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ANALYSIS SYSTEMS AND DESIGN METHODS 7th Edition Whitten Bentley C H A P T E R 1 Irwin/McGraw-Hill THE CONTEXT OF SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 1-1 Copyright 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 7th Edition Whitten Bentley Chapter Map Irwin/McGraw-Hill 1-2 Copyright 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 7th Edition Whitten Bentley A Framework for Systems Analysis and Design Information technology is a contemporary term that describes the combination of computer technology (hardware and software) with telecommunications technology (data, image, and voice networks). An information system (IS) is an arrangement of people, data, processes, and information technology that interact to collect, process, store, and provide as output the information needed to support an organization. Irwin/McGraw-Hill 1-3 Copyright 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 7th Edition Whitten Bentley A Framework for Systems Analysis and Design A transaction processing system (TPS) is an information system that captures and processes data about business transactions. A management information system (MIS) is an information system that provides for managementoriented reporting based on transaction processing and operations of the organization. Irwin/McGraw-Hill 1-4 Copyright 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 7th Edition Whitten Bentley A Framework for Systems Analysis and Design An expert system is an information system that captures the expertise of workers and then simulates that expertise to the benefit of nonexperts. An office automation system is an information system that supports the wide range of business office activities that provide for improved work flow between workers. Irwin/McGraw-Hill 1-5 Copyright 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 7th Edition Whitten Bentley Stakeholders: Players in the Systems Game A stakeholder is any person who has an interest in an existing or proposed information system. Stakeholders can be technical or nontechnical workers. They may also include both internal and external workers. Information workers are those workers whose jobs involve the creation, collection, processing, distribution, and use of information. Knowledge workers are a subset of information workers whose responsibilities are based on a specialized body of knowledge. Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved 1-6 SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 7th Edition Whitten Bentley Stakeholders' Perspectives on an Information System Irwin/McGraw-Hill 1-7 Copyright 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 7th Edition Whitten Bentley Systems Analysts Systems analyst a specialist who studies the problems and needs of an organization to determine how people, data, processes, and information technology can best accomplish improvements for the business. A programmer/analyst (or analyst/programmer) includes the responsibilities of both the computer programmer and the systems analyst. A business analyst focuses on only the nontechnical aspects of systems analysis and design. Irwin/McGraw-Hill 1-8 Copyright 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 7th Edition Whitten Bentley The Systems Analyst as a Problem-Solver True problem situations, either real or anticipated, that require corrective action Opportunities to improve a situation despite the absence of complaints Directives to change a situation regardless of whether anyone has complained about the current situation Irwin/McGraw-Hill 1-9 Copyright 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 7th Edition Whitten Bentley Where Do Systems Analysts Work? Irwin/McGraw-Hill 1-10 Copyright 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 7th Edition Whitten Bentley Skills Needed by the Systems Analyst Working knowledge of information technology Computer programming experience and expertise General business knowledge General problem-solving skills Good interpersonal communication skills Good interpersonal relations skills Flexibility and adaptability Character and ethics Irwin/McGraw-Hill 1-11 Copyright 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 7th Edition Whitten Bentley The Systems Analyst as a Facilitator Irwin/McGraw-Hill 1-12 Copyright 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 7th Edition Whitten Bentley Other Stakeholders External Service Provider (ESP) a systems analyst, system designer, or builder system who sells his or her expertise and experience to other businesses to help those businesses purchase, develop, or integrate their information systems solutions; may be affiliated with a consulting or services organization. Project Manager an experienced professional who accepts responsibility for planning, monitoring, and controlling projects with respect to schedule, budget, deliverables, customer satisfaction, technical standards, and system quality. Irwin/McGraw-Hill 1-13 Copyright 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 7th Edition Whitten Bentley Business Drivers for Today's Information Systems Globalization of the Economy Electronic Commerce and Business Security and Privacy Collaboration and Partnership Knowledge Asset Management Business Process Redesign Irwin/McGraw-Hill 1-14 Copyright 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 7th Edition Whitten Bentley Knowledge Asset Management Data raw facts about people, places, events, and things that are of importance in an organization. Information data that has been processed or reorganized into a more meaningful form for someone. Knowledge data and information that is further refined based on the facts, truths, beliefs, judgments, experiences, and expertise of the recipient. Knowledge Asset Management Recognizes that data, information, and knowledge are critical business resources Asks: "How can the organization manage and share knowledge for competitive advantage?" Strives to integrate the data and information that can create and preserve knowledge Irwin/McGraw-Hill 1-15 Copyright 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 7th Edition Whitten Bentley Business Process Redesign Business process redesign (BPR) is the study, analysis, and redesign of fundamental business processes to reduce costs and/or improve value added to the business. More substantial changes and improvements than CPI Usually complemented by CPI Irwin/McGraw-Hill 1-16 Copyright 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 7th Edition Whitten Bentley Technology Drivers for Today's Information Systems Networks and the Internet Mobile and Wireless Technologies Object Technologies Collaborative Technologies Irwin/McGraw-Hill 1-17 Copyright 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 7th Edition Whitten Bentley A Simple System Development Process System development process a set of activities, methods, best practices, deliverables, and automated tools that stakeholders use to develop and maintain information systems and software. A general problem-solving approach 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Identify the problem. Analyze and understand the problem. Identify solution requirements or expectations. Identify alternative solutions and choose the "best" course of action. Design the chosen solution. Implement the chosen solution. Evaluate the results. If the problem is not solved, return to step 1 or 2 as appropriate. Irwin/McGraw-Hill 1-18 Copyright 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 7th Edition Whitten Bentley Systems Development and Problem Solving Irwin/McGraw-Hill 1-19 Copyright 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 7th Edition Whitten Bentley System Development Process Overview System initiation the initial planning for a project to define initial business scope, goals, schedule, and budget. System analysis the study of a business problem domain to recommend improvements and specify the business requirements and priorities for the solution. System design the specification or construction of a technical, computer-based solution for the business requirements identified in a system analysis. System implementation the construction, installation, testing, and delivery of a system into production. Irwin/McGraw-Hill 1-20 Copyright 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 7th Edition Whitten Bentley Project and Process Management Project management the activity of defining, planning, directing, monitoring, and controlling a project to develop an acceptable system within the allotted time and budget. Process management the ongoing activity that defines, improves, and coordinates the use of an organization's chosen methodology (the "process") and standards for all system development projects. Irwin/McGraw-Hill 1-21 Copyright 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 7th Edition Whitten Bentley Sequential versus Iterative Development Irwin/McGraw-Hill 1-22 Copyright 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved ... View Full Document

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