Chapter 4 Intro and Histology
4 Pages

Chapter 4 Intro and Histology

Course Number: BIOL 252, Spring 2008

College/University: UNC

Word Count: 1142

Rating:

Document Preview

CHAPTER 4: THE TISSUE LEVEL OF ORGANIZATION Four types of tissues: (Powerpoint) Epithelial, Connective Tissue, Muscle Tissue (bottom right- cells that contract), Neural Tissue (bottom right)composed of neurons specialized for communication I. A. Epithelial Tissue (top left) Characteristics: mostly made of cells that are held together tightly and stacked; line all passages that communicate with the outside world 1....

Unformatted Document Excerpt
Coursehero >> North Carolina >> UNC >> BIOL 252

Course Hero has millions of student submitted documents similar to the one
below including study guides, practice problems, reference materials, practice exams, textbook help and tutor support.

Course Hero has millions of student submitted documents similar to the one below including study guides, practice problems, reference materials, practice exams, textbook help and tutor support.

4: CHAPTER THE TISSUE LEVEL OF ORGANIZATION Four types of tissues: (Powerpoint) Epithelial, Connective Tissue, Muscle Tissue (bottom right- cells that contract), Neural Tissue (bottom right)composed of neurons specialized for communication I. A. Epithelial Tissue (top left) Characteristics: mostly made of cells that are held together tightly and stacked; line all passages that communicate with the outside world 1. Cellular- tend to stick together (cell junctions), very little matrix between them, made mostly of cells 2. Polar- one side is different than the other- one side has cilia , golgi towards top, nucleus toward bottom a. Basal lamina- (bottom) functions to connect the epithelial tissue to whatever is underneath 3. Avascular- no blood vessels- has to receive its nutrients and dispose of wastes w/o blood vesselsnot extremely thick and will exchange with blood vessels which normally lie beneath- cells at top die as they get further from blood 4. Regenerative- capacity to continually replace dying cells- continually reproduce more cells from stem cells Specializations 1. Cilia, microvilli 2. Intercellular connections: tight junctions-hold cells very tightly and form barriers so even water cannot get through, desmosomes- connection just for purpose of holding cells together, gap junctions- very tiny pores that allow small items to pass to adjacent cell 3. Basal lamina secreted matrix that forms attachment for epithelium to connective tissue 4. Germinative cells stem cells that continually regenerate the epithelium Functions (locations of epithelia) function tied closely to its structure 1. Physical protection all kinds of barriers; skin, digestive tract- protect from water loss, abrasion 2. Allow selective permeability lungs, digestive tract, kidneys, blood vessels 3. Transmit sensations intimately connected with the nervous system 4. Produce secretions glandular epithelium General Classification 1. Complexity: Simple (single layer), Stratified (multiple layers) 2. Shape: Squamous(snake scale like), Cuboidal(cube like), Columnar (tall) Specific types 1. Simple Squamous thin barrier allows great permeability: blood vessels, lungs a. Held together with very tight junctions b. Alveolar cells in air sac- very thin walls- gas exchange c. Capillaries- made of simple squamous d. In protected areas 2. Stratified Squamous resists abrasion: skin, digestive tract, linings of orifices a. Germanative cells at bottom reproducing- makes tissue very useful for thick barriers that are abrasion resistant 3. Simple Cuboidal less permeable than simple squamous. ducts & tubules; glands & kidneys B. C. D. E. a. Form around tubes- moderately thick wall- more selective than a thin simple squamous cell 4. Simple Columnar absorption or secretion (with goblet cells present); intestines a. Extremely selective absorption or secretion- stomach or intestines- out of the lining and into your bodythe taller they are, the more difficult it is for things to pass through 5. Transitional stretches easily; urinary system- found where expansion is important- bladder and other parts of urinary system a. Connected to the basal lamina looks pseudostratified i. Will bunch up when nothing is in it ii.Fills- bladder stretches cells stretch 6. Pseudostratified columnar a. Not completely stratified, they are all connected and reach top and bottom- found in respiratory tract- cilia and goblet cells produces mucus to push out particles or bacteria F. Glandular Epithelium organized secretory cells very functional- no specific structure or shapevery tightly held together 1. Endocrine release hormones to surrounding fluid and picked up by blood a. Has no ducts- globbed together 2. Exocrine release other secretions to epithelial surfaces through ducts (has structure) a. Connected to the surface of organ- digestive tract, etc: sweat, digestive enzymes b. Merocrine (partial): cell fragments full of mucus or substance other breaks off from cell i. Vesicles with secretions are released by exocytosis (partial) 1. Does not destroy the cell c. Holocrine (whole): entire cell packs full of secretory substance (oil, etc) and bursts, killing cellsebaceous glands (oil hair glands) II. Connective Tissue (top right) few cells lots of extracellular matrix likely to have connective tissue near epithelial tissue A. Characteristics- ground substance and fibers 1. Most volume is matrix: protein fibers, but mostly ground substance (fluid) 2. Cellular, but not very3. Many connective tissues connect epithelium to rest of body, forming part of basal lamina B. Connective tissue proper 1. Cellular components a. Fibroblasts the main cellular component of connective tissue proper i. Tapered on the ends- branched ii.Everywhere in your body iii.Job is to secrete fibers and maintain connective tissue b. Mesenchymal cells stem cells i. Undifferentiated cell type ii.Opposite of epithelial cells iii.Respond to injury c. Macrophages large-to eat amoeboid cells that engulf bacteria or dead cells i. Eat cell debris, dead cells, does clean-up d. Adipocytes fat cells (vacuoles 99% of volume) e. Melanocytes pigment cells, melanin, not in all cells f. Mast cells immune cells, respond to infection or injury by triggering inflammation i. Located near blood vessels ii.Release histamine/heparin- detects infection will send signal to immune system 2. Fibrous components compose part of the matrix- all are proteins that are secreted by connective tissue cells a. Collagen (most abundant protein in mammals) tough fibers that resist stretching- dense and strong (steel cable) b. Reticular fibers branching fibers that allow a bit more stretching than collageni. Web like- branching, resist forces applied from many directions ii.Combination of collagen and elastic c. Elastic fibers stretchy and return back to original shape- opposite of collage- stretched like a spring C. Connective tissue proper: Loose Connective Tissue a. Lots of reticular fibers b. Cushion 1. Areolar tissue mostly ground substance with elastic fibers. Found loosely connecting structures together like skin and muscle- attaches various types of tissues- skin and muscles 2. Adipose tissue adipocytes store fat for cushion, insulation, and energy. Small amount of matrix D. Connective tissue proper: Dense Connective Tissue 1. Dense regular forms tendons and ligaments. High degree of organized collagen - may have high amounts of elastic fibers to allow stretching -fibers aligned in same direction -Found in tendons muscle to bone, and ligaments bone to bone 2. Dense irregular encapsulates organs in a capsule. Strong collagen fibers resist tension in all directions a. Skin b. Stretch a little but not a lot of elastic properties E. Fluid Connective Tissues 1. Bloodmetabolic tissue a. Red (erythrocyte) and white (leukocytes) blood cells suspended in plasma b. Platelets: clotting response contains enzymes and special proteins 2. Lymph a. Found in vessels lymph vessels b. Largely acellular but has some red/white blood cells F. Supporting Connective Tissues- weight bearing or protective, fibers and insoluble calcium salts 1. Cartilage a. Composition: polysaccharide derivatives i. Chondrocytesproduce chemical that discourages blood vessels, located in the lacunae ii.Matrix is a gel-like substance made of chondroitin sulfates iii.A mass of cartilage is surrounded by a thin connective tissue: perichondrium b. Growth: i. Interstitial: Chondrocytes undergo divisions and grow from within and secrete matrix (like inflating a balloon) ii.Appositional: Chondrocytes around the outside deposit matrix c. Types: i. Hyaline Cartilage lines joints and trachea; tough and flexible, most abundant ii.Elastic Cartilage ears; very flexible iii.Fibro Cartilage intervertebral discs and knees; very tough 2. Bone made of organic and inorganic matrix Cells = osteocytes. More in chapter 6

Find millions of documents on Course Hero - Study Guides, Lecture Notes, Reference Materials, Practice Exams and more. Course Hero has millions of course specific materials providing students with the best way to expand their education.

Below is a small sample set of documents:

UNC - BIOL - 252
Integumentary System A system that is composed of several different organs, including the skin I. Components 1. Accessory structures (hair, nails, glands: located in dermis and protrude the epidermis) 2. Skin (epidermis, dermis, subcutaneous layer)
UNC - BIOL - 252
THE SKELETAL SYSTEMChapter 6: Osseous Tissue and Skeletal Structure I. Functions of Bone A. Support- hold you upright, form a place for muscles to attach- can move bones only at joints B. Protection- brain and spinal cord protected by bone interna
UNC - BIOL - 252
The Muscular System - overview I. A. B. C. D. E. II. Functions Move skeleton Maintain posture/position Protect internal organs (support soft tissuessix pack) Gate openings: mouth, anus, urinary tract (guards entrances and exits) Produce heat (maintai
UNC - BIOL - 252
Neural tissue and Neurophysiology Chapter 11: Organization and composition of the nervous system I. An Overview of the Nervous System A. Composition Neuronscells; and neuroglia (glia)supportive framework for cells B. Organization 1. Central Nervous
Syracuse - PHY - 211
Syracuse - ECS - 102
Exam 3 ECS 102 Spring 2006 Dr. Baruch 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 total 8 10 12 8 10 8 10 8 8 10 4 4 1001. /* a declaration in main */ int list[10] = { 2, 4, 6, 8 }; /* swapA */void swapA(int * x, int * y) { int temp; temp=*x; *x = *y; *y = temp; }
Syracuse - PSY - 205
Chapter 6: LearningClassical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov Terminology Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) Conditioned Stimulus (CS) Unconditioned Response (UCR) Conditioned Response (CR)1Figure 6.1 Classical conditioning apparatusFigure 6.2 The s
Syracuse - CIS - 352
Exam 3aExam 3aCIS 352: CIS 352: ProgrammingProgramming Languages LanguagesName:Question Points Received Points Possible1234567Total201620981512100Instructions Read them all!(i) The quiz is closed book, clos
Syracuse - CIS - 352
Exam 3bExam 3bCIS 352: CIS 352: ProgrammingProgramming Languages LanguagesName:Question Points Received Points Possible1234567Total201620981512100Instructions Read them all!(i) The quiz is closed book, clos
SUNY Stony Brook - SOC - 247
Sociology of Gender SOC/WST 247 Test #1 Review Sheet The first midterm exam will include questions based upon chapters 1, 2, 4, and 7 of the Renzetti and Curran book as well as part III (pp.75-159) of Schneirs Feminism. You should pay particular att
SUNY Stony Brook - AMS - 102
Homework Assignment #2A Due 9/18/08 along with HW 2B 1. (Journal of Urology, Vol. 10, pp. 556-561) Certain kinds of tumors tend to recur. The following data represent the lengths of time, in months, for a tumor to recur after chemotherapy: 19 18 17 1
SUNY Stony Brook - CHE - 133
SUSB-003BACKGROUNDMeasuring devices have intrinsic uncertaintyIntroduction to Laboratory Measurement SUSBSUSB-003Last Updated: 9/7/2008i.e., limitations due to their design/construction scale, balance calendar, sundial, watch, USNO measuring
SUNY Stony Brook - CHE - 133
? QUESTIONS ?With what accuracy and precision can you determine the concentration of a solution of sodium hydroxide? Using that NaOH solution, with whatStrength of Vinegar by Acid-Base TitrationFinal Exercise 105 pointsaccuracy and precision c
SUNY Stony Brook - CHE - 133
CHE 133 MAKE-UP LABORATORY EXERCISE MONDAY, DEC 10, 2007 - Starting 5:00 PMDetermination of NaHCO3 in a MixturePart 1 - GasometricLast Update: 11/15/2007 2:42 PMEligible Students are ONLY those who have EXCUSED ABSENCES from: ONE or MORE TEST E
SUNY Stony Brook - CHE - 133
DOWN MEMORY LANE Lengths, Weights, Volumes, Density Household Materials - Analysis Vanillyl Alcohol - Synthesis Hydrogen Peroxide - Assay Baking Soda - Assay Food Dyes - Spectroscopy Food Dyes Chromatography Fruit Juices Acid Content Vinegar - Assa
SUNY Stony Brook - CHE - 133
Instructions for Enrolling Your Response Pad through CPSOnline for CHE 133 Class Name: CHE133f08Mon OR CHE133f08Fri This document instructs you how to enroll your response pad through CPSOnline. This document contains the following sections: What it
SUNY Stony Brook - CHE - 133
CHE 133 - FALL 2008Prelab Lectures Fri Mon WEEK 1 Tuesday - Friday, 9/2 - 9/5: Labs do NOT meet - Friday Pre-lab Lecture MEETS WEEK 2 Check-in - [ALL Labs and Lectures MEET]Assignment: Read SUSB-001a, SUSB-002; and SUPL-001; Do Pre-Lab for SUPL-001
Cornell - PHYS - 2213
Physics 2213 Read:Homework #1Fall 2008Chapter 17.1 17.3; Chapter 18.1 18.3 Q18.2, 3, 4, 10, 12; E's & P's #17.3, 5, #18.1, 18.21, 18.34, 18.57For study: (not quizzed)To be prepared for your 2nd recitation class the week of September 1-5:
Cornell - PHYS - 2213
Physics 2213 Read:Homework #2Fall 2008Chapter 17.5 17.7; Chapter 18.1 18.3 Q #17.6, 8, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 23, 28; Q #18.14, 18, 20, 22; E's & P's #17.33, 35, 39, 41, 45, 59, 69, 71, 101, 113; #18.36For study: (not quizzed)To be p
Cornell - PHYS - 2213
Physics 2213 Read: Chapter 20.1 20.7Homework #4Fall 2008For practice:Chap. 20: Q's #Q20.2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 17, 20 E's & P's #20.1, 5, 13, 19, 21To be prepared by 9/25. Not Quizzed, but included as part of Prelim 1 coverag
Cornell - PHYS - 2213
Physics 2213 Read: Chapter 21.1-4.Homework #5Fall 2008For practice:Chap. 21: Q's #21.1-5, 21.9, 21.11-17, 20-23. E's & P's #21.7, 11, 21, 27, 32, 44, 47.To be prepared for your 2nd discussion section the week of September 29 - October 3: #2
Cornell - PHYS - 2213
Physics 2213 Read: Chapter 21.5-7, 22.1-4Homework #6Fall 2008For study:Q's #Q22.1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 E's & P's #21.99, 22.1, 5, 6, 9, 11, 13, 17, 43, 57, 61, 63To be prepared for your 2nd recitation class the week of October 6-10: #21.96 [Half-
Cornell - PHYS - 2213
Physics 2213 HW #1 Solutions 18.6 [Balloons]Fall 2008We have pV = nRT for an ideal gas and mtot = nM for the mass of the gas. The temperature must be converted to Kelvin: T = 22.0C = 295.15K. The average molar mass of air is M = 28.8 103 kg mol
Cornell - PHYS - 2213
Physics 2213 HW #2 SolutionsFall 200818.30 [Mixed Gases] a) All gases in the mixture are at the same temperature. The average kinetic energy of a molecule in a gas depends only on the temperature, not on the molecules mass, so the average kineti
Cornell - PHYS - 2213
Physics 2213 HW #3 SolutionsFall 200818.41 [Heat Capacities] CV = 5R /2 for a diatomic ideal gas and CV = 3R /2 for a monatomic ideal gas. (a) Q = nCV T = n ( 5 R ) T 2 (b) Q = nCV T = n ( 3 R ) T 2Q = (2.5 mol) ( 5 ) (8.3145 J/mol K)(30.0 K)
Cornell - PHYS - 2213
Physics 2213 Read: Chapter 18.4, 19.1-19.8Homework #3Fall 2008For study: (not quizzed)Q's #Q19.4, 5, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18 E's & P's #18.43, 19.3, 4, 13, 17, 27, 33, 35, 43, 64, 65To be prepared for your 2nd discussion se
Cornell - PHYS - 2213
Physics 2213 HW #5 SolutionsFall 200821.8 [Aluminum Spheres] Well use the mass of a sphere and the atomic mass of aluminum to find the number of aluminum atoms in one sphere. Each atom has 13 electrons. Then, well apply Coulombs law and calculat
Cornell - PHYS - 2213
Physics 2213 HW #6 Solutions21.96 [Half-Ring of Charge]Fall 2008The x-components of the electric field cancel from the left and right halves of the semicircle, so we only need to calculate the y-component of the field, Ey. This y component poin
Cornell - PHYS - 2213
Physics 2213 HW #7 SolutionsFall 200822.31[Charge in a Cavity]Apply Gausss law and conservation of charge. E = 0 in a conducting material. (a) Gausss law says +Q on inner surface, so E = 0 inside metal. (b) The outside surface of the sphere
Cornell - PHYS - 2213
Physics 2213 HW #8 SolutionsFall 200825.81 [Internal Resistance] The terminal voltage is Vab = Ir = IR , where R is the resistance connected to the battery. During the charging the terminal voltage is Vab = + Ir . P = VI and energy is E = Pt
Cornell - PHYS - 2213
Physics 2213 Read:Homework #7Fall 2008Sections 22.5, 23.1 (pp. 780-782), 23.2, Chapter 25 (all) Handouts: Conductors in Electrostatic Equilibrium; Electric Current, Voltage, PotentialFor study: Chap. 22: Q's #Q22.10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16 (not t
Cornell - PHYS - 2213
Physics 2213 Read:Homework #8Fall 2008Section 25.4; Chapter 26, sections 26.1-26.3 Chap. 26: Q's #Q26.1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 18 E's & P's: #26.3, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 21, 55, 61, 67, 69, 92For study: (not turned in)To
Cornell - PHYS - 2213
Physics 2213 Read:Homework #9AND Chapter 26, section 26.4Fall 2008Chapter 24, intro., sections 24.1, 24.2; Chap. 24: Chap. 26:For study:Q's #Q24.2, 6, 7, 8; E's & P's: #24.2, 9, 13, 18, 19 Q's #Q26.19, 21; E's & Ps: #26.38, 41, 43, 83To
University of Michigan - EECS - 314
EECS 314 Homework # _ Fall 2007 Discussion section # _ _(students last name, legibly, in ink)_(students first name, legibly, in ink) Honor code statement: "I have neither given nor received aid on this homework, nor have I concealed any violation
University of Michigan - EECS - 314
EECS 314 Fall 2007 HW 01 Solutions Problem 1Part 1Current Y is the easiest one to solve first. Inspecting node N1, there is a complete set of currents with one unknown quantity Y. Using Kirchhoffs current law (KCL): 8A + 2A + 14A = Y Y = 8ANext,
University of Michigan - EECS - 314
EECS 314 Fall 2007 HW 05 Problem 1Student's name _ (Last name, first name, IN INK) Discussion section # _The big picture1. Capacitors store energy in the form of electric field. The energy W stored in the capacitor equalsacross the capacitor. U
University of Michigan - EECS - 314
EECS 314 Fall 2007 HW 07 Overview OverviewIn this HW 07, we keep studying steady-state responses of circuits that include capacitors and inductors to sinusoidal input signals, both at varied frequencies and at fixed frequencies. The main analytic to
University of Michigan - EECS - 314
EECS 314 Fall 2007 HW 02 Problem 1Student's name _ (Last name, first name, IN INK) Discussion section # _The big pictureA potentiometer (pot) shown on the first diagram is basically a resistor with three connectors: in addition to the end connect
University of Michigan - EECS - 314
EECS 314 Fall 2007 HW 04 Problem 1Student's name _ (Last name, first name, IN INK) Discussion section # _The Big PictureEquivalent sourcesThe voltage source VS in series with a resistor RS , as shown on the left top and on the center top diagram
University of Michigan - EECS - 314
EECS 314 Fall 2007 HW 06 Problem 1Student's name _ (Last name, first name, IN INK) Discussion section # _This problem was given on exam 2 in EECS 314 Winter 2005The circuit shown on the diagram belowis fed with an input signal, which is a squar
University of Michigan - EECS - 314
EECS 314 Fall 2007 HW 10 Problem 1Student's name _ (Last name, first name, IN INK) Discussion section # _The big pictureAs you know from lecture notes, music on CD is recorded with 16- or 20-bit resolution, at the sampling rate of ~ 44 kHz. As yo
University of Michigan - EECS - 314
EECS 314 Fall 2007 HW 11 For extra credit Problem 1Student's name _ (Last name, first name, IN INK) Discussion section # _For the Big Picture, see the file 2007 Analog and Digital posted on the web as part of lecture notes for November 27, 2007.
University of Michigan - EECS - 314
EECS 314 Fall 2007 HW 03 Problem 1Student's name _ (Last name, first name, IN INK) Discussion section # _The big pictureThe circuit shown on this diagram is known as an inverting summer, or summing amplifier, a.k.a. adder. This summer is invertin
University of Michigan - EECS - 314
EECS 314Fall 2008Homework set 2Students name _ Discussion section # _ (Last, First, write legibly, use ink) (use ink) Instructor is not responsible for grading and entering scores for HW papers lacking clear information in the required fields a
University of Michigan - EECS - 314
EECS 314Fall 2008Homework set _Students name _ Discussion section # _ (Last, First, write legibly, use ink) (use ink) Instructor is not responsible for grading and entering scores for HW papers lacking clear information in the required fields a
University of Michigan - EECS - 314
EECS 314Fall 2008Homework set 4Students name _ Discussion section # _ (Last, First, write legibly, use ink) (use ink) Instructor is not responsible for grading and entering scores for HW papers lacking clear information in the required fields a
University of Michigan - EECS - 314
EECS 314Fall 2008Homework set 5Students name _ Discussion section # _ (Last, First, write legibly, use ink) (use ink) Instructor is not responsible for grading and entering scores for HW papers lacking clear information in the required fields a
University of Michigan - EECS - 314
EECS 314Fall 2008Homework set 6Students name _ Discussion section # _ (Last, First, write legibly, use ink) (use ink) Instructor is not responsible for grading and entering scores for HW papers lacking clear information in the required fields a
University of Michigan - EECS - 314
EECS 314Fall 2008Homework set 7Students name _ Discussion section # _ (Last, First, write legibly, use ink) (use ink) Instructor is not responsible for grading and entering scores for HW papers lacking clear information in the required fields a
University of Michigan - EECS - 314
EECS 314Problem 1Fall 2007Exam 1EECS 314Problem 2Fall 2007Exam 1EECS 314Problem 3Fall 2007Exam 1EECS 314Problem 4The circuit shown on this diagram was used in experiments with MOSFET in which the supply voltage Vdd = +6 V is co
USC - GEOL - 108
Test Bank AnswersCRISES OF A PLANET - GEOL 108 FIRST TEST BANK (example questions) TRUE/FALSE (2 points each)16/09/2005 18:32:00The Earth never experienced the same heavy meteorite cratering of the moon at 4.5 to 4.7 b.y. because most of meteori
Air Force Institute of Technology, Ohio - CIVIL - 602
SEISMOLOGY: SEISMOS: (Greek Word) - Shaking LOGUS: (Greek Word) Science or treaties So Seismology -> The study of shaking of earthSeismology is the branch of Geophysicsconcerned with the study and analysis of Earthquakes and the science of energy
Air Force Institute of Technology, Ohio - CIVIL - 602
nt= y=randn(1,nt) ymean=mean(y) y1=y-ymean ystd=std(y1) y2=y1./ystd e=0.2;et=0.05; a=exp(1)/e; b=-e*log(et)/(1+e*(log(e)-1) t=0:nt Wt=a*t^b.*exp(-c*t) y3=y2.*Wt R=28.2; %km Bs=3.4; %km/s Dxi=1e7; %dyn/cm2 ro=2.67; % Mw=7.74; Mo=10^(Mw+10.7)*3/2) fc=4
Air Force Institute of Technology, Ohio - CIVIL - 602
Waves on a StringdensityNewtons law of motionTension forceThis is one dimensional scalar wave equation propagating with velocity, vA simplified case for the wave equation is the plane wave propagating in the x-direction. In this case, the wav
Air Force Institute of Technology, Ohio - CIVIL - 602
i1 1 , 1 , 12 , 2 , 2i2Observe that when waves travel from a solid of one velocity to different velocity, the direction changes. This has a large impact on the nature of seismic waves, since the Earth is highly variable.i1 1 , 1 , 12 ,
Air Force Institute of Technology, Ohio - CIVIL - 602
Seismic Moment and Stress Aki (1966) introduced Mo Is the product of three factors that indicate the size of the earthquake:Mo=(shearmodulus)x(rupturearea)x(slipoffset)For crustal rocks =1011 3.3 dyne/cm2 Seismic moment (M) is measured in N-m
Texas A&M - PHYS - 208
nair 1.00 sin air = arcsin sin 35.0 = 25.5. 33.10: a) water = arcsin n 1.33 water b)This calculation has no dependence on the glass because we can omit that step in the chain : nair sin air = nglass sin glass = nwater sin water .
Texas A&M - PHYS - 208
33.1: a) v =c 3.00 108 m s = = 2.04 108 m s . n 1.47 7 (6.50 10 m) b) = 0 = = 4.42 10 7 m. n 1.47
Texas A&M - PHYS - 208
8 33.2: a) vacuum = c = 3.00 1014 m s = 5.17 10 7 m. f 5.80 10 Hzb) glass =c 3.00 108 m s = = 3.40 10 7 m. 14 fn (5.80 10 Hz)(1.52)
Texas A&M - PHYS - 208
c 3.00 108 m/s n= = = 1.54. 33.3: a) v 1.94 108 m/s7 7 b) 0 = n = (1.54) (3.55 10 m) = 5.47 10 m.
Texas A&M - PHYS - 208
33.4: water nwater = Benzene nBenzene CS2 = water nwater (4.38 10 7 m)(1.333) = nBenzene 1.501