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### lecture34

Course: PHYS 606, Fall 2008
School: UVA
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Word Count: 443

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of University Virginia Department of Physics Physics 606: How Things Work II Lecture #34 Slides: Knives and Steel Question: Knives and Steel If you take a steel paper clip and bend it repeatedly, will it become stiffer or less stiff with each new bend (at least initially)? Observations About Knives Some knives keep a better edge than others Some knives chip while others bend Some knives rust while others...

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of University Virginia Department of Physics Physics 606: How Things Work II Lecture #34 Slides: Knives and Steel Question: Knives and Steel If you take a steel paper clip and bend it repeatedly, will it become stiffer or less stiff with each new bend (at least initially)? Observations About Knives Some knives keep a better edge than others Some knives chip while others bend Some knives rust while others don't Some rust-resistant knives don't keep an edge Some rust-resistant knives aren't magnetic Stress and Strain When you squeeze a material, its thickness decreases Stress: the force per unit of top surface area (pressure) Strain: the fractional change in thickness For small stresses, strain is determined by the compressibility of the atoms themselves Since most steels contain similar atoms, most have the same relationship between stress and strain Shear Stress and Shear Strain When you bend a material, it flexes Shear stress: the force per unit of cross sectional area Shear strain: the angle of bend in the material Steel Crystals Steel is a crystalline material Crystals have large regions of orderly atoms Surfaces of atoms can "slip" across one another For small shear stresses, shear strain is determined by atomic properties Since most steels contain similar atoms, most have same relationship between shear stress and shear strain 1 Elastic and Plastic Deformation For small shear stresses, steel deforms elastically Deformation no involves overall shifting of atoms Deformation vanishes when shear stress is removed Forces involved are proportional to distortion Controlling Slip Dislocation defects assist slip Extra row of atoms allows a sheet of atom to slip gradually Thermal energy assists slip It helps dislocations move Dislocations help slip For large shear stresses, steel deforms plastically Deformation involves shifting atoms (slip) Deformation is permanent Forces involved are less than proportional to distortion To stop slip Eliminate dislocations (difficult) Lower temperature (awkward) Spoil crystal structure (easy) Hardened steel is harder to bend Spoiling Crystal Structure Work hardening Working breaks up crystals into tiny bits that won't slip Question: If you take a steel paper clip and bend it repeatedly, will it become stiffer or less stiff with each new bend (at least i...

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UVA - PHYS - 606
University of Virginia Department of PhysicsPhysics 606: How Things Work IILecture #1 Slides: Introduction to course and SkatingQuestion: SkatingA rotary lawn mower spins its sharp blade rapidly over the lawn and cuts the tops of the grasses o
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University of Virginia Department of PhysicsPhysics 606: How Things Work IILecture #26 Slides: MicrowavesQuestion:If you put a CD in a microwave oven, it willMicrowave Ovens1. do nothing. 2. burn up the microwave oven. 3. burn up the CD.O
UVA - PHYS - 606
Welcome to the Phys 606 Chat Room 8-9 PM Apr 16 You are free to type text in the text line anytime. If you want to speak, Click on the hand and I will give you the floor. We all should do this just to say hello Then I will review selected topics.
UVA - PHYS - 606
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Overview4.1 - 4.2 Analysis of AlgorithmsAnalysis of algorithms. Framework for comparing algorithms and predicting performance. Scientific method. Observe some feature of the universe. Hypothesize a model that is consistent with observation. Predi
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AST 554 - Homework #1Due February 24, 2009 Note: This homework covers some of the topics in the preliminary lectures up through &quot;Components of Galaxies: Gas&quot;. The problems are intended to be relatively straight-forward. Please remember to define al
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AST 554 - Homework #1Due February 24, 2009 Note: This homework covers some of the topics in the preliminary lectures up through &quot;Components of Galaxies: Gas&quot;. The problems are intended to be relatively straight-forward. Please remember to define al
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1997MNRAS.289.766H1997MNRAS.289.766H1997MNRAS.289.766H1997MNRAS.289.766H1997MNRAS.289.766H1997MNRAS.289.766H1997MNRAS.289.766H1997MNRAS.289.766H1997MNRAS.289.766H1997MNRAS.289.766H1997MNRAS.289.766H1997MNRAS.289.766H1997MNRAS.
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1989ApJ.343.1D1989ApJ.343.1D1989ApJ.343.1D1989ApJ.343.1D1989ApJ.343.1D1989ApJ.343.1D1989ApJ.343.1D1989ApJ.343.1D1989ApJ.343.1D1989ApJ.343.1D1989ApJ.343.1D1989ApJ.343.1D1989ApJ.343.1D1989ApJ.343.1D1989ApJ.343.1D1989ApJ.34
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1989ApJ.343.1D1989ApJ.343.1D1989ApJ.343.1D1989ApJ.343.1D1989ApJ.343.1D1989ApJ.343.1D1989ApJ.343.1D1989ApJ.343.1D1989ApJ.343.1D1989ApJ.343.1D1989ApJ.343.1D1989ApJ.343.1D1989ApJ.343.1D1989ApJ.343.1D1989ApJ.343.1D1989ApJ.34
UVA - AST - 554
1995ARA&amp;A.33.581K1995ARA&amp;A.33.581K1995ARA&amp;A.33.581K1995ARA&amp;A.33.581K1995ARA&amp;A.33.581K1995ARA&amp;A.33.581K1995ARA&amp;A.33.581K1995ARA&amp;A.33.581K1995ARA&amp;A.33.581K1995ARA&amp;A.33.581K1995ARA&amp;A.33.581K1995ARA&amp;A.33.581K1995ARA&amp;A.33.581K199
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1976ApJ.203.297S1976ApJ.203.297S1976ApJ.203.297S1976ApJ.203.297S1976ApJ.203.297S1976ApJ.203.297S1976ApJ.203.297S1976ApJ.203.297S1976ApJ.203.297S1976ApJ.203.297S
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1987ApJ.320.238S1987ApJ.320.238S1987ApJ.320.238S1987ApJ.320.238S1987ApJ.320.238S1987ApJ.320.238S1987ApJ.320.238S1987ApJ.320.238S1987ApJ.320.238S1987ApJ.320.238S1987ApJ.320.238S1987ApJ.320.238S1987ApJ.320.238S1987ApJ.320.238S
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1984ApJ.285.89D1984ApJ.285.89D1984ApJ.285.89D1984ApJ.285.89D1984ApJ.285.89D1984ApJ.285.89D1984ApJ.285.89D1984ApJ.285.89D1984ApJ.285.89D1984ApJ.285.89D1984ApJ.285.89D1984ApJ.285.89D1984ApJ.285.89D1984ApJ.285.89D1984ApJ.285.
UVA - AST - 554
1983QJRAS.24.267H1983QJRAS.24.267H1983QJRAS.24.267H1983QJRAS.24.267H1983QJRAS.24.267H1983QJRAS.24.267H1983QJRAS.24.267H1983QJRAS.24.267H1983QJRAS.24.267H1983QJRAS.24.267H1983QJRAS.24.267H1983QJRAS.24.267H1983QJRAS.24.267H198
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1978ApJ.224.132B1978ApJ.224.132B1978ApJ.224.132B1978ApJ.224.132B1978ApJ.224.132B1978ApJ.224.132B1978ApJ.224.132B1978ApJ.224.132B1978ApJ.224.132B1978ApJ.224.132B1978ApJ.224.132B
UVA - AE - 554
1991ARA&amp;A.29.581Y1991ARA&amp;A.29.581Y1991ARA&amp;A.29.581Y1991ARA&amp;A.29.581Y1991ARA&amp;A.29.581Y1991ARA&amp;A.29.581Y1991ARA&amp;A.29.581Y1991ARA&amp;A.29.581Y1991ARA&amp;A.29.581Y1991ARA&amp;A.29.581Y1991ARA&amp;A.29.581Y1991ARA&amp;A.29.581Y1991ARA&amp;A.29.581Y199
UVA - AST - 554
1991ARA&amp;A.29.581Y1991ARA&amp;A.29.581Y1991ARA&amp;A.29.581Y1991ARA&amp;A.29.581Y1991ARA&amp;A.29.581Y1991ARA&amp;A.29.581Y1991ARA&amp;A.29.581Y1991ARA&amp;A.29.581Y1991ARA&amp;A.29.581Y1991ARA&amp;A.29.581Y1991ARA&amp;A.29.581Y1991ARA&amp;A.29.581Y1991ARA&amp;A.29.581Y199
UVA - AST - 554
1981AJ.86.1825B1981AJ.86.1825B1981AJ.86.1825B1981AJ.86.1825B1981AJ.86.1825B1981AJ.86.1825B1981AJ.86.1825B1981AJ.86.1825B1981AJ.86.1825B1981AJ.86.1825B1981AJ.86.1825B1981AJ.86.1825B1981AJ.86.1825B1981AJ.86.1825B1981AJ.86.18
UVA - PHYS - 356
Phys 356Instructions:Final ExamMay 2, 2007This is an in-class, three hour exam. You may refer to your textbook, class notes, and homework solutions, and you may use a calculator. No other reference materials are permitted. Turn in your solutio
UVA - PHYS - 831
Assignment 33.1 A spherical liquid drop floats in equilibrium with its saturated vapor. The drop has radius r and surface tension , assumed constant. (a) Find the pressure difference between the liquid inside the drop and the saturated vapor. Assume
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Assignment 11.1 A gasoline engine uses an approximation to the Otto cycle, in which an ideal gas with initial pressure, volume, and temperature (P1 , V1 , T1 ) is first adiabatically compressed to volume V2 , then heated at constant volume to temper
UVA - PHYS - 831
Thermodynamic VariablesGeneralized forcesPressure Surface tension Tension Magnetic field Electric field Chemical potential Temperature PGeneralized displacementsJ H E Volume Area Length Magnetization Polarization Number Entropy V A L M P N S
UVA - PHYS - 831
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UVA - PHYS - 521
Assignment 85.2 Foucault gyrocompass A gyroscope in the form of a symmetric top is mounted with no gravitaional torque, and its symmetry axis is constrained to move only in the horizontal plane parallel to the earth's surface. The gyroscope is set s
UVA - PHYS - 521
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UVA - PHYS - 521
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UVA - PHYS - 356
Phys 356Instructions:Final ExamMay 9, 2008This is an in-class, three hour exam. You may refer to your textbook, class notes, and homework solutions, and you may use a calculator. No other reference materials are permitted. Turn in your solutio
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Manipulating DifferentialsA differential relation dF = Adx + Bdy contains a great deal of information, and can be manipulated much like an algebraic relation. For instance, the following derivations are valid: (a) Set dy = 0 and divide by dx: F = A.
UVA - PHYS - 521
Assignment 21.12 The orbit of the planet mercury has an eccentricity of 0.206 and a period of 0.241 year; moreover, the perihelion advances slowly at a rate of 43 seconds of arc per century. One possible explanation of this effect is that the potent
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Assignment 106.4 The relativistic motion of a particle in a static potential V (r) can be obtained from the lagrangian L = -mc2 (1 - v 2 /c2 )1/2 - V (r). (a) Write out Lagrange's equations and verify the above assertion. (b) Find the canonical mome
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Assignment 11.2 A uniform spool of mass M and diameter d rests on end on a frictionless table. A massless string wrapped around the spool is attached to a weight m which hangs over the edge of the table. If the spool is released from rest when its c