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Course: MT 417, Fall 2009
School: Iowa State
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(Forecasting) Mesoscale Laboratory Meteorology 417/517 Spring 2009 Instructor: Bill Gallus Oce: 3025 Agronomy Oce Hours: 1:00 - 3 pm Wednesday Phone: 294-2270; email: wgallus@iastate.edu TA: Chris Schaer - 3018 Agronomy; email schaec@iastate.edu TA Oce Hours: 12 noon - 2 pm Thursday Class meetings Lecture period T 2:10-3:15 pm, Weather Discussions MW 3:05-3:30 pm, and Thursday 2:102:35 pm (also possibly on some...

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Iowa State - MT - 443
Derivation of the momentum equation in rotating coordinatesNewton's 2nd law (i.e. the rate of change of momentum, measured relative to coordinates fixed in space, equals the sum of all forces) can be written symbolically as:v d aVa = F dt(1)r w
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Meteorology 311General Circulation/Fronts Fall 2007Precipitation Types Rain Snow growth of ice crystals through deposition, accretion, and aggregation. Freezing Rain Rain freezes when it hits the surface. Sleet Usually starts out as snow
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FORTRAN 90: Formatted Input/OutputMeteorology 227 Fall 2008Formatted Output Two output statements in FORTRAN PRINT and WRITE PRINT format-descriptor, output-list What is a format descriptor? * A character constant or a character variable wh
Iowa State - MT - 417
Verification Methods and Overview of Basic Thunderstorm StructureMt417 Iowa State University Week 4 Bill GallusHow can you tell which forecast was better? Suppose 80 storms happen Forecaster A issues 200 warnings and gets 60 correct Forecaste
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4. Initiation of Raindrops by Collision and Coalescence4.1 Introduction to precipitation physics 4.2 Setting the stage for coalescence 4.3 Droplet growth by collision and coalescence 4.4 Growth models and discussion4.1 Precipitation Physics Centr
Iowa State - MT - 342
3. Droplet Growth by Condensation3.1 Growth of an individual droplet by condensation 3.2 Evaporation of droplets 3.3 Growth of droplet populations 3.4 Factors affecting growth theory3.1 Growth of an individual droplet by condensation CCN once a
Iowa State - MT - 342
5. Formation and Growth of Ice Crystals5.1 Effects of freezing in a cloud 5.2 Formation (nucleation) of ice crystals 5.3 Atmospheric ice nuclei 5.4 Ice crystal growth by diffusion 5.5 Ice crystal growth by aggregation &amp; accretion 5.6 Shape of ice cr
Iowa State - MT - 342
2. Formation of Cloud droplets2.1 General aspects 2.2 The curvature effect 2.3 The solute effect 2.4 Atmospheric aerosols and CCN2.1 General Aspects* Phase changes of water vapor - liquid liquid - solid vapor - solid * Nucleation processes Homoge
Iowa State - MT - 341
* Reading Assignments:4.1 4.2 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.6.1 4.6.25. Heterogeneous Systems5.1 Heterogeneous vs homogeneous * Homogeneous systems: Single phase dry air Thermal equilibrium and mechanical equilibrium Closed system, two independent variables (e.
Iowa State - CHEME - 302
Global Climate Change: What on Earth are we Doing?!Eugene S. TakleAgronomy Department Geological and Atmospheric Science Department Iowa State University Ames, Iowa 50011 gstakle@iastate.eduPROJECT TO INTERCOMPARE REGIONAL CLIMATE SIMULATIONSOu
Iowa State - MT - 342
7. Radar MeteorologyReferences Battan (1973) Radar theory Atlas (1989) Early history of radar in meteorology. Doviak and Zrnic (1984) Recent developments and doppler techniques.7.1 Introduction* Clouds appear mainly on the convective and
Iowa State - MT - 341
* Reading Assignments: 1.1 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.2 1.2.1 1.2.2 2.1 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 2.1.42. Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics 2.1 Thermodynamic systemA specified collection of matter is called a system, which is defined by the mass and the composition. a.
Iowa State - MT - 341
* Reading Assignments:3.1 3.1.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.4.1 3.4.2 3.5 3.6 3.6.14. The Second Law4.1 Reversible vs Irreversible processesReversible: A process for which a system can be restored to its initial state, without leaving a net influence on the
Iowa State - MT - 341
8. Hydrostatic StabilityDescribe the states of vertical stratification of atmosphere: * Stable equilibrium * Unstable equilibrium * Neutral equilibrium8.1 Parcel methodd z g = ( - ) 2 dt 2d z g = (T - T ) 2 dt T2d z g = ( - ) z 2 dt T2
Iowa State - MT - 341
7. Hydrostatic Equilibrium7.1 Effective gravityr r r 2 r g = g r k + er + z s Radial gravitation by the planet's mass Centrifugal acceleration due to rotation of the reference frame Anisotropic contributions7.2 Geopotential and Geopotential
Iowa State - MT - 404
Skeptics of Human-Caused Global Warming(Mt/Ag/EnSc/EnSt 404/504 - Global Change)SkepticsWho are the skeptics?Two rough categories: 1. Constructive criticism, founded in science 2. Others - rehash old arguments, cherry-pick literature, sometime
Iowa State - MT - 454
Material Based on Chapter 5The Planetary Boundary LayerMT 454The Planetary Boundary LayerClass SlideChapter 5 - PBLMT 454Class SlideChapter 5 - PBLMT 454Class SlideChapter 5 - PBLMT 454Class SlideChapter 5 - PBLMT 454Cl
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Iowa State - MT - 404
Guidance Notes for Lead Authors of the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report on Addressing Uncertainties Challenge: Differences between social &amp; natural sciences Information used Analyses Indicators of changeTable 1. A simple typology of uncertaintiesT
Iowa State - MT - 227
STID = ABR STNM = 72659 TIME = 980530/1800 SLAT = 45.45 SLON = -98.40 SELV = 397.0 STIM = 1800 LCLP = 875.91 LFCT = 551.10 EQLV = 242.12 PRES TMPC DWPC DRCT SKNT 957.00 22.80 1
Iowa State - MT - 411
Heavy snow forecasting rules1) Q: Where do you need to be to get heavy snow? A: Left of storm track, some distance away 2) Q: Why? A: Cold enough to snow, but still in good position for moisture supply and lift from upperlevel forcing (e.g. PVA) and
Iowa State - MT - 311
Meteorology 311Atmospheric StabilityFall 2008Meteorology 311Air ParcelConsider a parcel of infinitesimal dimensions that is: Thermally isolated from the environment so that its temperature changes adiabatically as it sinks or rises. Always
Iowa State - MT - 311
Meteorology 311Norwegian Cyclone ModelFall 2008Mid-Latitude Cyclones What? Low pressure located between 30 and 60 latitude. Impact? Cause of most of the stormy weather in U.S., especially during the winter season. Why? Crucial for predic
Iowa State - MT - 227
FORTRAN 90: Functions, Modules, and SubroutinesMeteorology 227 Fall 2008Purpose First step in modular program design Cannot always anticipate all of the steps that will be needed to solve a problem Easier to break problem up into a series of sm
Iowa State - MT - 227
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Iowa State - MT - 443
Iowa State - MT - 227
FORTRAN 90: FORTRAN 77 Fixed FormatMeteorology 227 Fall 2007Purpose Students should learn to recognize and use FORTRAN 77 code. Still widely used. Legacy models are written in FORTRAN 77. FORTRAN 90: free form FORTRAN 77: fixed formFixed F
Iowa State - MT - 455
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Iowa State - MT - 455
Meteorology 455/555Due 6 March 2006Group Problems - 21. The table below gives the annual average precipitation {P} and evaporation {E} in mm/yr for North America, Africa and Asia. Also given is {P-E} Domain {P} {E} {P-E} North America 645 403 24
Iowa State - MT - 455
Meteorology 455/555Due 25 January 2006 1. Suppose v ! = (10 m ) cos{&quot;t } cos{6#} sGroup Problems - 1g (a) If q ! = (2 kg ) cos{6&quot;} , what is v!q ! if time averaging covers the period 0 t 2/?[ ]g (b) If instead, q ! = (2 kg ) cos{&quot; t} cos{6
Iowa State - MT - 455
Meteorology 455/555Due 12 April 2006Group Problems - 31. Suppose the effect of the midlatitude eddies is to weaken rather than strengthen the extratropical zonal jet. More specifically, suppose that 2 &quot; ! % exp &quot;( ) p ( 200mb , % + [ v * u *](!,
Iowa State - MT - 455
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Iowa State - MT - 452
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Iowa State - MT - 452
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Iowa State - MT - 452
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Iowa State - MT - 452
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Iowa State - MT - 452
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Iowa State - MT - 452
Iowa State - MT - 452
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Iowa State - MT - 452
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Iowa State - MT - 452
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Iowa State - MT - 452
PROBLEMS PHYSICS OF CLIMATE Due: 19 September 2007 There are 2 problems. You are welcome (in fact encouraged) to consult with each other (as well as me) if you have difficulty working on these, but you much each hand in your own answer set. Please t
Iowa State - MT - 452
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Iowa State - MT - 452
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Iowa State - MT - 452
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Iowa State - MT - 452
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Iowa State - MT - 452
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Iowa State - MT - 452
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Iowa State - MT - 404
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Iowa State - MT - 404
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Iowa State - MT - 404
Observed Changes in Oceanic Climate and Sea LevelPrimary Source: IPCC WG-I Chapter 5 - Observations: Oceanic Climate Change and Sea Level(Mt/Ag/EnSc/EnSt 404/504 - Global Change)Observed Oceans &amp; Sea Level (from IPCC WG-I, Chapter 5)Ocean Tem
Iowa State - MT - 404
Papers for Seminar 2 Balance as Bias: Global Warming and the US Prestige Press (Boykoff &amp; Boykoff, 2004) Improving How Scientists Communicate About Climate Change (Hassol, 2008) A Suggestion to Climate Scientists and the Intergovernmental Panel on
Iowa State - MT - 404
Observed Changes in Surface and Atmosphere ClimatePrimary Source: IPCC WG-I Chapter 3 - Observations: Surface and Atmospheric Climate Change(Mt/Ag/EnSc/EnSt 404/504 - Global Change)Observed Surface &amp; Atmosphere (from IPCC WG-I, Chapter 3)Subs
Iowa State - MT - 404
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Iowa State - MT - 404
Observed Changes in Snow, Ice and Frozen GroundPrimary Source: IPCC WG-I Chapter 4 - Observations: Changes in Snow, Ice and Frozen Ground(Mt/Ag/EnSc/EnSt 404/504 - Global Change)Observed Snow &amp; Ice (from IPCC WG-I, Chapter 4)Components of the
Iowa State - MT - 404
Water ResourcesPrimary Source: IPCC WG-2 Chapter 3 Freshwater Resources and Their Management(Mt/Ag/EnSc/EnSt 404/504 - Global Change)Water Resources (from IPCC WG-2, Chapter 3)Human Activities Affecting Water Resourcesless ET? less precip?
Iowa State - MT - 227
Average Temperature = 60.15 +/- 1.10 Deg FAverage Wind Speed = 0.25 +/- 0.80 mphAverage Pressure = 1013.98 +/- 0.85 mbMaximum Temperature = 61.60 Deg FMinimum Temperature = 57.30 Deg FDaily Precipitation = 2.44 inches
Iowa State - MT - 227
09 10 2006 00 00 59.5 89 1 35 29.97 109 10 2006 00 01 59.5 89 0 37 29.97 109 10 2006 00 02 59.5 89 0 37 29.97 109 10 2006 00 03 59.5 89 0 37 29.97 109 10 2006 00 04 59.5 89 0 37 29.97 109 10 2006 00 05 59.5 89 0 37 29.97 109 10 2006 00 06 59.5
Iowa State - EE - 528
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Iowa State - EE - 528
JPEG2000, the Next Millennium Compression Standard for Still ImagesMaryline Charrier Canon Research Centre France mcharrier@crf.canon.fr AbstractWith the increasing use of multimedia technologies, image compression requires higher performance as we