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1 CHAPTER - The Nature of Chemistry 01-[01z]. How does pure water differ from an aqueous solution of salt? All of these answers are correct except: (A) one is clear, the other is cloudy. (B) one evaporates to leave no residue; the other evaporates to leave a white residue. (C) one is electrically conductive, the other is not electrically conductive. (D) one tastes salty, the other doesn't. (E) the density of one is 1 g/mL, the other has a greater density. 02-[01z]. Which are physical changes? (1) boiling of water. (2) dissolving sugar in water. (3) oxidation. (4) acid-base neutralization. (5) shattering of glass. (6) expansion while being heated. (7) corrosion of aluminum. (A) all of them. (B) 1, 2, 5. (C) 2, 4, 7. (D) none. (E) 1, 2, 5, 6, 7. (F) 1, 2, 5, 6. 03-[01z]. Convert 3.4 kilograms to milligrams. (A) 34. (B) 340. (C) 3400. (D) 0.34. (E) 0.034. (F) 0.0034. (G) 3.4 x 106. (H) 3.4 x 10-6. 04-[01z]. A microliter is: (A) 10-3 L. (B) 10-6 L. (C) 10-9 L. (D) 10+3 L. (E) 10+6 L. (F) 10+9 L. 05-[01z]. A cubic meter contains how many cubic centimeters? (A) 100. (B) 1000. (C) 10+4. (D) 10+6 . (E) 10+8. (F) 10+9. 06-[01z]. The density of platinum is 23.4 g/cm3. Calculate the mass of 75.0 cm3 of platinum. (A) 1.76 kg. (B) 5.70 g. (C) 1.6510-3 g. (D) 5.7010-3 g. (E) 1760 kg. (F) 5700 kg. 07-[01z]. How many cubic centimeters are there in a liter? (A) 1. (B) 10. (C) 100. (D) 1000. (E) 106. (F) 0.001. 08-[01z]. Convert 6.0 10-3 meter to millimeters. (A) 6.0 (B) 60. (C) 600. (D) 0.60. (E) 0.060. 09-[01z]. 10 liters contains how many cubic centimeters? (A) 100. (B) 1000. (C) 10 +4. (D) 10+6. (E) 10+8. (F) 10+9. 10-[01z]. 100 liters contains how many cubic centimeters? (A) 100. (B) 1000. (C) 10+4. (D) 10+5 . (E) 10+6. (F) 10+7. (D) 10+8. (E) 10+9. (F) 10+10. 11-[01z]. A milliliter is: (A) 10-3 L. (B) 10-6 L. (C) 10-9 L. (D) 10+3 L. (E) 10 cubic centimeters. 12-[01z]. Convert 454 milligrams to grams. (A) 4.54. (B) 4.54x10-3. (C) 454,000. (D) 227. (E) 0.000454. (F) 0.454. (G) 4540. 13-[01z]. The chemical symbol for chromium is: (A) Ch. (B) C. (C) Cr. (D) Cm. (E) Cu. 14-[01z]. The quantity 4 x 106 micrograms is the same as: (A) 0.004 grams. (B) 4 x 109 nanograms. (C) 0.000004 kilogram. (D) 0.4 milligram. (E) 40 picograms. 15-[01z]. What the prefix "k" mean? (A) 1000. (B) 106. (C) 100. (D) 10-3. (E) 10-6. 16-[01z]. Which is not a physical change? (A) boiling of water. (B) dissolving sugar in water. (C) a nail rusting. (D) hammering gold into a thin sheet. (E) stretching a rubber band. (F) expansion of a gas while being heated. (H) melting of ice in a pressurized chamber. 17-[01z]. Which is not a physical change? (A) melting ice. (B) dissolving salt in water. (C) combustion. (D) bending a nail. (E) shattering of glass. (F) shrinking of a gas while being cooled. 18-[01z]. Which is not homogeneous? (A) a pure compound. (B) a pure element. (C) a dissolved mixture of salt in water. (D) sugar dissolved in water. (E) a mixture of iron filings and powdered sulfur. (F) an alloy. (G) air (on a clear day). 19-[01z]. Which of the following is not a physical process: (A) photosynthesis. (B) freezing water. (C) pulverizing an aspirin. (D) sawing a board into two pieces. (E) dissolving food dye in water. 20-[01z]. Which of the following is a physical process: (A) corrosion of an iron nail. (B) water vaporizing. (C) acid neutralizing a base. (D) decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. (E) formation of ozone in the stratosphere from oxygen. (F) digesting food. 21-[01z]. You weigh a block of a substance that measures 0.3 meter x 40 centimeters x 1000 millimeters, and obtain a measurement of 80 kilograms. What is the specific gravity (g/cm 3) of the block of wood? (A) 15. (B) 67. (C) 1.5. (D) 6.7. (E) 0.15. (F) 0.67. (G) 0.15. (H) 0.067. 22-[01z]. The chemical symbol for iron is: (A) I. (B) Ir. (C) F. (D) Fe. (E) In. 23-[01z]. A cubic centimeter is equal to: (A) 1 milliliter. (B) 10 milliliters. (C) 100 milliliters. (D) 1000 milliliters. (E) 1 microliter. 24-[01z]. The prefix "" means: (A) 10 . (B) 10 . (C) 100. (D) 10. (E) 10-2. (F) 10-3. (G) 10-6. (H) 10-9. 25-[01z]. The prefix "n" means: (A) 10 . (B) 10 . (C) 100. (D) 10. (E) 10-2. (F) 10-3. (G) 10-6. (H) 10-9. 26-[01z]. The prefix "m" means: (A) 10 . (B) 10 . (C) 100. (D) 10. (E) 10-2. (F) 10-3. (G) 10-6. (H) 10-9. 27-[01z]. The prefix "M" means: (A) 10 . (B) 10 . (C) 100. (D) 10. (E) 10-2. (F) 10-3. (G) 10-6. (H) 10-9. 28-[01z]. The prefix "c" means: (A) 10 . (B) 10 . (C) 100. (D) 10. (E) 10-2. (F) 10-3. (G) 10-6. (H) 10-9. 29-[01z]. The prefix "milli" means: (A) 10 . (B) 10 . (C) 100. (D) 10. (E) 10-2. (F) 10-3. (G) 10-6. (H) 10-9. 30-[01z]. The prefix "micro" means: (A) 10 . (B) 10 . (C) 100. (D) 10. (E) 10-2. (F) 10-3. (G) 10-6. (H) 10-9. 31-[01z]. The prefix "centi" means: (A) 10 . (B) 10 . (C) 100. (D) 10. (E) 10-2. (F) 10-3. (G) 10-6. (H) 10-9. 32-[01z]. The prefix "kilo" means: (A) 10 . (B) 10 . (C) 100. (D) 10. (E) 10-2. (F) 10-3. (G) 10-6. (H) 10-9. 33-[01z]. You use a very delicate scale which can measure to the nearest microgram. You measure a grain of salt and record a value of 1.458 milligram. However, you later find out that the scale gave faulty measurements and a properly measuring scale gives the actual value of 1.927 milligram. Therefore, the first (faulty) scale has: (A) good accuracy and good precision. (B) bad accuracy and bad precision. (C) good accuracy and poor precision. (D) bad accuracy and good precision. [This is actually discussed in Chapter 2] 34-[01z]. Correct Celsius temperatures for freezing water, room temperature, body temperature, and boiling water are, respectively: (A) 32, 75, 98, 212. (B) 0, 25, 50, 100. (C) 0, 10, 30, 100. (D) 0, 25, 37, 100. (E) 0, 23, 27, 100. (F) 0, 15, 47, 100. 35-[01z]. Absolute zero is what temperature in Kelvin and Celsius, respectively? (A) -100, 0. (B) -273, 0. (C) 0, -273. (D) 0, -100. (E) -273, -100. 36-[01z]. The definition of a substance is: (A) matter that is pure and has a fixed composition. (B) matter that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical changes. (C) matter that can be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical changes. (D) any kind of matter that can be separated into simpler substances by physical means. 37-[01z]. A substance that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical changes is: (A) a solution. (B) an element. (C) a compound. (D) a mixture. (E) an electrolyte. 6 3 6 3 6 3 6 3 6 3 6 3 6 3 6 3 6 3 38-[01z]. A substance that can be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical changes is: (A) a solution. (B) an element. (C) a compound. (D) a mixture. (E) an electrolyte. 39-[01z]. A mixture is: (A) matter that is pure and has a fixed composition. (B) matter that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical changes. (C) matter that can be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical changes. (D) matter that can be separated into simpler substances by physical means. 40-[01z]. The states of matter are: (A) elements and compounds. (B) solid, liquid, gas. (C) heterogenous and homogeneous mixtures. (D) chemical and physical. (E) kinetic and potential. 41-[01z]. The two kinds of pure substances are: (A) heterogeneous and homogeneous. (B) solutions and mixtures. (C) elements and compounds. (D) liquids and solids. (E) metric and English. 42-[01z]. Homogeneous mixtures are: (A) impossible. (B) solutions. (C) possible only at high pressures. (D) composed only of elements. (E) of constant composition. ****************************************************************************** CHAPTER 2 - Atoms and Elements 01-[02z]. How many neutrons does U-238 (238U) have? (A) zero. (B) 2. (C) 4. (D) 92. (E) 146. (F) 238. 06-[02z]. What element has 14 protons? (A) helium. (B) carbon. (C) nitrogen. (D) oxygen. (E) neon. (F) silicon. (G) argon. 07-[02z]. Which has the same empirical formula as CH2? (A) C6H6. (B) C4H8. (C) C3H8. (D) C2H2. 08-[02z]. Atoms which have the same number of protons and a different number of neutrons are called: (A) allotropes. (B) isotopes. (C) halogens. (D) barytropes. (E) different elements of the same periodic family. (F) isomers. 09-[02z]. Which is most likely to be ionic? (A) B2H6. (B) LiBr. (C) NF3. (D) NOCl. (E) H2CO. 12-[02z] Which is an isotope of carbon-12? (A) boron-11. (B) 11C. (C) 12N. (D) 12C. (E) lithium-6. 13-[02z]. How many neutrons does tritium (3H) have? (A) zero. (B) 1. (C) 2. (D) 3. (E) 4. 18-[02z]. The atomic number of an element equals to: (A) its atomic mass divided by two. (B) the number of protons. (C) the number of neutrons. (D) the number of protons plus neutrons. (E) the charge. (F) the electronegativity. (G) its ionization potential. 19-[02z]. Which element is diatomic in nature? (A) oxygen. (B) carbon. (C) phosphorus. (D) krypton. (E) water. 20-[02z]. Which element is diatomic in nature? (A) phosphorus. (B) nitrogen. (C) argon. (D) carbon. (E) sodium. (F) platinum. (G) gold. 21-[02z]. A beta particle is a(n): (A) gamma ray. (B) electron. (C) hydrogen atom. (D) uranium particle. (E) helium atom. (F) neutron. (G) proton. 22-[02z]. An alpha particle is a(n): (A) gamma ray. (B) electron. (C) hydrogen atom. (D) uranium particle. (E) helium atom. (F) neutron. (G) proton. 23-[02z]. A nonmetal element: (A) gives up electrons readily. (B) reacts with water to form an acid solution. (C) conducts heat easily. (D) is malleable. 24-[02z]. Carbon-12 and carbon-13 are: (A) allotropes. (B) isotopes. (C) monotremes. (D) barytropes. (E) different elements of the same periodic family. 25-[02z] Diamond and graphite are: (A) allotropes. (B) isotopes. (C) monotremes. (D) barytropes. (E) different elements of the same periodic family. 27-[02z] A monoatomic gas would be: (A) nitrogen. (B) oxygen. (C) chlorine. (D) argon. (E) iron. (F) bromine. 28-[02z]. How big, approximately, is an atom? (A) 1 millimeter. (B) 0.01 meter. (C) 1000 kilometers. (D) 10-4 nanometer. (E) 10-7 millimeter. (F) size of a bacterium. (G) size of a virus. 29-[02z]. How many neutrons are in 37Cl? (A) 37. (B) 35. (C) 17. (D) 20. (E) none. 30-[02z]. How many neutrons are there in an alpha particle? (A) 0. (B) 1. (C) 2. (D) 3. (E) 4. 31-[02z]. How many neutrons are there in a beta particle? (A) 0. (B) 1. (C) 2. (D) 4. (E) 92. 32-[02z]. How many neutrons does carbon-13 have? (A) 5. (B) 6. (C) 7. (D) 8. (E) 10. (F) 12. (G) 13. 33-[02z]. How many neutrons does thorium-232 have? (A) 232. (B) 90. (C) 140. (D) 142. (E) 150. (F) 164. 34-[02z]. How many neutrons does zirconium-91 have? (A) 91. (B) 40. (C) 41. (D) 90. (E) 51. 35-[02z]. How many protons are there in manganese-55? (A) 12. (B) 24. (C) 55. (D) 30. (E) 25. 45-[02z]. Mix a molten mixture of beryllium and potassium and then cool to form a homogeneous solid. What is the result? (A) alloy. (B) salt. (C) molecule. (D) element. 47-[02z]. Which is an alloy? The compound formed by: (A) reacting iron with chlorine. (B) reacting sulfur with oxygen. (C) reacting nickel with cobalt. (D) silver with oxygen. (E) hydrogen with nickel. (F) carbon with hydrogen. 48-[02z]. Which is impossible? (A) 1H3. (B) 7N15. (C) 90U238. (D) 3Li7. (E) 22Ti48. (F) 11Na23. 49-[02z]. Which is impossible? (A) 1H3. (B) 5C12. (C) 92U233. (D) 4Be7. 50-[02z]. Limestone when reacted with acid gives off a gas. What is the gas? (A) carbon dioxide. (B) hydrogen. (C) oxygen. (D) methane. (E) argon. 62-[02z]. What element has 12 protons? (A) magnesium. (B) carbon. (C) nitrogen. (D) oxygen. (E) neon. (F) silicon. (G) argon. 63-[02z]. What is the charge on a hydroxide ion? (A) -3. (B) -2. (C) -1. (D) 0. (E) +1. 66-[02z]. What is the most common element in the earth's crust? (A) iron. (B) nitrogen. (C) oxygen. (D) silicon. (E) sodium. (F) chlorine. (G) argon. 70-[02z]. Which compound would be molecular? (A) SO3. (B) KI. (C) FeCl3. (D) CaS. (E) CuCl. (F) Rb2O. 71-[02z]. Which compound would be molecular? (A) CO2. (B) LiCl. (C) Y2O3. (D) MgO. (E) AgCl. (F) FeS. 74-[02z]. Which is a nonmetal? (A) silver. (B) potassium. (C) iodine. (D) ruthenium. (E) lead. 75-[02z]. Which is a salt? (A) B2H6. (B) LiBr. (C) NF3. (D) NOCl. (E) H2CO. 76-[02z]. Which is a semiconductor? (A) francium. (B) germanium. (C) hafnium. (D) americium. (E) polonium. (F) ruthenium. 77-[02z]. Which is an ionic compound? (A) NF3. (B) methane. (C) CH3OH. (D) NOCl. (E) Ag2S. (F) Br2. (G) krypton. (H) beta particle. (I) ammonia. 78-[02z]. Which is an ionic compound? (A) NF3. (B) xenon. (C) CH3OH. (D) NOCl. (E) CaI2. 79-[02z]. Which is an isotope of nickel-58? (A) nickel with 30 neutrons. (B) 58Fe. (C) iron atom with the same number of neutrons as 58Ni. (D) nickel atom with a different number of neutrons as 58Ni. (E) copper with the same mass of nickel-58. 81-[02z]. Which is not one of the most common ten elements in the earth's crust? (A) sodium. (B) calcium. (C) silicon. (D) chlorine. (E) iron. 88-[02z]. A salt is a compound composed of: (A) a metal and a nonmetal. (B) two or more different metals. (C) two or more nonmetals. (D) only one kind of atom. (E) only protons and electrons. 89-[02z]. A molecular compound is composed of: (A) a metal and a nonmetal. (B) two or more different metals. (C) two or more nonmetals. (D) only one kind of atom. (E) only protons and electrons. 90-[02z]. An alloy is composed of: (A) a metal and a nonmetal. (B) two or more different metals. (C) two or more nonmetals. (D) only one kind of atom. (E) only protons and electrons. 91-[02z]. An example of a metalloid is: (A) sodium. (B) bromine. (C) germanium. (D) plutonium. (E) hydrogen. 92-[02z]. Salts are made up of: (A) ions. (B) molecules. (C) only one kind of element. (D) only metals. (E) only nonmetals. 93-[02z]. Which is a halogen? (A) chlorine. (B) phosphorus. (C) salt. (D) carbon. (E) sodium. (F) calcium. 94-[02z]. Which is an alkali metal? (A) chlorine. (B) phosphorus. (C) salt. (D) carbon. (E) sodium. (F) calcium. 95-[02z]. Which is an alkline earth? (A) chlorine. (B) phosphorus. (C) salt. (D) carbon. (E) sodium. (F) calcium. 96-[02]. Which is a noble gas? (A) oxygen. (B) nitrogen. (C) helium. (D) hydrogen. (E) methane. 97-[02]. Which is diatomic? (A) neon. (B) phosphorus. (C) hydrogen. (D) methane. (E) lithium. 98-[02]. The elements on the left-hand side of the Periodic Table are (A) gases. (B) metalloids. (C) metals. (D) nonmetals. (E) liquids. (F) brittle. 126-[02z]. Dalton would have said: (A) 1 mole of carbon atoms would contain the same volume as 1 mole of hydrogen atoms. (B) 1 liter of carbon would be a mole of carbon atoms. (C) 1 liter of carbon would contain many atoms, each atom having the same weight. (D) 1 liter of methane would react with 1 liter of oxygen. (E) 1 gram of carbon would react with 1 gram of hydrogen. (F) 1 liter of oxygen and 1 liter of hydrogen would contain the same number of atoms. 136-[02z]. Mendeleev organized the Periodic Table on the basis of: (A) atomic numbers. (B) year of discovery. (C) atomic weights. (D) density. (E) Lavoisier's predictions of valence. (F) Bohr's theory. (G) Lucretius' visions of atomic shapes. (H) Berzelius' observations of radioactivity. 137-[02z]. Mendeleev sorted his periodic table on the basis of: (A) atomic number. (B) atomic weight. (C) ionization energy. (D) ease of extraction from ores. (E) density. (F) chronology (dates) of discovery. (G) melting point. 138-[02z]. The periodic table of Mendeleev contained elements which were arranged in ascending order of : (A) atomic number. (B) density. (C) atomic mass. (D) vapor pressure. (E) atomic volume. 139-[02z]. Which person accurately determined atomic weights in the mid 1800s? (A) Mendeleev. (B) Davy. (C) Lavoisier. (D) Berzelius. (E) Dalton. (F) Bunsen. (G) E. Rutherford. 140-[02z]. Who discovered plutonium? (A) Lucretius. (B) Democritus. (C) Lavoisier. (D) Dalton. (E) Rutherford. (F) Bohr. (G) Seaborg. (H) Curie. 141-[02z]. Who first used the law of conservation of mass in his famous experiments? (A) Dalton. (B) Ernest Rutherford. (C) Lavoisier. (D) Davy. (E) Mendeleev. (F) Geber. (G) Cavendish. (H) Mendeleev. 142-[02z]. Who invented spectroscopical analysis of the elements? (A) Mendeleev. (B) Davy. (C) Lavoisier. (D) Berzelius. (E) Dalton. (F) Bunsen. (G) E. Rutherford. 143-[02z]. Who proved the atom has a nucleus? (A) Mendeleev. (B) Davy. (C) Lavoisier. (D) Berzelius. (E) Dalton. (F) Bunsen. (G) E. Rutherford. 144-[02z]. Who would have said, "Carbon atoms are hard, featureless spheres, all of which have exactly the same weight." (A) Lucretius. (B) Democritus. (C) Lavoisier. (D) Dalton. (E) Rutherford. (F) Bohr. (G) Seaborg. (H) Curie. 156-[02z]. Polonium was: (A) predicted by Mendeleev. (B) discovered by Curie. (C) weighed by Berzelius. (D) listed by Lavoisier. (E) observed by Lucretius. (F) collected by Democritus. 172-[02z]. Which element was the most recently discovered? (A) phosphorus. (B) carbon. (C) germanium. (D) tin. (E) iron. (F) nickel. (G) mercury. (H) hydrogen. 173-[02z]. Which element was the most recently discovered? (A) sulfur. (B) carbon. (C) gallium. (D) lead. (E) mercury. (F) nickel. (G) cobalt. (H) oxygen. 182-[02z]. Which of the following elements did Mendeleev predict? (A) francium. (B) scandium. (C) hafnium. (D) americium. (E) polonium. (F) ruthenium. 193-[02z] Which of the following elements did Mendeleev not predict? (A) scandium. (B) germanium. (C) gallium. (D) rhenium. ****************************************************************************** CHAPTER 3 - Chemical Compounds 01-[03z]. Different compounds which have the same molecular formula are called (A) isotopes. (B) allotropes. (C) isomers. (D) baryons. (E) identical. (F) isobars. (G) isogons. 02-[03z]. Name the following compound: Na3PO4. (A) sodium phosphite. (B) sodium hypophosphite. (C) sodium phosphate. (D) sodium perphosphate. (E) sodium polysulfate. 03-[03z]. Write the chemical formula for sulfuric acid. (A) HSO4-1. (B) H2SO3. (C) H3SO3. (D) H4SO4. (E) H2SO4 . (F) H2SO5. 04-[03z]. Write the chemical formula for calcium hypochlorite. (A) CaOCl. (B) Ca(OCl)2. (C) Ca(OHCl). (D) CaCl2. (E) CaClO2. 05-[03z]. Name the following compound Ba(OH)2. (A) barium oxyhydride. (B) barium hydroxide. (C) barium hydride. (D) barium hydrate. (E) barium hydronium. 06-[03z]. Which is a liquid at room temperature? (A) ethane. (B) propane. (C) hexane. (D) O2. (E) CH4. 07-[03z]. Which is not a liquid at room temperature? (A) methyl alcohol. (B) ethyl alcohol. (C) methane. (D) octane. (E) isopropyl alcohol. 08-[03z]. Which is butane? (A) CH4. (B) C2H6. (C) C3H8. (D) C4H10. (E) C5H12. 09-[03z]. Which has no isomers? (A) propyl alcohol. (B) decane. (C) hexane. (D) methane. (E) octane. 10-[02]. What is the name for HCl? (A) chloric acid. (B) hydrochloric acid. (C) chlorous acid. (D) hypochlorous acid. (E) hypochloric acid. 11-[02]. What is the formula for ferric hydroxide? (A) Fe(OH)2. (B) Fe(OH)3. (C) Fe2(OH). (D) Fe3(OH). (E) Fe2(OH)3. (F) Fe3(OH)2. (G) Fe2(OH)2. (H) Fe3(OH)3 . 14-[03z]. What is the chemical formula for calcium carbonate? (A) Ca(HCO3)2. (B) CaCO3. (C) CaCO2. (D) CaHCO3. (E) CaC2. 15-[03z]. What is the chemical formula for sodium bicarbonate? (A) NaHCO3. (B) NaCO3. (C) Na2CO3. (D) Na2HCO2. (E) NaC2. 16-[03z]. The name of KClO4 is: (A) potassium chloride. (B) potassium hypochlorite. (C) potassium chlorite. (D) potassium chlorate. (E) potassium perchlorate. 51-[03z]. Name the compound Fe(NO2)3. (A) ferric nitrate. (B) ferrous nitrate. (C) ferric nitrite. (D) ferrous nitrite. 52-[03z]. Name the compound KCN. (A) potassium cyanide. (B) potassium nitrite. (C) potassium carbonitrile. (D) potassium nitrilocarbon. (E) potassium carbide. 53-[03z]. Name the compound Na2SO3. (A) sodium sulfide. (B) sodium sulfite. (C) sodium hyposulfite. (D) sodium persulfate. (E) sodium sulfate. 54-[03z]. Name the compound Na3PO3. (A) sodium phosphide. (B) sodium phosphite. (C) sodium hypophosphite. (D) sodium perphosphate. (E) sodium phosphate. 55-[03z]. Name the compound MgCO3. (A) magnesium chlorite. (B) oxymagnesium carbon. (C) carobonatomagnesium oxide. (D) magnesium carbonate. (E) magnesium carbonite. 57-[03z]. The best name for H2SO4 is: (A) hydrogen sulfur oxide. (B) proton sulfite. (C) hydrogen sulfite. (D) sulfuric acid. (E) dihydrogen persulfate. (F) alpha vitriolate. 58-[03z]. The formula for ferric chloride is: (A) FeCl2. (B) Fe2Cl3. (C) FeCl3. (D) Fe3Cl. (E) FeCl. 63-[03z]. What is the charge on a hydroxide ion? (A) -3. (B) -2. (C) -1. (D) 0. (E) +1. 64-[03z]. What is the formula for ferric nitrate? (A) Fe(NO2)2. (B) Fe(NO3)2. (C) Fe(NO4)3. (D) Fe(NO2)3. (E) FeNO3. (F) FeNO2. (G) FeNO5. (H) Fe(NO3)3. 65-[03z]. What is the formula for nitric acid? (A) H2NO2. (B) HNO3. (C) HNO2. (D) H2NO3. 67-[03z]. Which is magnesium sulfide? (A) Mg(SO2)2. (B) MgS2. (C) MgS. (D) Mg2S. (E) Mg2SO2. (F) Mg2SO3. 68-[03z]. Write the chemical formula for potassium chlorite. (A) KClO2. (B) KClO3. (C) KClO4. (D) KClO. 69-[03z]. Write the formula for uranium hexafluoride. (A) U2F3. (B) UF3. (C) UF4. (D) U2F5. (E) UF5. (F) UF6. 83-[03z] What is the formula for potassium hydroxide? (A) K(H2O). (B) K2OH. (C) KOH2. (D) KOH. (E) K(OH)2. 84-[03z]. The formula of phosphorus trichloride is: (A) PCl2. (B) PCl3. (C) PCl4. (D) PCl5. (E) P2Cl3 . (F) P3Cl5. 85-[03z]. The formula of phosphorus pentachloride is: (A) PCl2. (B) PCl3. (C) PCl4. (D) PCl5. (E) P2Cl3. (F) P3Cl5. 86-[03z]. The formula of osmium tetroxide is: (A)Os4O. (B) Os4O3. (C) OsO2. (D) OsO3. (E) OsO4. 87-[03z]. What is the formula for calcium hypochlorite? (A) CaCl2. (B) CaClO2. (C) Ca(OCl)2. (D) CaClO4. (E) Ca(ClO3)2. (F) CaO2Cl4. (G) CaClCN. ****************************************************************************** CHAPTER 4 - Quantities of reactants and products 01-[04z]. When 10.0 g of methane (CH4) is reacted with oxygen (O2), how many grams of carbon dioxide result? (A) 21.45. (B) 27.43. (C) 17.82. (D) 31.67. (E) 36.45. 02-[04z]. Balance the following equation. C2H6 + Cl2 C2Cl6 + HCl. The respective coefficients will be: (A) 1,1,1,1. (B) 2,1,2,1. (C) 1,2,1,2. (D) 1,3,1,3. (E) 1,6,1,6. 03-[04z]. How many grams is 2.50 moles of KNO3? (A) 101. (B) 98.9. (C) 252. (D) 39.6. (E) 2.50. 04-[04z]. How many atoms of hydrogen are there in 45.0 g of water? (A) 2.5. (B) 45.0. (C) 1.50 x 1024. (D) 3.00 x 1024. (E) 6.02 x 1023. (F) 2.4 x 1023. 05-[04z]. A 5.325 gram sample of methyl benzoate is found to contain 3.758 g of carbon, 0.316 g of hydrogen, and 1.251 g of oxygen. What is the empirical formula of methyl benzoate? (A) C2H4O. (B) C4H4O. (C) C4H10O3. (D) C2H2O. (E) C4H8O. (F) C5H10O. (G) CH3O2. 06-[04z]. How many moles of H2O are produced when 5.5 moles of methane (CH4) are burned in oxygen? (A) 198. (B) 5.5. (C) 11. (D) 2.75. (E) 9.9. (F) 0.10. (G) 0.36. 07-[04z]. How many grams of H2O are produced when 5.5 moles of methane (CH4) are burned in oxygen? (A) 198. (B) 5.5. (C) 11. (D) 2.75. (E) 9.9. (F) 0.10. (G) 0.36. 08-[04z]. Who first used the law of conservation of mass? (A) Dalton. (B) Einstein. (C) Lavoisier. (D) Davy. (E) Mendeleev. 09-[04z]. The fermentation of glucose C6H12O6 produces ethyl alcohol C2H5OH and carbon dioxide CO2 . How many grams of glucose are needed to produce 2.00 grams of carbon dioxide? (A) 88. (B) 2.04. (C) 4.09. (D) 0.0226. (E) 1.36. (F) 12.27. (G) 0.00753. (H) 0.0678.(I) 180. (J) 0.680. (K) 0.0389. 10-[04z]. The fermentation of glucose C6H12O6 produces ethyl alcohol C2H5OH and carbon dioxide CO2 . How many moles of glucose are needed to produce 2.00 grams of carbon dioxide? (A) 88. (B) 2.04. (C) 4.09. (D) 0.0226. (E) 1.36. (F) 12.27. (G) 0.00753. (H) 0.0678.(I) 180. (J) 0.680. (K) 0.0389. 11-[04z]. The respiration of glucose C6H12O6 produces water H2O and carbon dioxide CO2. How many grams of glucose are needed to produce 2.00 grams of carbon dioxide? (A) 88. (B) 2.04. (C) 4.09. (D) 0.0226. (E) 1.36. (F) 12.27. (G) 0.00753. (H) 0.0678.(I) 180. (J) 0.680. (K) 0.0389. 12-[04z]. The respiration of glucose C6H12O6 produces water H2O and carbon dioxide CO2. How many moles of glucose are needed to produce 2.00 grams of carbon dioxide? (A) 88. (B) 2.04. (C) 4.09. (D) 0.0226. (E) 1.36. (F) 12.27. (G) 0.00753. (H) 0.0678.(I) 180. (J) 0.680. (K) 0.0389. 13-[04z]. Which is a strong electrolyte? (A) glucose [a sugar]. (B) lithium chloride. (C) acetic acid. 14-[04z]. How many atoms of oxygen are there in 100 g of CaCO3 ? (A) 6.02 x 1023. (B) 1.81 x 1024. (C) 4.34 x 1022. (D) 2.02 x 1025. (E) 5.11 x 1022. 15-[04z]. How many grams is 2.70 moles of KNO3? (A) 101. (B) 2.70. (C) 272. (D) 136. (E) 20.2. 16-[04z]. How many moles of water is 45.00 g of water? (A) 0.400. (B) 2.498. (C) 810.7. (D) 56.34. (E) 400.1. 17-[04z]. How much do all of the oxygen atoms weigh in a mole of calcium hydroxide? (A) 20.4. (B) 40.1. (C) 16.0. (D) 32.0. (D) 57.6. (E) 74.1. 18-[04z]. In the oxidation of carbon monoxide, CO + O2 CO2, how much carbon dioxide (in grams) is produced from 10 grams of O2? (A) 27.51. (B) 16.00. (C) 32.00. (D) 13.75. (E) 55.01. (F) 110.02. (G) 49.02. 19-[04z]. In the following reaction, PCl5 + H2O H3PO4 + HCl, how many molecules of water react with one molecule of phosphorus pentachloride? (A) 1. (B) 2. (C) 3. (D) 4. (E) 5. (F) 6. (G) 0. 20-[04z]. Determine the formula weight of phosphorus pentachloride. (A) 208.23. (B) 138.13. (C) 94.98. (D) 40.01. (E) 591.94. (F) 367.10. (G) 180.47. 21-[04z]. In the fermentation of glucose, C6H12O6 C2H5OH + CO2, how many molecules of carbon dioxide are produced from two molecules of glucose? (A) 1. (B) 2. (C) 3. (D) 4. (E) 5. (F) 6. (G) 12. 22-[04z]. How atoms of hydrogen are there in five molecules of glucose C 6H12O6? (A) 1. (B) 2. (C) 3. (D) 4. (E) 5. (F) 6. (G) 10. (H) 12. (I) 15. (J) 30. (K) 60. (L) 100. 23-[04z]. How many moles of glucose (C6H12O6) are there in 1 milligram of glucose? (A) 180.16. (B) 5.55. (C) 78.25. (D) 5.55x10-6. (E) 1.80x106. (F) 3.00. (G) 7.82x10-3. (H) 3,000. (I) 1. (J) none. 25-[04z]. How many grams are 2 moles of carbon dioxide? (A) 12. (B) 44. (C) 24. (D) 88. (E) 32. 26-[04z]. How many moles of iron are there in 1 milligram of iron? (A) 180.16. (B) 1.79 x 10-5. (C) 0.0007825. (D) 5.55x10-6. (E) 0.005585. 27-[04z]. How many molecules of glucose are there in 5 grams of glucose? (A) 5.00 x 1023. (B) 1.80 x 1023. (C) 1.67 x 1022. (D) 5.67 x 1024. (E) 3.24 x 1025. 28-[04z]. In the reaction of H2SO4 + NaOH sodium sulfate + water, how many molecules of water are produced from one molecule of sulfuric acid? (A) zero. (B) one. (C) two. (C) three. (D) four. 29-[04z]. In the oxidation of carbon monoxide, CO + O2 CO2, how much carbon dioxide (in grams) is produced from 47 grams of O2? (A) 366. (B) 129. (C) 183. (D) 4400. (E) 74. 30-[04z]. In the oxidation of carbon monoxide, CO + O2 CO2, how much carbon dioxide (in grams) is produced from 47 grams of CO? (A) 366. (B) 129. (C) 183. (D) 4400. (E) 74. 31-[04z]. How many grams is 4.25 x 1020 molecules of H2O? (A) 4.25 x 1020. (B) 142. (C) 1420. (D) 0.0127. (E) 0.127. 32-[04z]. 0.600 Mole of a substance weighs 62.5 grams. How many moles of it are there in 100 grams? (A) 0.600. (B) 0.104. (C) 0.0096. (D) 0.96. (E) 1.04. 33-[04z]. What is the coefficient in front of BF3 when the following equation is balanced? BF3 + NaBH4 NaBF4 + B2H6 . (A) 1. (B) 2. (C) 3. (D) 4. (5). 34-[04z]. The law of conservation of mass states: (A) the total mass of reactants is the same as the total mass of products in a chemical reaction. (B) the mass of a reaction is preserved only in a combustion reaction. (C) the total mass of reactants is the same as the total mass of products in a chemical reaction only if gases are not involved. (D) the total number of moles of reactants equals the total number of moles of products in a chemical reaction. (E) molecules are never destroyed or changed during a chemical reaction. 35-[04z]. A balanced chemical reaction shows: (A) equal numbers of total molecules on each side of the equation. (B) equal numbers of kinds of molecules on each side of the equation. (C) equal numbers of atoms of each element on each side of the equation. (D) equal numbers of kinds of compounds on each side of the equation. (E) equal numbers of kinds of states of matter on each side of the equation. 38-[04z]. What is the molar mass of cholesterol if 0.00105 mole weighs 0.406 gram? (A) 406. (B) 387. (C) 250. (D) 145. (E) 105. (F) 86. 39-[04z]. How many moles of chloride ions are in 0.075 g of aluminum chloride (AlCl3)? (A) 0.00056. (B) 0.0011. (C) 1.7 x 10-3. (D) 4.8 x 10-2. (E) 0.67. (F) 1.6. 40-[04z]. What is the mass, in grams, of 2.50 x 10-3 mole of aluminum sulfate, Al2(SO4)3? (A) 7.5 x 10-2. (B) 0.178. (C) 0.856. (D) 2.56. (E) 7.67. (F) 10.67. 41-[04z]. Automotive air bags inflate when sodium azide, NaN3, vigorously decomposes to its component elements 2NaN3 2Na + 3N2. How many moles of N2 are produced by the decomposition of 2.50 mole of NaN3? (A) 1.00. (B) 1.75. (C) 2.50. (D) 3.75. (E) 4.85. (F) 6.77. 42-[04z]. Automotive air bags inflate when sodium azide, NaN3, vigorously decomposes to its component elements 2NaN3 2Na + 3N2. How many grams of NaN3 are required to form 6.00 g of nitrogen gas? (A) 1.28. (B) 2.45. (C) 3.75. (D) 4.58. (E) 7.33. (F) 9.28. (G) 12.4. 43-[04z]. Automotive air bags inflate when sodium azide, NaN3, vigorously decomposes to its component elements 2NaN3 2Na + 3N2. How many grams of NaN3 are required to produce 10.0 ft3 (280 L) of nitrogen gas if the gas has a density of 1.27 g/L? (A) 50. (B) 100. (C) 250. (D) 350. (E) 450. (F) 550. 44-[04z]. The combustion of octane, C8H18, proceeds 2C8H18 + 25O2 16CO2 + 18H2O. How many moles of O2 are needed to burn 0.750 mole of C8H18? (A) 5.67. (B) 9.38. (C) 12.4. (D) 17.8 (E) 23.5. (F) 32.9. 45-[04z]. The combustion of octane, C8H18, proceeds 2C8H18 + 25O2 16CO2 + 18H2O. How many grams of O2 are needed to burn 5.00 grams of C8H18? (A) 1.75. (B) 3.75. (C) 6.75. (D) 10.7. (E) 17.5. (F) 25.0. 46-[04z]. Washing soda is Na2CO3xH2O. When a 2.558 g sample of washing soda is heated at 125C, all the water of hydration is lost, leaving 0.948 g of Na2CO3. What is the formula of washing soda? (A) Na2CO3H2O. (B) Na2CO32H2O. (C) Na2CO34H2O. (D) Na2CO36H2O. (E) Na2CO38H2O. (F) Na2CO310H2O. ****************************************************************************** CHAPTER 5 - Chemical Reactions 01-[05z]. A silver nitrate (AgNO3) solution reacts with a sodium chloride solution (NaCl) to form a white precipitate. What is the white precipitate? (A) AgNO3. (B) AgCl. (C) Ag2O. (D) NaNO3. (E) NaCl. (F) Ag(OH)2. (G) Ag. 02-[05z]. Give the two products of the acid-base reaction between carbonic acid and sodium hydroxide. (A) H2O and Na2CO3. (B) NaHCO3 and NaOH. (C) NaCl and H2O. (D) H2O and H2CO3. (E) Na2O and H2O. (F) H2O and NaOH. 03-[05z]. In the following reaction, what is oxidized? Mg + HCl MgCl2 + H2. (A) Mg. (B) HCl. (C) MgCl2. (D) H2. 04-[05z]. In the following reaction, what is reduced? Mg + HCl MgCl 2 + H2. (A) Mg. (B) HCl. (C) MgCl2. (D) H2. 05-[05z]. In the following reaction, what is the oxidizing agent? Mg + HCl MgCl2 + H2 . (A) Mg. (B) HCl. (C) MgCl2. (D) H2. 06-[05z]. In the following reaction, what is the reducing agent? Mg + HCl MgCl2 + H2 . (A) Mg. (B) HCl. (C) MgCl2. (D) H2. 07-[05z]. Calculate the molarity of dissolving 26.7 g of Na 2SO4 in 400 mL of solution. (A) 2.67. (B) 0.470. (C) 0.165. (D) 2.13. (E) 4.00. (F) 0.25. (G) 0.188. 08-[05z]. If you dilute 250 mL of a 0.300 M solution of glucose, to a final volume of 1.00 L, the resulting molarity will be: (A) 0.100. (B) 0.075. (C) 0.15. (D) 1.20. (E) 0.150. (F) 0.600. 09-[05z]. Which is not an acid? (A) citric acid. (B) HClO4. (C) hydrogen chloride. (D) acetic acid. (E) HF. (F) SiO2. 10-[05z]. Calculate the number of grams of solute in 0.250 L of 0.150 M KBr. (A) 4.46. (B) 17.85. (C) 2.68. (D) 1.11. (E) 0.568. (F) 8.92. (G) 29.75. 11-[05z]. What is the oxidation number of phosphorus in P4? (A) +4. (B) -4. (C) zero. (D) +2. (E) -2. 12-[05z]. What is the oxidation number of chlorine in HClO? (A) +7. (B) +5. (C) +3. (D) +1. (E) -1. (F) -3. 13-[05z]. What is the oxidation number of oxygen in water? (A) zero. (B) +1. (C) +2. (D) +3. (E) -1. (F) -2. (G) -3. 14-[05z]. What is the oxidation number of chromium in CrO4-2 ? (A) +1. (B) +2. (C) +3. (D) +4. (E) +5. (F) +6. (G) +7. (H) +8. 15-[05z]. Which is a base? (A) HCl. (B) H3PO4. (C) Ba(OH)2. (D) CH4. (E) MgCl2. (F) H2O2. 17-[05z]. What is the molarity of 20.0 g of NaCl in 100 mL of solution? (A) 3.42. (B) 0.342. (C) 0.300. (D) 2.92. (E) 1.25. (F) 2.14. 18-[05z]. What is the oxidation number in chlorine in KClO4? (A) zero. (B) +1. (C) -2. (D) +3. (E) -4. (F) +5. (G) -6. (H) +7. (I) -8. 19-[05z]. What is the oxidation number in manganese in KMnO4? (A) zero. (B) +1. (C) +3. (D) +5. (E) +7. 20-[05z]. What is the oxidation number of Na in NaCl? (A) zero. (B) +1. (C) -1. (D) +2. (E) -2. (F) +3. (G) -3. 21-[05z]. What is the oxidation number of S in Na2S? (A) zero. (B) +1. (C) -1. (D) +2. (E) -2. (F) +3. (G) -3. 22-[05z]. What is the oxidation number of hydrogen in water? (A) -4. (B) -3. (C) -2. (D) -1. (E) 0. (F) +1. (G) +2. (H) +3. (I) +4. 23-[05z]. Calculate the molarity of a solution produced by dissolving 10 g of Epsom salt, MgSO 4, in enough water to form 500 mL of solution. (A) 1.32. (B) 2.64. (C) 0.66. (D) 0.17. (E) 2.1x10 -3. 24-[05z]. If you add the following to water, the water will still not conduct electricity. (A) table salt. (B) table sugar. (C) acetic acid. (D) potassium perchlorate. (E) cupric sulfate. 25-[05z]. What is the etymological origin of the modern chemical symbol Hg of mercury? (A) "Hydro-argentum." (B) "Hydro-gold." (C) "High-gold." (D) "Honey-gold." (E) "Hot-gold." 26-[05z]. Which is an electrolyte? (A) sugar. (B) gasoline. (C) sodium chloride. (D) water. 27-[05z]. Ethyl alcohol can be dissolved: (A) in water, but not in gasoline. (B) in gasoline, but not in water. (C) in both water and in gasoline. 28-[05z]. You make 1.00 liter of sugar solution by adding 18.0 g of glucose to 982 g of water. Now set the solution in the kitchen and let it evaporate. After a week you find the volume is now 500 mL (no sugar is lost, of course, just water is lost). What is this final molarity of glucose? (A) 18.0. (B) 9.0. (C) 5.0. (D) 2.0. (E) 1.00. (F) 0.50. (G) 0.20. (H) 0.11. (I) 0.056. 29-[05z]. Which is a weak electrolyte? (A) sodium chloride. (B) acetic acid. (C) sucrose. (D) sodium sulfate. 30-[05z]. When you mix a solution of sodium iodide with silver nitrate, a yellow precipitate occurs. What is the yellow precipitate? (A) sodium hydroxide. (B) silver hydroxide. (C) sodium nitrate. (D) silver iodide. (E) silver nitrate. (F) sodium-silver alloy. 31-[05z]. React nitric acid with magnesium carbonate. What gas is produced? (A) steam. (B) nitric oxide. (C) carbon dioxide. (D) magnesium hydroxide. (E) Epson gas. (F) magnesium carbide. (G) methane. 32-[05z]. You have a 0.256 M solution of sucrose. Take 120 mL of this solution and allow to concentrate (by standing in the sun for a day) to 83 mL. What is the molarity of the new solution? (A) 0.177. (B) 5.65. (C) 0.370. (D) 2.70. (E) 0.128. (F) 0.0561. 33-[05z]. You have a 0.256 M solution of sucrose. Take 120 mL of this solution and dilute it by adding 120 mL of water to make a total volume of 240 mL. What is the molarity of the new solution? (A) 0.177. (B) 5.65. (C) 0.370. (D) 2.70. (E) 0.128. (F) 0.0561. 34-[05z]. You have a 0.50 M solution of sucrose. Take 10 mL of this solution and add 90 mL of water. What is the molarity of the new solution? (A) 0.25. (B) 0.090. (C) 0.05. (D) 0.009. (E) 0.005. 35-[05z]. The equation M(old) x V(old) = M(new) x V(new) is used in: (A) calculating new molecular masses. (B) calculating new solution concentrations after dilution. (C) calculating new oxidation numbers. (D) calculating which reactions will give precipitates. (E) calculating which compounds are acids. 36-[05z]. Which will have the highest concentration of potassium ion? (A) 0.20 M KCl. (B) 0.15 M K2CrO4. (C) 0.080 M K3PO4. (D) 0.10 K2HPO4. (E) 0.25 M KNO3. 101-[05z]. In KNO2, the oxidation number of nitrogen is: (A) zero. (B) -1. (C) +1. (D) -2. (E) +2. (F) -3. (G) +3. 102-[05z]. The hydroxide of which element is amphoteric? (A) barium. (B) iodine. (C) aluminum. (D) magnesium. (E) chlorine. (F) sodium. (G) calcium. 103-[05z]. The trioxide of which element, when dissolved in water, forms a strong acid? (A) lithium. (B) carbon. (C) nitrogen. (D) sulfur. (E) calcium. (F) neon. 104-[05z]. The oxide of which of these forms a strong base? (A) calcium. (B) aluminum. (C) nitrogen. (D) carbon. (E) iodine. 105-[05z]. Which is false about elemental sodium? (A) gains electrons easily. (B) has a metallic luster. (C) conducts electrons easily. (D) conducts heat easily. (E) after reacted with oxygen gas and then dissolved in water, forms a base. (F) is malleable. (G) is a metal. 106-[05z]. Who first prepared metallic potassium and sodium? (A) Mendeleev. (B) Davy. (C) Lavoisier. (D) Berzelius. (E) Dalton. (F) Bunsen. (G) E. Rutherford. 107-[05z]. Calculate the molarity of a solution produced by dissolving 11.7 g of sodium sulfate, Na 2SO4, in enough water to form 125 mL of solution. (A) 1.32. (B) 2.64. (C) 0.66. (D) 0.17. (E) 2.1x10-3. (F) 23.4. 108-[05z]. If the concentration of vinyl chloride C2H3Cl in the atmosphere is 2.0 x 10-6 g/L, what is the concentration in moles/liter? (A) 2.4 x 10-6. (B) 3.3 x 10-8. (C) 4.8 x 10-10. (D) 1.6 x 10-13. (E) 6.7 x 10-15. 109-[05z]. If the concentration of vinyl chloide C2H3Cl in the atmosphere is 2.0 x 10-6 g/L, what is the concentration in molecules/liter? (A) 2.0 x 1016. (B) 5.4 x 1018. (C) 5.6 x 1019. (D) 7.3 x 1020. (E) 6.2 x 1021. ****************************************************************************** CHAPTER 6 - Energy and Chemical Reactions 01-[06z]. The first law of thermodynamics states that: (A) work = force distance. (B) kinetic energy = mv2. (C) the specific heat of a substance is the heat gained per degree Kelvin divided by the mass of the substance. (D) the total energy in a system is conserved. (E) all spontaneous processes must be exothermic. (F) the H value of all elements is zero. 02-[06z]. Which is not an exothermic process? (A) freezing water. (B) burning wood. (C) rusting iron. (D) metabolism of glucose in the body. (E) photosynthesis. (F) reaction of sodium with water. 03-[06z]. Calculate the heat required to decompose calcium carbonate (limestone, CaCO3) to lime (calcium oxide, CaO) and carbon dioxide (CO2), CaCO3(s) CaO(s) + CO2(g), if the following information is given: Hf = -1206.9 kJ/mol for CaCO3(s) Hf = -635.1 kJ/mol for CaO(s) Hf = -393.5 kJ/mol for CO2(g) Answer in kJ/mol: (A) +2235.5. (B) +965.3. (C) +178.3. (D) +1448.5. (E) -2235.5. (F) -965.3. (G) -178.3. (H) 1448.5. 04-[06z]. When iron reacts with O2 to form Fe2O3 (s), 824 kJ are evolved per mole of oxide formed: 2Fe(s) + 3/2 O2(g) Fe2O3(s). How many kJ of heat energy are evolved when 27.9 g of Fe react with O2 to form Fe2O3? (A) 206. (B) 103. (C) 53.0. (D) 55.8. (E) 111.6. (F) 223.2. 05-[06z]. Using the following Hf values, CO2(g) = -393.5; H2O(l) = -285.8; O2(g) = 0; CH4(g) = -74.81; the following reaction, CO2(g) + H2O(l) O2(g) + CH4(g) is: (A) exothermic. (B) endothermic. (C) neither. 06-[06z]. What is the heat of combustion of benzene (C6H6), that is, the H for the following reaction, C6H6(l) + 15/2 O2(g) 6CO2(g) + 3 H2O (l) knowing the following information: 6 C(graphite) + 3 H2(g) C6H6(l) H = +49.0 kJ C(graphite) + O2(g) CO2(g) H = -393.5 kJ H2(g) + O2(g) H2O(l) H = -285.8 kJ (A) -630. (B) -728. (C) -2598. (D) -2361. (E) -3267. (F) -3169. (G) -2696. 07-[06z]. The enthalpy of vaporation of ethanol is: (A) positive. (B) negative. (C) 0. 08-[06z]. Using the following Hf values, CO2(g) = -393.5; H2O(l) = -285.8; O2(g) = 0; CH4(g) = -74.81; for the following reaction, CO2(g) + H2O(l) O2(g) + CH4(g), calculate the enthalpy of reaction. (A) +445.1. (B) +222.5. (C) +1000. (D) +890.3. (E) -445.1. (F) -222.5. (G) -1000. (F) -890.3. 09-[06z]. Which has a standard enthalpy of formation = 0? (A) hydrogen chloride. (B) graphite. (C) water. (D) ice. (E) calcium carbonate. 10-[06z]. You get the same value of H when you calculate for the process H2O(s) H2O(l), as you do when you calculate of H for the process H2O(s) H2O(g) H2O(l). This is a consequence of which law: (A) law of conservation of heat. (B) first law of thermodynamics. (C) Hess' law. (D) Bohr's law. (E) Graham's law. (F) photoelectric law. (G) Hund's law. 11-[06z]. Which process is endothermic? (A) freezing water. (B) burning wood. (C) rusting iron. (D) metabolism of glucose in the body. (E) photosynthesis. 12-[06z]. Which process is endothermic? (A) sweat evaporating. (B) respiration. (C) reaction of sodium in water. (D) sulfuric acid reacting with sodium hydroxide. (E) hydrogen reacting with oxygen. 13-[06z] Calculate H for the reaction CH4(g) + F2(g) CF4(g) + HF(g), using the Hf values CH4(g) = -74.8; CF4(g) = -679.9; HF(g) = -268.6. (all values in kJ. Be sure to balance). (A) -3456. (B) -1245. (C) -1680. (D) -2920. (E) -23. 14-[06z]. The H for photosynthesis is: (A) equal in value but opposite in sign to the combustion of cellulose. (B) equal both in value and sign to the combustion of gasoline. (C) equal in value but opposite in sign to the conversion of diamond to graphite. (D) equal both in value and sign to the conversion of gaseous carbon dioxide to solid carbon dioxide. 15-[06z]. Compare the combustion of diamond and graphite (burning in oxygen). Which produces more heat? (A) diamond. (B) graphite. (C) both are the same. 16-[06z]. How much heat is evolved when 1 g of diamond is burned in oxygen to give carbon dioxide, compared to when 1 g of graphite is burned in oxygen to give carbon dioxide? Answer: the combustion of diamond gives: (A) 32 kJ more. (B) 32 kJ less. (C) 160 J more. (D) 160 J less. (E) 1.90 kJ more. (F) 1.90 kJ less. (G) 393 J more. (H) 395 J less [CAUTION: sometimes "J" is used in the answer, sometimes "kJ"]. 17-[06z]. Evaporation of sweat is a(n): (A) exothermic process. (B) endothermic process. (C) nonspontaneous chemical process. (D) combustion process. 18-[06z]. Which food has the most fuel value? (A) fat. (B) cellulose. (C) starch. (D) protein. 19-[06z]. Which food has about the same amount of chemical energy (in the body) as gasoline (in a car)? (A) vitamins. (B) carbohydrates. (C) proteins. (D) fats. (E) water. 20-[06z]. The first law of thermodynamics is also known as: (A) Boyle's law. (B) Hess' law. (C) law of conservation of energy. (D) Planck's law. (E) Heisenberg 's uncertainty principle. 21-[06z]. Which is an endothermic process? (A) the melting of ice. (B) the reaction of HCl(g) with Zn(s) to form H2(g) and ZnCl2( s). (C) gaseous HCl dissolving in water. (D) charcoal burning in the atmosphere. (E) FeS2(s) + O2(g) Fe(s) + SO2(g). (F) atmospheric moisture (dissolved in the gaseous atmosphere) condensing to dew (water collecting on the grass). 22-[06z]. The first law of thermodynamics states that: (A) energy is conserved during a chemical reaction. (B) mass remains unchanged during a chemical reaction. (C) every chemical reaction must be exothermic. (D) endothermic processes are only seen in physical processes. (E) the enthalpy of a chemical reaction is measured for a variable pressure. 23-[06z]. Oxidations are usually: (A) exothermic. (B) endothermic. (C) neither exothermic nor endothermic. (D) impossible in the presence of oxygen. (E) involving a positive enthalpy. 24-[06z]. When the enthalpy is negative in an aqueous chemical reaction, (A) the aqueous solution cools down. (B) the H is positive. (C) the aqueous reaction spontaneously heats up. (D) the water freezes. (E) the water electrolyzes into hydrogen and oxygen. 25-[06z]. As ethyl alcohol (C2H5OH) evaporates, the process is: (A) exothermic. (B) endothermic. (C) either exothermic or endothermic, depending on the temperature. 26-[06z]. How much energy in kJ is produced when 30.0 grams of liquid hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) decomposes to liquid water? (A) 98.0. (B) 105.7. (C) 86.4. (D) 93.2. (E) 153. (F) 176. (G) 100. 27-[06z]. For evaporating water, H is: (A) negative. (B) positive. (C) zero. 28-[06z]. What is the H (in kJ) for converting 18 grams of liquid water to water vapor? (A) +44. (B) +188. (C) +286. (D) +89. (E) +4.0. 29-[06z]. The fermentation of glucose, C6H12O6 , produces ethyl alcohol C2H5OH and CO2 according to the equation C6H12O6(s) 2C2H5OH(l) + 2CO2(g) How much heat (in kJ) is given off as this 1.0 gram of carbon dioxide is produced? (A) 41.2. (B) 19.4. (C) 9.7. (D) 2.3. (E) 1.0. (F) 0.79. (G) 0.39. (H) 0.080. 30-[06z]. The fermentation of glucose, C6H12O6 , produces ethyl alcohol C2H5OH and CO2 according to the equation C6H12O6(s) 2C2H5OH(l) + 2CO2(g) . The reaction is: (A) exothermic. (B) endothermic. (C) both exothermic and endothermic, depending upon the room temperature. 31-[06z]. Calculate H (in kJ) for the reaction 2C(s) + H2(g) C2H2(g), given the following reactions and their respective enthalphy changes: C2H2(g) + 5/2 O2(g) 2CO2(g) + H2O(l) H = -1299.6 kJ C(s) + O2(g) CO2(g) H = -393.5 kJ 2H2(g) + O2(g) 2H2O(l) H = -571.6 kJ (A) -2264.7. (B) +226.8. (C) -59. (D) -334.5. (E) +334.5. (F) +512.9. (G) +1477.7. (H) -624.1. 32-[06z]. Calculate H (in kJ) , invoking Hess' law, for the process C2H6(g) C2H4(g) + H2(g), given the following information 2 C2H6(g) + 7 O2(g) 4 CO2(g) + 6 H2O(l) H = -3119.4 kJ C2H4(g) + 3 O2(g) 2 CO2(g) + 2 H2O(l) H = -1410.9 kJ H2(g) + O2(g) H2O(l) H = -285.8 kJ Answers: (A) +137. (B) +583. (C) -267. (D) -198. (E) -436. 33-[06z]. Calculate the H for the hydrogenation of ethylene (C2H4) to ethane (C2H6) (in kJ/mol), C2H4(g) + H2(g) C2H6(g) given the following information.. 2 C2H6(g) + 7 O2(g) 4 CO2(g) + 6 H2O(l) H = -3119.4 kJ C2H4(g) + 3 O2(g) 2 CO2 (g) + 2 H2O(l) H = -1410.9 kJ H2(g) + O2(g) H2O(l) H = -285.8 kJ Answers: (A) -226.7. (B) -52.30. (C) -84.68. (D) -174.4. (E) -32.4. (F) -311.4. (G) -279.0. (H) -137.0. 34-[06z]. How much heat (kJ) is necessary to evaporate 1.00 g of ethyl alcohol? (A) 278. (B) 168. (C) 42.6. (D) 6.02. (E) 2.19. (F) 0.92. (G) 0.18. (H) 0.033. 35-[06z]. Calculate the H for the combustion of 1.00 mole of glucose(C6 H12O6), in kJ (assume water in the liquid phase). (A) -2803. (B) +2803. (C) -1456. (D) +1456. (E) -1967. (F) +1967. 36-[06z]. Which process is exothermic? (A) water boiling. (B) water freezing. (C) ice melting. (D) water evaporating. (E) sugar dissolving in water. 37-[06z]. Calculate the heat (kJ) necessary to evaporate 18 grams of water. (For this problem, ignore the algebraic sign). (A) 44.0. (B) 527.6. (C) 285.8. (D) 241.8. (E) 0. 38-[06z]. Calculate the standard enthalpy of formation (kJ) of solid Mg(OH) 2, given the following data: 2H2(g) + O2(g) 2H2O(l) H = -571.7 kJ 2Mg(s) + O2(g) 2MgO(s) H = -1203.6 kJ Mg(OH)2(s) MgO(s) + H2O(l) H = +37.1 kJ Answers: (A) -924.8. (B) -1812.4. (C) -1738.2. (D) -999.0. (E) -1135.4. (F) -669.0. (G) -743.2. 39-[06z]. Calculate the H (kJ) for the reduction of 100 g of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide (react carbon dioxide with elemental hydrogen to give carbon monoxide and water; all reactants and products in the gas phase). (A) +93.6. (B) -93.6. (C) +41.2. (D) -41.2. (E) +64.4. (F) -64.4. (G) +25.1. (H) -25.1. 40-[06z]. If H for the reaction CO2(g) + 2H2O(l) CH4(g) + 2O2(g) is +890 kJ, what is H for the reaction CH4 (g) + O2(g) CO2(g) + H2O(l)? Answers: (A) +1780. (B) -1780. (C) -890. (D) +445. (E) -445. (F) +29.8. (G) -29.8. 41-[06z]. Given the following data, 2 SO2(g) + O2(g) 2 SO3(g) H = -196.7 kJ SO3(g) + H2O(l) H2SO4(l) H = -130.1 kJ what is the enthalpy (in kJ) for the reaction of 2 SO2(g) + O2(g) + 2 H2O(g) 2 H2SO4(g)? Answers: (A) 66.6. (B) 326.8. (C) -326.8. (D) 456.9. (E) -456.9. (F) -66.6. (G) 0. 42-[06z] Which of the following has a standard enthalpy of formation of 0 kJ/mol at 25 C and standard atmospheric pressure? (A) H2O(l). (B) O2(g). (C) Fe(l) (D) HCl(g). SiO2(s). 43-[06z]. Given the chemical equation S(s) + O2(g ) SO2(g), H = -297 kJ, what is H (in kJ) for 4.00 g of sulfur burning to form sulfur dioxide? (A) -586. (B) -37. (C) -293. (D) -145. (E) -425. 44-[06z]. The definition of a change in enthalpy H is: (A) the heat gained or lost by a system at constant temperature. (B) the heat gained or lost by a system at constant pressure. (C) the work performed by a system during constant volume. (D) the temperature gained by a system divided by the work performed. (E) the change of kinetic energy as a system is cooled to absolute zero. 45-[06z]. The enthalpy of formation Hf of a substance is the enthalpy change for the reaction where: (A) the substance is formed from its constituent elements. (B) the substance is formed by photosynthesis. (C) the substance is formed from common oxides. (D) the substance is formed from naturally occurring compounds. (E) the substance is formed from fossil fuels. 46-[06z]. Does it take more heat to evaporate 1 gram of water, 1 gram of methyl alcohol, 1 gram of ethyl alcohol, or 1 gram of benzene? (A) 1 gram of water. (B) 1 gram of methyl alcohol. (C) 1 gram of ethyl alcohol. (D) 1 gram of benzene. (E) they're all the same. ****************************************************************************** CHAPTER 7 - Electronic Configurations and the Periodic Table 01-[07z]. What element would have two 2s electrons and three 2p electrons? (A) hydrogen. (B) helium. (C) carbon. (D) nitrogen. (E) boron. (F) neon. 02-[07z]. Which atom is spherical in shape? (A) nitrogen. (B) hydrogen. (C) uranium. (D) neon. (E) iron. 03-[07z]. What would include a configuration of 1s22s22p63s23p64s03d10? (A) Zn+2. (B) Fe. (C) Br -1. (D) K+1. (E) Kr. (F) As-3. 04-[07z]. Green light has a wavelength of 500 nm. What is the frequency in Hz? (A) 5.00 108. (B) 6.00 1014. (C) 0.200. (D) 1.67 1010. (E) 500. (G) 1.67 108. (H) 6.00 10-4. 05-[07z]. What is the total energy, in joules, of a mole of photons of green light (500 nm)? (A) 2.39 105. (B) 6.02 1023. (C) 5.67 1010. (D) 1.07 1020. (E) 1.07 10-17. (F) 3.56 10-7. (G) 7.88 1019. 06-[07z]. What is the wavelength, approximately, of KRLD radio station, which broadcasts at 1080 kilohertz? (A) the distance from Denton to Dallas. (B) a millimeter. (C) the distance from the Willis library to the Union, about two city blocks. (D) the diameter of an atom. (E) the size of a bacterium (F) the distance from the earth to the sun. 07-[07z]. Which, of the following list, has the shortest wavelength? (A) blue light. (B) X-rays. (C) radio waves. (D) ultraviolet light. (E) infrared light. 08-[07z]. Which, of the following list, has the greatest velocity? (A) green light. (B) red light. (C) X-rays. (D) infrared light. (E) they're all the same. 09-[07z]. The wavelength of ultraviolet light is about: (A) 200 m. (B) 2 m. (C) 0.2 m. (D) 200 m. (E) 2 nm. (F) 2 km. (G) 2 10 -3 m. 10-[07z]. Which light has the greatest energy? (A) a photon falling from n = 4 to n = 1. (B) a photon falling from n = 2 to n = 1. (C) a photon falling from the nucleus to n = 1. 11-[07z]. How many electrons can one orbital contain? (A) none. (B) one. (C) two. (D) eight. (E) infinite number. 12-[07z]. As one moves from tellurium to iodine, an electron has been placed in the: (A) s subshell. (B) p subshell. (C) d subshell. (D) f subshell. 13-[07z]. Which element has the configuration? 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d2 ? (A) calcium. (B) vanadium. (C) titanium. (D) zirconium. (E) argon. (F) praseodymium. (G) helium. 14-[07z]. With which element was helium confused when it was first observed in the sun? (A) calcium. (B) lithium. (C) rubidium. (D) francium. (E) sodium. (F) cesium. (G) bromine. 15-[07z]. A monochromatic, coherent source of light is a: (A) volcano. (B) magnesium fire. (C) light-emitting diode. (D) laser. (E) Bunsen burner. (F) spectroscope. (G) star. 16-[07z]. Which one of these has have a noble-gas configuration? (A) Mn+3. (B) Cl+1. (C) B. (D) the P atom in PCl5. (E) Br-1. 17-[07z]. What is the frequency of blue light (in Hz) whose wavelength is 430 nm? (A) 6.97 x 1014. (B) 2.45 x 1010. (C) 7.36 x 108. (D) 9.29 x 105. 18-[07z]. The wavelength of X-rays are about the size of: (A) atoms. (B) bacteria. (C) protons. (D) fingernails. 19-[07z]. What does not have d electrons? (A) gadolinium. (B) potassium. (C) iron. (D) barium. (E) bromine. 20-[07z]. Which orbital is shaped as a sphere? (A) s. (B) p. (C) d. (D) f. 21-[07z]. What are the quantum numbers of the last electron added to calcium? (A) n = 0, l = 0, m = 0, s = +. (B) n = 3, l = 1, m = 1, s = +. (C) n = 4, l = 0, m = 0, s = +. (D) n = 4, l = 1, m = -1, s = +. 22-[07z]. Which element glows red in a flame? (A) indium. (B) barium. (C) potassium. (D) strontium. (E) sodium. 23-[07z]. Which element glows green in a flame? (A) indium. (B) barium. (C) potassium. (D) strontium. (E) sodium. 24-[07z]. Which element glows yellow in a flame? (A) indium. (B) barium. (C) potassium. (D) strontium. (E) sodium. 25-[07z]. Which element glows purple in a flame? (A) indium. (B) barium. (C) potassium. (D) strontium. (E) sodium. 26-[07z]. Who invented the phrase "atomic number"? (A) Rutherford. (B) Mendeleev. (C) Meyer. (D) Dalton. (E) Moseley. (F) Berzelius. (G) Democritus. 27-[07z]. What has f electrons? (A) erbium. (B) potassium. (C) hydrogen. (D) barium. (E) bromine. 28-[07z]. If the quantum number m = 3, then the orbital: (A) must be s. (B) may be s. (C) cannot be s. 29-[07z]. Which is impossible? (A) (A) n = 1, l = 0, m = 0, s = -. (B) n = 3, l = 1, m = -1, s = -. (C) n = 5, l = 3, m = +3, s = +. (D) n = 2, l = 2, m = 0, s = +. (E) n = 6, l = 0, m = 0, s = +. 30-[07z]. The spectra of two different gaseous elements at room temperature and 1 atmosphere pressure: (A) may or may not be different. (B) must be different. (C) must be the same. (D) must be the same color. (E) must be continuous spectra. 31-[07z]. As an electron in an atom falls from an orbital with n = 4 to an orbital with n = 1, (A) energy is absorbed by the hydrogen atom. (B) a continuous spectra is emitted. (C) a photon is emitted by the atom. (D) the electron falls to an orbital with m = +1. (E) the spin of the electron changes to zero. 32-[07z]. What are the quantum numbers of the last electron added to sodium? (A) n = 0, l = 0, m = 0, s = -. (B) n = 3, l = 1, m = 1, s = -. (C) n = 3, l = 0, m = 0, s = -. (D) n = 3, l = 1, m = -1, s = -. (E) n = 3, l = 2, m = +1, s = -. (F) n = 5, l = 2, m = -2, s = -. 33-[07z]. The wavelength of infrared light is about how long? (A) micrometer. (B) nanometer. (C) meter. (D) 10-4 meter. (E) kilometer. 34-[07z]. Calculate the wavelength of light whose frequency is 4.69x1014 Hz. (A) 4.69 meters. (B) 640 nanometers. (C) 14.1 millimeters. (D) 6.40x10 -3 meter. (E) 1.56x10-9 meter. (F) 14100 meters. 35-[07z]. A photon is: (A) a negatively charged particle. (B) a quantum of light. (C) a wavelength of an alpha particle. (D) a wave of a positron. (E) a positively charged particle. 36-[07z]. What is the wavelength of radiation that has photons of energy 5.44x10 -18 J? (A) 36.5 nm. (B) 740 km. (C) 460 nm. (D) 220 m. (E) 14.2 mm: (F) 89.2 m. 37-[07z]. 56 Megahertz is: (A) 5.6x105 Hz. (B) 0.056 kilohertz. (C) 56 thousand Hz. (D) 56X10-6 millihertz. (E) 56,000,000 Hz. (F) 5.6x109 microhertz. 38-[07z]. Who invented spectroscopical analysis of the elements? (A) Mendeleev. (B) Davy. (C) Lavoisier. (D) Berzelius. (E) Dalton. (F) Bunsen. (G) E. Rutherford. 39-[07z]. WGAT-FM broadcasts at 366 MHz. What is its wavelength? (A) 366 m. (B) 2460 m. (C) 737 nm. (D) 253 km. (E) 820 mm. 40-[07z]. Which element has 2 electrons in its 3p subshell? (A) carbon. (B) boron. (C) silicon. (D) chlorine. (E) hydrogen. (F) magnesium. (G) beryllium. 41-[07z]. The electronic configuration 1s22s22p6 3s23p6 is not correct for: (A) Ar. (B) Cl-1. (C) K+1. (D) Cl. (E) S-2. 42-[07z]. Which is impossible for the quantum numbers for a particular orbital? (A) n = 1, l = 1, m = 1;. s = +; (B) n = 3, l = 1, m = 1; s = -; (C) n = 4, l = 0, m = 0; s = +; (D) n = 5, l = 2, m = -2; s = -; (E) n = 1, l = 0, m = 0; s = +. 43-[07z]. If electromagnetic radiation has a wavelength the size of an atom, then it would be: (A) red light. (B) blue light. (C) infrared. (D) ultraviolet. (E) X-rays. (F) radio waves. 44-[07z]. Energy is emitted when an electronic transition occurs: (A) from n = 2 to 4. (B) from an s orbital of radius 2.12 to radius 8.48 . (C) from an s orbital to an f orbital in the same shell. (D) from an orbital in the valence shell to an unoccupied orbital in an inner shell. (E) in an H+1 ion. 45-[07z]. What has the electronic configuration 1s22s2? (A) hydrogen atom. (B) hydrogen ion. (C) helium. (D) helium ion. (E) lithium. (F) lithium ion. (G) beryllium. (H) beryllium ion. 46-[07z]. Which element has 5 electrons in its 3d subshell? (A) carbon. (B) boron. (C) silicon. (D) chlorine. (E) hydrogen. (F) manganese. (G) iron. 47-[07z]. WBAP broadcasts at 820 kHz. What is its wavelength? (A) 366 m. (B) 2460 m. (C) 737 nm. (D) 253 km. (E) 505 mm. 48-[07z]. Which has the electronic configuration of 1s22s22p63s23p6? (A) Ar+1. (B) Ne. (C) Na+1. (D) Cl-1. (E) Kr. 49-[07z]. Which is formed by removing an electron from an s orbital, and the simultaneous transfer of the remaining s electron of that orbital to a d orbital? (A) H+1. (B) Ag+1. (C) Fe+3. (D) As-3. (E) Zn+2. (F) Ti+4. 50-[07z]. The reason Fe+3 is so stable is because: (A) the ion's electronic configuration 1s22s22p63s23p64s03d5 is symmetrical. (B) the ion's electronic configuration 1s22s22p63s2 3p64s23d3 has the minimum number of electrons in d orbitals. (C) the ion is spherical. (D) the ion has attained an inert gas configuration. (E) the ion possesses a "magic number" of 23 electrons. (F) the color of Fe +3 is low-energy red. 51-[96]. The ions of atomic number 21-30 are formed by initial loss of electrons from which orbital? (A) 3d. (B) 4s. (C) 3p. (D) 4p. 52-[07z]. 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d105p66s24f145d106p3 is the electronic configuration for: (A) mercury. (B) gadolinium. (C) bismuth. (D) antimony. (E) lead. (F) gold. 53-[07z]. When do two elements have identical emission spectra? (A) when they are heated. (B) when they are ionized. (C) never. (D) when they are in cationic form. (E) when they are observed in the sun. (F) when they are placed in a oxyacetylene torch flame. (G) when they are cooled to absolute zero. 54-[07z]. Those elements in which a d subshell is being filled are called the: (A) representative elements. (B) main-group elements. (C) transition elements. (D) lanthanide elements. (E) actinide elements. 55-[07z]. Which of the following is not a main-group element? (A) argon. (B) potassium. (C) titanium. (D) chlorine. (E) lead. (F) barium. 56-[07z]. Hund's rule states that: (A) no two electrons in an atom can have the same values for n, l, m (or ml), and s (or ms). (B) the lowest state of an electron configuration is attained by maximizing the number of electrons with the same electron spin. (C) there is a limit to the certainty of determining the position and momentum simultaneously of an electron. (D) orbitals within the same subshell are degenerate. (E) the emission spectrum of an element is a line spectrum. 101-[07z]. What atom is the largest? (A) sodium. (B) silicon. (C) fluorine. 102-[07z]. What atom is the largest? (A) iodine. (B) lithium. (C) sulfur. 103-[07z]. Which element loses an electron the most easily? (A) sodium. (B) rubidium. (C) sulfur. (D) tellurium. 104-[07z]. Which element gains an electron the most easily? (A) sodium. (B) rubidium. (C) sulfur. (D) tellurium. 105-[07z]. Which would conduct electricity the most readily? (A) sulfur; (B) germanium; (C) silver; (D) neon; (E) selenium; (F) silicon. 106-[07z]. Which element was predicted by Mendeleev? (A) silicon. (B) germanium. (C) iodine. (D) fluorine. (E) cesium. (F) arsenic. (G) aluminum. (H) strontium. 107-[07z]. Which element was discovered by Bunsen? (A) silicon. (B) germanium. (C) iodine. (D) fluorine. (E) cesium. (F) arsenic. (G) aluminum. (H) strontium. 108-[07z]. Which is an alkali metal? (A) osmium; (B) barium; (C) sodium; (D) gold; (E) aluminum; (F) iodine. 109-[07z]. Who predicted the s, p, d, and f orbitals? (A) Einstein. (B) Schrdinger. (C) Heisenberg. (D) Bohr. (E) Davy. (F) Lavoisier. (G) Mendeleev. (H) Bunsen. 111-[07z]. Which is a semiconductor? (A) germanium. (B) iodine. (C) terbium. (D) barium. (E) hydrogen. 112-[07z]. What is not a property of metallic sodium? (A) malleable. (B) conducts electricity. (C) conducts heat. (D) accepts electrons when reacting with nonmetals. (E) can be cut with a knife. (F) when cut exposes a shiny surface but rapidly oxidizes in the atmosphere to form a layer of white oxide. 113-[07z]. Which is the most electronegative atom in this series? (A) Ca. (B) H. (C) C. (D) O. (E) S. (F) As. 114-[07z]. Which scientist was the most recent? (A) Bohr. (B) Boyle. (C) Bunsen. (D) Curies. (E) Dalton. (F) Davy. (G) Lavoisier. (H) Mendelev. 115-[07z]. Which scientist was the earliest? (A) Bohr. (B) Boyle. (C) Bunsen. (D) Curies. (E) Dalton. (F) Davy. (G) Lavoisier. (H) Mendelev. 116-[07z]. Who first isolated potassium in elemental form? (A) Bohr. (B) Boyle. (C) Bunsen. (D) Curies. (E) Dalton. (F) Davy. (G) Lavoisier. (H) Mendelev. 117-[07z]. Who discovered the Periodic Table? (A) Bohr. (B) Boyle. (C) Bunsen. (D) Curies. (E) Dalton. (F) Davy. (G) Lavoisier. (H) Mendelev. 118-[07z]. Who discovered the spectroscopic analysis of elements? (A) Bohr. (B) Boyle. (C) Bunsen. (D) Curies. (E) Dalton. (F) Davy. (G) Lavoisier. (H) Mendelev. 119-[07z]. Who discovered radium? (A) Bohr. (B) Boyle. (C) Bunsen. (D) Curies. (E) Dalton. (F) Davy. (G) Lavoisier. (H) Mendelev. 120-[07z]. Who first proposed atoms as featureless spheres, differing only in weight? (A) Bohr. (B) Boyle. (C) Bunsen. (D) Curies. (E) Dalton. (F) Davy. (G) Lavoisier. (H) Mendelev. 121-[07z]. Who first proposed that water was a compound, rather than an element? (A) Bohr. (B) Boyle. (C) Bunsen. (D) Curies. (E) Dalton. (F) Davy. (G) Lavoisier. (H) Mendelev. 122-[07z]. What atom is the largest? (A) potassium. (B) germanium. (C) bromine. (D) argon. 123-[07z]. Which element loses an electron the most easily? (A) potassium. (B) lithium. (C) sulfur. (D) iodine. 124-[07z]. Which element is an alkaline earth? (A) osmium; (B) barium; (C) sodium; (D) gold; (E) aluminum; (F) iodine. 125-[07z]. Which element is a halogen? (A) osmium; (B) barium; (C) sodium; (D) gold; (E) aluminum; (F) iodine. 126-[07z]. Mendeleev sorted his periodic table on the basis of: (A) atomic number. (B) atomic weight. (C) ionization energy. (D) ease of extraction from ores. (E) density. (F) chronology (dates) of discovery. (G) melting point. 127-[07z]. Reacting calcium oxide with water gives: (A) a strong base. (B) a strong acid. (C) a neutral salt. (D) limestone. (E) carbon dioxide. (F) an combustible gas. 128-[07z]. The major distinction of osmium and iridium is that they share the honors for being: (A) the most dense element. (B) the most electrically conductive element. (C) the most reactive element. (D) the most important element in semiconductors. (E) the only elements never found in meteorites. 129-[07z]. Which atom is the largest? (A) iodine. (B) rubidium. (C) bromine. (D) strontium. (E) carbon. (F) selenium. 130-[07z]. Which atom or ion is the largest? (A) O-2. (B) F-1. (C) Ne. (D) Na+1. (E) Mg+2. 131-[07z]. Elements known to the ancients include: (A) silver, chlorine, potassium. (B) gold, lead, mercury. (C) calcium, tungsten, cobalt. (D) titanium, platinum, barium. (E) silicon, helium, hydrogen. (F) chromium, lithium, sodium. 132-[07z]. The inert gases include: (A) neon, oxygen, fluorine. (B) krypton, hydrogen, argon. (C) helium, hydrogen, xenon. (D) neon, krypton, argon. (E) fluorine, bromine, chlorine. 133-[07z]. Which element, of the following group, has the greatest electron affinity? (A) iridium. (B) mercury. (C) gold. (D) cesium. (E) lead. (F) iodine. (G) iron. (H) lithium. (I) chlorine. (J) argon. 134-[07z]. Which element, of the following group, has the greatest density? (A) iridium. (B) mercury. (C) gold. (D) cesium. (E) lead. (F) iodine. (G) iron. (H) lithium. (I) chlorine. (J) argon. 135-[07z]. Which element, of the following group, loses an electron the most easily? (A) iridium. (B) mercury. (C) gold. (D) cesium. (E) lead. (F) iodine. (G) iron. (H) lithium. (I) chlorine. (J) argon. 136-[07z]. Which has the greatest electronegativity? (A) hydrogen. (B) rubidium. (C) iodine. (D) calcium. (E) chlorine. (F) beryllium. (G) helium. 137-[07z]. Which has the greatest electronegativity? (A) O. (B) K. (C) Br. (D) He. (E) Ge. 138-[07z]. Which has the greatest electronegativity? (A) Cl. (B) Li. (C) I. (D) Ar. (E) Pt. 139-[07z]. Which has the greatest electronegativity? (A) hydrogen. (B) rubidium. (C) fluorine. (D) calcium. (E) chlorine. (F) beryllium. (G) helium. 140-[07z]. Which ion is the largest? (A) F-1. (B) Na+1. (C) K+1. (D) Br-1. (E) Al+3. (F) I-1. (G) Mg+2. 141-[07z]. Which ion is the smallest? (A) F-1. (B) Na+1. (C) K+1. (D) Br-1. (E) Al+3. (F) I-1. (G) Mg+2. 142-[07z]. Which is a lanthanide element? (A) uranium. (B) sodium. (C) dysprosium. (D) osmium. (E) protactinium. (F) iodine. 143-[07z]. What element, once used in 7-up soft drink, is now used to treat manic-depression? (A) sodium. (B) potassium. (C) iodine. (D) lithium. (E) calcium. (F) strontium. 144-[07z]. What elements have the lowest ionization energies? (A) those elements on the right side of the periodic table. (B) nonmetals. (C) those elements on the left side of the periodic table. (D) halogens. (E) lanthanide elements. 145-[07z]. What elements have the greatest electron affinities? (A) those elements on the right side of the periodic table. (B) metals. (C) those elements on the left side of the periodic table. (D) alkali group. (E) actinide elements. 146-[07z]. What are the expected ions when K2O is dissolved in water? (A) K+1, H+1. (B) K+1, O-2. (C) K+1, OH-1. (D) K+2, H3O+1. (E) no reaction occurs. 147-[07z]. What are the expected compounds when Cl2 is dissolved in water? (A) HCl and HOCl. (B) O3 and HCl. (C) HOCl and OH-1. (D) Cl+1 and OH-1. (E) Cl3+1 and Cl+1. 148-[07z]. What is an allotrope of oxygen (O2)? (A) NOX. (B) ozone. (C) smog. (D) photodissociated nitrogen. (E) nitrate. 149-[07z]. Which is a gas at room temperature? (A) BaO. (B) CaCl2. (C) SnCl2. (D) SiO2. (E) NO. (F) I2. 150-[07z]. Which forms an acidic solution when dissolved in water? (A) BaO. (B) CO. (C) SO2. (D). Na2O. (E) NaCl. 151-[07z]. Which of the following is largest in size? (A) Cl +1. (B) Cl. (C) Cl-1. (D) I+1. (E) I. (F) I-1. 152-[07z]. The property of gold that allows it to be hammered into a thin film is its (A) conductance. (B) color. (C) luster. (D) malleability. (E) ionic character. 153-[07z]. Which element would have the luster of a metal but would be brittle? (A) potassium. (B) tungsten. (C) sulfur. (D) phosphorus. (E) silicon. (F) barium. 154-[07z]. Which is a metalloid? (A) germanium. (B) iodine. (C) cerium. (D) lithium. (E) lead. 155-[07z]. There are four ferromagnetic (strongly magnetic) elements at room temperature. What are they? (A) Na, Fe, Ni, Pb. (B) Fe, Co, Ba, Ge. (C) Ti, Cu, Fe, Zn. (D) Ni, Fe, Co, Gd. (E) Fe, Cr, Cu, V. (F) Ga, As, Fe, Pb. ****************************************************************************** CHAPTER 8 - Covalent Bonding 01-[08z]. Which of the following has covalent bonding? (A) KH. (B) H2CO. (C) FeCl3. (D) CaO. 02-[08z]. How many valence electrons does an oxygen atom have? (A) 2. (B) 6. (C) 8. (D) 16. 03-[08z]. How many nonbonding valence electrons does ammonia have? (A) zero. (B) 1. (C) 2. (D) 6. (E) 8. 04-[08z]. How many nonbonding valence electrons does methane have? (A) zero. (B) 1. (C) 2. (D) 6. (E) 8. 05-[08z]. An atom has the electronic configuration 1s22s22p63s23p3 has how many valence electrons? (A) zero. (B) 2. (C) 4. (D) 5. (E) 6. (F) 7. (G) 8. 06-[08z]. In the Lewis dot structure, how many dots would surround an atom of B (boron)? (A) zero. (B) 1. (C) 2. (D) 3. (E) 4. (F) 5. (G) 6. (H) 7. (I) 8. 07-[08z]. In the Lewis dot structure, how many dots would surround O-2 ? (A) zero. (B) 1. (C) 2. (D) 3. (E) 4. (F) 5. (G) 6. (H) 7. (I) 8. 08- [08z]. Which does not have covalent bonding? (A) CO2. (B) H2O. (C) PCl5. (D) PCl3. (E) CO. (F) Rb2S. 09-[08z]. Which has the longest bond? (A) H-H. (B) C-C. (C) C=C. (D) CC. 10-[08z]. Which bond is the most polar? (A) Cl-Cl. (B) H-Cl. (C) Cl-Br. (D) H-H. 11-[08z]. In benzene, there are: (A) six equal carbon-carbon bonds. (B) twelve equal carbon-carbon bonds. (C) six different carbon-carbon bonds. (E) twelve different carbon-carbon bonds. 12-[08z]. Use bond energies to calculate the enthalpy change (in kJ) in the reaction CH4 + 4 F2 CF4 + 4HF. The following bond energies are given (in kJ): C-H 413; F-F 155; C-F 485; H-F 567; H-H 436; C-C 348; C=C 614. Answers: (A) +484. (B) -484. (C) +1936. (D) -1936. (E) +201. (F) -201. (G) +549. (H) -549. (I) +124. (J) -124. 13-[08z]. Use bond energies to calculate the enthalpy change (in kJ) in the reaction H2C=CH2 + F2 H2FCCFH2. The following bond energies are given (in kJ): C-H 413; F-F 155; C-F 485; H-F 567; H-H 436; C-C 348; C=C 614. Answers: (A) +484. (B) -484. (C) +1936. (D) -1936. (E) +201. (F) -201. (G) +549. (H) -549. (I) +124. (J) -124. 14-[08z]. Use bond energies to calculate the enthalpy change (in kJ) in the reaction H3CCH3 H2C=CH2 + H2. The following bond energies are given (in kJ): C-H 413; F-F 155; C-F 485; H-F 567; H-H 436; C-C 348; C=C 614. Answers: (A) +484. (B) -484. (C) +1936. (D) -1936. (E) +201. (F) -201. (G) +549. (H) -549. (I) +124. (J) -124. 15-[08z]. Why is the value for H-F the largest value of all the single bonds? (A) Because the atoms are close and the electronegativity difference between the atoms is great. (B) Because of hydrogen bonding. (C) Because of resonance. (D) Because of sp3 hybridization. 16-[08z]. Which has the longest bond? (A) H-H. (B) C-C. (C) C=C. (D) CC. (E) Br-Br. (F) C=O. 17-[08z]. Which species does not have an octet of electrons? (A) Br-1. (B) BF3. (C) Ar. (D) water. (E) ammonia. (F) methane. (G) PCl3. 18-[08z]. Which has a complete octet of valence electrons? (A) Be. (B) Cl -1. (C) H+1 . (D) Zn. (E) Al. (F) Mg+1 19-[08z]. The octet rule does not apply to: (A) hydrogen. (B) sodium. (C) carbon. (D) chlorine. (E) argon. 20-[08z]. Which has a triple bond? (A) ethylene. (B) methane. (C) diatomic chlorine. (D) diatomic nitrogen. (E) diatomic oxygen. (F) diatomic hydrogen. (G) xenon. (H) ozone. 21-[08z]. In the Lewis dot structure of carbon dioxide, how many nonbonding valence electrons are there surrounding the carbon atom? (A) zero. (B) 1. (C) 2. (D) 3. (E) 4. (F) 5. (G) 6. (H) 7. (I) 8. 22-[08z]. In the Lewis dot structure of freon (CF4), how many nonbonding valence electrons are there surrounding each fluorine atom? (A) zero. (B) 1. (C) 2. (D) 3. (E) 4. (F) 5. (G) 6. (H) 7. (I) 8. 23-[08z]. Which is the most polar bond? (A) Cl-Cl. (B) Cl-Br. (C) H-Cl. (D) H-H. (E) H-C. 24-[08z]. Which has a triple bond? (A) O2. (B) H2. (C) H2C2. (D) CO2. (E) I2. 25-[08z]. Which of the following has a nonpolar covalent bond? (A) HF. (B) LiF. (C) F 2. (D) Ar. 26-[08z]. Which has the great bond enthalpy? (A) O=O. (B) S=S. (C) O-O. (D) CC. 27-[08z]. For the process H-H 2H , H is: (A) negative. (B) positive. (C) zero. 28-[08z]. How many valence electrons does O-2 have? (A) zero. (B) 2. (C) 6. (D) 8. 29-[08z]. Which bond has the greatest dipole? (A) C-H. (B) C-C. (C) O-H. (D) H-H. 30-[08z]. In the Lewis dot structure for CH2Br2, how many valence electrons surround each hydrogen atom? (A) zero. (B) 1. (C) 2. (D) 3. (E) 4. (F) 5. (G) 6. (H) 7. (I) 8. 31-[08z]. In the Lewis dot structure for SO2, how many double bonds are there? (A) zero. (B) 1. (C) 2. (D) 3. (E) 4. 32-[08z]. Which has the greatest bond enthalpy? (A) C-H. (B) C-I. (C) O-H. (D) I-I. 33-[08z]. Which of the following has a nonpolar covalent bond? (A) SO2. (B) MgF2. (C) O2. (D) Ne. (E) CCl4. 34-[08z]. In the Lewis dot structure of N2, how many nonbonding electrons reside on each nitrogen atom? (A) zero. (B) 1. (C) 2. (D) 3. (E) 4. (F) 5. (G) 6. (H) 7. (I) 8. 35-[08z]. Which has a double bond? (A) CH4. (B) C2H6. (C) C2H4. (D) C2H2. (E) C2Cl6. 36-[08z]. Which has a double bond? (A) Cl2. (B) H2. (C) O2. (D) N2. (E) Br2. 37-[08z]. Which has the shortest bond? (A) C-C. (B) H-H. (C) O-H. (D) Cl-Cl. (E) Br-I. 38-[08z]. Which has the shortest bond? (A) CC. (B) C=C. (C) C-C. (D) I-I. (E) S-Cl. 39-[08z]. Bonding which occurs with the complete transfer of electrons from one element to another is called: (A) covalent. (B) ionic. (C) metallic. (D) resonance. (E) formal. (F) enthalpic. 40-[08z]. In the formation of a compound XY where there is a complete transfer of electrons from X to Y to form complete electron octets about both X and Y could be: (A) ClF. (B) NaK. (C) SO. (D) CO. (E) KBr. (F) HBr. 41-[08z]. Which of the following would have an electron configuration of 1s22s22p6? (A) O. (B) F+1. (C) Cl-1. (D) Na+1. (E) S-2. (F) Kr. 42-[08z]. In which of the following does a bromine atom have a partial negative charge? (A) ClBr. (B) IBr. (C) BrO3-1. (D) Br2. (E) OBr2. (F) Br+1. 43-[08z]. Which of the following has a triple bond? (A) CO. (B) NO3-1. (C) C2H6. (D) CO2. (E) H2SO4. (F) C2H4. (G) C2Cl6. ****************************************************************************** CHAPTER 9 - Molecular Structures 01-[09z]. Which molecule has sp2 hybridization? (A) H-CC-H. (B) H2C=CH2. (C) CH4. (D) H-H. 02-[09z]. Which molecule is not polar? (A) CO2. (B) NH3. (C) H2O. (D) HCF3. (E) HCl. 03-[09z]. How many -bonds are there in H2C=CH2? (A) zero. (B) 1. (C) 2. (D) 2. (E) 3. (F) 4. (G) 5. (H) 6. (I) 7. (J) 8. 04-[09z]. Which is not true about sp3 hybridization in CCl4 ? (A) all bonds are equal length. (B) all bonds are equal strength. (C) the angle between the bonds is 120. (D) all bonds are -bonds. (E) all bonds are polar. 05-[09z] Which molecule has octahedral geometry? (A) water. (B) ice. (C) PCl5. (D) SF6. (E) benzene. (F) BF3. 06-[09z] How many -bonds are there in N2? (A) zero. (B) 1. (C) 2. (D). 3. (E) 4. 07-[09z]. Which molecule is polar? (A) CO2. (B) BF3. (C) CCl4. (D) H2S. (E) F2. 08-[09z]. Which is the main compound in gasoline? (A) C4H10. (B) C8H18. (C) CH4. (D) kerosene. (E) paraffin wax. 09-[09z]. Which molecule is the most polar? (A) CH4 (B) CO2 (C) CF4 (D) I-I (E) CO. 10-[09z]. Which molecule is the most polar? (A) CH4 (B) CO2 (C) CF4 (D) F-F (E) H2O (F) BF3. 11-[09z]. Which molecule is linear? (A) BF3 (B) CS2 (C) SF6 (D) PCl5 (E) H2S. 12-[09z]. Which molecule is the most polar? (A) BF3 (B) H2O (C) H2 (D) H-I (E) Cl-Br. 13-[09z]. Which molecule is trigonal planar? (A) BF3 (B) NH3 (C) CH4 (D) O=O (E) SF6. 14-[09z]. Which molecule is linear? (A) BF3 (B) CO2 (C) UF6 (D) PCl5 (E) H2O. 15-[09z]. Which molecule has a trigonal planar geometry? (A) NH3. (B) H2O. (C) AlCl3. (D) UF6. 16-[09z]. Which molecule is linear? (A) H2O. (B) CO2. (C) CF4. (D) PH3. (E) Cl2S. 17-[09z]. Which molecule has zero net polarity? (A) HF. (B) CF4. (C) NF3. (D) H2O. (E) SF2. 18-[09z]. What molecule has a bent geometry? (A) H2O. (B) CO2. (C) C2H2. (D) N2. (E) H2. 19-[09z]. Which molecule has sp3-hybridization? (A) CH4. (B) H-H. (C) H2C2. (D) N2. (E) H2CCH2. 20-[09z]. Which molecule has sp-hybridization? (A) CH4. (B) H-H. (C) I2. (D) N2. (E) H2O. 21-[09z]. The fact that CF4 is nonpolar proves: (A) the C-F bond is nonpolar. (B) the CF4 molecule is symmetrical. (C) the electronegativy of fluorine and of carbon are the same. (D) the CF4 molecule is sp-hybridized. (E) the CF4 molecule is linear. ****************************************************************************** CHAPTER 10 - Gases and the Atmosphere 01-[10z]. Gas and liquids are similar with regard to which property? (A) they are both compressible. (B) they both have similar densities. (C) they both have similar distances between the molecules. (D) they are both fluids. (E) they both have hydrogen-bonding. 02-[10z]. A fixed quantity of gas at 23 C exhibits a pressure of 500 torr and occupies a volume of 10.3 L. What volume (in L) will the gas occupy if the pressure is increased to 2.0 atm (and keeps the same temperature)? (A) 20.6. (B) 5.15. (C) 3.38. (D) 0.295. (E) 10.3. (F) 41.2. (G) 0.500. 03-[10z]. A 1.0 flask contains Xe at STP, and a 2.0 flask contains Ar at STP. The ratio of the number of molecules of Xe:Ar is: (A) 2.0. (B) 1.0. (C) 0.5. (D) cannot determine. 04-[10z]. Flask X contains 1.0 L of CO2 at 0 C and 1.0 atm pressure. Flask Y contains 2.0 L of N2 at 0 C and 0.5 atm pressure. Which has the larger number of molecules? (A) X > Y. (B) X < Y. (C) X = Y. (D) can't predict. 05-[10z]. Flask X contains 1.0 L of CO2 at 0 C and 1.0 atm pressure. Flask Y contains 2.0 L of N2 at 0 C and 0.5 atm pressure. Which has the greater density? (A) X > Y. (B) X < Y. (C) X = Y. (D) can't predict. 06-[10z]. Flask X contains 1.0 L of CO2 at 0 C and 1.0 atm pressure. Flask Y contains 2.0 L of N2 at 0 C and 0.5 atm pressure. Which has the molecules moving faster? (A) X > Y. (B) X < Y. (C) X = Y. (D) can't predict. 07-[10z]. Flask X contains 1.0 L of CO2 at 0 C and 1.0 atm pressure. Flask Y contains 2.0 L of N2 at 0 C and 0.5 atm pressure. Which molecules have a greater average kinetic energy? (A) X > Y. (B) X < Y. (C) X = Y. (D) can't predict. 08-[10z]. What is the partial pressure of oxygen on top of Mount Everest, where the atmospheric pressure is about 0.25 atm? About: (A) 40 torr. (B) 250 torr. (C) 380 torr. (D) 700 torr. (E) 2000 torr. 09-[10z]. The partial pressure of oxygen in a scuba diver's tank containing ordinary air, at 100 feet below the surface in the ocean (the pressure increases about 1 atm every 33 feet) is about: (A) 10 millitorr. (B) 1 torr. (C) 200 torr. (D) 600 torr. (E) 1000 torr. (F) 3 kilotorr. 10-[10z]. Calculate the density, in g/L, of a 5-L flask containing CO2 at 1 atm and 100 C. (A) 1.43. (B) 0.802. (C) 44.0. (D) 7.20. (E) 3.45. (F) 22.4. 11-[10z]. How many liters does a mole of helium occupy at STP? (A) 22.4. (B) 8.20. (C) 12.3. (D) 1.00. (E) 2.00. (F) 4.00. 12-[10z]. If 1.0 L of hydrogen (200 C, 1 atm) reacts with 1.0 L of oxygen (200 C, 1 atm) to form water, then what will the final total volume (in L) be (200 C, 1 atm)? (A) 0.5. (B) 1.0. (C) 1.5. (D) 2.0. (E) 3.0. 13-[10z]. Equal volumes of different gases at the same pressure and the same temperature will have: (A) the same density. (B) the same mass. (C) the same chemical identity. (D) the same number of molecules. (E) the same molar mass. (F) the same speed of the molecules. 14-[10z]. A fixed quantity of gas at 23 C exhibits a pressure of 740 torr and occupies a volume of 10.3 L. What volume (in L) will the gas occupy if the temperature is increased to 150 C (and keeps the same pressure)? (A) 14.7. (B) 67.2. (C) 5.10. (D) 27.2. (E) 1.20. (F) 0.23. 15-[10z]. Flask X has 1.0 L of SO2 at 1.2 atm pressure and 25C. Flask Y has 2.0 L of SO2 at 1.2 atm pressure and 25 C. Which flask has the greater density? (A) they're both the same. (B) flask X has the greater density. (C) flask Y has the greater density. (D) one cannot predict 16-[10z]. Flask X has 1.0 L of CH4 at 1.0 atm pressure and 25C. Flask Y has 2.0 L of CF4 at 2.0 atm pressure and 25 C. Which flask has the faster moving molecules? (A) they're both the same. (B) flask X has the faster molecules. (C) flask Y has the faster molecules. (D) one cannot predict. 17-[10z]. What factors influence the speed of molecules in a flask of gas? (A) temperature, molecular mass, and pressure. (B) temperature and molecular mass, but not pressure. (C) temperature, but not molecular mass and not pressure. (D) molecular mass and pressure, but not temperature. (E) molecular mass, but not pressure and not temperature. 18-[10z]. A fixed quantity of gas at 23C exhibits a pressure of 748 torr and occupies a volume of 10.3 L. What volume will the gas occupy if the temperature is increases to 145C while the pressure is held constant? (A) 64.9 L. (B) 1.63 L. (C) 7.29 L. (D) 14.5 L. (E) 335 L. (F) 5.15 L. 19-[10z]. A 1.0-L flask containing neon gas and a 1.0-L flask containing CO2 gas are at the same temperature and pressure. What is the ratio of the number of moles of neon:number of moles of carbon dioxide gas? (A) 50:50. (B) 40:60. (C) 45:55. (D) 60:40. (E) 55:45. (F) 32:68. (G) 68:32. 20-[10z]. A 50.0-L flask contains He at 2.00 atm and 298 K. A 1.0-L flask contains N2 at 4.00 atm and 298 K. Which gas is more dense? (A) they are the same. (B) the He is more dense. (C) the N2 is more dense. 21-[10z]. A 8.94 g sample of gas occupies 100 L at 380 torr and 0C. What might the gas be? (A) CO2. (B) UF6. (C) SO3. (D) He. (E) I2. (F) Br2. (G) CH4. (H) N2. 22-[10z]. A 5.0-L flask contains N2O4 gas at 0C and 1.0 atm. A 10.0-L flask contains NO2 gas at 0C and 1.0 atm. Which flask has the greater mass? (A) the N2O4 flask. (B) the NO2 flask. (C) they are both the same. (D) cannot be determined. 23-[10z]. A 1-L flask of carbon dioxide is at 0C and 1.0 atm. A 1-L flask of helium is at 0C and 2.0 atm. The two different gases have the same: (A) speed of the molecules. (B) kinetic energy of the molecules. (C) density. (D) mass. (E) number of molecules. 24-[10z]. What volume (in liters) does a mole of a gas occupy at STP? (A) you can't determine, it depends upon the identity of the gas. (B) 1. (C) 82.0. (D) 22.4. (E) 760. 25-[10z]. The greatest difference between a gas and a liquid is that the gas is typically more: (A) dense. (B) able to form mixtures. (C) compressible. (D) opaque. (E) molecular. 26-[10z]. Boyle's Law states that the volume of a sample of gas increases as: (A) the temperature increases. (B) the pressure increases. (C) the temperature decreases. (D) the pressure decreases. 27-[10z]. The kinetic energy of the molecules of a gas depend principally upon: (A) the temperature of the gas. (B) the pressure of the gas. (C) the van der Wahls forces of the gas. (D) the volume of the gas. (E) the density of the gas. (F) the molecular mass of the molecules. 28-[10z]. What is the volume of a sample of helium gas if 6.28 grams at 0.86 atm and at -12C? (A) 9.76. (B) 7.18 L. (C) 39.0 L. (D) 17.9 L. (E) 4.00 L. (F) 5.40 L. 29-[10z]. A 1.0-L flask contains CO2 at 2.00 atm and 298 K. A 1.0-L flask contains N2 at 1.00 atm and 298 K. Which gas is more dense? (A) they are the same. (B) the CO2 is more dense. (C) the N2 is more dense. (D) cannot be determined. 30-[10z]. A 2.54 g sample of gas occupies 0.875 L at 685 torr and 35C. What might the gas be? (A) CO2. (B) UF6. (C) SO3. (D) He. (E) I2. (F) Br2. (G) CH4. (H) N2. 31-[10z]. A 2.0-L flask contains CO2 at 1.0 atm and 273K. A 5-L flask contains He at 1.0 atm and 273 K. In which flask are the gas molecules moving faster? (A) the CO2 flask. (B) the He flask. (C) they are both the same. (D) cannot be determined. 32-[10z]. A 1.0-L flask contains CO2 at 1.0 atm and 273 K. A second flask, 1.0-L, contains CO2 at 2.0 atm and 273 K. In which flask are the gas molecules moving faster? (A) the first flask. (B) the second flask. (C) they are both the same. (D) cannot be determined. 33-[10z]. A 2.0-L flask contains CO gas at 0C and 1.0 atm. A second flask, also 2.0 L, contains SO 2 gas at 0C and 1.0 atm. Which flask has the greater mass? (A) the CO flask. (B) the SO2 flask. (C) they are both the same. (D) cannot be determined. 34-[10z]. Boyle's law describes the relationship between: (A) P and V. (B) V and T. (C) n and R. (D) T and P. 35-[10z]. "Equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of molecules" is: (A) Boyle's law. (B) Charles' law. (C) The law of constant volumes. (D) Avogadro's law. (E) Mole's law. 36-[10z]. A sample of solid calcium carbonate decomposes upon heating to give solid CaO and gaseous CO 2. The CO2 is collected in a 250-mL flask and has a pressure of 1.3 atm and a temperature of 31C. How many grams of CaCO3 were decomposed? The balanced equation is CaCO3 CaO + CO2. (A) 5.72. (B) 1.30. (C) 0.49. (D) 19.34. (E) 67.32. 37-[10z]. An weather balloon has a volume of 6.0 L at sea level (1.0 atm) and 22C. The balloon is allowed to ascend to 20,000 feet, where the the pressure is 354 torr. The temperature at 20,000 feet is -21C. What is the new volume of the balloon at 20,000 feet? (A) 11 L. (B) 17 L. (C) 35 L. (D) 56 L. (E) 124 L. 38-[10z]. What is the density of carbon tetrachloride vapor (g/L) at 0.940 atm and 125C? (A) 4.43. (B) 35.5. (C) 10.2. (D) 15.3. (E) 21.7. 39-[10z]. If you double the volume of a contained gas, keeping the temperature the same, the pressure will: (A) double. (B) halve. (C) stay the same. (D) quadruple. 40-[10z]. The planet Schmooz has an atmosphere composed of 1.5 mole percent CO2, 18.0 mole percent O2, and 80.5 mole percent Ar. At sea level of Schmooz the pressure is 760 torr, just like on earth. What is the partial pressure of O2? (A) 137 torr. (B) 79 torr. (C) 18 torr. (D) 237 torr. 41-[10z]. How many molecules are there in a 1-liter flask of CO2 at 2 atm and 0C? (A) 2.15x1023. (B) 4.30x1023. (C) 5.38x1022. (D) 2.69x1022. (E) 1.08x1023. 42-[10z]. Take a 1.0-L container of air at 25C. compress it to 0.5-L, while keeping the temperature the same. What has happened to the average speed of the molecules, before and after this operation? (A) they speed up. (B) they slow down. (C) their speed remains the same. 43-[10z]. What has the greatest pressure? (A) 1-L container with 2.0 moles of CO2 at 1 atm. (B) 1-L container of 4.0 moles of CH4 at 2 atm. (C) 1-L container of 2.0 moles of O2 at 1 atm. 44-[10z]. What diffuses most rapidly from a pinhole? (A) H2 at 100C. (B) H2 at 200C. (C) He at 200C. (D) They're all the same. 45-[10z]. Which of the following is a natural outgrowth (that is, could be derived) from the ideal gas equation, PV = nRT? (A) Avogadro's law. (B) Hess's law. (C) Mendeleev's Periodic Table. (D) ionic configurations. (E) phase diagrams. 46-[10z]. How many molecules are there in a 2-liter flask of He at 2 atm and 0C? (A) 2.15x1023. (B) 4.30x1023. (C) 5.38x1022. (D) 2.69x1022. (E) 1.08x1023. 47-[10z]. What is the density of helium (g/L) at 100 torr and 0 C? (A) 4.43. (B) 0.023. (C) 1.02. (D) 15.3. (E) 4 x 10-4. 48-[10z]. A bubble of gas of 1.00 liter released by a Scuba diver on the ocean floor at 100 ft (4.3 atm pressure) rises to the surface of the ocean (sea level, of course) now has a volume of how many liters? (assume no change in temperature): (A) 4.3. (B) 0.23. (C) 3.3. (D) 2.3. (E) 1.3. 49-[10z]. What is the partial pressure of oxygen (in atmospheres) breathed by a Scuba diver at 100 ft? (4.3 atm pressure; assume normal atmospheric composition)? (A) 0.22 (B) 0.86. (C) 2.56. (D) 5.8. (E) 8.6. 50-[10z]. Let the air out of a bicycle tire (inflated to 60 psi) into the atmosphere (15 psi). By adiabatic expansion, the air cools from 30 C to 10C. (thus, the process is: compressed, warm air expanded, cool air). What has happened to the average speed of the molecules, before and after this operation? (A) they speed up. (B) they slow down. (C) their speed remains the same. 51-[10z]. In the oxidation of methane to give carbon dioxide and water, how many liters at STP of carbon dioxide are produced from 0.32 grams of methane? (A) 0.089. (B) 0.45. (C) 1.29. (D) 0.015. (E) 2.4 x 10 -4. 52-[10z]. Consider two closed containers. Container 1 contains 2.0 liters N2 at 2.0 atm pressure and 20 C. Container 2 contains 1.0 liter of CH4 at 4.0 atm pressure and 20 C. Which container contains the greater number of molecules? (A) Container 1. (B) Container 2. (C) They are the same. (D) There is no way to determine. 53-[10z]. Consider two closed containers. Container 1 contains 4.0 liters CO2 at 2.0 atm pressure and 40 C. Container 2 contains 2.0 liters of N2 at 4.0 atm pressure and 40 C. Which container contains the greater number of molecules? (A) Container 1. (B) Container 2. (C) They are the same. (D) There is no way to determine. 54-[10z]. Consider two closed containers. Container 1 contains 2.0 liters N2 at 2.0 atm pressure and 20 C. Container 2 contains 1.0 liter of CH4 at 4.0 atm pressure and 20 C. Which container contains the greater mass? (A) Container 1. (B) Container 2. (C) They are the same. (D) There is no way to determine. 55-[10z]. Consider two closed containers. Container 1 contains 4.0 liters CO2 at 2.0 atm pressure and 40 C. Container 2 contains 2.0 liters of N2 at 4.0 atm pressure and 40 C. Which container contains the greater mass? (A) Container 1. (B) Container 2. (C) They are the same. (D) There is no way to determine. 56-[10z]. Consider two closed containers. Container 1 contains 2.0 liters N2 at 2.0 atm pressure and 20 C. Container 2 contains 1.0 liter of CH4 at 4.0 atm pressure and 20 C. Which container contains the greater density? (A) Container 1 . (B) Container 2. (C) They are the same. (D) There is no way to determine. 57-[10z]. Consider two closed containers. Container 1 contains 4.0 liters CO2 at 2.0 atm pressure and 40 C. Container 2 contains 2.0 liters of N2 at 4.0 atm pressure and 40 C. Which container contains the greater density? (A) Container 1. (B) Container 2. (C) They are the same. (D) There is no way to determine. 58-[10z]. Consider two closed containers. Container 1 contains 2.0 liters N2 at 2.0 atm pressure and 20 C. Container 2 contains 1.0 liter of CH4 at 4.0 atm pressure and 20 C. Which container has molecules with greater speed? (A) Container 1. (B) Container 2. (C) They are the same. (D) There is no way to determine. 59-[10z]. Consider two closed containers. Container 1 contains 4.0 liters CO2 at 2.0 atm pressure and 40 C. Container 2 contains 2.0 liters of N2 at 4.0 atm pressure and 40 C. Which container has molecules with greater speed? (A) Container 1. (B) Container 2. (C) They are the same. (D) There is no way to determine. 60-[10z]. Charles' Law states that the volume of a sample of gas increases as: (A) the temperature increases. (B) the pressure increases. (C) the temperature decreases. (D) the pressure decreases. 61-[10z]. Charles' law describes the relationship between: (A) P and V. (B) V and T. (C) n and R. (D) T and P. 62-[10z]. Some substances can occur in the gaseous state below their boiling temperature, where they are known as: (A) condensates. (B) vapors. (C) sublimates. (D) pascals. (E) hypobaric gases. 63-[10z]. In the kinetic-molecular theory, several assumptions are made regarding the nature of gases. Which below is one of these assumptions stated incorrectly? (A) molecules are in continuous chaotic motion. (B) the volume of gas molecules is negligible compared to the volume of their container. (C) their collisions are elastic. (D) the average kinetic energy of the gas molecules is proportional to the absolute temperature. (E) all molecules of a gas sample have the same kinetic energy at any given instant. 101-[10z]. What is not true about the stratosphere? (A) As you ascend (rise) through the stratosphere, the temperature increases. (B) As you ascend (rise) through the stratosphere, the pressure increases. (C) The critically important ozone layer is in the stratosphere. (D) The stratosphere is the region immediately above the troposphere. (E) Most of the weather (rain, snow, hail, thunderstorms) occurs below the stratosphere. 102-[10z]. What gas is present in the atmosphere to the extent of about 1%? (A) nitrogen. (B) oxygen. (C) carbon dioxide. (D) carbon monoxide. (E) argon. 103-[10z]. Acid rain is caused by: (A) carbon dioxide. (B) carbon monoxide. (C) sulfur pollutants. (D) ozone. (E) methane. (F) freons. 104-[10z]. What is the most common cation in the earth's oceans? The cation of: (A) K. (B) Ca. (C) Mg. (D) Na. (E) Fe. (F) Li. (G) Ti. 105-[10z]. What are the two most common ions in the ocean? (A) Fe+3 and Fe+2. (B) Mg+2 and SO4-2. (C) Na+1 and Cl-1. (D) K+1 and NO3-1. (E) Ca+2 and CO3-2. (F) Li+1 and F-1. 106-[10z]. Pollutant gases generated in the troposphere find their way into the stratosphere: (A) very slowly. (B) immediately. (C) never. 107-[10z]. What gas is present in the atmosphere to the extent of about 360 ppm? (A) nitrogen. (B) oxygen. (C) carbon dioxide. (D) carbon monoxide. (E) argon. 108-[10z]. What is the most common inert gas (Group VIII) in the atmosphere? (A) helium. (B) neon. (C) argon. (D) krypton. (E) xenon. (F) radon. 109-[10z]. Atomic oxygen is formed in the outer regions of the atmosphere by a process known as (A) equilibrium. (B) photodissociation. (C) photoprecipitation. (D) condensation. (E) aurora phenomena. (F) catalytic conversion. 110-[10z]. What is not true about ozone? (A) Ozone created in the troposphere is a pollutant. (B) ozone created in the stratosphere is beneficial to mankind. (C) ozone absorbs ultraviolet light. (D) the formula for ozone is O3. (E) the highest rate of ozone formation occurs in a band at an altitude at about 50 km. (F) the strongest and most important wavelength of solar absorption by ozone is at about 600 nm (the red region) of the spectrum. 111-[10z]. What depletes the ozone from the stratosphere? (A) CFC's. (B) water moisture. (C) argon. (D) atomic nitrogen. (E) carbon monoxide. (F) carbon dioxide. 112-[10z].Which of the following is the least common in the earth's atmosphere? (A) oxygen. (B) nitrogen. (C) argon. (D) methane. (E) carbon dioxide. 113-[10z]. What does not bind to the iron atom in hemoglobin? (A) oxygen. (B) nitrogen. (C) carbon monoxide. (D) cyanide. 114-[10z]. Photochemical smog is caused by: (A) carbon dioxide. (B) carbon monoxide. (C) nitrogen oxides. (D) freons. (E) argon. (F) helium. 115-[10z]. The greenhouse effect is caused mostly by: (A) oxygen. (B) carbon dioxide. (C) argon. (D) nitrogen. (E) ozone. (F) krypton. 116-[10z]. The greenhouse effect is caused by certain molecules in the atmosphere: (A) absorbing infrared radiation which radiates from the earth, preventing the radiation from leaving the atmosphere of the earth. (B) absorbing infrared radiation which radiates from the sun, blocking the radiation from entering the atmosphere of the earth. (C) photodissociating into atomic oxygen and nitrogen. (D) condensing water moisture in the stratosphere. (E) ionizing inert gases in the stratosphere. 117-[10z].What is not included in the 10 most common ions in the ocean's atmosphere? (A) calcium. (B) magnesium. (C) sulfate. (D) chloride. (E) cesium. 118-[10z]. Reverse osmosis is used mostly to: (A) soften hard water. (B) desalinate ocean water. (C) remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. (D) remove freons from the atmosphere. (E) remove sulfur dioxide from the atmosphere. (F) remove nitrogen oxide from the atmosphere. 119-[10z]. What cation is responsible for hard water? (A) zinc. (B) iron. (C) calcium. (D) sulfate. (E) potassium. (F) chloride. 120-[10z]. What is the primary basis for the division of the atmosphere into different regions? (A) pressure profiles. (B) temperature profiles. (C) pollutant profiles. (D) ionic profiles. (E) ozone profiles. (F) inert gas profiles. 121-[10z]. What does the "F" stand for in CFC? (A) frigid. (B) fluoro. (C) free. (D) fatal. (E) fat. 122-[10z]. What photodissociates the most easily? (A) nitrogen. (B) oxygen. (C) argon. 123-[10z] What is the main source of sulfur oxides in the atmosphere? (A) burning coal. (B) burning natural gas. (C) the Gulf Stream. (D) the solar wind. (E) aurora borealis. (F) bovine flatulence. ****************************************************************************** CHAPTER 11 - Liquids, Solids, and Materials 01-[11z] What does not dissolve in gasoline? (A) C4H10. (B) CCl4. (C) CH3OH. (D) ionic salt. (E) oil. 02-[11z] Which intermolecular force is the greatest? (A) dipole-dipole forces. (B) London dispersion forces. (C) -bond in O2. 03-[11z]. Which has the highest boiling point? (A) CH4. (B) SiH4. (C) H2O. (D) H2S. (E) H2Se. 04-[11z]. Which is not a result of hydrogen bonding in water? (A) expansion of water while freezing. (B) surface tension. (C) abnormally high boiling point. (D) higher viscosity than gasoline. (E) higher vapor pressure than normal. (F) higher heat of fusion than normal. (G) higher heat of vaporization than normal. (H) greater specific heat than normal. 05-[11z]. As the temperature of a liquid increases, the vapor pressure: (A) increases. (B) decreases. (C) stays the same. 06-[11z]. The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is the same as the surrounding pressure is: (A) the boiling point. (B) the partial pressure. (C) the critical temperature. (D) the triple point. (E) the fluid temperature. 07-[11z]. The reason that dry ice sublimes instead of melting (in a normal laboratory or classroom) is: (A) the vapor pressure is above 1 atm. (B) the critical pressure is above 1 atm. (C) the triple point is above 1 atm. (D) the molar mass of dry ice is greater than the molar mass of air. (E) the dry ice has no water. 08-[11z]. Look at the phase diagram for water. As you move from 2 atm and 100 C, to 2 atm and 0 C, what phase changes do you see? (A) stays a solid. (B) stays a liquid. (C) stays a gas. (D) gls. (E) ls. (F) gs. (G) lg. (H) gl. (I) sg. (J) sl. (K) slg. 09-[11z]. A sample of H2O at 0 C and 0.5 atm will be: (A) equilibrium between solid and liquid. (B) a liquid. (C) a solid. 10-[11z]. As you squeeze snow in your gloved hands, you: (A) increase the melting point. (B) decrease the melting point. (C) keep the melting point the same. 11-[11z]. Which one is incorrect? (A) the heat of fusion is lower than the heat of vaporization for a substance. (B) you can liquify any substance at room temperature by merely increasing the pressure enough. (C) freezing water is an exothermic process. (D) the solubility of a gas in water increases with increasing pressure. (E) at the triple point of a substance, three phases of the substance are in equilibrium. (F) the vapor pressure of a liquid measures the tendency of the liquid to evaporate. (G) since ethyl alcohol boils at a lower temperature than does water, then ethyl alcohol has a higher vapor pressure than does water. (H) the formation of a meniscus at the surface of a liquid is due to surface tension. 12-[11z]. Which does not have hydrogen-bonding? (A) CH4. (B) H2O. (C) HF. (D) NH3. 13-[11z]. what At conditions are water and carbon dioxide the same phase as each other (that is, both are solid; or both are liquid; or both are gas)? (A) 1 C and 1 atm. (B) -100C and 1 atm. (C) 100C and 5 atm. (D) 30C and 2 atm. (E) 0C and 5 atm. 14-[11z]. Which will dissolve in water? (A) CCl 4. (B) CH3OH. (C) CH4. (D) oil. (E) C8H18. (F) butane. 15-[11z]. As the temperature of a liquid increases, the vapor pressure: (A) increases. (B) decreases. (C) stays the same. 16-[11z]. The reason that dry ice sublimes instead of melting (in a normal laboratory or classroom) is: (A) the vapor pressure is above 1 atm. (B) the critical pressure is below 1 atm. (C) the triple point is above 1 atm. (D) the molar mass of dry ice is greater than the molar mass of air. (E) the dry ice has no water. 17-[11z]. As you squeeze snow in your gloved hands, you: (A) cause the ice to combust. (B) neutralize the acid content. (C) increase the melting point. (D) decrease the melting point. (E) cause the snow to sublime faster. (F) reduce the atmospheric pressure. 18-[11z]. The critical temperature for air is about 130K for air. Thus, at room temperature: (A) we can liquify air by pressurizing enough. (B) the three phases of air are in equilibrium with each other. (C) we cannot liquify air no matter how hard we pressurize. (D) we can solidify air by pressuring in the presence of a magnetic field. (E) the surface tension of air is strong. (F) the viscosity of air is high. (G) the pressure of the air can never be atmospheric pressure. 19-[11z]. As a sample of carbon dioxide passes from -100C to +100C at 1.00 atm, the following phase changes are seen: (A) solid liquid gas; (B) gas liquid solid; (C) solid gas; (D) liquid gas. (E) gas liquid; (F) liquid gas; (G) gas solid; (H) solid gas. (I) gas solid liquid; (J) solid gas liquid; (J) liquid gas solid. (L) liquid solid gas. 20-[11z]. As a sample of water passes from 0.001 atm to 200 atm, all at 0C, the following phase changes are seen: (A) solid liquid gas; (B) gas liquid solid; (C) solid gas; (D) liquid gas. (E) gas liquid; (F) liquid gas; (G) gas solid; (H) solid gas. (I) gas solid liquid; (J) solid gas liquid; (J) liquid gas solid. (L) liquid solid gas. 21-[11z]. Carbon dioxide cannot exist in the liquid phase at: (A) -50C. (B) 1 atm pressure. (C) 10 atm pressure. (D) 0 C. 22-[11z]. Carbon tetrachloride would dissolve most readily in: (A) water. (B) octane. (C) syrup. (D) salt. 23-[11z]. Diethyl ether boils at 35C and ethyl alcohol boils at 78C. Therefore, (A) at all temperatures diethyl ether has a higher vapor pressure. (B) at all temperatures diethyl ether has a lower vapor pressure. (C) diethyl ether has a lower vapor pressure at low temperature but a higher vapor pressure at higher temperature. (D) diethyl ether has a higher vapor pressure at low temperature but a lower vapor pressure at higher temperature. 24-[11z]. Direct conversion of liquid to the solid is called: (A) vaporization. (B) condensation. (C) melting. (D) freezing. (E) sublimation. (F) deposition. 25-[11z]. Direct conversion of solid to the gas state is called: (A) vaporization. (B) condensation. (C) melting. (D) freezing. (E) sublimation. (F) deposition. 26-[11z]. Octane would dissolve in: (A) water. (B) molten NaCl. (C) hexane. 27-[11z]. Since CO2 (at 1 atm) cannot exist in the liquid phase, therefore we know that we are: (A) below the triple point. (B) above the triple point. (C) above the critical point. (D) at the critical point. 28-[11z]. Since dry ice sublimes and doesn't melt at atmospheric pressure, this means that: (A) the critical point is below 1 atm. (B) there is no critical point. (C) the triple point is below 1 atm. (D) the triple point is above 1 atm. (E) carbon dioxide cannot exist in the liquid state. 29-[11z]. Since methane is a gas at room temperature and gasoline is a liquid at room temperature, then we can safely conclude that the vapor pressure of methane is greater than the vapor pressure of gasoline at -40. (A) TRUE OR (B) FALSE. 30-[11z]. Salt is most soluble in: (A) octane. (B) ethyl alcohol. (C) carbon tetrachloride. (D) antifreeze. (E) H2O. 31-[11z]. The meniscus of water is due to: (A) surface tension. (B) viscosity. (C) heat of fusion. (D) heat of vaporization. (E) condensation. (F) melting. (G) vaporization. 32-[11z]. There is no difference between a gas and a liquid above: (A) the triple point. (B) the critical point. (C) the freezing point. (D) the melting-point line. (E) 273C. 33-[11z]. What do you have to do to a sample of ice at -5C and 1 atm pressure to melt it? (A) keep the temperature the same and increase pressure to 2 atm. (B) keep the temperature the same and decrease pressure to 0.5 atm. (C) keep the pressure the same and cool to -10C. 34-[11z]. What is not a consequence of hydrogen bonding in water? (A) higher surface tension than normal. (B) higher molecular mass than normal. (C) high enthalpy of vaporization. (D) higher viscosity than normal. (E) higher boiling point than normal. 35-[11z]. What is not true concerning water? (A) it has a higher surface tension than butane. (B) it has a higher boiling point than butane. (C) it has a higher vapor pressure than butane. (D) it expands when it freezes. (E) it has a higher Hvap than butane. 36-[11z]. What is the phase of carbon dioxide at 3 atm pressure and -50C? (A) solid. (B) liquid. (C) gas. 37-[11z]. What is true about water? (A) it has a lower surface tension than butane. (B) it has a lower boiling point than butane. (C) it has a lower vapor pressure than butane. (D) it contracts when it freezes. (E) it has a lower Hvap than butane. 38-[11z]. What takes more heat? (A) vaporizing 1.0 gram of water. (B) melting 1.0 gram of ice. (C) heating 1.0 gram by 1.0C. 39-[11z]. What will not freeze a sample of water at 273K and 1 atm pressure? (A) lower the temperature while keeping the pressure the same. (B) keep the temperature the same and raise the pressure. (C) keep the temperature the same and lower the pressure. (D) lower both the temperature and the pressure. 40-[11z]. What would have the highest melting point? (A) He. (B) H2O. (C) NH3. (D) CH4. 41-[11z]. Which is not a property of water? (A) expands when it melts. (B) has a large Hfus. (C) has a large Hvap. (D) has hydrogen bonding. (E) is more dense in the liquid state than in the solid state. (F) is a nonlinear molecule. (G) has a higher viscosity than gasoline. (H) has a higher surface tension than gasoline. 42-[11z]. Which melts at a higher temperature? (A) Ice at 1 atm. (B) ice at 0.5 atm. (C) ice at 2 atm. 43-[11z]. Which of the following are not properties resulting from hydrogen bonding: (A) high surface tension. (B) high boiling point. (C) high specific heat. (D) high vapor pressure. (E) high heat of vaporization. 44-[11z]. For the heating curve of water, why is the plot is horizontal while ice is melting? (A) There is no flow of heat into the sample of H2O. (B) Melting is an endothermic process and the heat added to the sample is used to convert ice to water. (C) Melting is an exothermic process and the heat is rejected. (D) For water Hfus = 0. (E) For water Hfus is greater than Hvap. 45-[11z]. Which is correct? (A) The meniscus of water in a glass tube is U-shaped, while the meniscus of mercury in a glass tube bends downward. (B) The meniscus of mercury in a glass tube is U-shaped, while the meniscus of water in a glass tube bends downward. (C) The meniscus of both water and mercury in a glass tube is U-shaped. (D) The meniscus of both water and mercury in a glass tube bends downward. 46-[11z]. Which is incorrect? A solid: (A) retains its own shape and volume. (B) is very compressible. (C) flows very slowly if at all. (D) diffuses very slowly if at all. (E) has its atoms held in rigid lattices. 47-[11z]. Which is incorrect? A liquid: (A) assumes the shape of its container. (B) does not expand to fill its container. (C) flows readily. (D) is virtually incompressible. (E) has no intermolecular forces. 48-[11z]. Which is incorrect? A gas: (A) assumes the volume of its container. (B) assumes the shape of its container. (C) flows readily. (D) is compressible. (E) diffuses very slowly if at all. 100-[11z]. A solution that has 4 milligrams of ferric ion in 100 mL of water is what concentration in ppm? (A) 4000. (B) 40. (C) 0.04. (D) 400. (E) 0.4. (F) 4. (G) 0.004. ****************************************************************************** CHAPTER 13 - Chemical Kinetics: Rates of Reactions 01-[13z]. Review the data below for the catalytic cracking of cyclohexane at 500 C. What is the order of the reaction? (A) one-half order. (B) first order. (C) second order. (D) zero order. Concen. Time, of cyclohexane sec 1.000 M 0 0.80 M 100 0.60 M 200 0.20 M 400 02-[13z]. What is the half-life, in years, of a pesticide malathion if it is found that 95% of it disappears after 10 years? (A) 0.83. (B) 5.0. (C) 10.0. (D) 1.2. (E) 0.43. (F) 2.3. (G) 3.0. 03-[13z]. The gas-phase reaction, Cl(g) + HBr(g) HCl(g) + Br(g), has an overall enthalpy change of -66 kJ. The activation energy for the reaction is 7 kJ. What is the activation energy (in kJ) of the reverse reaction? (A) 66. (B) 7. (C) 73. (D) 59. (E) zero. (F) cannot be determined. 04-[13z]. A catalyst functions by: (A) decreasing the H of the reaction. (B) increasing the H of the reaction. (C) decreasing the E a of the reaction. (D) increasing the Ea of the reaction. (E) converting the reaction from endothermic to exothermic. 05-[13z]. A catalyst cannot : (A) change the mechanism of a reaction. (B) change the rate of a reaction. (C) change the H of a reaction. (D) change the Ea of a reaction. 06-[13z]. What element is the best catalyst for the Haber process, for a catalytic converter, and for catalytic hydrogenation? (A) rubidium. (B) platinum. (C) calcium. (D) copper. (E) lithium. 07-[13z]. The rate constant k of a reaction will generally change, as we change all of the following variables except one. Which is it? (A) change the concentrations of the reactants. (B) change the activation energy. (C) change the temperature. (D) change the catalyst. 08-[13z]. 50. Review the data below for the reaction X + Y Z. Initial conc. Initial conc. Initial of X of Y rate 0.0100 0.0100 5.0 0.0100 0.0400 20.0 0.0400 0.0100 5.0 For X, the reaction must be (A) first order. (B) second order. (C) zero order. 09-[13z]. 50. Review the data below for the reaction X + Y Z. Initial conc. Initial conc. Initial of X of Y rate 0.0100 0.0100 5.0 0.0100 0.0400 20.0 0.0400 0.0100 5.0 For Y, the reaction must be (A) first order. (B) second order. (C) zero order. 10-[13z]. Consider the following reaction: 2Al + 3Br 2 2AlBr3. Once we have balanced the equation, we then know that the order of this reaction with respect to aluminum: (A) must be zero order. (B) must be first order. (C) must be second order. (D) cannot be known until laboratory experiments are conducted. 11-[13z]. Review the data below for the reaction X + Y Z. Initial conc. Initial conc. Initial of X of Y rate 0.0200 0.0200 7.50 0.0200 0.0400 7.50 0.0400 0.0200 30.00 For X, the reaction must be (A) zero order. (B) first order. (C) second order. 12-[13z]. Review the data below for the reaction X + Y Z. Initial conc. Initial conc. Initial of X of Y rate 0.0200 0.0200 7.50 0.0200 0.0400 7.50 0.0400 0.0200 30.00 For Y, the reaction must be (A) zero order. (B) first order. (C) second order. 13-[13z]. Review the data below for the biochemical decomposition of tryptophane in the blood at 37C. Concen. Time, of tryptophane sec 120 ppm 0 80 ppm 1000 60 ppm 1710 40 ppm 2710 30 ppm 3420 What is the order of the reaction? (A) zero order. (B) one-half order. (C) first order. (D) second order. 14-[13z]. Predict an element in the second row of transition metals of the periodic table (i.e., the row starting with rubidium) that would serve as a good catalyst for catalytic hydrogenation. (A) Zr. (B) Nb. (C) Mo. (D) Pd. (E) Ag. (F) Cd. 15-[13z]. The two types of catalysts are: (A) heterogeneous and homogeneous. (B) first order and second order. (C) primary and secondary. 16-[13z]. Increasing the activation energy of a reaction will: (A) slow down the reaction. (B) speed up the reaction. (C) have no effect on the rate of the reaction. 17-[13z]. The rate constant k of a reaction changes as the temperature of the reaction varies. (A) TRUE or (B) FALSE? 18-[13z]. The activation energy of a reaction changes as the temperature of the reaction varies. (A) TRUE or (B) FALSE? 19-[13z]. Consider the reaction X Z, where the rate is observed as Rate = k[X] , that is, the reaction is one-half order. Which plot below would be linear? (A) [X] vs time with the slope = k. (B) ln(X) vs time with slope = k. (C) ln(Rate) vs ln(X) with the slope = . (D) 1/(Rate) vs 1/[X] with the slope = k. 20-[13z]. Which is not true about an enzyme? (A) it is a protein. (B) it is a catalyst. (C) it occurs in both plants and animals. (D) it makes a reaction go by changing it from endothermic to exothermic. 21-[13z]. The rate of a reaction can typically be increased by increasing the concentrations of the reactants. (A) TRUE or (B) FALSE? 22-[13z]. The rate constant of a reaction can typically be increased by increasing the concentrations of the reactants. (A) TRUE or (B) FALSE? 23-[13z]. The rate of a reaction can typically be increased by increasing the E a of the reaction. (A) TRUE or (B) FALSE? 24-[13z]. The rate of a reaction can typically be increased by increasing the surface area of a solid reactant or catalyst. (A) TRUE or (B) FALSE? 25-[13z]. The rate of a reaction can typically be increased by increasing the H of the reaction. (A) TRUE or (B) FALSE? 26-[13z]. The rate of a reaction can typically be increased by increasing the temperature. (A) TRUE or (B) FALSE? 27-[13z]. An automobile catalytic converter converts carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide. (A) TRUE or (B) FALSE? 28-[13z]. An automobile catalytic converter converts unburned fuel to carbon dioxide and water. (A) TRUE or (B) FALSE? 29-[13z]. An automobile catalytic converter converts water to hydrogen and oxygen. (A) TRUE or (B) FALSE? 30-[13z]. An automobile catalytic converter converts nitrogen oxides to nitrogen and oxygen. (A) TRUE or (B) FALSE? 31-[13z]. For the reaction A B, a plot of the reciprocal of [A] vs time is linear. The reaction is: (A) zero order. (B) first order. (C) second order. (D) need more data to determine. 32-[13z]. For the reaction A B, a plot of the logarithm of [A] vs time is linear. The reaction is: (A) zero order. (B) first order. (C) second order. (D) need more data to determine. 33-[13z]. For the reaction A B, a plot of [A] vs time is linear. The reaction is: (A) zero order. (B) first order. (C) second order. (D) need more data to determine. 34-[13z]. What is the half-life, in years, of the pesticide DDT if it is found that 80% of DDT remains after 5 years (20C, Lake Wishiwanqua)? (A) 5.0. (B) 8.9. (C) 10.2. (D) 15.5. (E) 18.9. (F) 23.4. 35-[13z]. It is found that 500 mg of chymopopsin spontaneously decomposes in a first-order reaction to give 335 mg of chymopopsin in 2000 sec. Calculate the rate constant k (in sec-1). (A) 1.00 x 10-3. (B) 2.0 x 10-3. (C) 4.0 x 10-3. (D) 8.0 x 10-3. (E) 1.0 x 10-4. (F) 2.0 x 10-4. 36-[13z]. To determine the activation energy of a reaction, you could: (A) plot ln[A]0 vs ln [A]t . (B) determine k at various temperatures and plot ln(k) vs the reciprocal of the temperature. (C) plot the half-life of the reaction vs the reciprocal of the concentration. (D) multiply the order of the reaction by the concentration of the reactants. (E) plot concentration vs temperature. 37-[13z]. If you increase the temperature of a reaction from 50C to 75C, it is likely that the rate constant k will: (A) double. (B) halve. (C) increase by a factor of about 10. (D) increase by a factor of about 1000. (E) stay the same. 38-[13z]. Look below for data for the decomposition of aqueous hydrogen peroxide 2H2O2 2H2O + O2, at 20C. What is the order of the reaction? (A) cannot be determined. (B) varies upon the temperature. (C) zero. (D) first. (E) second. Time, min [H2O2] Time, min [H2O2] 0 0.020 800 0.0086 200 0.0160 1000 0.0069 400 0.0131 1200 0.00535 600 0.0106 1600 0.0037 39-[13z]. Look below for data for the reaction of 2A + B C + D. What is the rate expression? (A) Rate = [A]2[B]. (B) Rate = k[A][B]. (C) Rate = k[B]2. (D) Rate = k[A]. (E) Rate = k[A][B]2. Initial Concentration [B] Initial rate (mol/L-s) 0.05 6.0 x 10-3 0.05 1.2 x 10-2 0.05 1.8 x 10-2 0.15 1.1 x 10-1 [A] 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.20 40-[13z]. The decomposition of NOBr is second order, with a rate constant k = 25 L/mol-s at 20C. If the initial concentrationof NOBr is 0.025 M, find the time (in sec) at which the concentration will be 0.010 M. (A) 25. (B) 15.6. (C) 67. (D) 37. (E) 2.4. 41-[13z]. Popcorn kernels pop according to a first-order rate whereby 6 kernels pop in 5 seconds when 150 kernels are present. What is the half-life of the kernels, that is, how many seconds will it take for 75 kernels to pop, starting with 150? (A) 85. (B) 80. (C) 75. (D) 70. (E) 65. 42-[13z]. The rate constant for the decomposition of polystyrene trash in a dump is first order and is k = 0.7 yr -1. How long will it take (in years) for a 100 g sample to decompose to 1 g? (A) 2.8. (B) 6.6. (C) 12. (D) 44. (E) 1.0. 43-[13z]. Consider the enzyme insulin, which catalyzes the reversible reaction sugar starch. What is the purpose of this enzyme? (A) decrease H for the reaction. (B) increase the temperature. (C) increase both k f (forward rate constant) and kr (reverse rate constant) for the reaction. (D) increase Ea for the reverse reaction. (E) increase Ea for the forward reaction. (F) change Keq for the reaction. 44-[13z]. Consider the catalytic converter on an automobile, which converts pollutants to harmless compounds. Which is correct? (A) the catalyst makes the reaction faster by decreasing the quantity of heat H evolved. (B) an ideal catalytic converter experiences a rapid destruction of platinum during the reaction. (C) the purpose of the catalyst is to convert N2 to nitrogen oxides. (D) the catalyst makes the reaction faster by increasing the rate constant k. (E) the purpose of the catalytic converter is to convert carbon monoxide into octane. 45-[13z]. The decomposition of ozone O3 (O3 O2) shows that a plot of ln[O3] vs time is linear. We can conclude that the reaction: (A) may be second order. (B) must be second order. (C) may be zero order. (D) may be zero order. (E) must be first order. 46-[13z]. Which is not affected by a change of Ea of a reaction? (A) rate of reaction. (B) the exponential term of the Arhennius equation. (C) rate constant k of the reaction. (D) mechanism of the reaction. (E) H of a reaction. 47-[13z]. The decomposition of ethyl iodide is a first-order processes where the rate constant k = 5.0x10-3 s-1. What is the half life of the reaction? (A) 139 sec. (B) 2.5 x 103 sec. (C) 500 sec. (D) 342 sec. (E) 49 sec. 48-[13z]. The rate expression, Rate = k (with no expression of the concentration of the reactant), applies for: (A) gas reactions only. (B) second order reactions. (C) first order reactions. (D) zero order reactions. (E) only reactions expressed in minutes. 49-[13z]. After two half-lives (of a first-order reaction), where we started with 100 grams, how much material will be left? (A) 99 grams. (B) 50 grams. (C) 75 grams. (D) 67 grams. (E) 25 grams. 50-[13z]. The radioactive decay of uranium-238 is (A) a zero-order process. (B) a second-order process. (C) a process that occurs more rapidly at low temperatures. (D) a bimolecular process. (E) a first-order process. 51-[13z]. A reaction which may occur in air polluted with nitrogen oxide is 2 NO(g) + O2(g) 2 NO(g) The following data is found: Expt 1 Initial conc. [NO] Initial conc. [O2] Rate of reaction 1 0.001 0.001 7x10-6 2 0.001 0.002 1.4x10-5 3 0.001 0.003 2.1x10-5 4 0.002 0.003 8.4x10-5 5 0.003 0.003 1.89x10-4 Which is correct? The reaction is (A) 1st order in [NO] and 1st order in [O2]. (B) 2nd order in [NO] and 1st order in [O2]. (C) 1st order in [NO] and 2nd order in [O2]. (D) 2nd order in [NO] and 2nd order in [O2]. (E) 0 order in [NO] and 2nd order in [O2]. (F) 2nd order in [NO] and 0 order in [O2]. 52-[13z]. For the following reaction at 1000C, CO + O2 CO2 The following data is found: Expt 1 Initial conc. [CO] Initial conc. [O2] Rate of reaction 1 0.001 0.001 2 0.001 0.002 3 0.001 0.003 4 0.004 0.003 Which is correct? The reaction is (A) 1st order in [CO] and 1st order in [O2]. 7x10-6 1.4x10-5 2.1x10-5 8.4x10-5 (B) 2nd order in [CO] and 1st order in [O2]. (C) 1st order in [CO] and 2nd order in [O2]. (D) 2nd order in [CO] and 2nd order in [O2]. (E) 0 order in [CO] and 2nd order in [O2]. (F) 2nd order in [CO] and 0 order in [O2]. 53-[13z]. Calculate the age of a piece of wood whose carbon-14 count is 35/min, compared with a fresh piece of wood the same size whose count is 125/min. (The half-life of C-14 is 5715 years). Give the answer in years. (A) 5700. (B) 10500. (C) 20300. (D) 1600. (E) 3200. 54-[13z]. The decomposition of HI(g) to give H2(g ) and I2(g) is 2nd order with a rate constant k equal to 30 M-1 min-1 at 443 C. How long does it take for a concentration of 0.010 M of HI (g) to drop to half its value at 443C? (A) 3.33 min. (B) 1.57 min. (C) 30 min. (D) 900 min. (E) 9.00 min. (F) 230 min. 55-[13z]. The decomposition of N2O5 (to give NO2 and O2) is a first-order processes where the rate constant k = 5.0x10-4 s-1. What is the half life of the reaction? (A) 0.0005 sec. (B) 2.5 x 10-4 sec. (C) 1400 sec. (D) 2500 sec. (E) 840 sec. (F) 11.2 sec. (G) 4600 sec. (H) 50,000 sec. 56-[13z]. The decomposition of N2O5 in the gas phase is described by 2 N2O5(g) 4 NO(g) + O2(g). If a plot of 1/[N2O5] vs time is not linear, then what can we conclude? The reaction (with respect to [N2O5]) (A) must be 1st order. (B) may be 1st order. (C) cannot be 1st order. (D) may be 2nd order. (E) cannot be zero order. (F) must be 2nd order. 57-[13z]. The transformation of cyclopropane to propene is a first-order reaction with a rate constant of 5.4x10-2/hr. How many hours must elapse for an initial concentration of 0.050 M to drop to 0.025 M? (A) 0.054 hr. (B) 0.54 hr. (C) 5.4 hr. (D) 13 hr. (E) 18.5 hr. (F) 185 hr. 58-[13z]. Which is correct? (A) If a reaction is exothermic, a catalyst affects the quantity of heat evolved. (B) nickel can be used as a catalyst for hydrogenation. (C) a catalyst for an equilibrium never changes kf (the rate constant of the forward reaction). (D) a catalyst can change the value of Keq (an equilibrium constant). (E) an ideal catalyst is destroyed during a reaction. 59-[13z]. Which is not correct? (A) If a reaction is endothermic, a catalyst can possibly change the reaction to exothermic. (B) nickel can be used as a catalyst for hydrogenation. (C) a catalyst for an equilibrium can changes k f (the rate constant of the forward reaction). (D) a catalyst does not change the value of K eq (an equilibrium constant). (E) an enzyme is a catalyst. 60-[13z]. The decomposition of HI(g) to give H2(g ) and I2(g) is 2nd order with a rate constant k equal to 30 M-1 min-1 at 443 C. How long does it take for a concentration of 0.01 M of HI (g) to drop to one-half of its original value? (A) 3.3 min. (B) 9 sec. (C) 18 sec. (D) 1.00 min. (E) 45 sec. (F) 2.3 min. 61-[13z]. The decomposition of HI(g) to give H2(g ) and I2(g) is 2nd order with a rate constant k equal to 30 M-1 min-1 at 443 C. How long does it take for a concentration of 2.0 M of HI (g) to drop to one-tenth of its original value? (A) 3.3 min. (B) 9 sec. (C) 18 sec. (D) 1.00 min. (E) 45 sec. (F) 2.3 min. 62-[13z]. Assuming all other factors are the same, which of the following reactions would be the fastest (all energy units are in kJ/mol)? (A) Ea = 45, H = -25. (B) Ea = 35, H = -10. (C) Ea = 55, H = -25. (D) Ea = 60, H = +5. (E) Ea = 75, H = +25. 63-[13z]. In catalytic hydrogenation, the role of the catalytic surface is to: (A) break the H2 bond. (B) break the carbon-carbon -bond. (C) increase the kinetic energy of H2. (D) decrease the H of the reaction. (E) form a hydrogen-hydrogen double bond. ****************************************************************************** CHAPTER 14 - Chemical Equilibrium 01-[14z]. For an equilibrium reaction at 25 C, the the kinetic rate constant k(forward) is 3.4x10-4 s-1, and the kinetic rate constant(backward) is 4.5x10-6 s-1. If you warm the equilibrium solution to 50 C, and the kinetic rate constant k(forward) increases to 3.4x10-3 s-1, the kinetic rate(backward) in s-1 is then: (A) 2.1x10-6. (B) 4.5x10-5. (C) 2.1x10-4. (D) 1.6x10-4. (E) 9.0x10-5. (F) 4.5x10-3. 02-[14z]. At 500K the following equilibrium is established: 2NO(g) + Cl2( g) 2NOCl(g), which has a Keq of 51.0. If the concentration of [NOCl] = 0.10 and the concentration of [Cl 2] = 0.20, what is the concentration of [NO]? (A) 0.078. (B) 0.031. (C) 9.8x10-4. (D) 9.8x10-3. (E) 0.019. (F) 0.19. 03-[14z]. For the equilibrium CaCO3(s) CaO(s) + CO2(g), when we add solid CaCO3, what happens to the equilibrium? (A) it does not change. (B) it shifts to the right. (C) it shifts to the left. 04-[14z]. For the equilibrium CaCO3(s) CaO(s) + CO2(g), when we increase the pressure, what happens to the equilibrium? (A) it does not change. (B) it shifts to the right. (C) it shifts to the left. 05-[14z]. Increasing the activation energy of a reaction will (A) have no effect on the rate of the reaction. (B) speed up the reaction. (C) slow down the reaction. (D) will shift the equilibrium to the right. (E) will shift the equilibrium to the left. 06-[14z]. The Haber process deals with (A) the reaction of nitrogen with hydrogen to form ammonia. (B) the combustion of carbon monoxide to form carbon dioxide. (C) the fixation of nitrogen by legumes. (D) lightning strikes in the atmosphere forming nitrates. (E) the dissolution of nitrogen chloride in hospital packs. 07-[14z]. Consider the following balanced reaction: 3H2(g) + N2(g) 2NH3(g). The coefficients tell us: (A) the order of the reaction with respect to hydrogen is third order. (B) nothing about the order of the reaction. (C) if we double the amount of hydrogen, the rate of the reaction will be tripled. (D) the concentration of nitrogen is not considered in the equilibrium expression. 08-[14z]. The Haber process deals with: (A) the synthesis of ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen. (B) citric acid production. (C) catalytic conversion of carbon monoxide. (D) catalytic cracking of petroleum. (E) fermentation of glucose. 09-[14z]. What effect does a catalyst have on the value of the ratio k f/kb for a chemical reaction? (A) no effect. (B) the ratio increases. (C) the ratio decreases. (D) the ratio increases with increasing temperature. (E) the ratio decreases with increasing temperature. 10-[14z]. The equilibrium constant for the reaction 2SO3(g) 2SO2(g) + O2(g) is 2.40 x 10-3 at 200C. At equilibrium at 200C, if the concentration of [SO2] = 0.0100 and [O2] = 0.002, what is the value of [SO3]? (A) 8.33 x 10-5. (B) 0.00913. (C) 109. (D) 0.00167. (E) 0.0490. 11-[14z]. The equilibrium constant for the reaction 2SO3(g) 2SO2(g) + O2(g) is 2.40 x 10-3 at 200C. What is the equilibrium constant for the reaction O2(g) + 2SO2(g) 2SO3(g ) at 200C? (A) 0.00913. (B) 417. (C) 0.0490. (D) 109. (E) 215. (F) 10.40. 12-[14z].The equilibrium constant for the reaction 2SO3(g) 2SO2(g) + O2(g) is 2.40 x 10-3 at 200C. What is the equilibrium constant for the reaction SO3(g) SO2(g) + O2(g) at 200C? (A) 2.4 x 10-3. (B) 1.2 x 10-3. (C) 0.0490. (D) 0.0980. (E) 10.20. (F) 215. 13-[14z]. For the reaction 2HgO(s) 2Hg(s) + O2(g), What is the expression for the equilibrium constant K? (A) K = [HgO]/[O2]. (B) K = [O2]/[HgO]2. (C) K = [O2]. (D) K = [HgO]2/[Hg]2[O2]. (E) K = [HgO]/[Hg][O]. 14-[14z]. For the reaction CaCO3(s) CaO(s) + CO2(g), K = 0.0108 at 900C. Let us place the following in a 1.00-liter flask and seal: 2.0 g of CaCO3, 2.0 g of CaO, and 0.500 g of CO2. We then heat the flask to 900 and allow the mixture to reach equilibrium. The weight of CO2 in the flask, in grams, will then be: (A) 0.645. (B) 0.335. (C) 0.125. (D) 0.475. (E) 0.500. 15-[14z]. For the reaction C(s) + CO2(g) 2CO(g), at equilibrium at 850C the relative molar amounts of C, CO2, and CO in a 1.00-L flask are 0.050, 0.062, and 0.54 respectively. What is the value of the equilibrium constant K? (A) 14.25. (B) 0.030. (C) 0.15. (D) 4.70. (E) 2.82. (F) 2.00. 16-[14z]. If H = 0 for an reaction, (A) equilibrium cannot be attained for the reaction unless the temperature is lowered to a value close to absolute zero. (B) the reactants are more stable than the products. (C) the reaction is endothmeric. (D) the reaction is exothermic. (E) K = 1. 17-[14z]. leChtelier's principle is applied in (A) kinetic expressions. (B) the Law of Conservation of Mass. (C) The Gas Laws. (D) The First Law of Thermodynamics. (E) equilibria. 18-[14z]. At 450C the reaction PCl5(g) PCl3(g) + Cl2(g) shows an equilibrium constant K = 0.0150. The thermodynamic data (in kJ/mol) for PCl5(g), PCl3(g), and Cl2(g) are respectively Hf = -374, -287, and 0 respectively. The reaction: (A) is endothermic. (B) is exothermic. (C) is not possible. (D) can only occur at low temperatures. (E) can occur only in the liquid phase. 19-[14z]. At 450C the reaction PCl5(g) PCl3(g) + Cl2(g) shows an equilibrium constant K = 0.0150. The thermodynamic data (in kJ/mol) for PCl5(g), PCl3(g), and Cl2(g) are respectively Hf = -374, -287, and 0 respectively. If the reaction is at equilibrium at 450C, and the pressure is increased, the equilibrium will: (A) shift to the left. (B) shift to the right. (C) not be affected. 20-[14z]. At 450C the reaction PCl5(g) PCl3(g) + Cl2(g) shows an equilibrium constant K = 0.0150. The thermodynamic data (in kJ/mol) for PCl5(g), PCl3(g), and Cl2(g) are respectively Hf = -374, -287, and 0 respectively. If the reaction temperature is increased, the equilibrium will: (A) shift to the left. (B) shift to the right. (C) not be affected. 21-[14z]. At 450C the reaction PCl5(g) PCl3(g) + Cl2(g) shows an equilibrium constant K = 0.0150. The thermodynamic data (in kJ/mol) for PCl5(g), PCl3(g), and Cl2(g) are respectively Hf = -374, -287, and 0 respectively. If Cl2(g) is removed, the equilibrium will: (A) shift to the left. (B) shift to the right. (C) not be affected. 22-[14z]. At 450C the reaction PCl5(g) PCl3(g) + Cl2(g) shows an equilibrium constant K = 0.0150. The thermodynamic data (in kJ/mol) for PCl5(g), PCl3(g), and Cl2(g) are respectively Hf = -374, -287, and 0 respectively. If a catalyst is added, the equilibrium will: (A) shift to the left. (B) shift to the right. (C) not be affected. 23-[14z]. At 450C the reaction PCl5(g) PCl3(g) + Cl2(g) shows an equilibrium constant K = 0.0150. The thermodynamic data (in kJ/mol) for PCl5(g), PCl3(g), and Cl2(g) are respectively Hf = -374, -287, and 0 respectively. If [PCl5] = 0.05 and [PCl3] = 0.08, what is the concentration of Cl2? (A) 0.015. (B) 1.6. (C) 0.0094. (D) 0.024. (E) 0.62. 24-[14z]. If we walk into a room where a student has set up an experiment where PCl5, PCl3, and Cl2 has been introduced into a flask and sealed. and if we find over a period of 1 hour the concentrations of PCl5, PCl3, and Cl2 do not change, then we may conclude that: (A) equilibrium must have been reached. (B) equilibrium can not have been reached. (C) equilibrium is not ever possible for this reaction. (D) equilibrium might have been reached. (E) a catalyst must be present. 25-[14z]. Hydrogen can react with elemental sulfur to give that smelly toxic gas H2S according to the reaction H2(g) + S(s) H2S(g), with K = 7.6x105. Assume that an equilibrium is established with a concentration of 1.00x10-7 atm H2. What is the concentration of H2S(g) in atm? (A) 0.076. (B) 0.01. (C) 0.00115. (D) 872. (E) 3.8x105. (F) 13.2. (G) cannot determine. 26-[14z]. Hydrogen can react with elemental sulfur to give that smelly toxic gas H2S according to the reaction H2(g) + S(s) H2S(g), with K = 7.6x105. Assume that an equilibrium is established with a concentration of 1.00x10 -7 atm H2. What is the concentration of S(s)? (A) 0.076. (B) 0.01. (C) 0.00115. (D) 872. (E) 3.8x105. (F) 13.2. (G) cannot determine. 27-[14z]. Hydrogen can react with elemental sulfur to give that smelly toxic gas H2S according to the reaction H2(g) + S(s) H2S(g), with K = 7.6x105. Assume that an equilibrium is established with a concentration of 1.00x10 -7 atm H2. Let us double the amount of solid S. What happens to the value of K? (A) it increases. (B) it decreases. (C) it stays the same. (D) cannot determine. 28-[14z]. Hydrogen can react with elemental sulfur to give that smelly toxic gas H2S according to the reaction H2(g) + S(s) H2S(g), with K = 7.6x105. Assume that an equilibrium is established with a concentration of 1.00x10 -7 atm H2. Let us double the amount of solid sulfur. What happens to the amount of H2S(g) formed? (A) it increases. (B) it decreases. (C) it stays the same. (D) cannot determine. 29-[14z]. Hydrogen can react with elemental sulfur to give that smelly toxic gas H2S according to the reaction H2(g) + S(s) H2S(g), with K = 7.6x105. Now consider the same reaction written in this manner, H2(g) + S(s) H2S(g). What is the value of the equilibrium constant K? (A) 760,000. (B) 380,000. (C) 2.0. (D) 0.50. (E) 870. (F) 7300. 30-[14z]. Keq for the following reaction is 0.16 at 25C. The enthalpy change is -344 kJ. 2NOBr(g) 2NO(g) + Br2(g). Using leChtelier's principle, predict how the equilibrium will shift when NOBr(g) is removed. The equilibrium will shift (A) left. (B) right. (C) not at all. (D) cannot predict. 31-[14z]. Keq for the following reaction is 0.16 at 25C. The enthalpy change is -344 kJ. 2NOBr(g) 2NO(g) + Br2(g). Predict how the equilibrium will shift when the temperature is decreased. The equilibrium will shift (A) left. (B) right. (C) not at all. (D) cannot predict. 32-[14z]. Keq for the following reaction is 0.16 at 25C. The enthalpy change is -344 kJ. 2NOBr(g) 2NO(g) + Br2(g). Predict how the equilibrium will shift when the container volume is increased. The equilibrium will shift (A) left. (B) right. (C) not at all. (D) cannot predict. 33-[14z]. For the equilibrium H2O(g) + CO(g) H2(g) + CO2(g), we find the following concentrations: [CO2] = 0.69, [H2] = 80.52, [CO] = [H2O] = 9.40. What is the value of K? (A) 1.6. (B) 0.80. (C) 0.63. (D) 1.0. (E) 5.8. (F) 0.18. 34-[14z]. For the equilibrium H2O(g) + CO(g) H2(g) + CO2(g), we find the following concentrations: [CO2] = 0.69, [H2] = 80.52, [CO] = [H2O] = 9.40. Predict how the equilibrium will shift if CO is removed. The equilibrium will shift: (A) left. (B) right. (C) not at all. (D) cannot predict. 35-[14z]. For the equilibrium H2O(g) + CO(g) H2(g) + CO2(g), we find the following concentrations: [CO2] = 0.69, [H2] = 80.52, [CO] = [H2O] = 9.40. Predict how the equilibrium will shift when the container volume is increased. The equilibrium will shift: (A) left. (B) right. (C) not at all. (D) cannot predict. 36-[14z]. For the reaction N2(g) + O2(g) 2 NO(g), K = 4.0x10-4. At equilibrium, if the pressure of N2(g) is 0.5 atm and the pressure of O2(g) is 1.0 atm, what is the pressure of NO(g) in atm? (A) 0.0002. (B) 2x10-2. (C) 0.014. (D) 0.085. (E) 0.15. (F) 2.0. 37-[14z]. For the endothermic reaction N2(g) + O2 (g) 2 NO(g), K = 4.0x10-4. Predict how the equilibrium will shift when the container volume is increased. The equilibrium will shift: (A) left. (B) right. (C) not at all. (D) cannot predict. 38-[14z]. For the endothermic reaction N2(g) + O2(g) 2 NO(g), K = 4.0x10-4. Predict how the equilibrium will shift when the temperature is increased. The equilibrium will shift: (A) left. (B) right. (C) not at all. (D) cannot predict. 39-[14z]. A bottle of a mixture of CO(g), Cl2(g), and COCl2(g) is allowed to stand at room temperature for a week. During this time, the compositions are noticed not to change. We can then conclude that, for the following equation, CO(g) + Cl2(g) COCl2(g), (A) equilibrium must have been reached. (B) equilibrium might have been reached. (C) equilibrium cannot have been reached. (D) a different reaction must be taking place. 40-[14z]. When 2.0 moles of HI(g) are placed in a 1.0-L container at 25C and allowed to dissociate according to this equation: 2HI(g) H2(g) + I2(g) , when equilibrium is finally reached it is found that 20.0% of the HI has dissociated to the H2 and I2 (that is, 80.0% of the HI remains). What is K? (A) 0.0156. (B) 80. (C) 20. (D) 0.05. (E) 0.220. (F) 0.285. (G) 0.825. 41-[14z]. For the reaction ZnO(s) + H2(g) Zn(s) + H2O(g), if we add ZnO(s), what happens? (A) the equilibrium will shift to the right. (B) H2 is removed from the system. (C) the equilibrium shifts to the right. (C) H2O(g) is removed from the system. (D) nothing. (E) more Zn(s) is produced. 42-[14z]. Given the following information, HF(aq) H+1(aq) + F-1(aq) Keq = 6.8 x 10-4 +1 -2 H2C2O4(aq) 2H (aq) + C2O4 (aq) Keq = 3.8 x 10-6 what is the Keq value for the equilibrium 2HF(aq) + C2O4-2(aq) 2F-1(aq) + H2C2O4 (aq)? (A) 180. (B) 0.12. (C) 1.8 x 10-12. (D) 0.0056. (E) 0.57. (F) 4.5 x 10-8. 43-[14z]. Given the following information (all at 700C), H2(g) + I2(g) 2HI(g) Keq = 54.0 N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g) Keq = 1.04 x 10-4 what is the Keq value for the equilibrium 2NH3(g) + 3I2(g) 6HI(g) + N2(g)? (A) 1.51 x 109. (B) 1.63 x 104. (C) 5.62 x 10-3. (D) 16.4. (E) 192. (F) 4.6 x 106. 44-[14z]. For the reaction N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g) Keq = 4.34 x 10-3 at 300C. What is Keq for the reverse reaction? (A) 4.34 x 103. (B) 0.230. (C) 43.4. (D) 230. (E) 0.679. (F) 679. ****************************************************************************** CHAPTER 15 - The Chemistry of Solutes and Solutions 01-[15z]. What would have the highest boiling point? (A) 0.05 LiI. (B) 0.10 m NaCl. (C) 0.10 m sucrose. (D) 0.05 m KBr. (E) 0.10 m Ba(NO3)2. 02-[15z]. A biological cell in a very saline solution will experience: (A) a flow of salt into the cell, causing an increasing of salinity. (B) a flow of salt out of the cell, causing a decrease of salinity. (C) a flow of water into the cell, causing a decrease of salinity. (D) a flow of water out of the cell, causing an increase of salinity. 03-[15z]. A beam of light is dispersed (diffused) when passing through: (A) an acetic acid solution. (B) a supersaturated solution. (C) a sucrose solution. (D) a saline solution. (E) a colloid suspension. 04-[15z]. When sodium chloride is dissolved in water, the vapor pressure: (A) increases. (B) decreases. (C) stays the same. 05-[15z]. When sodium chloride is dissolved in water, the freezing point: (A) increases. (B) decreases. (C) stays the same. 06-[15z]. When sodium chloride is dissolved in water, the boiling point: (A) increases. (B) decreases. (C) stays the same. 07-[15z]. When sodium chloride is dissolved in water, the salinity (A) increases. (B) decreases. (C) stays the same. 08-[15z]. The boiling point of a salt solution is the temperature at which (A) the vapor pressure of the solution is the same as the freezing vapor pressure. (B) the vapor pressure of the solution is the same as the atmospheric pressure. (C) the ionic particles reassociate. (D) Raoult's Law breaks down. (E) the standard reduction potential reverses. 09-[15z]. Which of the following would experience a decrease of solubility with a rise in temperature? (A) sucrose. (B) potassium chloride. (C) nitrogen. (D) sodium nitrate. 10-[15z]. The Tyndall effect is associated with: (A) supersaturated solutions. (B) colloids. (C) saline solutions. (D) high osmotic pressure. (E) freezing point depression. 11-[15z]. Which would have the lowest freezing point? (A) 0.10 m CaCl2. (B) 0.10 m NaCl. (C) 0.10 m sucrose. 12-[15z]. Which compound is miscible in water? (A) octane. (B) heptanol. (C) ethyl alcohol. (D) carbon tetrachloride. 13-[15z]. When ethylene glycol (antifreeze) is added to water, the vapor pressure: (A) increases. (B) decreases: (C) stays the same. 14-[15z]. When ethylene glycol (antifreeze) is added to water, the boiling point: (A) increases. (B) decreases: (C) stays the same. 15-[15z]. When ethylene glycol (antifreeze) is added to water, the freezing point: (A) increases. (B) decreases: (C) stays the same. 16-[15z]. Why isn't salt used for an antifreeze, since it is cheap? (A) it doesn't change the boiling and freezing points of water. (B) it has a corrosive effect on the automobile. (C) it prevents the engine from running because of its electrolytic properties. (D) it shorts out the battery. 17-[15z]. Henry's Law deals with the relationship between: (A) the vapor pressure of a solute and the vapor pressure of a solvent. (B) the vapor pressure of a non-ideal solution and the number of particles in the formula of the solute. (C) the osmotic pressure of biological cells and the concentration of electrolytes. (D) the solubility of a gas in water and the external pressure on the solution. 18-[15z] A scuba diver at 100 feet under the surface of the ocean would experience: (A) greater solubility of nitrogen in his blood. (B) lesser solubility of nitrogen in his blood. (C) zero solubility of nitrogen in his blood. (D) chemical reaction of nitrogen with hemoglobin in his blood. 19-[15z]. When you start heating a pan of water, at about 50 C, bubbles start to appear. This is because: (A) the top of the water starts to boil. (B) water is decomposing. (C) ozone is forming. (D) dissolved air is less solubile at higher temperatures. 20-[15z] The molarity of 10g of BaCl2 in 100 mL of solution is: (A) 0.048. (B) 0.48 M. (C) 4.8. (D) 0.144. (E) 1.44. (F) 14.4. 21-[15z]. The molality (remember, of particles!) of 10 g of BaCl2 in 100 mL of water is: (A) 0.048. (B) 0.48 M. (C) 4.8. (D) 0.144. (E) 1.44. (F) 14.4. 22-[15z]. Which is not a colloid? (A) smoke. (B) paint. (C) air. (D) marshmallow. (E) whipped cream. 23-[15z]. A solution is a: (A) homogeneous mixture with the components mixed on a nano level. (B) heterogeneous mixture with the components mixed on a colloidal level. (C) a heterogeneous mixture with the components mixed on a macro level. (D) a single liquid compound. 24-[15z]. Calculate the freezing point ( C) of a solution made by mixing 10 g of sodium chloride in 1000 g of water. (A) -1.28. (B) -0.64. (C) -0.32. (D) -0.16. (E) +0.32. 25-[15z]. Which is isotonic with a 0.5 M solution of NaCl? (A) 0.5 M glucose. (B) 0.5 M BaCl2. (C) 0.5 M KNO3. (D) 0.5 Na2S. (E) 1.0 M NaCl. 26-[15z]. What is the mole fraction of glucose (C6H12O6) in a solution of 17.6 g glucose in 50.0 g of water? (A) 2.77. (B) 0.034. (C) 0.966. (D) 0.267. (E) 0.122. 27-[15z]. A solution is prepared by the addition of water to 17.6 g of glucose until the volume of the solution is exactly 100.0 mL. What is the molarity of the glucose? (A) 9.77. (B) 3.54. (C) 0.977. (D) 1.45. (E) 2.87. 28-[15z]. A colligative property of a solution is one that depends upon: (A) the solubility of the solute. (B) the polarity of the solvent. (C) the type of polyatomic anion of the solute. (D) the concentration of particles in a solution. (E) the molar mass of the solute. 29-[15z]. Which is not a colligative property of a solution? (A) freezing point depression. (B) boiling point elevation. (C) osmotic pressure. (D) vapor pressure. (E) solubility. 30-[15z]. If you wish to prepare a KCl solution which is isotonic with a 9.00% (0.0900 mass fraction) NaCl aqueous solution, the KCl solution would be what percent? (A) 1.27%. (B) 8.71%. (C) 9.00%. (D) 4.78%. (E) 11.5%. 31-[15z]. Dissolve 44.4 g of CaCl2 in 2.00L of water. What is the boiling point (C) of the resulting solution? (A) 100.31. (B) 99.69. (C) 101.11. (D) 100.62. (E) 100.10. 32-[15z]. 500 kg of an ore proves to hold 1 gram of silver. What is the concentration of the silver, in ppm, in the ore? (A) 5. (B) 2. (C) 50. (D) 20. (E) 0.50. 33-[15z]. What is most soluble in water? (A) helium at high temperature. (B) oxygen at low temperature. (C) helium at low temperature. (D) oxygen at high temperature. 34-[15z]. If a sugar solution boils at 100.10C, then it will freeze at what temperature (C)? (A) -0.05. (B) 0.00. (C) -0.36. (D) -0.62. (E) -1.24. 35-[15z]. An animal cell, when placed in pure water, will experience: (A) flow of water into the cell, which will expand. (B) an increase of temperature. (C) a flow of water into the cell, which will shrink. (D) a flow of water from the cell, which will expand. (E) a flow of water from the cell, which will shrink. 36-[15z]. The osmotic pressure of a solution at 25C, prepared by adding 2.50 g of a substance called tabitol to enough water to prepare 100 mL of solution, is 1.79 atm. What is the molar mass of tabitol? (A) 86. (B) 128. (C) 180. (D) 254. (E) 342. 37-[15z]. Which is not a solution? (A) an emulsion of homogenized milk. (B) unpolluted (clear) atmosphere. (C) saline solution. (D) a melt of copper and zinc to form brass. (E) carbonated water. 38-[15z]. Which has the lowest freezing point of the following aqueous solutions? (A) 0.35 m antifreeze. (B) 0.20 m K2SO4. (C) 0.20 m NaCl. (D) 0.50 m sugar. (E) 0.10 m glucose. 39-[15z]. Which has the highest vapor pressure of the following aqueous solutions? (A) 0.35 m antifreeze. (B) 0.50 m sugar. (C) 0.10 m glucose. (D) 0.20 m Na2SO4. (E) 0.20 m NaCl. 40-[15z]. A solution is prepared by dissolving 9.41 g of NHSO3 in 1.00 kg of water, and it is found that it freezes at -0.33 C. Which of the following equations must be the correct expression for the ionization of NaHSO 3? (A) NaHSO3 Na+1 + HSO3-1. (B) NaHSO3 Na+1 + H+1 + SO3-1. (C) NaHSO3 Na+1 + OH-1 + SO2. (D) NaHSO3 Na+1 + 2O-2 + SO+1. (E) NaHSO3 NaO-1 + 3O-2 + S+1. 41-[15z]. A 30.0% weight percent (0.30 fraction) of ammonia (NH3) in water is what mole fraction? (A) 0.312. (B) 2.67. (C) 1.34x10-4. (D) 0.834. (E) 1.45. 42-[15z]. Bromide ion exists in the ocean to the extent of 0.006% (0.00006 mass fraction). What is the concentration of bromide in the ocean, in ppm? (A) 6. (B) 60. (C) 600. (D) 6000. (E) 60,000. 43-[15z]. Calculate the concentration of solute particles in human blood (in molarity) if the osmotic pressure is 7.53 atm at 37C (the temperature of the body). (A) 0.178. (B) 0.00178. (C) 0.492. (D) 0.892. (E) 0.296 M. 44-[15z]. Concentrated sulfuric acid has a density of 1.84 g/cm3 and is 95.0% (0.95 mass fraction) by weight H2SO4. What is the molarity of the H2SO4? (A) 5.68. (B) 2.46. (C) 17.8. (D) 0.562. (E) 0.144. 45-[15z]. If you dissolve 1.00g of CaCl2 in 750 g of water, what is the molarity of chloride ion? (A) 2.84. (B) 1.28. (C) 0.445. (D) 0.096. (E) 0.048. (F) 0.024. (G) 0.012. (H) 0.0060. 46-[15z]. If you dissolve equimolar amounts of NaCl and CaCl 2 in water, the calcium salt lowers the freezing point of the water almost 1.5 times as much as the NaCl. This is because (A) the formula weight of calcium chloride is larger than for sodium chloride. (B) a mole of sodium chloride provides 2 moles of ions whereas a mole of calcium chloride provides three moles of ions. (C) the calcium compound is not ionic. (D) calcium chloride is more soluble in water than is sodium chloride. (E) the calcium compound is volatile while the sodium compound is not volatile. 47-[15z]. If you want to have a water-salt solution that freezes at -10C, how many grams of NaCl will you have to add to 3.0 kg of water? (A) 470 g. (B) 27.4 g. (C) 1270 g. (D) 1.55 g. (E) 0.278 g. 48-[15z]. Which has the highest boiling point of the following aqueous solutions? (A) 0.35 m antifreeze. (B) 0.50 m sugar. (C) 0.20 m KBr. (D) 0.20 m Na2SO4. (E) 0.10 m glucose. 49-[15z]. Which has the highest vapor pressure of the following aqueous solutions at 20C? (A) 0.35 m antifreeze. (B) 0.50 m sugar. (C) 0.20 m KBr. (D) 0.20 m K2CO3. (E) 0.50 m glucose. 50-[15z]. Which is not a colligative property? (A) vapor pressure. (B) molecular mass. (C) osmotic pressure. (D) boiling point elevation. (E) freezing point depression. 51-[15z]. Mix 100 g of water and 100 g H2SO4 to form a new solution. What is the mole fraction of H2SO4? (A) 0.500. (B) 0.176. (C) 0.150. (D) 0.256. (E) 0.280. (F) 0.320. (G) 0.385. 52-[15z]. What is the molality of ethylene glycol (C2H6O2) in a solution prepared by mixing 5.00 g of ethylene glycol in 125 g of water? (A) 0.644. (B) 0.000644. (C) 0.619. (D) 0.000619. (E) 2.45. 53-[15z]. What is the mole fraction of water in a soluion prepared by mixing 12.5 g of H2O with 220 g of acetone (C3H6O)? (A) 0.817. (B) 0.845. (C) 0.183. (D) 0.155. (E) 0.456. 54-[15z]. In which of the following solvents would you expect the solubility of CaCl2 to be the greatest? (A) CH3OH. (B) C6H6 (benzene). (C) CCl4. (D) gasoline. (E) water. 55-[15z]. The presence of a nonvolatile solute in a voltaile solvent will result in: (A) raising the freezing point and lowering the vapor pressure and boiling point. (B) lowering the freezing point and raising the vapor pressure and boiling point. (C) raising the freezing point, vapor pressure, and boiling point. (D) lowering the freezing point and vapor pressure and raising the boiling point. (E) lowering the boiling point and raising the freezing point and vapor pressure. 56-[15z]. Which of the following solutions has the largest osmotic pressure? (A) 0.12 M NaCl. (B) 0.10 M CaCl2. (C) 0.05 M Ba(NO3)2. (D) 0.05 M Al(NO3)3. (E) 0.20 M sucrose. 57-[15z]. A sucrose solution that is isotonic with a saline solution will have the same: (A) color. (B) osmotic pressure. (C) viscosity. (D) molarity of solute. (E) concentration of halide ions. 58-[15z]. Physical properties of solutions that depend only on concentration of particles and not on the identity of the solute particles are known as what kind of properties? (A) electrochemical. (B) thermodynamic. (C) colligative. (D) catalytic. (E) solubility. (F) hyperbaric. 59-[15z]. Which solution is not possible? (A) gas dissolved in a gas. (B) gas dissolved in a liquid. (C) liquid dissolved in a liquid. (D) solid dissolved in a liquid. (E) solid dissolved in a solid. (F) all are possible. 60-[15z]. If 90 micrograms of DDT are dissolved in a cubic meter, what is the concentration in ppb? (A) 900. (B) 90. (C) 9. (D) 0.9. (E) 0.09. (F) 0.009. ****************************************************************************** CHAPTER 16 - Acids and Bases 01-[16z]. What has the lowest pH? (A) tomatoes. (B) gastric juice. (C) coffee. (D) rain. (E) milk of magnesia solution. (F) household ammonia. (G) Drano. 02-[16z]. What has a pH of 4.00? A solution of 1.0x10-4 M (A) acetic acid. (B) rain water. (C) lactic acid. (D) hydrochloric acid. (E) ammonium nitrate. (F) ammonium formate. (G) carbonated water. 03-[16z]. What is the strongest base? (A) sodium acetate. (B) sodium bicarbonate. (C) sodium carbonate. (D) sodium chloride. (E) sodium lactate. (F) sodium fluoride. 04-[16z]. What is the conjugate acid of HC2O4-1? (A) H+1. (B) H3O+1. (C) H2O. (D) H2C2O4. (E) C2O4-2. 05-[16z]. Which of the following is a strong acid? (A) HNO2. (B) HSO3-1. (C) HPO4-2. (D) lactic acid. (E) HNO3. 06-[16z]. Which of the following, when dissolved in water, gives a pH above 7? (A) acetic acid. (B) potassium chloride. (C) ammonium nitrate. (D) H2CO3. (E) sodium lactate. 07-[16z]. If the pH of a solution is 3.5, the pOH is (A) 10.50. (B) 4.50. (C) 14.00. (D) 13.50. (E) 7.50. 08-[16z]. If a vinegar solution has a pH = 4.00, the OH-1 concentration (molarity) is (A) 1 x 10-10. (B) 0. (C) 1 x 10-7. (D) 7 x 10-4. (E) 1 x 10-4. 09-[16z]. A 0.025 M HCl solution has a pH of (A) 2.50. (B) 1.60. (C) 1.25. (D) 3.17. (E) 2.17. 10-[16z]. What is the pH of a 0.45 M solution of benzoic acid? (A) 0.35. (B) 2.27. (C) 4.20. (D) 1.92. (E) 3.65. 11-[16z]. What is the molarity of a boric acid solution whose pH is 5.00? (A) 0.46. (B) 0.88. (C) 0.17. (D) 1.24. (E) 2.35. 12-[16z]. Which of the following is not a polyprotic acid? (A) citric acid. (B) oxalic acid. (C) phenol. (D) sulfuric acid. (E) carbonic acid. 13-[16z]. Which of the following solutions will be basic? (A) sodium nitrate. (B) potassium chloride. (C) NH4Cl. (D) potassium lactate. (E) sodium sulfate. 14-[16z]. What is the value of [H+] of a solution when pH = pOH? (A) 1 x 10-1. (B) 3.5 x 10-7. (C) 7. (D) 1 x 10-7. (E) 1 x 10-14. 15-[16z]. What is [OH-1] for a 0.0050 M KOH solution? (A) 2.5 x 10-5. (B) 0.0025. (C) 2.30. (D) 1 x 10-5. (E) 5.0 x 10-3. 16-[16z]. Calculate the pH of a 0.001 M solution of acetic acid. (A) 2.68. (B) 3.00. (C) 4.34. (D) 5.38. (E) 3.87. 17-[16z]. What is the pH of rain water? (A) 6. (B) 7. (C) 9. (D) 3. (E) 14. 18-[16z]. If an acid is a very strong acid, then the conjugate base will be a (A) very weak base. (B) very strong base. (C) polyprotic base. (D) nonelectrolyte. (E) Periodic Table group 1 (alkali metal group) hydroxide. 19-[16z]. What is the pH of a 0.0030 M solution of ammonia? (A) 3.60. (B) 10.37. (C) 7.00. (D) 9.36. (E) 8.85. 20-[16z]. Which of the following is the strongest acid? (A) H2SO3. (B) H2SO4. (C) H3PO4. (D) HF. (E) HCN. 21-[16z]. What is the pH of a 0.005 M Na3PO4 solution? (A) 10.80. (B) 9.46. (C) 12.04. (D) 13.28. (E) 11.87. (F) 8.28. 22-[16z]. What is the pH of a 0.25M solution of sodium lactate? (A) 2.34. (B) 4.67. (C) 3.88. (D) 7.00. (D) 6.56. (E) 9.29. (F) 8.63. (G) 10.34. 23-[16z]. Which is K2CO3? (A) acidic. (B) basic. (C) neutral. 24-[16z]. Does the following reaction proceed more to the (A) left or to the (B) the right? acetic acid + sodium benzoate sodium acetate + benzoic acid 25-[16z]. Which is the strongest base? (A) NaF. (B) HF. (C) sodium acetate. (D) sodium lactate. (E) sodium cyanide. (F) HI. 26-[16z]. What is the conjugate base of acetic acid? (A) sulfate. (B) hydroxide. (C) acetate. (D) hydronium. (E) water. (F) H+. 27-[16z]. What is the pH of tomato juice? (A) 2. (B) 4. (C) 6. (D) 7. (E) 8. (F) 11. 28-[16z]. Which is not a strong acid? (A) sulfuric acid. (B) nitric acid. (C) hydrochloric acid. (D) hydrofluoric acid. (E) hydroiodic acid. 29-[16z]. Bubble carbon dioxide into a saturated solution of calcium oxide. What happens? (A) Nothing. (B) calcium hydroxide precipitates out. (C) calcium carbonate precipitates out. (D) the solution effervesces (i.e., lots of bubbles). (E) the pH of the solution increases. (F) the solution turns red. (G) the solution turns blue. 30-[16z]. The conjugate base of a very strong acid would be (A) a very strong base. (B) a very weak base. 31-[16z]. A solution of potassium chloride is (A) acidic. (B) basic. (C) neutral. 32-[16z]. The pH of a pyridine solution is (A) zero. (B) 7. (C) less than 7. (D) greater than 7. 33-[16z]. What is the molarity of a Ca(OH)2 solution whose pH = 11.00? (A) 0.5. (B) 0.1. (C) 0.05. (D) 0.01. (E) 0.005. (F) 0.001. (G) 0.0005. 34-[16z]. What is the molarity of a Ca(OH)2 solution whose pH = 11.88? (A) 1.41 x 10-2 . (B) 2.82 x 10-2. (C) 1.55 x 10-3. (D) 3.79 x 10-3. (E) 9.23 x 10-4. (F) 2.82 x 10-5. (G) 1.00 x 10-7. 35-[16z]. What is the molarity of a HCl solution whose pH = 2.50? (A) 1.20 x 10-1. (B) 1.08 x 10-2. (C) 3.16 x 10-3. (D) 7.27 x 10-4. (E) 4.19 x 10-5. (F) 1.18 x 10-6. (G) 1.00 x 10-7. 36-[16z]. What is the molarity of a solution of propionic acid whose pH = 5.00? (A) 1.00 x 10-5. (B) 1.30 x 10-5. (C) 1.56 x 10-6. (D) 7.69 x 10-6. (E) 4.52 x 10-7. (F) 5.68 x 10-8. (G) 3.32 x 10-9. 37-[16z]. What is the pH of a 1.23 x 10-3 M solution of ammonia? (A) 1.49. (B) 3.83. (C) 5.72. (D) 7.00. (E) 8.10. (F) 10.17. (G) 12.55. 38-[16z]. What is the pH of a 0.0045 M solution of sodium benzoate? (A) 4.56. (B) 6.07. (C) 7.00. (D) 7.93. (E) 8.34. (F) 9.39 (G) 10.45. 39-[16z]. What is the pH of 2.00 g of acetic acid in 250 mL solution? (A) 7.00. (B) 6.89. (C) 5.11. (D) 4.26. (E) 3.87. (F) 2.81. (G) 1.92. 40-[16z]. What is the pH of 2.00 moles of acetic acid in 250 mL solution? (A) 1.92. (B) 2.81. (C) 3.87. (D) 4.26. (E) 5.11. (F) 6.89. (G) 7.00. 41-[16z]. What is the pH of a 1.1 x 10-2 M solution of nitric acid? (A) 1.96. (B) 2.34. (C) 3.57. (D) 4.23. (E) 4.49. (F) 4.88. (G) 5.21. (H) 5.37. 42-[16z]. What is the pH of a 4.6 x 10-3 M solution of nitric acid? (A) 5.37. (B) 5.21. (C) 4.88. (D) 4.49. (E) 4.23. (F) 3.57. (G) 2.34. (H) 1.96. 43-[16z]. What is the pH of a 0.0082 M solution of KOH? (A) 2.09. (B) 4.67. (C) 6.03. (D) 7.00. (E) 9.11. (F) 11.91. (G) 13.20. 44-[16z]. Which is a strong acid? (A) ammonia. (B) hydrochloric acid. (C) HCN. (D) tartaric acid. (E) ascorbic acid. (F) hydrofluoric acid. (G) calcium oxide. 45-[16z]. Which is NH4NO3? (A) somewhat basic. (B) somewhat acidic. (C) perfectly neutral. 46-[16z]. Which is the strongest base of the following group? (A) NaF. (B) HF. (C) sodium acetate. (D) sodium lactate. (E) HI. (F) sodium cyanide. (G) Ca(OH)2. 47-[16z]. What is the pH of a 0.01 M solution of Ca(OH)2? (A) 12.3. (B) 12.0. (C) 11.7. (D) 11.3. (E) 11.0 (F) 10.6. 48-[16z]. Which of the following is the most acidic? (A) NaH. (B) CH4. (C) SnH4. (D) H2S. (E) HCl. 49-[16z]. Which has the lowest pH? (A) NH4Cl. (B) NaNO3. (C) BaI2. (D) NH3. (E) Na2CO3. 50-[16z]. What is the percent dissociation of a 0.1 M HCl solution? (A) 0%. (B) 10%. (C) 50%. (D) 90%. (E) 100%. 51-[16z]. Which is the most basic? (A) Al(OH)3. (B) B(OH)3 . (C) ClOH. (D) CsOH. (E) SO2(OH)2. 52-[16z]. The sodium salt of which acid would have two sodium atoms in its chemical formula? (A) acetic acid. (B) tartaric acid. (C) benzoic acid. (D) formic acid. (E) lactic acid. (F) hydrocyanic acid. 53-[16z]. If you were asked to calculate the pH of a 0.1 M solution of each acid below, then for which acid would you need the use of a quadratic equation to give an accurate answer? (A) HCN. (B) acetic acid. (C) HCl. (D) benzoic acid. (E) boric acid. (F) iodic acid. 54-[16z]. What is Kb for KCN? (A) 6.0 x 10-2. (B) 2.0 x 10-5. (C) 4.3 x 10-7. (D) 7.2 x 10-9. (E) 4.9 x 10-10. ****************************************************************************** CHAPTER 17 - Additional Aqueous Equilibria 01-[17z]. A solution of 0.1M lactic acid/0.1M sodium lactate has a pH of: (A) 2.67. (B) 3.24. (C) 4.98. (D) 3.85. (E) 4.02. (F) 5.96. (G) 5.17. (H) 6.03. 02-[17z]. If Na2S solution is dripped into a solution which contains cobalt nitrate, nickel nitrate, lead(II) nitrate, and zinc nitrate, which compound precipitates first? (A) cobalt sulfide. (B) lead(II) sulfide. (C) nickel sulfide. (D) zinc sulfide. (E) sodium sulfide. 03-[17z]. Knowing the Ksp of Mn(OH)2 is 1.6 x 10-13, what is the molar solubility of Mn(OH)2? (A) 7.5x10-5. (B) 4.0x10-7. (C) 3.4x10-5. (D) 2.0x10-7. (E) 7.2x10-6. (F) 2.1x10-6. 04-[17z]. Which of the following is not a buffered solution? (A) sodium acetate/acetic acid. (B) phosphoric acid/sodium dihydrogen phosphate. (C) ammonia/ammonium chloride. (D) lactic acid/potassium lactate. (E) sodium chloride/hydrochloric acid. 05-[17z]. As you titrate a 0.1 M acetic acid solution with 0.005 M sodium hydroxide, and when you are exactly half way through the titration, what is the pH? (A) 2.87. (B) 7.00. (C) 4.94. (D) 6.01. (E) 4.74 06-[17z]. A buffer is prepared by adding 20.0 g of acetic acid and 20.0 g of sodium acetate to enough water to form 2.00 L of a solution. What is the pH? (A) 3.35. (B) 2.30. (C) 4.88. (D) 4.60. (E) 4.74. 07-[17z]. A buffer solution (1.00 liter) of carbonic acid/sodium bicarbonate (H2CO3/NaHCO3) with a pH of 6.20 is diluted to 2.00 liter by adding 1.00 liter of water. What is the new pH? (A) 6.36. (B) 7.00. (C) 6.60. (D) 6.20. (E) 7.20. 08-[17z]. Assume the buffer system in blood is carbonic acid/sodium bicarbonate is pH = 7.41. What is the molar ratio of HCO3-1 to H2CO3? (A) 0.01. (B) 1. (C) 11. (D) 7. (E) 3. 09-[17z]. What is the pH of a solution which is prepared by adding 0.10 mole of ammonia and 0.18 mole of ammonium chloride to water to make up 1.00 liter of solution? (A) 5. (B) 7. (C) 9. (D) 11. (E) 3. 10-[17z]. What is a salt that would decrease the ionization of HOCl in solution? (A) NaCl. (B) NaOCl. (C) Na2O. (D) NaOH. (E) BaCl2. 11-[17z]. If one adds NaNO2 to a solution of HNO2, then: (A) the pH decreases. (B) the pH increases. (C) the Ka of HNO2 decreases. (D) the Ka of HNO2 increases. (E) the pH remains the same. 12-[17z]. How many moles of sodium hypobromite (NaOBr) should be added to 1.00 L of 0.050 M hypobromous acid (HOBr) to form a buffer solution of pH 8.80? (A) 0.079. (B) 0.050. (C) 0.021. (D) 0.010. (E) 0.110. 13-[17z]. A saturated solution (1 liter) of calcium oxalate (CaC 2O4) holds 0.0061 gram of calcium oxalate. What is the Ksp of calcium oxalate? (The ions are Ca+2 and C2O4-2). (A) 2.3 x 10-9. (B) 7.8 x 10-2. (C) 6.3 x 10-5. (D) 3.7 x 10-5. (E) 4.8 x 10-7. 14-[17z]. What is the molar solubility of barium carbonate? (A) 1.7 x 10-3. (B) 2.5 x 10-5. (C) 5.0 x 10-9. (D) 2.5 x 10-17. (E) 7.1 x 10-5. 15-[17z]. What is the molar solubility of Ba(IO3)2? (the ions are Ba+2 and IO3-1). (A) 3.0 x 10-5. (B) 8.4 x 10-4. (C) 1.7 x 10-5. (D) 6.0 x 10-6. (E) 5.3 x 10-4. 16-[17z]. What is the molar solubility of Ba(IO3)2 in a solution of 0.010 M NaIO3? (A) 3.0 x 10-5. (B) 8.4 x 10-4. (C) 5.3 x 10-4. (D) 6.0 x 10-6. (E) 1.2 x 10-4. 17-[17z]. What is the molar solubility of Ba(IO3)2 in a solution of 0.01 M Ba(NO3)2? (A) 3.0 x 10-5. (B) 8.4 x 10-4. (C) 5.3 x 10-4. (D) 1.2 x 10-4. (E) 6.0 x 10-6. 18-[17z]. What is the molar solubility of Ba(IO3)2 in a solution of 0.01 M NaNO3? (A) 3.0 x 10-5. (B) 8.4 x 10-4. (C) 5.3 x 10-4. (D) 1.2 x 10-4. (E) 6.0 x 10-6. 19-[17z]. Add a solution of AgNO3 to a saturated solution of AgCl. What happens? (A) Nothing. (B) AgOH precipitates. (C) AgCl precipitates. (D) AgNO3 precipitates. (E) NaCl precipitates. 20-[17z]. Add a solution of NaCl to a solution of AgCl. What happens? (A) Nothing. (B) AgCl precipitates. (C) NaOH precipitates. (D) AgNO3 precipitates. (E) NaCl precipitates. 21-[17z]. Add a solution of NaNO3 to a solution of AgCl. What happens? (A) NaNO3 precipitates. (B) nothing. (C) AgNO3 precipitates. (D) NaCl precipitates. (E) AgCl precipitates. 22-[17z]. Which of the following has the greatest molar solubility? (A) silver sulfate. (B) silver sulfide. (C) silver chloride. (D) silver bromide. (E) silver iodide. 23-[17z]. Sailors out at sea use potassium soap (potassium stearate, K+ -O2C(CH2)16CH3) instead of sodium soap (sodium stearate, Na+ -O2C(CH2)16CH3) to wash the deck because the sodium soap does not work with ocean water. This is explained by the common ion effect because: (A) corals exude huge quantities of sodium stearate. (B) sodium soap is not soluble in ocean water but potassium soap is soluble in ocean water. (C) the ocean is saturated with stearate ions. (D) potassium stearate is precipitated by increased free energy of the salty water. (E) the Ksp of potassium stearate is much larger than the Ksp of sodium stearate. 24-[17z]. Take 0.5 L of a 0.1 M solution of NaH2PO4 solution and add 0.2 L of a 0.2 M NaOH solution. What is the pH of the resulting solution? (A) 7.02. (B) 7.40. (C) 7.80. (D) 8.20. (E) 8.80. (F) 9.40. (G) 9.80. (H) 10.20. (I) 11.05. 25-[17z]. A solution of 1.5M lactic acid/0.1M sodium lactate has a pH of: (A) 2.67. (B) 3.24. (C) 4.98. (D) 3.85. (E) 4.02. (F) 5.96. (G) 5.17. (H) 6.03. 26-[17z]. Calculate the Ksp of cupric carbonate (CuCO3) if its molar solubility is 1.52 x 10-5. (A) 0.15. (B) 0.0155. (C) 4.00 x 10-3. (D) 1.5 x 10-5. (E) 5.04 x 10-6. (F) 2.00 x 10-7. (G) 5.19 x 10-8. (H) 2.31 x 10-10. 27-[17z]. If the pH of a buffer solution containing acetic acid/sodium acetate = 5.00, and the molarity of acetic acid is 0.10, then what is the molarity of sodium acetate? (A) 0.0064. (B) 0.034. (C) 0.078. (D) 0.10. (E) 0.18. (F) 0.28. (G) 0.45. 28-[17z]. Prepare 1 liter of a saturated solution of lanthanum fluoride. Now add a dilute solution of sodium fluoride (0.01M). What will happen? (A) Sodium fluoride will precipitate out. (B) lanthanum fluoride will precipitate out. (C) the solution will become unsaturated. 29-[17z]. Prepare 1.00 liter of a solution containing 0.100 mole of acetic acid and 0.0500 mole of sodium acetate. Measure the pH. Now dilute the solution two-fold, that is, add 1.0 liter of water to make up 2.00 liters of solution. What happens to the pH between the two measurements? (A) it increases by 0.50. (B) it increases by 1.00. (C) it increases by 1.50. (D) it decreases by 0.50. (E) it decreases by 1.00. (F) it decreases by 1.50. (G) it remains unchanged. 30-[17z]. What is the molar solubility of silver sulfate? (A) 0.0155. (B) 4.00 x 10-3. (C) 1.5 x 10-5. (D) 5.04 x 10-6. (E) 2.00 x 10-7. (F) 5.19 x 10-8. (G) 2.31 x 10-10. (H) 0.15. 31-[17z]. What is the molar solubility of lanthanum fluoride in a solution of 0.10 M NaF? (A) 4.0 x 10-3. (B) 1.5 x 10-5. (C) 9.3 x 10-6. (D) 2.0 x 10-10. (E) 5.2 x 10-12. (F) 2.0 x 10-16. 32-[17z]. What is the pH of a saturated solution of calcium hydroxide? (A) 14.00. (B) 13.45. (C) 12.97. (D) 12.37. (E) 12.07. (F) 11.38. (G) 10.39. 33-[17z]. What is the pH of 1.00 g of propionic acid and 1.0 g of sodium propionate in 500 mL of solution? (A) 3.78. (B) 4.77. (C) 4.89. (D) 5.01. (E) 5.13. (F) 5. 25. (G) 5.37. 34-[17z]. What is the pH of a solution that is 0.5 M acetic acid and 0.25 M sodium acetate? (A) 5.37. (B) 5.25. (C) 5.13. (D) 5.01. (E) 4.89. (F) 4.77. (G) 4.44. 35-[17z]. What is the molar solubility of lanthanum fluoride? (A) 4.0 x 10-3. (B) 1.5 x 10-5. (C) 9.3 x 10-6. (D) 2.0 x 10-10. (E) 5.2 x 10-12. (F) 2.0 x 10-16. 36-[17z]. What happens when NaOH is added to an aqueous buffer solution containing NH3 and NH4Cl? (A) the pH decreases. (B) The NH4+1 concentration increases. (C) the concentration of H+1 decreases. (D) no reaction occurs with the buffer solution and the NaOH. (E) The {log [base]/[acid]} term of the buffer equation decreases. 37-[17z]. The net equation describing the addition of NaOH to a buffer solution containing HCO 3-1 and CO3-2 is: (A) OH-1 + CO3-2 HCO3-1 (B) OH-1 + HCO3-1 H2O + CO3-2 (C) 2 Na+1 + CO3-2 Na2CO3 (D) Na+1 + HCO3-1 NaHCO3 (E) Na+1 + H2O H+1 + NaOH 38-[17z]. What is the pH of a 0.15 M HCl solution at the very beginning of its titration with a 0.150 M NaOH solution? (A) 0.150. (B) -0.150. (C) 0.82. (D) -0.82. (E) 13.2. (F) 7.0. 39-[17z]. What is the equivalence point pH of the solution formed by the tiration of 50.00 mL of 0.150 M HCl using 50.00 mL of 0.150 M NaOH? (A) 3.22. (B) 4.53. (C) 7.00. (D) 8.26. (E) 8.88. 40-[17z]. What is the equivalence point pH of the solution formed by the titration of 50.00 mL of 0.150 M acetic acid using 25.00 mL of 0.300 M NaOH? (A) 3.22. (B) 4.53. (C) 7.00. (D) 8.26. (E) 8.88. 41-[17z]. What is the solubility-product expression for PbI2(s) Pb+2(aq) + 2I-1(aq ) ? (A) Ksp = [Pb+2][I-1] (B) Ksp = [Pb+2]2[I-1] (C) Ksp = [Pb+2][I-1]/[PbI2] (D) Ksp = [Pb+2][I-1]2 (E) Ksp = [Pb+2][I-1]2/[PbI2] 42-[17z]. If x equals the solubility of Ag2CO3 in moles per liter, then how is the value of Ksp for Ag2CO3 related to the value of x? Ksp = (A) 4x3. (B) x3. (C) 2x3. (D) x2. (E) 2x2. 43-[17z]. The pH of a standard solution of H2S is too low to precipitate ZnS. Which of the following could be added to the solution to cause ZnS to precipitate? (A) HCl. (B) HNO3. (C) H2S. (D) NaCl. (E) NaOH. 44-[17z]. How could we increase the solubility of BaCO3 in water? (A) add Ba(NO3)2. (B) add Na2CO3. (C) add NaOH. (D) add HCl. (E) add NaCl. 45-[17z]. leChtelier's principle applies to all of these except (A) the common-ion effect. (B) the buffer equation. (C) titration curves. (D) the kinetic order of a reaction. (E) the solubility of CaCO 3 vs. pH. 46-[17z]. As the pH of an aqueous solution is varied from 7 to 1, the solubility of CaCO 3 is: (A) increased. (B) decreased. (C) unchanged. ****************************************************************************** CHAPTER 18 - Thermodynamics: Directionality of Chemical Reactions 01-[18z]. If a reaction is exothermic, then: (A) G is positive. (B) G is negative. (C) H is positive. (D) H is negative. (E) S is positive. (F) S is negative. 02-[18z]. A process is exothermic when: (A) the free energy change is positive. (B) the free energy change is negative. (C) the enthalpy change is positive. (D) the enthalpy change is negative. (E) the entropy change is positive. (F) the entropy change is negative. 03-[18z]. When G for a chemical reaction is positive, then: (A) Keq is negative. (B) Keq is less than 1. (C) Keq is greater than 1. (D) H is negative. 04-[18z]. When you stretch a rubber band, then G is: (A) positive. (B) negative. (C) zero. 05-[18z] When you stretch a rubber band, then H is: (A) positive. (B) negative. (C) zero. 06-[18z]. When you stretch a rubber band, then S is: (A) positive. (B) negative. (C) zero. 07-[18z]. For ice melting, in a mixture of ice-water at 0C, G is: (A) positive. (B) negative. (C) zero. 08-[18z]. For ice melting, in a mixture of ice-water at 0C, H is: (A) positive. (B) negative. (C) zero. 09-[18z]. For ice melting, in a mixture of ice-water at 0C, S is: (A) positive. (B) negative. (C) zero. 10-[18z]. For photosynthesis, G is: (A) positive. (B) negative. (C) zero. 11-[18z]. For photosynthesis, H is: (A) positive. (B) negative. (C) zero. 12-[18z]. For photosynthesis, S is: (A) positive. (B) negative. (C) zero. 13-[18z]. Calculate G (in kJ) at 25 C for the reaction Fe(s) + Cl2(g) FeCl2(s), given the following thermodynamic data, Fe(s) S = 27.1 J/mol-K; Cl2(g) S = 223 J/mol-K; FeCl2(s) H = -342 kJ/mol, S = 118 J/mol-K. (A) -342. (B) -303. (C) -356. (D) -407. (E) -512. 14-[18z]. Could this reaction ever become spontaneous? Fe(s) + Cl2(g) FeCl2(s), given the following thermodynamic data, Fe(s) S = 27.1 J/mol-K; Cl2(g) S = 223 J/mol-K; FeCl2(s) H = -342 kJ/mol, S = 118 J/mol-K. (A) no. (B) only if you cool it down below liquid nitrogen temperatures. (C) only if you heat it up to boiling water temperatures. (D) only if you add a catalyst. (E) it already is spontaneous at room temperature. 15-[18z]. Which, when dissolved in water, exhibits a endothermic solution process? (A) MgSO4. (B) NH4NO3. (C) NaCl. (D) sucrose. 16-[18z]. Which is true? (A) All spontaneous solutions are exothermic: (B) all spontaneous solutions are endothermic. (C) most spontaneous solutions are exothermic. (D) most spontaneous solutions are endothermic. 17-[18z]. A process is exothermic when: (A) G is positive. (B) G is negative. (C) H is positive. (D) H is negative. (E) S is positive. (F) S is negative. 18-[18z]. A process is spontaneous when: (A) the free energy change is positive. (B) the free energy change is negative. (C) the enthalpy change is positive. (D) the enthalpy change is negative. (E) the entropy change is positive. (F) the entropy change is negative. 19-[18z]. An example of a process that is simultaneously endothermic and spontaneous is: (A) respiration. (B) photosynthesis. (C) dissolution of ammonium salt in water. (D) explosion of dynamite. (E) neutralization of acid with base. (F) hydrogenation of fatty acids. 20-[18z].What is the standard enthalpy of formation of graphite (carbon) at 25C? (A) positive. (B) negative. (C) zero. 21-[18z] The standard entropy of formation would be greatest for a: (A) gas. (B) liquid. (C) solid. 22-[18z]. For the reaction CO(g) + O2(g ) CO2(g), the entropy: (A) increases. (B) decreases. (C) stays the same. 23-[18z]. "The entropy of a pure crystalline substance at absolute zero is zero." This is known as the: (A) first law of thermodynamics. (B) second law of thermodynamics. (C) third law of thermodynamics. (C) fourth law of thermodynamics. 24-[18z]. When G for a chemical reaction is negative, then: (A) Keq is negative. (B) Keq is less than 1. (C) Keq is greater than 1. (D) H is negative. 25-[18z]. When a system becomes more disordered, then: (A) enthalpy increases. (B) enthalpy decreases. (C) entropy increases. (D) entropy decreases. 26-[18z]. When two gases are mixed together, the entropy: (A) increases. (B) decreases. (C) remains the same. 27-[18z]. In water, hydrogen bonding: (A) increases the entropy. (B) decreases the entropy. 28-[18z]. From values of Hf and Sf, calculate the temperature ( C) at which the process CaCO3(s) CaO(s ) + CO2(g) becomes spontaneous. (A) 101. (B) 434. (C) 833. (D) 1023. (E) 1790. (F) 2300. 29-[18z]. Calculate G (in kJ) for the reaction Mg(s) + O2(g) MgO(s) at 25C. (A) -569.5. (B) -634.1. (C) -601.8. (D) -666.4. (E) -537.2. 30-[18z]. A process cannot be spontaneous if: (A) enthalpy is positive and entropy is negative. (B) enthalpy is positive and entropy is positive. (C) enthalpy is negative and entropy is positive. (D) enthalpy is negative and entropy is negative. (E) the temperature is below 0 Celsius. 31-[18z]. Which of these is not a spontaneous process? (A) photosynthesis. (B) When a piece of metal at 140C is placed in water at 40C, heat flows from the metal to the water and the water gets hotter. (C) A bottle of methane is opened and the gas mixes throughout the atmosphere of the room. (D) salt dissolves in water. (E) Ice melts at 10C. 32-[18z]. The Second Law of Thermodynamics states that: (A) heat is conserved. (B) all processes must be spontaneous. (C) enthalpy is conserved. (D) entropy is conserved. (E) processes tend toward disorder. 33-[18z]. Which has the greatest increase in entropy? (A) 1 g of ice is warmed by 1. (B) 1 g of ice is melted. (C) 1 g of water is warmed by 1. (D) 1 g of water freezes. (E) 1 g of water evaporates. 34-[18z]. For the following reaction, CaCO3(s) CaO(s) + CO2(g), (A) a catalyst must be used. (B) equilibrium is impossible. (C) entropy remains the same. (D) entropy increases. (E) entropy decreases. 35-[18z]. A spontaneous process is defined as one where: (A) entropy decreases. (B) enthalpy increases. (C) enthalpy decreases. (D) free energy decreases. (E) free energy increases. 36-[18z]. Which is zero? (A) the entropy of an element at 0C. (B) the standard enthalpy of formation of a compound. (C) the entropy of a substance at absolute zero. (D) the free energy for a spontaneous process. (E) the enthalpy for an exothermic process. 37-[18z]. When an equilibrium is established for a process, then: (A) H for the process must be zero. (B) G for the process must be zero. (C) S for the process must be zero. (D) G for the process must be positive. (E) G for the process must be negative. 38-[18z]. When a liquid evaporates, such as freon or sweat, the process is: (A) accompanied by decreased entropy. (B) endothermic. (C) exothermic. (D) an oxidation. (E) a chemical change. 39-[18z]. Calculate G at 25C (in kJ) for the process (A) +139. (B) -312. (C) -36. (D) -567. (E) +256. SiCl4(g) + 2 Mg(s) 2MgCl2(s) + Si(s). 40-[18z]. At what temperature in C would the reaction C(graphite) C(diamond ) be spontaneous? (A) 1502. (B) 6704. (C) never. (D) at all temperatures. (E) 290. (F) 563. 41-[18z]. Use thermodynamic equations to calculate the boiling point (C) of methyl alcohol. (A) +100. (B) 121. (C) -4. (D) +19. (E) +64. (F) +78. 42-[18z]. The entropy for the reaction C2H2(g) + 2H2(g) C2H6(g) is: (A) always negative. (B) either positive or negative, depending on the temperature. (C) always positive. (D) zero. 43-[18z]. Which of the following experiences an decrease of entropy? (A) sugar crystals precipitate from a solution of sugar-water. (B) fragrance of perfume spreading through a room. (C) sugar dissolving in water. (D) evaporating gasoline. (E) hot and cold water mixing to form room temperature water. 44-[18z]. The first law of thermodynamics tells us that (A) Spontaneous processes have a negative free energy. (B) Equilibrium reactions have zero free energy. (C) the entropy of a perfect crystal at 0K is zero. (D) Processes tend toward disorder. (E) Energy is conserved. 45-[18z]. What process is spontaneous at low temperatures but nonspontaneous at higher temperatures? (A) 3O2(g) 2O3(g). (B) 2O3(g) 3O2(g). (C) H2O(l) H2O(g). (D) H2O(g) H2O(l). 46-[18z]. Calculate G (in kJ) for the reaction Mg(s) + O2(g) MgO(s) at 300K. (A) -813. (B) -1256. (C) -481. (D) -540. (E) -707. (F) -569. 47-[18z]. For the reaction Mg(s) + O2(g) MgO(s) at 300 K, the reaction at 500C is: (A) nonspontaneous and endothermic. (B) nonspontaneous and exothermic. (C) spontaneous and endothermic. (D) spontaneous and exothermic. 48-[18z]. The two reactions Cu2S(s) 2Cu(s) + S(s), and S(s) + O2(g) SO2(g), can be coupled to produce metallic copper in a spontaneous process. In an analogous fashion, the combusion of glucose can be coupled with the ADP/ATP reaction to convert ADP to the more highly reactive ATP. Which two reactions are nonspontaneous? (A) 2Cu(s) + S(s) Cu2S(s), and ATP ADP. (B) 2Cu(s) + S(s) Cu2S(s), and ADP ATP. (C) Cu2S(s) 2Cu(s) + S(s), and ATP ADP. (D) Cu2S(s) 2Cu(s) + S(s), and ADP ATP. 49-[18z]. For the following reaction, calculate the free energy G (in kJ) at 25 C. N 2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g). (A) -92.4. (B) +92.4. (C) -59.9. (D) +59.9. (E) -32.5. (F) +32.5. 50-[18z]. For the following reaction, H is -249 kJ and S is -278 J/K. Calculate the free energy G (in kJ) for the following process at 25 C. N2(g) + 3F2( g) 2NF3(g). (A) -166. (B) +166. (C) -249. (D) +249. (E) -82.8. (F) +82.8. (G) +82595. 51-[18z]. The reaction Mg(OH)2(s) MgO(s ) + H2O(g) is nonspontaneous at room temperature, but only barely so, with a G of +35 kJ. Not knowing the value of H and S for this reaction, nevertheless you should be able to predict how to make the reaction spontaneous. You should: (A) decrease the temperature. (B) increase the pressure. (C) increase the amount of Mg(OH) 2. (D) increase the temperature. (E) add a strong acid. (F) add elemental magnesium. 52-[18z]. A reaction will be spontaneous at all temperatures when: (A) both the enthalpy and entropy are positive; (B) both the enthalpy and entropy are negative; (C) the enthalpy is positive and the entropy is negative; (D) the enthalpy is negative and the entropy is positive. 53-[18z]. Calculate Hf (in kJ) for BaSO4(s), at 25C., knowing that the H for the reaction of barium oxide(s) with sulfuric acid(l) to form barium sulfate(s) and liquid water is -391 kJ. (A) -348; (B) -1472; (C) -673; (D) -953; (E) -230; (F) -1088. 54-[18z]. For which is G = 0? (A) Boiling water at 0C; (B) A reaction where both the enthalpy change is negative and the entropy change is positive; (C) an equilibrium reaction where K = 1; (D) a fresh battery; (E) photosynthesis; (G) combustion of wood. 55-[18z]. The process of freezing water ice involves: (A) positive enthalpy change; (B) negative enthalpy change; (C) the value of the enthalpy change depends on the temperature. 56-[18z]. The process of melting ice involves: (A) positive enthalpy change; (B) negative enthalpy change; (C) the value of the enthalpy change depends on the temperature. 57-[18z]. When is entropy of a substance zero? (A) At 0C; (B) at -273C; (C) for an element at 25C; (D) when equilibrium is reached; (E) a zero-order reaction; (F) for any solid. 58-[18z]. Which does not involve an increase in entropy? (A) the evaporation of water; (B) salt dissolving in water; (C) wood burning; (D) mixing alcohol and water; (E) the reaction where hydrogen burns in oxygen to form water. 59-[18z]. At what temperature does photosynthesis become spontaneous? (A) never. (B) at all temperatures. (C) -45. (D) 187C. (E) 340. (F) 789. (G) 923. 60-[18z]. We mix a solution of lead nitrate and sodium sulfide and immediately copious amounts of lead sulfide precipitate out. Since obviously this process is spontaneous, we are able to conclude for the process PbS(aq) PbS(s) that: (A) S must be positive. (B) S is negative and H is positive. (C) S is negative and H must be negative as well. (D) fundamental thermodynamic equations do not apply. (E) the second law of thermodynamics does not apply in solutions. 61-[18z]. For H2O(l) H2O(s), (A) H and S are both positive. (B) H and S are both negative. (C) H is positive and S is negative. (D) H is negative and S is positive. 62-[18z]. Estimate the boiling point for HCl(l), given that Hvap = 16.13 kJ/mol and Svap = 85.77 J/mol-K. (A) -272C. (B) -188C. (C) -85C. (D) 26C. (E) 0C. (F) +100C. (G) +188C. 63-[18z]. Use the equation G = -RT lnKeq and thermodynamic data to calculate Keq for the reaction H2(g) + Br2( g) 2HBr(g) at 25C. (A) 1 x 10-9. (B) 1 x 10-4. (C) 1. (D) 1 x 104. (E) 1 x 109. (F) 1 x 1014. (G) 1 x 1019. 64-[18z]. Use the equation G = -RT lnKeq and thermodynamic data to calculate Keq for the reaction 2NO2(g) N2O4(g) at 25 C. (A) 0.086. (B) 0.086. (C) 8.6. (D) 86. (E) 860. (F) 8600. 65-[18z]. Frozen N2O4 is colorless. As it heats up, a sample of N2O4 melts and then becomes a vapor, and becomes increasingly dark with a red-brown color. What is happening? (A) The emission spectrum of N2O4 begins as it melts. (B) N2O4 reacts with the glass container to form colored silicates. (C) N2O4 begins to dissociate into NO2, which is colored. (D) The conjugate acid of N2O4 is red-brown. (E) Kinetic-molecular theory explains how electronic transitions begin in N2O4 in the gas phase. ****************************************************************************** CHAPTER 19 - Electrochemistry and Its Applications 01-[19z]. What is the cathode of a silver-nickel battery? (A) silver. (B) nickel. 02-[19z]. What is oxidized in a silver-nickel battery? (A) silver. (B) nickel. 03-[19z]. What is the voltage of a silver-nickel battery? (A) 1.08. (B) 0.80. (C) 0.28. (D) 0.52. 04-[19z]. Which would be the best choice for a sacrificial anode? (A) gaseous chlorine. (B) zinc. (C) silver. (D) nickel. (D) ozone. (E) copper. 05-[19z]. What is the voltage of the reaction used in car batteries, PbO2 + Pb + 2H2SO4 2PbSO4 + 2H2O? (A) 12.0 (B) 24.0. (C) 6.0. (D) 3.0. (E) 2.0. (F) 1.0. 06-[19z]. What substance is the cathode of an automobile battery? (A) Pb. (B) sulfuric acid. (C) PbO2. (D) lead sulfate. (E) steel (the casing). 07-[19z]. An example of electrolysis is: (A) converting water to hydrogen and oxygen. (B) converting carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide. (C) converting unburned fuel to carbon dioxide and water. (D) converting nitrogen oxides to nitrogen and oxygen 08-[19z]. In the reaction Mn +2 MnO4-1, Mn+2 is: (A) oxidized. (B) reduced. (C) neither. 09-[19z]. The oxidation number of Cl in ClO-1 is: (A) +1. (B) +2. (C) +3. (D) +4. (E) +5. (F) +6. (G) +7. 10-[19z]. Which reaction below is not a redox reaction? (A) Ba(OH)2 + 2HCl BaCl2 + H2O (B) I2O5 + 5CO I2 + 5CO2 (C) Fe Fe+3 (D) H2O2 + C2H4 H2O + C2H4O 11-[19z]. Which metal is used to coat galvanized iron? (A) Zn. (B) Al. (C) Cr. (D) Ni. (E) Ti. (F) Pt. (G) Au. 12-[19z]. What is the voltage of a Li-Cd battery? (A) 3.05. (B) 3.45. (C) 2.65. (D) 2.10. (E) 1.60. 13-[19z]. Which is the anode of a Li-Cd battery? (A) lithium. (B) cadmium. (C) salt bridge. (D) voltmeter. 14-[19z]. Which electrode is oxidized in a Li-Cd battery? (A) lithium. (B) cadmium. (C) salt bridge. 15-[19z]. Gold will react chemically with (A) oxygen. (B) chlorine. (C) ozone. (D) iodine. 16-[19z]. What metal (element) is the anode of an ordinary alkaline battery? (A) manganese. (B) iron. (C) zinc. (D) nickel. (E) silver. (F) sodium. 17-[19z]. Stainless steel is a mixture of iron and what else? (A) zinc and nickel. (B) nickel and chromium. (C) titanium and zirconium. (D) cobalt and manganese. (E) vanadium and scandium. (F) niobium and copper. 18-[19z]. Electrolysis of molten lithium bromide will give (A) water and salt. (B) elemental lithium and elemental bromine. (C) lithium bromate. (D) lithium batteries. (E) crystalline lithium bromide. 19-[19z]. In which will you observe a reaction? (A) a piece of silver in a solution of AuCl 3. (B) a piece of gold in a solution of AgNO3. (C) a piece of silver in a solution of AgNO3. (D) a piece of gold in a solution of AuCl3. 20-[19z]. For the reaction H2SO3 SO4-2, sulfur is (A) oxidizied. (B) reduced. 21-[19z] For the reaction O2 OH-1 , oxygen is (A) oxidized. (B) reduced. 22-[19z]. For the reaction Fe Fe(OH)3 , iron is (A) oxidized. (B) reduced. 23-[19z]. Fe2O3xH2O is better known as: (A) galvanized iron. (B) stainless steel. (C) rust. (D) acid-base indicator. (E) paint. (F) sacrificial anode. 24-[19z]. The most promising fuel cell utilizes the reaction of what? (A) silver and copper. (B) iron and zinc. (C) hydrogen and oxygen. (D) oxygen and zinc. (E) chlorine and sodium. (F) nitrate and sodium. (G) benzene and hydrogen. 25-[19z]. In the rusting of iron, iron serves as (A) a cathode. (B) an anode. (C) a salt bridge. 26-[19z] The Hall-Hroult process is used for producing: (A) liquid oxygen. (B) liquid nitrogen. (C) iron. (D) copper. (E) aluminum. (F) magnesium. 27-[19z]. All of the following are redox except: (A) combustion. (B) fermentation. (C) acid-base reactions. (D) corrosion. (E) operating fuel cell. (F) electroplating. 28-[19z]. Gold will react with which of the following? (A) H+1. (B) H2O2. (C) O2. (D) Cl2. (E) HF. (F) CaCl2. 29-[19z]. Make a battery using aluminum and cadmium as the electrodes. What is the standard voltage? (A) 3.45. (B) 2.65. (C) 1.26. (D) 2.06. 30-[19z]. In the battery immediately above, (A) cadmium is the cathode and is oxidized. (B) cadmium is the anode and is oxidized. (C) aluminum is the cathode and is oxidized. (D) aluminum is the anode and is oxidized. 31-[19z]. Which could not be used as a sacrificial anode for steel? (A) tin. (B) zinc. (C) aluminum. (D) magnesium. (E) barium. 32-[19z]. What voltage would you need to produce hydrogen peroxide from water and oxygen? (A) 0.55. (B) 1.91. (C) 3.15. (D) 2.45. 33-[19z]. Why is the standard reduction potential of protons = 0? (A) H+ has the same electronegativity as carbon, which cannot be oxidized. (B) H has the smallest atomic number. (C) H2 cannot be produced by electrolysis. (D) H+ was chosen arbitrarily because it' s the simplest reductant chemically. (E) H+ cannot be reduced. 34-[19z]. The Nernst equation tells us that the voltage in a battery will change if: (A) the size of the electrode is reduced. (B) the wires are changed from copper to silver. (C) an electrode is wiggled. (D) the anode is oxidized. (E) the concentration of an electrolyte is changed. 35-[19z]. If you pass a current through an aqueous solution of sodium chloride, one of the substances produced is (A) hydrogen gas. (B) metallic sodium. (C) sodium perchlorate. 36-[19z]. Which kind of battery uses zinc and manganese oxide as the electrodes? (A) car battery. (B) alkaline battery. (C) lithium battery. (D) fuel cell. (E) salt bridge. (F) sacrificial battery. 37-[19z]. In the reaction H2S + HNO3 S + NO + H2O, what is oxidized? (A) NO. (B) HNO3. (C) H2S. (D) elemental S. 38-[19z]. In a solution of AgNO3 a copper penny is inserted. Over a period of a few minutes, metallic silver precipitates. What is the oxidizing agent? (A) metallic Ag. (B) H+1. (C) NO3-1. (D) metallic Cu. (E) Ag+1. (F) Cu+2. 39-[19z]. What is the oxidation number of I in H5IO6? (A) +7. (B) +9. (C) +1. (D) +3. (E) +5. 40-[19z]. Calculate the voltage of a lithium-copper battery. (A) 3.39. (B) 3.05. (C) 0.34. (D) 2.71. (E) 1.45. 41-[19z]. Make a battery using silver and cadmium. The silver is: (A) the anode and is oxidized. (B) the anode and is reduced. (C) the cathode and is oxidized. (D) the cathode and is reduced. 42-[19z]. Of the following, which is the strongest oxidizing agent? (A) Cl2. (B) Cd+2. (C) Li+. (D) H2O. (E) I2. 43-[19z]. Of the following, which is the strongest reducing agent? (A) Br2. (B) Cd+2. (C) Al+3. (D) Li. (E) Zn. (F) H2O. (E) F2. 44-[19z]. React sodium with water to form hydrogen gas and sodium hydroxide. What is the oxidizing agent in this reaction? (A) sodium. (B) hydrogen gas. (C) H+. (D) hydroxide. (E) oxygen. 45-[19z]. The electrolysis of water requires a minimum of at least how many volts? More than: (A) 0.00. (B) 0.56. (C) 1.23. (D) 2.45. (E) 3.05. (F) 4.15. 46-[19z]. What could be used as a sacrificial anode for a steel pipe? (A) copper. (B) magnesium chloride. (C) silver. (D) zinc. (E) chlorine. (F) oxygen. (G) water. 47-[19z]. What is the oxidation number of Cl in NaClO4? (A) -1. (B) +1. (C) +2. (D) +3. (E) +4. (F) +5. (G) +6. (H) +7. 48-[19z]. Which would react with gold? (A) elemental oxygen. (B) water. (C) elemental iodine. (D) elemental fluorine. (E) silver ions (Ag+). (F) hydrogen gas. (G) 6 M HCl. 49-[19z]. For the unbalanced redox reaction Ag2S + NO3-1 Ag+1 + S + NO, what is the balanced reduction half-reaction? (A) Ag2S 2Ag+1 + S + 2e-1 (B) S-2 S + 2e-1 (C) NO3-1 + 4H+1 + 3e-1 NO + 2H2O (D) 2H+1 + 2e-1 H2 (E) NO3-1 + 2H+1 + e-1 NO + 2OH-1 50-[19z] For the unbalanced redox reaction Ag2S + NO3-1 Ag+1 + S + NO, what is the balanced oxidation half-reaction? (A) Ag2S 2Ag+1 + S + 2e-1 (B) S-2 S + 2e-1 (C) NO3-1 + 4H+1 + 3e-1 NO + 2H2O (D) 2H+1 + 2e-1 H2 (E) NO3-1 + 2H+1 + e-1 NO + 2OH-1 51-[19z]. For the unbalanced redox reaction Cl2 ClO4-1 + Cl-1, what is the balanced oxidation half-reaction? (A) Cl2 + 2e-1 Cl-1 (B) Cl2 + 4O2 + 2e-1 2ClO-1 (C) Cl2 + 8H2O 2ClO4-1 + 16H+1 + 14e-1 (D) Cl2 + 2H+1 + 4 e-1 2H2 + 2Cl-1 (E) 2Cl2 + 8OH-1 2ClO4-1 + 2Cl-1 + 8e-1 52-[19z]. For the unbalanced redox reaction Cl2 ClO4-1 + Cl-1, what is the balanced reduction half-reaction? (A) Cl2 + 2e-1 Cl-1 (B) Cl2 + 4O2 + 2e-1 2ClO-1 (C) Cl2 + 8H2O 2ClO4-1 + 16H+1 + 14e-1 (D) Cl2 + 2H+1 + 4 e-1 2H2 + 2Cl-1 (E) 2Cl2 + 8OH-1 2ClO4-1 + 2Cl-1 + 8e-1 53-[19z]. For the unbalanced redox reaction Pb(NO3)2 PbO + NO2 + O2, what is the balanced reduction half-reaction? (A) 2H+1 + NO3-1 + e-1 NO2 + H2O (B) 2H+1 + PbO + 2e-1 Pb + H2O (C) 2H2O O2 + 4H+1 + 4e-1 (D) Pb+2 + H2O PbO + 2H+1 (E) Pb(NO3)2 3O2 + 3N2 + Pb 54-[19z]. For the unbalanced redox reaction Pb(NO3)2 PbO + NO2 + O2, what is the balanced oxidation half-reaction? (A) 2H+1 + NO3-1 + e-1 NO2 + H2O (B) 2H+1 + PbO + 2e-1 Pb + H2O (C) 2H2O O2 + 4H+1 + 4e-1 (D) Pb+2 + H2O PbO + 2H+1 (E) Pb(NO3)2 3O2 + 3N2 + Pb 55-[19z]. When the following reaction is balanced, what is the coefficient in front of the MnO 4-1? MnO4-1 + SO2 + H2O Mn+2 + SO4-2 + H+1 (A) 1. (B) 2. (C) 3. (D) 4. (E) 5. 56-[19z]. When the following reaction is balanced, what is the coefficient in front of the SO 2? MnO4-1 + SO2 + H2O Mn+2 + SO4-2 + H+1 (A) 1. (B) 2. (C) 3. (D) 4. (E) 5. 57-[19z]. In the equation SO3-2 + Br2 + H2O SO4-2 + 2Br-1 + 2H+1, what is the oxidizing agent? (A) SO3-2. (B) Br2. (C) H2O. (D) O2. (E) H+1. 58-[19z]. In the equation SO3-2 + Br2 + H2O SO4-2 + 2Br-1 + 2H+1, what is the reducing agent? (A) SO3-2. (B) Br2. (C) H2O. (D) O2. (E) H+1. 59-[19z]. In the equation SO3-2 + Br2 + H2O SO4-2 + 2Br-1 + 2H+1, what is oxidized? (A) SO3-2. (B) Br2. (C) H2O. (D) O2. (E) H+1. 60-[19z]. In the equation SO3-2 + Br2 + H2O SO4-2 + 2Br-1 + 2H+1, what is reduced? (A) SO3-2. (B) Br2. (C) H2O. (D) O2. (E) H+1. 61-[19z]. The standard reduction potentials can be used to calculate the emf (voltage) of a cell under "standard conditions," which means (A) a cell with external voltage applied. (B) all concentrations of electrolytes are 1 M. (C) only platinum electrodes are used for both cathodes and anodes. (D) the voltage is compared with a standard hydrogen electrode (SHE), whose voltage is defined as 1.000 volt. (E) the reaction is performed in a vacuum. 62-[19z]. Balance the reaction MnO4-2 MnO4-1 + MnO2 63-[19z]. Balance the reaction MnO4-1 + Fe+2 Mn+2 + Fe+3 ****************************************************************************** CHAPTER 20 - Nuclear Chemistry 01-[20z]. Plutonium, produced by the usual process from U-238, has a mass of what? (A) 241. (B) 240. (C) 239. (D) 238. (E) 237. (F) 236. (G) 235. 02-[20z]. If a sample of fresh carbon-14 gives 820 counts per minute, and a relic of an equivalent sample gives 14 counts per minute, how old is the relic (in years)? (A) 34,000. (B) 30,000. (C) 26,000. (D) 22,000. (E) 18,000. (F) 14,000. (G) 10,000. (H) 6,000. 03-[20z]. Where is carbon-14 formed? (A) the upper atmosphere. (B) chimneys. (C) volcanoes. (D) deep in the ocean. (E) the center of the earth. (F) the Gulf Stream in the Atlantic Ocean. (G) nuclear power plants. (H) comets. 04-[20z]. Which can be used in the atomic bomb? (A) U-238. (B) U-235. (C) Th-234. (D) radium. 05-[20z]. Which is not a transuranium element? (A) plutonium. (B) curium. (C) mendelevium. (D) fermium. (E) ytterbium. 06-[20z]. Which will be stopped by a thin tissue paper? (A) - particle. (B) - particle. (C) - particle. 07-[20z]. Deuterium reacts with helium-3 to produce helium-4 and (A) 1H1. (B) 1H2. (C) 1H3. (D) 2He3. (E) 3Li6. 08-[20z] Which would have the shortest half-life? (A) lead. (B) meitnerium. (C) einsteinium. (D) radium. (E) uranium. 09-[20z]. What is the most common element in the universe. (A) oxygen. (B) iron. (C) hydrogen. (D) helium. (E) nitrogen. (F) carbon. 10-[20z]. What produces radon? (A) uranium. (B) radium. (C) thorium. (D) plutonium. (E) bismuth. (F) lead. 11-[20z]. In the upper atmosphere, a neutron reacts with nitrogen-14 to produce 14C and what else? (A) helium nucleus. (B) electron. (C) proton. (D) deuterium nucleus. (E) tritium nucleus. (F) lithium-6 nucleus. 12-[20z]. Cosmic rays react in the upper atmosphere to produce a neutron, which then reacts with 14N to eject a proton and produce else? (A) 13N. (B) 13C. (C) 14C. (D) 15O. (E) 17O. 13-[20z]. Aluminum-27 reacts with a neutron to form helium (normal isotope) and one other particle. What is the other particle? (A) neon-20. (B) aluminum-25. (C) fluorine-20. (D) sodium-24. (E) sodium-23. (F) magnesium-24. 14-[20z]. Radium is the daughter product of (A) uranium. (B) thorium. (C) actinium. (D) radon. (E) polonium. (F) protactinium. (G) americium. 15-[20z]. Scandium-43 spontaneously decays to form hydrogen (normal isotope) and what else? (A) helium (normal isotope). (B) an electron. (C) a neutron. (D) a rarer isotope of calcium. (E) the normal isotope of calcium. (F) a rare isotope of titanium. (G) the normal isotope of titanium. 16-[20z]. What is the radioactive material in smoke detectors? (A) uranium. (B) thorium. (C) actinium. (D) radium. (E) polonium. (F) protactinium. (G) americium. 17-[20z]. Which method is best for dating ancient Roman artifacts (2000 years old)? (A) carbon-14. (B) uranium-238. (C) potassium-40. (D) heavy water. (E) radium-224. 18-[20z]. What is an - particle? (A) proton. (B) electron. (C) helium nucleus. (D) lithium nucleus. (E) neutron. (F) positron. (G) short-wave electromagnetic radiation. (H) long-wave electromagnetic radiation. 19-[20z]. What is a - particle? (A) proton. (B) electron. (C) helium nucleus. (D) lithium nucleus. (E) neutron. (F) positron. (G) short-wave electromagnetic radiation. (H) long-wave electromagnetic radiation. 20-[20z]. What is a - particle? (A) proton. (B) electron. (C) helium nucleus. (D) lithium nucleus. (E) neutron. (F) positron. (G) short-wave electromagnetic radiation. (H) long-wave electromagnetic radiation. 21-[20z]. Which is stopped by an inch of air? (A) - particle. (B) - particle. (C) - particle. (D) ultraviolet light. (E) infrared light. 22-[20z]. What is the most penetrating (will pass through more than an inch of steel? (A) - particle. (B) - particle. (C) - particle. (D) ultraviolet light. (E) infrared light. 23-[20z]. Finish the following equation. 118Xe + -1e0 ? (A) 118I. (B) 118Te. (C) 119 Sb. (D) 117Cs. (E) 117I. (F) 119I. 24-[20z]. Carbon-14 undergoes - decay to produce what? (A) carbon-13. (B) carbon-12. (C) nitrogen-13. (D) nitrogen-14. (E) nitrogen-15. (F) oxygen-15. 25-[20z]. Complete the following reaction. 239Pu + 4He 242Cm + ? (A) 1H. (B) 2H. (C) 3He. (D) 4He. (E) neutron. (F) proton. (G) electron. 26-[20z] Plutonium is produced by bombarding uranium-238 with neutrons. Neutron capture of 238U with subsequent ejection of an electron gives plutonium. Which isotope is it? (A) 238Pu. (B) 239Pu. (C) 240Pu. (D) 241Pu. 27-[20z] Uranium-238 undergoes -decay to produce what? (A) U-236. (B) U-234. (C) U-232. (D) Pa-236. (E) Pa-234. (F) Th-236. (G) Th-234. (H) Th-232. 28-[20z]. Radioactive decay proceeds via a (A) first order process. (B) second order process. (C) zero order process. 29-[20z]. If the proton/neutron ratio is too low, to stabilize itself a nucleus may undergo: (A) - decay. (B) - decay. (C) electron capture. (D) spontaneous fusion. (E) oxidation. 30-[20z]. For all elements with 84 protons or more, they are (A) oxidizing agents. (B) nonmetals. (C) radioactive. (D) easy to find. (E) diatomic. (F) sources of petroleum. (G) halogens. 31-[20z]. How many protons, neutrons, and electrons does a 3Li7 atom possess? (A) 7p, 3n, 4e. (B) 4p, 3n, 7e. (C) 3p, 3n, 4e. (D) 4p, 3n, 3e. (E) 3p, 4n, 3e. 32-[20z]. Which of the following particles cannot be accelerated in a cyclotron? (A) alpha. (B) beta. (C) proton. (D) neutron. (E) positron. 33-[20z]. Which of the following reactions illustrates a nuclear process that occurs within a control rod in a nuclear reactor? (A) 1H1 + 1H1 1H2 + 1e0 (B) 4Be9 + 1H2 5B10 + 0n1 (C) -1e0 + 47Ag106 46Pd106 (D) 4Be9 + 2He4 6C12 + 0n1 (E) 48Cd113 + 0n1 48Cd114 + 34-[20z]. A piece of wood from an ancient artifact has a carbon-14 activity of 11.7 disintegrations per minute per gram of carbon. Current carbon-14 activity in fresh samples is 15.3 disintegrations per minute per gram of carbon. The half-life of carbon-14 is 5714 years. Which statement is true? (A) The age of the sample is 1270 years. (B) The rate constant for the decay is 1.21 x 104 yr. (C) The carbon-14 activity in the freshly cut sample is presumed to be different than in carbon dioxide in the air when doing calculations involving carbon-14 dating. (D) The artifact could have been from the age of the Ptolemy dynasty in Egypt during the three centuries B.C. (0-300 B.C.). (E) Insufficient data exists to calculate the age of the artifact. 35-[20z]. Which is not correct? (A) Radioactive isotopes exist for every element. (B) If one turns on a Geiger counter and places it in a normal home, absolutely no radiation will be detected. (C) There actually exists an element in the middle of the Periodic Table for which no stable isotopes can exist. (D) Supernovae create huge amounts of radiation. (E) Although Henri Becquerel discovered radioactivity about 100 years ago, it was the Curies who gave "radioactivity" its name. 36-[20z]. How many stable isotopes of hydrogen are there? (A) zero. (B) 1. (C) 2. (D) 3. (E) 4. 37-[20z]. All of the actinide elements are radioactive. (A) TRUE or (B) FALSE? ****************************************************************************** ... View Full Document

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