure explained in class (1) Cumulative probability d

University of Florida - OCP - 6168

H OMEWORK 1.3I) Show that the following properties of a Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF) follow from the denition of the CDF and the properties of probability: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) F () = 0 and F (+) = 1. F is a non-decreasing function, i.e. i

University of Florida - OCP - 6168

H OMEWORK 1.7Matlab assignment11: Regarding each of the de-meaned time-series (see previous assignements) as a sequence of values of a random variable the surface elevation measured at sensor n with n =1,.9, I) For all possible pairs of the 9 cros

University of Florida - OCP - 6168

H OMEWORK 1.1I) Show that the denition of probability implies: 1: Probability of the impossible event P {} = 0. Note: A common technique is to partition the space, i.e. cover it completely with disjoint sets:A family of sets A1 , A2 , A3 , A4 , et

University of Florida - OCP - 6168

H OMEWORK 2.1I) Show that for the harmonic process H(t) = A cos (t + T )with A and T are independent RVs, and T uniformly distributed in [, ] the following is true: 1 g(T ) dT ; (1) The expected value of a function g(T ) is E {g(T )} = 2 (2) Mean

University of Florida - OCP - 6168

OCP6168 DATA A NALYSIS T ECHNIQUES FOR C OASTAL AND O CEAN E NGINEERSClass Instructor Tuesday 8-9 (3:00 PM), Thursday 9 (4:05) Weil 279 Alex Sheremet, 352-392-9537 ext. 1429, alex@coastal.ufl.edu S OME T EXTS Papoulis, A., Probability, Random Variab

University of Florida - OCP - 6168

H OMEWORK 3.1I) Use the Fourier-Euler formulae to show that, if X(t) is T -periodic function which adn mits a Fourier series decomposition X(t) = n=- cn exp 2i t , then T (1) if X(t) is even cn are all real, c-n = cn . (2) if X(t) is odd cn are a

University of Florida - OCP - 6167

OCP6167Class Instructor Phone EmailNonlinear WavesMWF 8 (3:00 PM, Coastal Conf. Room) Alex Sheremet, Civil and Coastal Engineering, 352-392-9537/1429, alex@coastal.u.eduCourse Outline1 Linear Waves.Surface Gravity Waves: Governing equations.

University of Florida - OCP - 6168

H OMEWORK 1.6I) Show that if X and Y are RV's and Y = aX + b, with a, b R then: (1) Y = |a| X , and Y = aX + b; (2) RV Y = (X - X )/X has zero mean and unit standard deviation (Y is called the standardized, normalized version of RV X). II) Use the

University of Florida - OCP - 6168

Stationary stochastic processes Statistics of Stochastic Processes Stationary processes2. Stochastic ProcessesData Analysis Techniques in Oceanography OCP6168Alex SheremetMarch 7, 2007Alex Sheremet Stationary stochastic processes Statistics

University of Florida - OCP - 6168

The Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) Properties of the DFT DFT-Specic Properties Power spectrum estimate4. Practical Spectral AnalysisAlex SheremetApril 20, 2007Alex Sheremet The Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) Properties of the DFT DFT-Speci

University of Florida - OCP - 6168

Deterministic and Random Data Review of Probability Random Variables Two Random Variables Mean and variance of random samples1. Basic ConceptsData Analysis Techniques in Oceanography OCP8168Alex SheremetFebruary 28, 2007Alex Sheremet Determi

University of Florida - OCP - 6168

Fourier Analysis Linear transformations and ltersStochastic processes review3. Fourier AnalysisData Analysis Techniques in Oceanography OCP6168Alex SheremetApril 11, 2007Alex Sheremet Fourier Analysis Linear transformations and ltersFour

University of Florida - OCP - 6168

H OMEWORK 3.2I) Let L is a linear transformation that maps the real input process Y () into the real output process X(), characterized by the impulse response G() = L [()]. Show that if the expected value opertator commutes with the linear transfor

University of Florida - OCP - 6168

H OMEWORK 1.5I) Let X be a RV uniformly distributed in the interval [0, L]. An important function of such a random variable is g = sin. For simplicity, dene a new random variable Y = a sin The function sin 2 X . L2 x is periodic with period L. Ca