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to How prepare for the Final exam Read all homework Read all assignments Read all quizzes and midterm Read power point/html notes from the lecture Review figures, diagrams from the table. There will be 29 questions altogether. First 25 questions which are True and false or fill in the blank or multiple choices. Besides, there will be four short essay questions. You make sure that your answer is complete, concise and through in essays. 1. Review all your tests, quizzes and assignments 2. Be prepared to calculate local time at a location in question given the time in a known location 3. Know to calculate solar altitude using arc distance 4. Read the review questions. The same questions may not be in the final but if you know answers to these questions you should be able to answer. 5. Read all answer sheets 6. Read chapters 1, 2 and 13 through 19 in your textbook.
Review Questions and Answers Chapter 1 1. Identify and briefly describe the four environmental spheres. Lithosphere--the solid, inorganic portion of Earth; it comprises the rocks of Earth's crust and the mineral matter that overlies the solid bedrock; (litho is Greek for "stone"). Atmosphere--the gaseous envelope of air that surrounds Earth (atmo is Greek for "air"). Hydrosphere--water in all its forms, with the oceans making up the majority of it (hydro is Greek for "water"). Biosphere--all the living organisms of Earth (bio is Greek for "life"). 2. What are the major differences between parallels and meridians? While both are imaginary lines, parallels actually run parallel to each other, so that the distance between two will not change. In contrast, meridians are only parallel where they cross at the equator; otherwise, their distances shift, with them closing in on each other the
further north or south they go; they converge at the poles. They are aligned in a true northsouth direction, whereas parallels run eastwest. 3. Explain why the plane of the ecliptic does not coincide with the equatorial plane. The plane of the ecliptic does not coincide with the equatorial plane because Earth's rotation axis is not parallel to the plane of the ecliptic. Instead, Earth's axis is tilted about 23.5 away from the perpendicular. This allows for the annual march of the seasons. 4. On June 21, at 15 south latitude, what is the angle of the Sun at noon? The analemma shows that on June 21, the declination of the Sun is at 23.5 north. Since 15 South is in an opposite hemisphere, the two must be added together to determine the arc distance. Arc Distance = 23.5 N + 15S = 38.5 Angle of Sun = Solar Altitude = 90 38.5 = 51.5 5. If it is 3:00 P. M. Friday in Hong Kong (114 east longitude), what are the time and day in Los Angeles (118 west longitude)? Difference in latitude = 118W+114E= 232 Deg Time difference = 232*4 minutes= 928 min = 15 hr 46 min
Los Angeles is further west than Hong Kong so it will be earlier there. 3 P.M. Friday 15 hours 46 min = 11:15 P.M. Thursday. Chapter 2 1. Explain the difference between largescale and small scale maps. Largescale maps portray only a small portion of Earth's surface, but provide considerable detail. Smallscale maps portray larger portions of Earth's surface, but in limited detail. Their names seem to belie their function, but the names stem not from the size of the area they portray, but from the size of the representative fraction used for the scale. Largescale maps have large representative numbers (meaning the denominator is small), while smallscale maps have small representative numbers (meaning the denominator is large). 2. Which is more useful, a graphic scale or a fractional scale? Why? A fractional scale is more useful in some ways because it is not limited to using just one type of unit for measuring --one can look at the map with inches in mind,
millimeters, or what have you. A graphic scale is more useful in some ways because it will remain correct when a map is reproduced in another size; also, a graphic scale can be more practical when one is trying to navigate. The actual usefulness, however, depends on the role the map will play; each scale has their advantages and disadvantages, and at times it is more appropriate to choose one over the other, and vice versa. 3. A globe can portray Earth's surface more accurately than a map, but globes are rarely used. Why? They are cumbersome in comparison to maps, so they aren't as portable. They also aren't as versatile. Also, they cannot portray much detail, only half can be viewed at one time, and the periphery of the visible half is not easy to see. 4. Distinguish between GPS and GIS. While both are hightech systems that provide excellent tools for the geographer, GPS and GIS are very different. Global Positioning Systems (GPS) is used to accurately determine one's position on Earth, using a satellitebased system. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is used to capture, store, retrieve, and analyze spatial data, using both computer hardware and software. GIS and GPS can be used together in a myriad of ways to assist in the
study of physical geography. For example, both are used for ocean floor mapping and environmental monitoring. 5. What are map essentials: Map essentials include 1. Tittle 2. scale, 3. Legend, 4. Location, 5. Data source 6. Date 7. Projection, 8. Direction
Chapter 13 1. Distinguish among sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic rocks. Igneous rocks are those that are formed from magmatic cooling, either above or beneath Earth's surface. Initially, all rocks were igneous when Earth was formed. Whereas igneous rocks are formed by internal processes, sedimentary rocks are formed by external processes. Mechanical and chemical operations on rocks cause them to disintegrate and then erosional agents such as wind, water, and ice remove the material. These materials are eventually deposited as sediment, where they can build to remarkable thickness. These sediments are then cemented together by the tremendous overlying
weight of other sediments and through chemical sedimentation. Metamorphic rocks can originally be either igneous or sedimentary (though, technically, even sedimentary rocks are made of material that was once igneous). These rocks are transformed through time by heat and/or pressure. The metamorphic result is the alteration of the original rock in structure, texture, composition, and appearance. Metamorphism is a cooking process that partially melts the rock, causing its mineral components to be recrystallized and rearranged.
2. Which of the major rock classes is most widespread across Earth's surface? Sedimentary rocks comprise the commonly exposed bedrock of the continents (around 75%), as well as cover nearly all of the seafloor except where volcanoes are active. However, the sedimentary cover is only around 2.4 kilometers thick (1.5 miles) and constitutes only around 5% of the total volume of the crust. 3. Distinguish between intrusive and extrusive rocks. Intrusive and extrusive rocks are both categories of igneous rocks, possessing one key difference. Intrusive
rocks (also called plutonic rocks) cool and solidify beneath Earth's surface where nonmagmatic material serves as insulation that greatly retards the rate of cooling. Because of the slow cooling, intrusively formed igneous rocks, such as granite, tend to be coarsegrained and lightly colored. Extrusive rocks are from material that flowed out onto Earth's surface while still in a molten state (also known as lava). As this material emerged, it cooled quickly in the surrounding air. Because of the rapid cooling, extrusively formed igneous rocks, such as basalt, tend to be dark colored and fine grained. 4. What is the difference between topography and relief? Topography is the surface configuration of Earth. For example, topography could be considered a collection of landforms such as sand dunes, hills and valleys, cliffs, a mountain range, or a peninsula. Relief refers to the difference in elevation between the highest and lowest points in an area. 5. Distinguish between internal and external processes that shape Earth's surface. Internal processes are those that operate from within Earth, powered by internal heat that generates extremely strong forces that operate outside of any surface or
atmospheric influence. Internal forces could be considered to build, rise, and add to Earth's surface. Processes such as plate tectonics, vulcanism, and diastropism are all considered internal forces. External processes are those that operate at the base of the atmosphere and draw their energy from sources mostly above the lithosphere, either in the atmosphere or in the oceans. External processes could be considered those that are responsible for wearing down Earth's surface and eventually decreasing topographic irregularities. External processes include weathering, mass wasting, and erosional and depositional elements such as fluvial, aeolian, glacial, solution, and waves and currents. Chapter 14 1. Why was Alfred Wegener's continental drift theory rejected for so long? Although some scientists were enthusiastic in responding to Wegener, gathering evidence to support his theory, many rejected it out of hand, believing that the crust was too rigid to allow such motion. Secondly, they could not conceive of any mechanism that would provide the energy necessary to displace such large masses.
2. Explain how the presence of the MidAtlantic Ridge supports the theory of plate tectonics. The MidAtlantic Ridge exemplifies the ridges that run approximately in the middle of each ocean, at the very least some distance from the continents bordering the ocean basins. Looking at its paleomagnetism and core samples shows how seafloor spreading created it. Specifically, it was created by addition of new crust and so spread laterally, with a relatively symmetrical pattern of magnetic orientation on either side of the ridge that reflects the periodic reversals in Earth's magnetic field. Likewise, core samples show that the oldest material is furthest away from the ridges, whereas newest lies on the ridge. This process supports the presence of a heat convection system in Earth, which provides the mechanism for plate tectonics, allowing the plates to move across Earth. The seafloor spreading contributes to how the plates move, break up, raft about, collide, and so on.
3. Distinguish among the three kinds of plate boundaries. Plate boundaries are determined by how the plates are moving in relation to one another. Only three types are possible: divergent (moving apart), convergent
(colliding), and transform (sliding laterally past one another). 4. Explain the difference between folding and faulting. Because both are types of diastrophism, folding and faulting provide a way to describe and analyze the type of diastrophic stresses observed (though it must be noted that at times the exact delineation of folding and faulting is not discrete or clearcut). Folding refers to the bending of crustal rocks whereas faulting refers to crustal rock being broken apart and displaced. A fault may occur in isolation, but it is more common to find multiple faults or a mixture of faulting and folding. 5. What are the differences between volcanic mudflows (lahars) and pyroclastic flows? A volcanic mudflow, or a lahar, is comprised of loose ash and pyroclastic flow deposits that have been left behind on the side of a volcanic mountain during previous volcanic eruptions. This deposited material can easily be mobilized by heavy rain or by the melting of snow and glaciers during an eruption. Lahars typically flow down stream valleys off the slopes of a volcano, leaving the valley floor buried in thick mud and debris. They can reach speeds of greater than 50 kilometers per hour.
A pyroclastic flow is a highspeed avalanche of searing hot gases, ash, and rock fragments. This event can be triggered by the collapse of a lava dome or the explosive of eruption a composite volcano. This material can travel down slope at speeds of over 160 kilometers per hour, burning and burying everything it its path. 6. Why is there such a concentration of earthquakes and volcanoes around the margin of the Pacific Ocean? While earthquakes may occur anywhere, even in the middle of apparently stable continental areas, most take place along midocean ridges and oceanic trenches. The rim of the Pacific Ocean has the greatest concentration of earthquakes and volcanoes in the world, and they show a striking relationship to the presence of midocean ridges and oceanic trenches. Plate tectonics points to these regions being the boundaries of great lithospheric plates, and their movement results in earthquakes and volcanoes in these areas. Chapter 15 1. Distinguish among weathering, mass wasting, and erosion.
Weathering involves the actually breaking down of rock into smaller components, whereas mass wasting and erosion involves the movement of that broken rock. (Specifically, mass wasting is the downslope movement of broken rock, and erosion is the more extensive and generally more distant removal of broken rock.) Weathering occurs because of atmospheric and biotic agencies, whereas mass wasting is due to gravity. 2. Why is chemical weathering more effective in humid than in arid climates? Nearly all forms of chemical weathering require moisture to take place. Moreover, chemical processes will operate more rapidly when there is an abundance of water, as in a humid climate as compared to an arid one.
3. What is the relationship between gravity and mass wasting? Gravity is the direct influence in mass wasting, the force that pulls the material downslope. 4. In what ways does moisture expedite mass wasting? Presence of moisture can play a role in all four types of mass wasting, and is the major catalyst in one. In falls,
the freezethaw action of water encourages the downslope migration of talus. In slides, the presence of water, through rainfall adding weight to already overloaded slopes, contributes to many landslides, though it is not necessary. In flows, water is normally the catalyst, working with gravity that causes the earth to move. In creep, water is important because the alternations of freezethaw and wetdry conditions is the significant factor in causing creep. Also, creep is faster on watersaturated slopes. Chapter 16 1. What is the distinction between overland flow and streamflow? Overland flow and streamflow are both types of fluvial processes, but overland flow is unchanneled downslope movement of water, while streamflow is channeled movement of water along a valley bottom. Overland flow is a relatively simple process, affected by rainfall intensity and duration, vegetative cover, surface characteristics, and slope shape. Streamflow is more complicated because it is confined to channels, giving it a threedimensional nature with scope for considerable complexity.
2. What are the components of a stream's load? The stream's load consists of a variety of debris, which can be essentially broken down into three factions according to size/volume: dissolved load, suspended load, and bedload. Generally, most of the material a stream carries occurs in the suspended load--very fine particles of clay and silt that never touch the streambed but instead flow along because they are so tiny and have a very slow settling speed. Generally, the least amount of material is carried in the bedload, which is made up the sand, gravel, and larger rock fragments. The third faction, the dissolved load, consists of the minerals, mostly salts, that are dissolved in the water and carried in solution. 3. What is the difference between stream capacity and competence? Stream capacity and competence are both ways of describing the load a stream can transport. Competence, however, measures the largest size of a particle a stream can move, in terms of its diameter. Competence depends mainly on the flow speed, so if that speed increases, the competence will also increase (dramatically, considering that the size of particle increases to the sixth power of the water speed).
In contrast, capacity is the measure of the total amount of solid material a stream has the potential to carry--in other words, the volume of material passing a given point during a given time span. It depends not just on flow speed, but also stream volume and the characteristics of the load. 4. How does the equilibrium theory differ from earlier theories of topographic development? The equilibrium theory calls into question the uniformity inherent in both the geomorphic cycle and the theory of crustal change and slope development. It suggests that the geomorphic processes aren't the primary determinants, but are dependent on the local variations one finds in crustal movement and the resistance of the underlying rock--proposing that these variations are just as important in determining terrain as the processes are. As such, the equilibrium theory focuses more on the relationship between geomorphic processes and surface forms, and thus has dominated fluvial geomorphology since the 1960s despite its shortcomings in studying tectonically stable areas or those with limited streamflow.
1. Explain how the solution processes work in areas of lime stone deposit Carbondioxide (co2) is dissolves in water to produce carbonic acid. Carbonic acid, in turn, reacts with carbonate rocks to produce soluble chlorides. Thus the rock weathers chemically. 2. What is the difference between a hot spring, a geyser, and a fumarole? Geysers and fumaroles are both specific types of hot springs. While regular hot springs consist of hot water flowing either continuously or intermittently, geysers do not flow, but erupt upward. Fumaroles are hot springs that lack water. 3. What causes this difference? Geysers erupt rather than flow like regular hot springs because the hot water is in a restricted subterranean tube that experiences a build up of pressure until an eruption releases the pressure. After the eruption, the hot water
again begins to collect and undergo the pressure build up until the next eruption. Fumaroles have very little water draining into their tube, and the heat is such so that the water that does drain into it is converted into steam, which is expelled from the fumarole's opening. The exact reason as to why very little water drains into the tube is unknown as yet, but one can assume that the underground plumbing in geothermically active areas is very complex.
Chapter 18 1. List several ways in which topographic development in arid lands is different from that in humid regions. The most important factors that differentiate topographic development in arid lands from that in humid regions are weathering, creep, soil and regolith, impermeable surfaces, sand, rainfall, drainage, wind, basins of interior drainage, and vegetation. For example, while chemical weathering dominates in humid regions, mechanical weathering dominates in arid lands because of the lack of water to induce chemical weathering. Likewise, creep has little influence not just because soil is lacking, but
even more so because water is lacking to lubricate the movement. What water does come cannot easily penetrate the ground because of the high proportion of impermeable surfaces. 2. Distinguish between erg and reg. The erg and the reg are two of three types of landscape found only in desert areas. Like the third type, the hamada, they are all limited to plains areas. They differ, though, in that the erg is a large area covered with loose sand while the reg has had all sand and dust removed, with only coarse gravel, pebbles, and/or boulders remaining. Regs (and hamadas) are exceedingly flat, but ergs can reach great heights, with the wind building up sand dunes. 3. Characterize the surface water found in a typical desert. A typical desert has little surface water, if any. Of streams that do occur, less than 1% are permanent, and these are usually exotic in their origin, coming from outside the desert. Though dry lake beds are common, showing that there was once water in the area, permanent lakes are very rare. Small permanent lakes are nearly always the product of permanent springs or exotic streams from nearby mountains while larger ones are almost all remnants of larger bodies of water formed in a
previously wetter climate. The Great Salt Lake is such a remnant. 4. What is the difference between a playa and a salina? A playa is a dry lake bed in a basin of interior drainage, and a salina is a specific type of playa, one that contains an unusually heavy concentration of salt in the lakebed sediment. 5. Distinguish between deflation and abrasion. Deflation and abrasion are both types of aeolian erosion. Deflation shifts loose particles, blowing them into the air or rolling them along the ground, using only air currents. Abrasion occurs when those air currents combine with the airborne particles with a sufficient enough force to provide a type of natural sandblasting.
1. Why is the Pleistocene Epoch so important to physical geography, whereas other ice ages are not? The Pleistocene Epoch is so important to physical geography in comparison to other ice ages because of its influence on current topography. It is known as the Ice Age, with capital letters, because it is the ice age that molded the glaciated landscapes we know. The other ice ages also no doubt had altered the landscape, or so we can assume by the concept of uniformitarianism. But that influence has been since eradicated by other geomorphic events, so nearly all the evidence of past glaciation we see is from the Pleistocene Epoch. 2. Describe the three types of alpine glaciers. The three basic types of alpine glaciers are cirque glaciers, valley glaciers, and piedmont glaciers. All three develop high in mountains rather than as part of a broad icefield. Cirque glaciers are those that stay confined to the basins where they originated, while valley glaciers (the most common) spill out from their basins and flow down the valley. Piedmont valleys occur occasionally when these valley glaciers extend to the mouth of the valley. 3. Describe the metamorphosis from snow to glacial ice.
Snow does not come from water freezing, but instead from water vapor crystallizing. So rather than being frozen water, snow is made up of lacy crystals that are about 1/10th as dense as water. When snow is compacted by another layer of snow, it will become progressively denser the more compression is added. Eventually it will become about half as dense as water (and is called firn or nv). With time, air will be squeezed out from the pore spaces because of the weight of overlying snow; and the density will approach 90 percent that of water and become glacial ice, with a characteristic bluish tinge. Glacial ice will become increasingly denser if compression continues and more air is forced out. 4. Compare and contrast the roles of abrasion and plucking in glacial erosion. Plucking tends to roughen the underlying surface while abrasion tends to polish it and dig striation and grooves. Most erosion by glaciers occurs by plucking, while abrasion produces mostly minor features.
5. Are we still in an ice age? An ice age is characterized by alternation of glacial and interglacial periods, those when the glaciers are advancing and those in which they are retreating. These
periods can be very long. And since it has been less than 10,000 years, perhaps even less than 9,000 years, since the last interglacial period of the Pleistocene Epoch began, we do not know if we are still experiencing an interglacial period, thus still in an ice age and just waiting for the next glacial period, or if we are in a postglacial period. (Of course, the postglacial periods of the past have been just those periods between the ice ages the world has experienced.)