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### Lecture11-1

Course: PHY 211, Fall 2008
School: Syracuse
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Word Count: 957

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back Welcome to Physics 211 Today's agenda: Ch. 9 sections 9.3 through 9.6 Impulse and Momentum Ch. 8 E&amp;P 10, 13, 20, 44 WHW11 Ch 8 # 23, 25, 31, Ch 9 # 7, 12 FHW11 Ch. 9 E&amp;P 14, 15, 17, 20, 23, 24 WHW12 Ch. 9 E&amp;P 25, 32, 38,48, 69 Read Ch. 10 through 10.4 (Energy) Physics 211 Fall 2008 Lecture 11-1 #42 text Tower 9 m high Chain 9 m long = 1 rev/4s mmax = 150 kg Good deal...

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back Welcome to Physics 211 Today's agenda: Ch. 9 sections 9.3 through 9.6 Impulse and Momentum Ch. 8 E&P 10, 13, 20, 44 WHW11 Ch 8 # 23, 25, 31, Ch 9 # 7, 12 FHW11 Ch. 9 E&P 14, 15, 17, 20, 23, 24 WHW12 Ch. 9 E&P 25, 32, 38,48, 69 Read Ch. 10 through 10.4 (Energy) Physics 211 Fall 2008 Lecture 11-1 #42 text Tower 9 m high Chain 9 m long = 1 rev/4s mmax = 150 kg Good deal on chain Tmax = 3000N Physics 211 Fall 2008 Lecture 11-1 Impulse Force F2 on 1 acting on object 1 due to object 2 for a time t yields an impulse J = F2 on 1 t In general, for a time varying force need to use this for small t and add: J = F(t) t Physics 211 Fall 2008 Lecture 11-1 Impulse for time varying forces F(t) * area under curve equals impulse t1 t2 t Physics 211 Fall 2008 Lecture 11-1 Impulse change in momentum Consider first constant forces ... Constant acceleration equation: vf = vi + at mvf - mvi = mat If we call p = mv momentum we see that p = Physics 211 Fall 2008 Lecture 11-1 Definitions of impulse and momentum Impulse imparted to object 1 by object 2: J = F2 on 1 t Momentum of an object: p = mv Physics 211 Fall 2008 Lecture 11-1 Impulse-momentum theorem J = p The net impulse imparted to an object is equal to its change in its momentum. dv d (mv ) dp F = ma = m =m = dt dt dt Note: impulse and momentum are vectors. Physics 211 Fall 2008 Lecture 11-1 Impulse demo Cart equipped with force probe collides with rubber tube Measure force vs. time and momentum vs. time Find that integral of force curve is precisely the change in p! Physics 211 Fall 2008 Lecture 11-1 Suppose a tennis ball and a bowling ball are rolling toward you. The tennis ball is moving much faster, but both have the same momentum (mv), and you exert the same force to stop each. Which of the following statements is correct? 1. It takes equal distances to stop each ball. 2. It takes equal time intervals to stop each ball. 3. Both of the above. 4. Neither of the above. Physics 211 Fall 2008 Lecture 11-1 Suppose a tennis ball and a bowling ball are rolling toward you. Both have the same momentum (mv), and you exert the same force to stop each. It takes equal time intervals to stop each ball. The distance taken for the bowling ball to stop is 1.less than. 2.equal to 3.greater than the distance taken for the tennis ball to stop. Physics 211 Fall 2008 Lecture 11-1 Consider the change in momentum in these three cases: A. A ball moving with speed v is brought to rest. B. The same ball is projected from rest so that it moves with speed v. C. The same ball moving with speed v is brought to rest and immediately projected backward with speed v. In which case(s) does the ball undergo the largest change in momentum? 1. 2. 3. 4. Case A. Case B. Case C. Cases A and B. Lecture 11-1 Physics 211 Fall 2008 Throwing ball at student on cart Ball Free-body diagram Student Free-body diagram acceleration net force (Neglecting force acceleration net vertical forces for short time interval Physics 211 Fall 2008 Lecture 11-1 while student catches ball.) Notice By Newton's 3rd law, the force on the ball is equal and opposite to the force on the student Acts for same time interval equal and opposite changes in momentum Physics 211 Fall 2008 Lecture 11-1 Newton's 3rd law and changes in momentum F1on 2 = - F2 on1 If all external forces (weight, normal, etc.) cancel: Physics 211 Fall 2008 Lecture 11-1 Conservation of momentum Assuming no net forces act on bodies there is no net impulse on composite system Therefore, no change in total momentum (p1+ p2) = 0 F 1 2 system Physics 211 Fall 2008 Lecture 11-1 Conservation of momentum (for a system consisting of two objects 1 and 2) = p -p 1 2 If the net (external) force on a system is zero, the total momentum of the system is constant. Whenever two or more objects in an isolated system interact, the total momentum of the system remains constant Physics 211 Fall 2008 Lecture 11-1 Conservation of momentum with carts Two carts initially at rest with compressed spring between them -- track with motion detectors pi = 0 pf = Physics 211 Fall 2008 Lecture 11-1 The fire extinguisher car is propelled by ejecting large amounts of gas at high speed. Could such a car operate outside of the Earth's atmosphere? 1. 2. 3. Yes No Not sure. Lecture 11-1 Physics 211 Fall 2008 The New York Times, Jan.13, 1920, p. 12 ...its flight would be neither accelerated nor maintained by the explosion of the charges... To claim that it would be, is to deny a fundamental law of dynamics... That Professor Goddard, with his `chair' in Clark College and the countenancing of the Smithsonian Insti...

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