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### phy132lab#2

Course: PHYSICS 132L, Spring 2008
School: Cal Poly Pomona
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Word Count: 524

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132 PHY LAB Experiment #2 Specific Gravity Archimedes Principle Prof. Mahmood Heyrat Purpose The main goal of this Specific Gravity and Archimedes Principle is to determine the specific gravity of several substances by application of Archimedes Principle. In this experiment the specific gravity of several substances will be determined Archimedes Principle, which states: A body immersed in a fluid is subject to a...

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132 PHY LAB Experiment #2 Specific Gravity Archimedes Principle Prof. Mahmood Heyrat Purpose The main goal of this Specific Gravity and Archimedes Principle is to determine the specific gravity of several substances by application of Archimedes Principle. In this experiment the specific gravity of several substances will be determined Archimedes Principle, which states: A body immersed in a fluid is subject to a buoyant force equal to the weight of fluid displaced. Brief Theory First, the mass (W) and the volume of the brass block, aluminum block, wood block, carbon cylinder, steel, cylinder and white cylinder are measured, and the density for each of the samples is calculated by using the formula Density = Mass / Volume. For all of the samples, when immersed fully in the water, generates (W0), and the difference W - W0 is the buoyant force. For the case of wood block, the solid is less dense than water; therefore, a sinker is needed in order to calculate Wapp. Lastly, measure the specific gravity of the alcohol directly, by suing a hydrometer. Measure the weight W of a dense solid in air, its weight W0 in water, and its weight W1 in alcohol. Solid more dense than water, S = W / B = W / (W W0) Solid less dense than water (wood) W = weight of body in air W1 = combined weight of body & sinker with only the sinker immersed W2 = combined weight of boy & sinker with both immersed S = W / B = W / (W1 W2) Liquid, W = weight of the solid in air, W0 = weight of the solid in water (fully immersed) W2 = weight of the solid in the liquid (fully immersed) The specific gravity of the liquid is just Bl S= / Bw = (W W1) / (W W0) Samples Mass in air grams, W Brass block Aluminum block Wood block Carbon block Steel cylinder White cylinder Alcohol Aluminum in alcohol 237.5 77.5 14.0 7.0 31.0 4.75 77.5 28 28 28 3.928 3.928 3.928 28 ( g/cm3) 8.482 2.768 0.618 1.782 7.892 1.209 0.860 8.482 Volume (cm3) Density Weight of samples in water, Wapp 209 50 16.5 3 27 0.5 1.067 53.5 Error Analysis % error | K1 K2 | / K1 * 100% K1 = density of the sample = mass / volume K2= density using Archimedes Principle For brass block: % error = 1.8% For aluminum block: % error = 1.8% For wood block: % error = 3.9% For carbon cylinder: % error = 1.8% For steel cylinder: % error = 1.8% For white cylinder: % error = 7.5% For alcohol: % error = 24% Questions 1. on separate sheet of paper 2. The weight W of the solid observed in Part A will decrease if the observation is made in a vacuum. 3. The wood block has less density than water, so it floats. In order to determine the specific gravity, a sinker must attach to the wood. 4. The value of S for alcohol will not change even if the solid in Part C was twice as dense as the one used in Part A 5. The balance will go up since the beaker is now has less weight on there. Conclusion The specific gravity, using Archimedes Principle for all of the samples has very close number compare to the actual density (mass / volume). I learned how to apply Archimedes principle and determine the specific gravity. Also, the buoyant force B (weight of water displaced) exerted on the body by the water is the difference of the weight W in air and the weight W0 when fully immersed in water.
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