BLBCJM-CH2-07
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BLBCJM-CH2-07

Course Number: CHE 101, Spring 2008

College/University: SUNY Buffalo

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Atoms, Molecules and Ions Chapter 2 Dalton's Atomic Theory (1808) 1. Elements are composed of extremely small particles called atoms. All atoms of a given element are identical, having the same size, mass and chemical properties. The atoms of one element are different from the atoms of all other elements. 2. Compounds are composed of atoms of more than one element. The relative number of atoms of each element in...

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Molecules Atoms, and Ions Chapter 2 Dalton's Atomic Theory (1808) 1. Elements are composed of extremely small particles called atoms. All atoms of a given element are identical, having the same size, mass and chemical properties. The atoms of one element are different from the atoms of all other elements. 2. Compounds are composed of atoms of more than one element. The relative number of atoms of each element in a given compound is always the same. 3. Chemical reactions only involve the rearrangement of atoms. Atoms are not created or destroyed in chemical reactions. Dalton's Atomic Theory (1808) 1. Elements are composed of extremely small particles called atoms. All atoms of a given element are identical, having the same size, mass and chemical properties. The atoms of one element are different from the atoms of all other elements. Dalton's Atomic Theory (1808) 2. Compounds are composed of atoms of more than one element. The relative number of atoms of each element in a given compound is always the same (Law of Constant Composition). 3. Chemical reactions only involve the rearrange- ment of atoms. Atoms are not created or destroyed in chemical reactions. 2 16 X + 8Y 8 X2Y Cathode Rays and Electrons A cathode ray tube (CRT) is a hollow vessel with an electrode at either end. A high voltage is applied across the electrodes. The voltage causes negative particles to move from the negative electrode to the positive electrode. The path of the electrons can be altered by the presence of a magnetic field. Consider cathode rays leaving the positive electrode through a small hole. If they interact with a magnetic field perpendicular to an applied electric field, the cathode rays can be deflected by different amounts. Cathode Rays and Electrons The amount of deflection of the cathode rays depends on the applied magnetic and electric fields. In turn, the amount of deflection also depends on the charge to mass ratio of the electron. In 1897, Thomson determined the charge to mass ratio of an electron to be 1.76 108 C/g. Goal: find the charge on the electron to determine its mass. J.J. Thomson, measured mass/charge of e- (1906 Nobel Prize in Physics) Cathode Rays and Electrons Consider the following experiment: Oil drops are sprayed above a positively charged plate containing a small hole. As the oil drops fall through the hole, they are given a negative charge. Gravity forces the drops downward. The applied electric field forces the drops upward. When a drop is perfectly balanced, the weight of the drop is equal to the electrostatic force of attraction between the drop and the positive plate. Cathode Rays and Electrons Using this experiment, Millikan determined the charge on the electron to be 1.60 10-19 C. Knowing the charge to mass ratio, 1.76 108 C/g, Millikan calculated the mass of the electron: 9.10 10-28 g. With more accurate numbers, we get the mass of the electron to be 9.10939 10-28 g. Measured mass of e(1923 Nobel Prize in Physics) e- charge = -1.60 x 10-19 C Thomson's charge/mass of e- = -1.76 x 108 C/g e- mass = 9.10 x 10-28 g Radioactivity Consider the following experiment: A radioactive substance is placed in a shield containing a small hole so that a beam of radiation is emitted from the hole. The radiation is passed between two electrically charged plates and detected. Three spots are noted on the detector: a spot in the direction of the positive plate, a spot which is not affected by the electric field, a spot in the direction of the negative plate. Radioactivity A high deflection towards the positive plate corresponds to radiation which is negatively charged and of low mass. This is called -radiation (consists of electrons). No deflection corresponds to neutral radiation. This is called -radiation. Small deflection towards the negatively charged plate corresponds to high mass, positively charged radiation. This is called -radiation. (Uranium compound) The Nuclear Atom From the separation of radiation we conclude that the atom consists of neutral, positively, and negatively charged entities. Thomson assumed all these charged species were found in a sphere. The Nuclear Atom Rutherford carried out the following experiment: A source of -particles was placed at the mouth of a circular detector. The -particles were shot through a piece of gold foil. Most of the -particles went straight through the foil without deflection. Some -particles were deflected at high angles. If the Thomson model of the atom was correct, then Rutherford's result was impossible. (1908 Nobel Prize in Chemistry) particle velocity ~ 1.4 x 107 m/s (~5% speed of light) 1. atoms positive charge is concentrated in the nucleus 2. proton (p) has opposite (+) charge of electron (-) 3. mass of p is 1840 x mass of e- (1.67 x 10-24 g) The Nuclear Atom Rutherford modified Thomson's model as follows: assume the atom is spherical but the positive charge must be located at the center, with a diffuse negative charge surrounding it. The atom consists of positive, negative, and neutral entities (protons, electrons, and neutrons). Protons and neutrons are located in the nucleus of the atom, which is small. Most of the mass of the atom is due to the nucleus. There can be a variable number of neutrons for the same number of protons. Isotopes have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons. Electrons are located outside of the nucleus. Most of the volume of the atom is due to electrons. Rutherford's Model of the Atom atomic radius ~ 100 pm = 1 x 10-10 m nuclear radius ~ 5 x 10-3 pm = 5 x 10-15 m Chadwick's Experiment (1932) H atoms - 1 p; He atoms - 2 p mass He/mass H should = 2 measured mass He/mass H = 4 + 9Be 1n + 12C + energy neutron (n) is neutral (charge = 0) n mass ~ p mass = 1.67 x 10-24 g Chadwick's Experiment (1932) H atoms - 1 p; He atoms - 2 p mass He/mass H should = 2 measured mass He/mass H = 4 + 9Be 1n + 12C + energy neutron (n) is neutral (charge = 0) n mass ~ p mass = 1.67 x 10-24 g Subatomic Particles (Table 2.1) Particle - Mass (g) -28 Charge (Coulombs) -1.6 x 10 -19 Charge (units) -1 +1 0 Electron (e ) 9.1 x 10 Proton (p+) 1.67 x 10-24 +1.6 x 10-19 0 Neutron (n) 1.67 x 10-24 mass p = mass n = 1840 x mass e- The Atomic Mass Scale 1H weighs 1.6735 x 10-24 g and 16O 2.6560 x 10-23 g. We define: mass of 12C = exactly 12 amu. Using atomic mass units: 1 amu = 1.66054 x 10-24 g 1 g = 6.02214 x 1023 amu Average Atomic Masses Relative atomic mass: average masses of isotopes: Naturally occurring C: 98.892 % 12C + 1.108 % 13C. Average mass of C: (0.98892)(12 amu) + (0.0108)(13.00335) = 12.011 amu. Atomic weight (AW) is also known as average atomic mass (atomic weight). Atomic weights are listed on the periodic table. Exercise The atomic masses of the two stable isotopes of boron, 10B (19.78 %) and 11B (80.22%) 5 5 are 10.0129 amu and 11.0093 amu, respectively. Calculate the average atomic mass of boron. Average atomic mass = (10.0129 amu x 0.1978) + (11.0093 amu x 0.8022) = 1.981 + 8.832 = 10.813 amu Exercise: Naturally occurring chlorine is 75.53% 35Cl, which has an atomic mass of 34.969 amu, and 24.47% 37Cl, which has an atomic mass of 36.966 amu. Calculate the average atomic mass of chlorine. Average atomic mass = (34.969 amu x 0.7553) + (36.966 amu x 0.2447) = 26.41 amu + 9.046 amu = 35.46 amu Exercise The element rhenium (Re) has two naturally occurring isotopes, 185Re and 187Re, with an average atomic mass of 186.207 amu. Rhenium is 62.60% 187Re, and the atomic mass is 186.956 amu. Calculate the mass of 185Re. 186.207 amu = (0.626 x 186.956) + (0.3794X) 186.207 amu = (117.034) + (0.3794X) 69.173 amu = (0.3794X) 182.321 amu = X Atomic number (Z) = number of protons in nucleus Mass number (A) = number of protons + number of neutrons = atomic number (Z) + number of neutrons Isotopes are atoms of the same element (X) with different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei Mass Number Atomic Number A ZX Element Symbol 1 1H 235 92 2 1H (D) 238 92 3 1H (T) U U Example Give the number of protons, neutrons and electrons in each of the following species: 17 (a) O 8 199 (b) Hg 80 200 (c) Hg 80 Exercise How many protons and neutrons are in the nucleus of each of the following atoms? In a neutral atom of each element, how many electrons are present? 79 Br 133 Cs 239 Pu 81 Br 56 Fe 3 H Isotopes are atoms whose nuclei have the same atomic number but different mass. They have the same number of protons but different number of neutrons. Do You Understand Isotopes? How many protons, neutrons, and electrons are in 14 6 C? 6 protons, 8 (14 - 6) neutrons, 6 electrons How many protons, neutrons, and electrons are in 11 6 6 protons, 5 (11 - 6) neutrons, 6 electrons C? Exercise Write the atomic symbol for each of the following isotopes. a. Z = 8, number of neutrons = 9 b. the isotope of chlorine in which A = 37 c. Z = 27, A = 60 d. of number protons = 26, number of neutrons = 31 e. the isotope of I with a mass number of 131 f. Z = 3, number of neutrons = 4 The Periodic Table The Periodic Table is used to organize the 114 elements in a meaningful way. As a consequence of this organization, there are periodic properties associated with the periodic table. Columns in the periodic table are called groups (numbered from 1A to 8A or 1 to 18). Rows in the periodic table are called periods. Metals are located on the left hand side of the periodic table (most of the elements are metals). Non-metals are located in the top right hand side of the periodic table. Elements with properties similar to both metals and nonmetals are called metalloids and are located at the interface between the metals and non-metals. Some of the groups in the periodic table are given special names. These names indicate the similarities between group members: Group 1A: Alkali metals. Group 2A: Alkaline earth metals. Group 6A: Chalcogens. Group 7A: Halogens. Group 8A: Noble gases. Noble Gas Halogen Group Alkali Earth Metal Alkali Metal Period A molecule is an aggregate of two or more atoms in a definite arrangement held together by chemical bonds H2 H2O NH3 CH4 A diatomic molecule contains only two atoms H2, N2, O2, Br2, HCl, CO A polyatomic molecule contains more than two atoms O3, H2O, NH3, CH4 Molecules and Chemical Formulas A molecular formula shows the exact number of atoms of each element in the smallest unit of a substance An empirical formula shows the simplest whole-number ratio of the atoms in a substance molecular H2O C6H12O6 O3 N2H4 empirical H2O CH2O O NH2 Molecular and Empirical Formulas Molecular formulas give the actual numbers and types of atoms in a molecule. Examples: H2O, CO2, CO, CH4, H2O2, O2, O3, and C2H4. Molecular and Empirical Formulas Molecular formulas Molecular and Empirical Formulas Empirical formulas give the relative numbers and types of atoms in a molecule. That is, they give the lowest whole number ratio of atoms in a molecule. Examples: H2O, CO2, CO, CH4, HO, CH2. Example Write the empirical formulas for the following molecules: (A) C2H2 (B) C6H12O6 CH CH2O (C) N2O N2O Picturing Molecules An ion is an atom, or group of atoms, that has a net positive or negative charge. cation ion with a positive charge If a neutral atom loses one or more electrons it becomes a cation. Na 11 protons 11 electrons Na+ 11 protons 10 electrons anion ion with a negative charge If a neutral atom gains one or more electrons it becomes an anion. Cl 17 protons 17 electrons Cl- 17 protons 18 electrons A monatomic ion contains only one atom Na+, Cl-, Ca2+, O2-, Al3+, N3- A polyatomic ion contains more than one atom OH-, CN-, NH4+, NO3- Do You Understand Ions? 27 3+ ? How many protons and electrons are in 13 Al 13 protons, 10 (13 3) electrons How many protons and electrons are in 78 Se 2- ? 34 34 protons, 36 (34 + 2) electrons In general: metal atoms tend to lose electrons to become cations; nonmetal ions tend to gain electrons to form anions. Predicting Ionic Charge The number of electrons an atom loses is related to its position on the periodic table. ionic compounds consist of a combination of cations and an anions the formula is always the same as the empirical formula the sum of the charges on the cation(s) and anion(s) in each formula unit must equal zero The ionic compound NaCl Ionic Compounds Sodium, a metal, approaches chlorine, a nonmetal, an electron transfer will occur where sodium gives up an electron and becomes positively charged (cation) and the chlorine becomes negatively charged (anion) and of course opposites attract. Na 11p, 11e Cl 17p, 17e Na+ 11p, 10e Cl- 17p, 18e Exercise 2.9; Which of the following compounds are molecular and ionic? CBr4 FeS P4O6 M I M PbF2 I Formula of Ionic Compounds 2 x +3 = +6 3 x -2 = -6 Al3+ 1 x +2 = +2 Al2O3 O22 x -1 = -2 Ca2+ 1 x +2 = +2 CaBr2 Br1 x -2 = -2 Na+ Na2CO3 CO32- Example write and balance the following ionic pairs. (a)K+ and Br(b) Na+ and PO43- KBr Na3PO4 (c) Zn2+ and SO42(d) Fe3+ and CO32- ZnSO4 Fe2(CO3)3 Naming Inorganic Compounds Cations formed from a metal have the same name as the metal. Example: Na+ = sodium ion. If the metal can form more than one cation, then the charge is indicated in parentheses in the name. Examples: Cu+ = copper(I); Cu2+ = copper(II). Cations formed from non-metals end in -ium. Example: NH4+ ammonium ion. Some Polyatomic Ions NH4+ CO32HCO3 ClO3Cr2O72CrO42- ammonium carbonate bicarbonate chlorate dichromate chromate SO42SO32NO3 - sulfate sulfite nitrate nitrite thiocyanate hydroxide NO2SCNOH- Monatomic anions (with only one atom) are called -ide Example: Cl is chloride ion. Exceptions: hydroxide (OH ), cyanide (CN ), peroxide (O22 ). Polyatomic anions (with many atoms) containing oxygen end in -ate or -ite. (The one with more oxygen is called ate.) Examples: NO3- is nitrate, NO2- is nitrite. Polyatomic anions containing oxygen with more than two members in the series are named as follows (in order of decreasing oxygen): per-....-ate -ate -ite hypo-....-ite Polyatomic anions containing oxygen with additional hydrogens are named by adding hydrogen or bi- (one H), dihydrogen (two H), etc., to the name as follows: CO32- is the carbonate anion HCO3- is the hydrogen carbonate (or bicarbonate) anion. H2PO4- is the dihydrogen phosphate anion. Chemical Nomenclature Ionic Compounds often a metal + nonmetal anion (nonmetal), add "ide" to element name BaCl2 K2O barium chloride potassium oxide magnesium hydroxide potassium nitrate Mg(OH)2 KNO3 Transition metal ionic compounds indicate charge on metal with Roman numerals FeCl2 FeCl3 2 Cl- -2 so Fe is +2 3 Cl- -3 so Fe is +3 iron(II) chloride iron(III) chloride Cr2S3 3 S-2 -6 so Cr is +3 (6/2) chromium(III) sulfide Exercise - Name the compounds in parts a-d and write the formulas for the compounds in parts e-h. a. NaBr c. CaS b. Rb2O d. AlI3 e. strontium fluoride f. aluminum selenide g. potassium nitride h. magnesium phosphide Sodium bromide, rubidium oxide, calcium sulfide, Aluminum iodide, SrF2, Al2Se3, K3N, Mg3P2 Example Give the systematic name for each of the following compounds. a. CuCl b. HgO c. Fe2O3 Copper(1) chloride Mercury(II) oxide Iron(III) oxide d. Manganese(IV) oxide e. Lead(II) chloride MnO2 PbCl2 Exercise - Write the names of the following compounds; a. NH4Br c. Na2O e. NH4HCO3 b. Cr2O3 d. Mn2O3 f. Cu(NO3)2 Ammonium bromide, Chromium(III) oxide, Sodium Oxide, Manganese(III) oxide, Ammonium hydrogen Carbonate, Copper(II) nitrate Exercise Name each of the following compounds. a. BaSO3 b. NaNO2 c. KMnO4 d. K2Cr2O7 Barium Sulfite Sodium nitrite Potassium permanganate Potassium dichromate Names of Acids* that Do Not Contain Oxygen An acid can be defined as a substance that yields hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved in water. HCl Pure substance, hydrogen chloride Dissolved in water (H+ Cl-), hydrochloric acid An oxoacid is an acid that contains hydrogen, oxygen, and another element. HNO3 H2CO3 nitric acid carbonic acid H2SO4 sulfuric acid Oxygen Containing Acids (Oxoacids) Anion suffix Ite Ate HNO3 H2CO3 H2SO4 HClO3 Acid suffix Ous Ic Nitric acid Carbonic acid Sulfuric acid Chloric acid Names and Formulas for Acids The names of acids are related to the names of anions: -ide becomes hydro-....-ic acid; -ate becomes -ic acid; -ite becomes -ous acid. Names of Some OxygenContaining Acids (Oxoacids) Names and Formulas of Binary Molecular Compounds Binary molecular compounds have two elements. The most metallic element is usually written first (i.e., the one to the farthest left on the periodic table). Exception: NH3. If both elements are in the same group, the lower one is written first. Greek prefixes are used to indicate the number of atoms. Binary Molecular Compounds HI hydrogen iodide NF3 SO2 N2Cl4 NO2 N2O nitrogen trifluoride sulfur dioxide dinitrogen tetrachloride nitrogen dioxide dinitrogen monoxide Exercise - Name the following compounds a. SO2 b. PCl5 c. N2O3 e. NCl3 d. N2F2 f. N2O5 g. As4O6 Sodium dioxide, Phosphorus pentachloride, Dinitrogen trioxide, Dinitrogen difluoride Nitrogen trichloride, Dinitrogen pentoxide Tetrarsenic hexoxide Exercise Write the formula for each of the following compounds. a. diboron trioxide b. arsenic pentafluoride B2O3 AsF5 c. dinitrogen monoxide d. sulfur hexachloride N2 O SCl6 Molecular compounds nonmetals or nonmetals + metalloids common names H2O, NH3, CH4, C60 element further left in periodic table is 1st element closest to bottom of group is 1st if more than one compound can be formed from the same elements, use prefixes to indicate number of each kind of atom A base can be defined as a substance that yields hydroxide ions (OH-) when dissolved in water. NaOH sodium hydroxide KOH Ba(OH)2 potassium hydroxide barium hydroxide

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BIS 104 PQ 1 SS 08Proof of a scientific hypothesis is convincing only if supported by a diverse series of experimental evidence. Your assigned reading, "Rules of Evidence I", describes three types of evidence: Experiments that establish (1) plausib
UC Davis - BIS - 104
BIS 104 PQ 2 SS 08 Question #2 concerns the series of experiments described by Mukouyama, et. al., in their article titled, "Sensory Nerves Determine the Pattern of Arterial Differentiation and Blood Vessel Branching in the Skin." CELL, Vol. 109, 693
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BIS 104 PQ 13 0813. With respect to solute transport, describe one key difference and one similarity when comparing facilitated passive diffusion with active transport.
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BIS 104 PQ 4 SS I 08 4. Define the following concepts or terms that are important aspects of microscopy: a. magnification: b) resolution: c) contrast: d) refractive index: e) numerical aperture (NA): f) empty magnification:
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BIS 104 PQ 3 SS I 08 In their initial set of experiments (the results depicted in Figure 1 A N, page 694) Mukouyama's group obtained results that led them to conclude that: "Peripheral nerves associate preferentially with arterial vessels but not wi
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BIS 104 PQ 2121. a) Give a one or two sentence description of the signal peptide hypothesis.b) Describe the results you would expect to observe if you added mRNA coding for alpha globin to a cell-free translation system in (1) the presence, or (2
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BIS 104 PQ 2222. It has been determined that a cargo vesicle can be moved along a MT toward the "plus" end at a speed of ~ 3 micrometers per second (3 um / sec). And, that each individual kinesin motor step covers ~ 8 nanometers (nm). a. How many s
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BIS 104 PQ 14 14. In an attempt to understand the underlying cellular mechanisms that cause symptoms of cystic fibrosis, investigators compared live cells taken from the bronchial epithelium of normal volunteers and from cystic fibrosis patients. Fir
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BIS 104 PQ 15 15. For each of the experiments given below, describe the results you would expect to observe. a. Neurons and Schwann cells were isolated from dorsal root ganglia (DRGs). Each cell type was then allowed to grow in cell culture for a few
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BIS 104 PQ 1 ans SS I 08Proof of a scientific hypothesis is convincing only if supported by a diverse series of experimental evidence. Your assigned reading, "Rules of Evidence I", describes three types of evidence: Experiments that establish (1) p
UC Davis - BIS - 104
BIS 104 PQ 2323. Consider the following experiment: You make up three batches of liposomes with identical lipid compositions. The only difference is that batch A has v-SNARE molecules incorporated into the liposomal membrane, whereas, batch B has t
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BIS PQ 6 SS I 08 6. Discuss the various factors that have an influence on the fluidity / viscosity of biomembranes. In your discussion, include the following factors: Lipid composition Lipid structure Cholesterol Temperature Lipid rafts Fluidity of a
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BIS 104 PQ 15 0815. For each of the experiments given below, describe the results you would expect to observe. a. Neurons and Schwann cells were isolated from dorsal root ganglia (DRGs). Each cell type was then allowed to grow in cell culture for a
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BIS 104 PQ 9 ans 089. Mukouyama et al. claim to have experimental evidence that VEGF is expressed in nerves at a relatively higher level than in surrounding mesenchymal tissue. Describe the experiment and the results they obtained that tend to that
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BIS 104 Practice Question #2121. a) Give a one or two sentence description of the signal peptide hypothesis. Secretory proteins contain a signal sequence at their N-terminus that directs the emerging polypeptide and ribosome to the ER membrane. The
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BIS 104 Practice Question #2222. It has been determined that a cargo vesicle can be moved along a MT toward the "plus" end at a speed of ~ 3 micrometers per second (3 um / sec). And, that each individual kinesin motor step covers ~ 8 nanometers (nm
UC Davis - BIS - 104
BIS 104 PQ 14 spring 08 14. In an attempt to understand the underlying cellular mechanisms that cause symptoms of cystic fibrosis, investigators compared live cells taken from the bronchial epithelium of normal volunteers and from cystic fibrosis pat
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BIS 104 Practice Question #23 23. Consider the following experiment: You make up two batches of liposomes with identical lipid compositions. The only difference is that batch A has v-SNARE molecules incorporated into the liposomal membrane, whereas,
UC Davis - CHEM - 118C
UC Davis - CHEM - 118b
Chemistry 118 B Spring 2007 Final Friday June 8, 2007 Instructor: Lievens This exam contains nine (9) pages and nine (9) problems. Please make sure that your copy contains all nine (9) pages. If there is a problem, please tell the exam administrator