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2: Lecture September 3, 2007 Working class were demoted and demeaned People who were hiring skilled labor wanted to minimize costs Didnt want the working class to live above their stations Sumptuary laws: laws that restrict the way of living of a person Class system of the old world transported to the new world Laws illustrated the how they viewed the working class , it was a form of identity Upper class in british society classified as the professional class Nobility did not really come to the new world, many were investors, Many highly skilled workers saved their money for the purpose of becoming farmers or owning lands Risked the journey to the new world to escape the confines of your class The working class noticed that their hopes were not being realized AMERICAN REVOLUTION Opposed by many No ardent supportes, except for those that were nave that believed that it would cause great changes of They believed literally that America would become a better place It was going to be a social/political revolution Equality would at long last be realized They gave themselves to the revolution (working, laboring class that had something to live for) People that were very unhappy with british colonial control Was the crowd People that spilled their blood it wasnt lawyers were from the free laboring class Believed that the success of revolution they would be better off Society would usher generally egalitarian way of leaving It was political theatre Declaration was a diatribe Writing for the purpose of agitating people Working class easily stimulated And later when dreams are not realized they become the most disappointed And by 1830s we start to see how they begin to fight for their rights Laborers start to see that they have little or no control Economy goes through several stages as devolopement Each of these stages workers believe that they are worse off Skills are being demeaned They become skeptics of change As they become more skeptical that are more likey to resist by way ultimate equality Prior to the 1840s immigration wasnt an issue in the US, population grew because during this time people were concerned with producing more Americans TWO TYPES OF ACTIVISM Working class (people in possession of skills, possibility of being active, class that over time is augmented, large diverse class, semi-skilled, dont have equal political rights, cant vote, earn by the type of work they can do, providers/sellers of laborcustom order basis (highly skilled and it is quickly superceded and you go from very small labor markets to very big labor markets, this changed they believed worked to their disadvantage) theme for motivating activism: denial of equal rights immediate results of life As population increases a person can settle down in a city and can wish to work on a larger scale retail order stage make stores small factories hire several highly skilled workers now skilled laborers give up the control of their own wages, they cant put a price on their labor, price is fixed by the owner and employer very few reasons for you to be in conflict with owner you have the same culture common knowledge work alongside with owner there while is some expansion of marketplace there still isnt much competition no alternative sources superceded by whole sale order stage WHOLE SALE ORDER STAGE Master craftsmen becomes full time business person Doesnt work with the laborer Runs the business He supplies shoes to surrounding towns as well Scale of enterprise is much longer Due to better transportationtechnology (canals, roads, national postal system, communication easier, easier access to goods/services) Much more competition Once isolated markets overlap with each other Many regions trying to sell products to the same people Now it matter the price you put Vigilance is key You begin to see class differences Workers begin to organize for the first time Best way to approach employer is as a group Greater pressure on employer to figure out ways to get the job done that allows for labor savings How to cut costs and ways to achieve additional labor savings Cant dictate costs of what goods cost A lot of costs in which you have little or no control Only cost you have control is labor cost Looking for places you can save money and you look at labor costs More resistant to demands of highly skilled labor Try to hire not so skilled workers, realize that in order to make a product you can break up the labor that does one part of the job and then pass on the next task to the next worker so that you can hire a semi skilled labor at a lower cost Highly skilled laborers are undermined and resisted and now your specific job isnt as important because you arent the only person that can complete the job and you require more money because you are skilled It was the first stage where you see a true class conflict Workers are made up dependant wage earners They begin to fight against the decisions of the employers MERCHANT CAPITALIST STAGE Features are suggestive of modern capitalism Provides insight to the future You have people you dont know a thing about a business (shoe making) But they invest their money in shoemaking You provide expertise (market, credit, transportation) Relations b/w labor and capital become more tense Price determined by level of completion but you were still in command of the business but now you dont control what the price is going to be and you have a contract with the merchant and if you dont agree with the merchant he will then provide his services to someone else You have to make sure that if someone wants to buy a product at a certain price the production of labor is much lower so that you can still obtain a profit People who dont have control of the situation, you still have the same skill but the quality of your life is being diminished As competition becomes greater it becomes more incumbent upon you that you produce to have profit You want to keep labor as cheap as possible because that is what you can control If wage costs increase then employer will suffer and quite possibly get put out of business and that is where the conflict lies Thus the working environment is not stable which we can see how the economy goes through cycles and you have oscillations and swings 1819: first depression and changes everyones perspectives ... 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