12 Pages

# F07 314 HW 10 all

Course: EECS 314, Fall 2007

School: University of Michigan

Word Count: 2093

Rating:

###### Document Preview

EECS 314 Fall 2007 HW 10 Problem 1 Student's name ___________________________ (Last name, first name, IN INK) Discussion section # __________ The big picture As you know from lecture notes, music on CD is recorded with 16- or 20-bit resolution, at the sampling rate of ~ 44 kHz. As you know from reading the labels, a blank CD has the capacity of 700 MB (megabytes; 1 Byte = 8 bits; 1 MB ~ 106 Bytes) and is rated...

##### Unformatted Document Excerpt
Coursehero >> Michigan >> University of Michigan >> EECS 314

Course Hero has millions of student submitted documents similar to the one
below including study guides, practice problems, reference materials, practice exams, textbook help and tutor support.

Course Hero has millions of student submitted documents similar to the one below including study guides, practice problems, reference materials, practice exams, textbook help and tutor support.

314 EECS Fall 2007 HW 10 Problem 1 Student's name ___________________________ (Last name, first name, IN INK) Discussion section # __________ The big picture As you know from lecture notes, music on CD is recorded with 16- or 20-bit resolution, at the sampling rate of ~ 44 kHz. As you know from reading the labels, a blank CD has the capacity of 700 MB (megabytes; 1 Byte = 8 bits; 1 MB ~ 106 Bytes) and is rated for 80 minutes of music recording. In this Problem, you will put 2 and 2 together in order to see whether all of the above numbers make sense. Problem Part 1 (10 points) Assume that the music is recorded in two channels (stereo = left and right) that have the same resolution of 16 bits and the same sampling rate of 44 kHz. Calculate the amount of memory in MB required to record 1 minute of music. Your answer: _______________________ MB per minute of music Assume that a blank CD has the capacity of 700 MB. Calculate how many minutes of music can be stored on the CD. Your Register to View Answer= _______________________ minutes on CD If your answer above is less than 80 minutes, it means that a data compression algorithm is used to record the data on music CDs. The compression can be easily quantified: for example, if you estimate the needed memory as 1 MB and the actual record requires only 0.8 MB, then the compression ratio equals 1/.8 = 1.25, which is very modest compared to that used in MP3 technology. Discuss your answer: if you found T > 80 minutes, no compression is needed. If, however, you found T < 80 minutes, compression is needed, and you are asked to calculate the compression ratio. Your answer on compression: _______________________________________________ Part 2 (5 points) Repeat Part 1 for 20-bit music recording. Your answer: _______________________ MB per minute of music Your Register to View Answer= _______________________ minutes on CD Your answer on compression: _______________________________________________ 2007 Alexander Ganago Page 1 of 2 EECS 314 Fall 2007 HW 10 Problem 1 Student's name ___________________________ (Last name, first name, IN INK) Discussion section # __________ Part 3 (10 points) An important characteristics of sampling is the bit rate, usually expressed in kilobits/second, or kbit/sec, which is calculated for stereo recording as the product bits/sample number of samples/second 2 channels / 1000 bits/kilobit Calculate the bit rate for CD recording with 16-bit resolution. Your answer: _______________________ kbit/sec for 16-bit CD recording Compare your result with the popular MP3 standard 128 kbit/sec: calculate the ratio of bit rates in CD and MP3 recordings. Your answer: the ratio of bit rates (CD/MP3) equals _______________________ Assume a blank disk capacity of 700 MB, calculate the duration of music recordings in MP3 format that can fit on that disk. Express your result in seconds, as well as in hours and minutes (rounded to a single minute). Your Register to View Answer700 MB disk can hold the MP3 recordings of music that plays for _______________________ seconds, or _______________ hours and _______ minutes. Show your work for all parts on a separate page. 2007 Alexander Ganago Page 2 of 2 EECS 314 Fall 2007 HW 10 Problem 2 Student's name ___________________________ (Last name, first name, IN INK) For The big picture, refer to the lecture notes file named 2007 Analog and Digital. Assume that the analog signal sketched here is fed into the AD converter shown on the diagram below, with VREF = 8 V. Discussion section # __________ The problem contains 5 parts, 5 points each. 1. On the sketch above, draw horizontal lines that correspond to sampleand-hold circuit output, assuming that the sampling is done at the beginning of each time interval T1, T2, etc. 2. Analyze how the AD circuit works: show detailed calculations of the binary outputs D0, D1, D2 for the unlabeled time interval prior to T1 Continued on the next page 2007 Alexander Ganago Page 1 of 2 EECS 314 Fall 2007 HW 10 Problem 2 Student's name ___________________________ (Last name, first name, IN INK) Discussion section # __________ 3. Based on your circuit analysis in #2 above, calculate the binary outputs D0, D1, D2 obtained during time intervals T1 through T8 and draw the digital waveforms on the grid provided here: 4. Assume that the binary outputs D0, D1, D2 obtained during time intervals T1 through T8 are fed into a DA converter in order to restore the input signal. On the sketch of the input analog signal, which is repeated here for your convenience, draw DA converters outputs during time intervals T1 through T8 (use your results of #3 above). Assume that the DA converter circuit restores the positive sign of the input signal. 5. Briefly comment on the accuracy of the analog input signal restoration: do you consider it adequate? Explain how the accuracy can be improved: a. By sampling more often, for example, by dividing the time window into 16 or 32 time intervals b. By using more bits for AD conversion c. By both a and b above. 2007 Alexander Ganago Page 2 of 2 EECS 314 Fall 2007 HW 10 Problem 3 Student's name ___________________________ (Last name, first name, IN INK) Discussion section # __________ Assume that the binary waveforms D0, Part 1 (10 points) Show sample calculation of the output voltage VOUT(T) for the time interval D1, D2, D3 obtained during time intervals T1 through T8 are fed into the DA converter circuit with R = 40 k and RF = 5 k. T4 Part 2 (15 points) On the grid below, sketch the output voltage VOUT(T) for the time intervals T1 through T8 Carefully label the vertical axis in volts. 2007 Alexander Ganago EECS 314 Fall 2007 HW 10 Problem 4 Student's name ___________________________ (Last name, first name, IN INK) Discussion section # __________ Analog-to-digital conversion The big picture Analog signals (for example, voltages from sensors) are converted into binary numbers for transmission and processing in digital circuits. Problems from EECS 314 exams On the exams, only answers are required, but in the HW paper, show your work! Part 1 (Contributed by James Kim) (5 points) Voltage that varies between -12 V and 12 V is converted into binary numbers using an 8-bit A/D converter. Whats the LSB (least significant bit) of this converter? A. 93.75 mV B. 46.875 mV C. 187.5 mV D. 375 mV E. None of the above Part 2 (5 points) At the output of a 5-bit analog-to-digital converter, the least significant bit (LSB) corresponds to 1 mV. Therefore, the most significant bit (MSB) corresponds to A. 5 mV B. C. D. E. 24 mV = 16 mV 25 mV = 32 mV 104 mV = 10 V 105 mV = 100 V Part 3 (5 points) Voltage that varies between -5 V and +5 V is converted into binary numbers using an 8bit A/D converter. The maximal error of this digital representation is about A. B. C. D. E. 40 mV 20 mV 10 mV 5 mV Can be any of the above, on depending the magnitude of voltage at the particular moment of time. Comment: assume that the error equals LSB (the worst-case scenario) 2007 Alexander Ganago Page 1 of 2 EECS 314 Fall 2007 HW 10 Problem 4 Student's name ___________________________ (Last name, first name, IN INK) Part 4 (5 points) You have to measure the amount of liquid in a cylindrical tank that has 10,000 gal capacity, by monitoring the height H with a sensor. Given that the maximal error should not exceed 10 gal, you will choose an A/D converter with at least A. 10 bits B. 20 bits C. 16 bits D. 12 bits E. 8 bits Choose the minimal number of bits that satisfies the requirement. Discussion section # __________ Binary-to-decimal and decimal-to-binary conversion The big picture Numbers can be easily converted from decimal (base 10) to binary (base 2) and from binary to decimal. The rules are especially simple for natural numbers. Problems from EECS 314 exams On the exams, only answers are required, but in the HW paper, show your work! Part 4 (2.5 points) Convert the decimal number to binary: 9710 = Show your work. Your answer: __________________ Part 5 (2.5 points) Convert the binary number to decimal 10111002 = Show your work. Your answer: __________________ 2007 Alexander Ganago Page 2 of 2 EECS 314 Winter 2007 HW 10 Problem 5 Student's name ___________________________ (Last name, first name, IN INK) Discussion section # __________ The truth tables and logic gates The big picture Logic gates are the circuits that perform logic operations on signals (input voltages). The output signal (output voltage) of a logic gate is determined by the inputs and the type of the gate. Problem The two input signals of unknown logic gates are shown on the sketch. The output signals of three logic gates A, B, and C are sketched below. From the voltages determine the truth table of each gate; from the truth table determine the type of the logic gate: choose from 1. AND 2. OR 3. NAND 4. NOR 5. None of the above. Logic gate A is _______________ Logic gate B is _______________ Logic gate C is _______________ Write your answers above. Show your work on additional pages. 2007 Alexander Ganago EECS 314 Fall 2007 HW 10 Problem 6 Student's name ___________________________ (Last name, first name, IN INK) Discussion section # __________ Logic gates: Diode circuits The Big Picture When we analyze the logic function of a circuit, we have to solve 2 distinct questions: 1. What output voltage does the circuit produce for each of the possible combinations of input voltages? 2. What logic function corresponds to this combination of input and output voltages? To solve question 1, we have to perform the circuit analysis. Note that in the circuits below the sources are not shown explicitly. For example, the first circuit can be redrawn with the sources shown as follows: In the circuit analysis, we assume that the input voltages A and B and the output voltage C can be either LOW ~ 0 V or HIGH ~ 5 V. To determine whether each of the diodes conducts, use the ideal diode model. To answer question 2, we have to compare the obtained combination of HIGH and LOW voltages with the known truth tables. Note that two possibilities exist: in the so-called positive logic, which we use in this problem HIGH voltage ~ 5 V means 1 and LOW voltage ~ 0 V means 0, while in the so-called negative logic, the meanings of voltages are opposite: HIGH voltage ~ 5 V means 0 and LOW voltage ~ 0 V means 1. Thus the same combination of input and output voltages, derived from the circuit analysis, produces different truth tables depending on the type of the logic. The problem is continued on the next page. 2007 Alexander Ganago Page 1 of 2 EECS 314 Fall 2007 HW 10 Problem 6 Student's name ___________________________ (Last name, first name, IN INK) Discussion section # __________ Problem For each of the circuits, determine the combination of voltages (neglect the voltage drop across a forward-biased diode; if needed, assume R = 1k): Circuit 1 Circuit 2 A HIGH LOW HIGH LOW B HIGH HIGH LOW LOW C A HIGH LOW HIGH LOW B HIGH HIGH LOW LOW C Then, determine the type of logic gate, depending on the chosen type of logic: Type of gate Positive logic Write your answers in the tables above. Show your work below and/or on additional pages. Type of gate Positive logic 2007 Alexander Ganago Page 2 of 2 EECS 314 Fall 2007 HW 10 Problem 7 Student's name ___________________________ (Last name, first name, IN INK) Discussion section # __________ Logic gates: MOSFET circuits The Big Picture When we analyze the logic function of a circuit, we have to solve 2 distinct questions: 1. What output voltage does the circuit produce for each of the possible combinations of input voltages? 2. What logic function corresponds to this combination of input and output voltages? To solve question 1, we have to perform the circuit analysis. Note that in the circuits below the sources are not shown explicitly. For example, the first circuit can be redrawn with the sources shown as follows: In the circuit analysis, we assume that the input voltages A and B and the output voltage C can be either LOW ~ 0 V or HIGH ~ 5 V. Assume that a MOSFETs conducts (acts as a short circuit between the source S and the drain D) if the gate (G) voltage VGS exceeds 2 V; otherwise there is no current flowing between the source and the drain; always neglect the current through the gate terminal. To answer question 2, we have to compare the obtained combination of HIGH and LOW voltages with the known truth tables. Note that two possibilities exist: in the so-called positive logic, which we use in this problem HIGH voltage ~ 5 V means 1 and LOW voltage ~ 0 V means 0, while in the so-called negative logic, the meanings of voltages are opposite: HIGH voltage ~ 5 V means 0 and LOW voltage ~ 0 V means 1. Thus the same combination of input and output voltages, derived from the circuit analysis, produces different truth tables depending on the type of the logic. The problem is continued on the next page. 2007 Alexander Ganago Page 1 of 2 EECS 314 Fall 2007 HW 10 Problem 7 Student's name ___________________________ (Last name, first name, IN INK) Discussion section # __________ Problem (30 points) For each of the circuits, determine the combination of voltages. Neglect the voltage drop between the source and the drain of the MOSFET that conducts (when VGS > 2 V); if needed, assume R = 1k): Circuit 1 Circuit 2 A HIGH LOW HIGH LOW B HIGH HIGH LOW LOW C A HIGH LOW HIGH LOW B HIGH HIGH LOW LOW C Then, determine the type of logic gate, depending on the chosen type of logic: Type of gate Positive logic Write your answers in the tables above. Show your work on additional pages. Type of gate Positive logic 2007 Alexander Ganago Page 2 of 2

Find millions of documents on Course Hero - Study Guides, Lecture Notes, Reference Materials, Practice Exams and more. Course Hero has millions of course specific materials providing students with the best way to expand their education.

Below is a small sample set of documents:

University of Michigan - EECS - 314
EECS 314 Fall 2007 HW 11 For extra credit Problem 1Student's name _ (Last name, first name, IN INK) Discussion section # _For the Big Picture, see the file 2007 Analog and Digital posted on the web as part of lecture notes for November 27, 2007.
University of Michigan - EECS - 314
EECS 314 Fall 2007 HW 03 Problem 1Student's name _ (Last name, first name, IN INK) Discussion section # _The big pictureThe circuit shown on this diagram is known as an inverting summer, or summing amplifier, a.k.a. adder. This summer is invertin
University of Michigan - EECS - 314
EECS 314Fall 2008Homework set 2Students name _ Discussion section # _ (Last, First, write legibly, use ink) (use ink) Instructor is not responsible for grading and entering scores for HW papers lacking clear information in the required fields a
University of Michigan - EECS - 314
EECS 314Fall 2008Homework set _Students name _ Discussion section # _ (Last, First, write legibly, use ink) (use ink) Instructor is not responsible for grading and entering scores for HW papers lacking clear information in the required fields a
University of Michigan - EECS - 314
EECS 314Fall 2008Homework set 4Students name _ Discussion section # _ (Last, First, write legibly, use ink) (use ink) Instructor is not responsible for grading and entering scores for HW papers lacking clear information in the required fields a
University of Michigan - EECS - 314
EECS 314Fall 2008Homework set 5Students name _ Discussion section # _ (Last, First, write legibly, use ink) (use ink) Instructor is not responsible for grading and entering scores for HW papers lacking clear information in the required fields a
University of Michigan - EECS - 314
EECS 314Fall 2008Homework set 6Students name _ Discussion section # _ (Last, First, write legibly, use ink) (use ink) Instructor is not responsible for grading and entering scores for HW papers lacking clear information in the required fields a
University of Michigan - EECS - 314
EECS 314Fall 2008Homework set 7Students name _ Discussion section # _ (Last, First, write legibly, use ink) (use ink) Instructor is not responsible for grading and entering scores for HW papers lacking clear information in the required fields a
University of Michigan - EECS - 314
EECS 314Problem 1Fall 2007Exam 1EECS 314Problem 2Fall 2007Exam 1EECS 314Problem 3Fall 2007Exam 1EECS 314Problem 4The circuit shown on this diagram was used in experiments with MOSFET in which the supply voltage Vdd = +6 V is co
USC - GEOL - 108
Test Bank AnswersCRISES OF A PLANET - GEOL 108 FIRST TEST BANK (example questions) TRUE/FALSE (2 points each)16/09/2005 18:32:00The Earth never experienced the same heavy meteorite cratering of the moon at 4.5 to 4.7 b.y. because most of meteori
Air Force Institute of Technology, Ohio - CIVIL - 602
SEISMOLOGY: SEISMOS: (Greek Word) - Shaking LOGUS: (Greek Word) Science or treaties So Seismology -&gt; The study of shaking of earthSeismology is the branch of Geophysicsconcerned with the study and analysis of Earthquakes and the science of energy
Air Force Institute of Technology, Ohio - CIVIL - 602
nt= y=randn(1,nt) ymean=mean(y) y1=y-ymean ystd=std(y1) y2=y1./ystd e=0.2;et=0.05; a=exp(1)/e; b=-e*log(et)/(1+e*(log(e)-1) t=0:nt Wt=a*t^b.*exp(-c*t) y3=y2.*Wt R=28.2; %km Bs=3.4; %km/s Dxi=1e7; %dyn/cm2 ro=2.67; % Mw=7.74; Mo=10^(Mw+10.7)*3/2) fc=4
Air Force Institute of Technology, Ohio - CIVIL - 602
Waves on a StringdensityNewtons law of motionTension forceThis is one dimensional scalar wave equation propagating with velocity, vA simplified case for the wave equation is the plane wave propagating in the x-direction. In this case, the wav
Air Force Institute of Technology, Ohio - CIVIL - 602
i1 1 , 1 , 12 , 2 , 2i2Observe that when waves travel from a solid of one velocity to different velocity, the direction changes. This has a large impact on the nature of seismic waves, since the Earth is highly variable.i1 1 , 1 , 12 ,
Air Force Institute of Technology, Ohio - CIVIL - 602
Seismic Moment and Stress Aki (1966) introduced Mo Is the product of three factors that indicate the size of the earthquake:Mo=(shearmodulus)x(rupturearea)x(slipoffset)For crustal rocks =1011 3.3 dyne/cm2 Seismic moment (M) is measured in N-m
Texas A&M - PHYS - 208
nair 1.00 sin air = arcsin sin 35.0 = 25.5. 33.10: a) water = arcsin n 1.33 water b)This calculation has no dependence on the glass because we can omit that step in the chain : nair sin air = nglass sin glass = nwater sin water .
Texas A&M - PHYS - 208
33.1: a) v =c 3.00 108 m s = = 2.04 108 m s . n 1.47 7 (6.50 10 m) b) = 0 = = 4.42 10 7 m. n 1.47
Texas A&M - PHYS - 208
8 33.2: a) vacuum = c = 3.00 1014 m s = 5.17 10 7 m. f 5.80 10 Hzb) glass =c 3.00 108 m s = = 3.40 10 7 m. 14 fn (5.80 10 Hz)(1.52)
Texas A&M - PHYS - 208
c 3.00 108 m/s n= = = 1.54. 33.3: a) v 1.94 108 m/s7 7 b) 0 = n = (1.54) (3.55 10 m) = 5.47 10 m.
Texas A&M - PHYS - 208
33.4: water nwater = Benzene nBenzene CS2 = water nwater (4.38 10 7 m)(1.333) = nBenzene 1.501
Texas A&M - PHYS - 208
33.5 : a) Incident and reflected angles are always equal r = a = 47.5. b) b = n 1.00 b = arcsin a sin a = arcsin sin 42.5 = 66.0. n 2 2 2 1.66 b
Texas A&M - PHYS - 208
33.6:v= n=d 2.50 m = = 2.17 108 m s 9 t 11.5 10 s c 3.00 10 8 m/s = = 1.38 v 2.17 10 8 m/s
Texas A&M - PHYS - 208
33.7:n a sin a = nb sin b sin a sin 62.7 nb = na sin = 1.00 sin 48.1 = 1.194 b 8 n = c v so v = c n = (3.00 10 m/s) / 1.194 = 2.51 108 m s
Texas A&M - PHYS - 208
33.8(a)Apply Snells law at both interfaces.At the air-glass interface: At the glass-methanol interface:(1.00) sin 41.3 = nglass sin nglass sin = (1.329) sin (2)Combine (1) and (2):sin 41.3 = 1.329 sin = 29.8(b) Same figure as for (
Texas A&M - PHYS - 208
33.9: a)Let the light initially be in the material with refractive index na and let the third and final slab have refractive index nb Let the middle slab have refractive index n1 1st interface : na sin a = n1 sin 1 2nd interface : n1 sin 1 = nb sin
Arizona - BIO - 181r
Question 1 Individuals resemble their parents but, in most cases, are not identical to them. Which of the following statements best describes the way that the theory of natural selection applies to these offspring? The ability of each of a parent's n
Arizona - BIO - 181r
Question 1 Hexokinase is an extremely important enzyme that transfers a phosphate group from ATP (adenosine triphosphate) to a six-carbon sugar. In most organisms, the most important reaction catalyzed by this enzyme is the conversion of glucose to g
Arizona - BIO - 181r
Question 1 True or False: Amino groups are basic because they contain -OH groups, which can hydrogen bond. True c False Question 2 When proteins are being degraded into amino acids, what kind of chemical reaction breaks the peptide bonds that join th
Arizona - BIO - 181r
Question 1 What kind of chemical bonds exist between the nitrogenous bases on opposite strands of the DNA helix? c Hydrogen bonds Covalent bonds Ionic bonds Nonspecific interactions Question 2 DNA is an acidic molecule (deoxyribonucleic ACID). What c
Arizona - BIO - 181r
Question 1 1 / 1 point Which of the following cell organelles contain a DNA chromosome? Choose all correct answers. c c c Nucleus Mitochondria Chloroplasts Rough endoplasmic reticulum Question 2 1 / 1 point Which of the following tissues would you ex
Colorado - PSYC - 1001
Psyc. Study Guide: test 1Definition of Psychology: The science of behavior and mental processes Psychology developed from these 2 disciplines: Philosophy, Biology (physiology) Rene Descartes -1596-1650 -4 Influences on Scientific Psychology: 1.) Ske
Colorado - PSYC - 1001
Psyc. Study Guide: Test 2Chapt. 2:Glial cells (glia): Structural support for neurons -Insulate Neurons -Supply nutrients to neurons -Remove waste materials from neurons -Involve in neurocomunication -10 times as many of these Neurons: A nerve cell;
Colorado - PSCI - 2223
LEVELS OF ANALYSIS: P 13,15 -Points on an ordered scale of size -World, State, Society, Government, role-&gt;persons bureaucratic, individual 1.) Decision making individuals and their characteristics 2.) The decisionmakers roles 3.) The structure of the
Colorado - ENVD - 2003
Nathalie Rochester October 15, 2007 Ecology and Design ENVD 2003The Effects Wolves Have on EcosystemsThere was one point in time where grey wolves wandered most of North America, until humans became involved. Throughout the years, wolves were bein
Colorado - PSYC - 1001
1Notes for General Psychology (10-1-08) -The central nervous system (CNS) -Made up of the brain and spinal cord -Protection for the CNS: (1) Skull and backbone (2) Meninges: three membranes covering the brain -Meningitis: inflammation of the mening
Colorado - ATOC - 1050
VERSION A ATOC 1050, Exam II, Fall 2008 Name: _ Mark the version of the test on your scantron. Multiple choice and True/False. Circle the BEST answer on this paper and darken in the corresponding circle on the scantron for the multiple choice, or cir
Colorado - ATOC - 1050
VERSION A ATOC 1050 Quiz 2, Fall 2007 Name: _ MARK THE VERSION OF THE QUIZ ON YOUR SCANTRON. Multiple choice and True/False. Circle the BEST answer on this paper and darken in the corresponding circle on the scantron for the multiple choice, or circl
Colorado - ATOC - 1050
Version A, Quiz 2, ATOC 1050 Spring 2008 Name: _ MARK THE VERSION OF THE TEST ON YOUR SCANTRON. True/false and multiple choice. Circle T for True and F of False or circle the BEST answer for the multiple choice on this paper and darken in the corresp
New Mexico - MGMT - 474
1 Price Law: In perfectly competitive markets, the prices of identical goods will be = across markets. PUS (\$) = PUK ()* S(\$/) where S = spot exchange rate Example: \$4.08 = 2 * \$2.04/ (Big Mac in NY and London) (1) Absolute PPP: The spot exchange ra
New Mexico - MGMT - 473
Commercial Bank: Accept demand deposits and make commercial loans.Chapter 1: The Changing Banking Environment Pg. 4 The goals and functions of bank regulation o To ensure the safety and soundness of banks and financial instruments o To provide an ef
New Mexico - MGMT - 474
PUS = PUK * S(\$/) where S = spot exchange rate PUS &amp; PUK are prices for a basket of goods (i.e., price indices) Example: \$4.08 = 2 * \$2.04/ (Big Mac in NY and London) Absolute PPP : The spot exchange rate is determined by relative prices of similar b
New Mexico - MGMT - 426
Exam 1 Mgt 426 Fall 2008 Instructions: Program the shaded cells below and submit via WebCTAssumptions current date before tax cost of debt equity beta shares outstanding in millions t bill rate market risk premium tax rate target debt to equity rat
New Mexico - MGMT - 326
Chapter 1: Capital Budgeting decision (investment decision): decision to invest in tangible or intangible assets. Value: should account for the amounts, timing, and risk of the future cash flows. Financing Decision: the form and amount of financing a
Cornell - CHEM - 2070
Chapter 1 Matter-Its Properties and Measurement 1. The Scientific Method a) Natural Laws: concise statements about natural phenomena.b) Induction: Form of reasoning in which a general statement or natural law is inferred from a set of observations.
Cornell - ECON - 3130
Chapter 18 Technology 18.1)Inputs and Outputs a) Factors of production: Inputs to production b) Capital goods: Inputs to production that are themselves produced goods (machines) c) Financial Capital: Money used to start up or maintain a business d) P
Cornell - ECON - 3130
Chapter 19: Profit Maximization For now, assume there is a competitive market (prices are outside the control of sellers.) 19.1)Profits a) Profits: revenues-cost. Let xi are the inputs, wi the price of inputs, yi the outputs, pi the price of outputs.
Cornell - ECON - 3130
Chapter 20 Cost Minimization 20.1)Cost Minimization a) Let (w1,w2) be the prices for inputs (x1,x2) for given level of output y. b) Minimize: w1x1+w2x2 such that f(x1,x2)=y c) Cost function: c(w1,w2,y), the solution to the minimization. d) Isocost li
Cornell - ECON - 3130
Chapter 21 Cost Curves Cost curve: Depicts graphically the cost function of a firm. 21.1)Average costs a) Total costs of the firm: c(y)=cv(y)+F where F is the sum of fixed costs, cv(y) the sum of variable costs). b) Average cost function: Cost per un
Cornell - ECON - 3130
Chapter 22 Firm Supply 22.1)Market Environments a) Firms face technological constraints, where technological constraints lead to economic constraints. b) Market constraint:A firm can only sell as much as people are willing to buy. c) Market environme
Cornell - ECON - 3130
Chapter 23 Industry Supply 23.1)Short-Run Industry Supply a) Let Si(p) be the supply of firm i. b) Industry supply curve (Market supply curve): Sp=i=1nSi(p) 23.2)Industry Equilibrium in the Short Run a) Take the market supply curve and find intersect
Cornell - CHEM - 2070
Chapter 9: The Periodic Table and Some Atomic Properties 9.1)Classifying the Elements: The Periodic Law and the Periodic Table a) Periodic law: When the elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic mass, certain sets of properties recur period
Cornell - CHEM - 2070
CHAPTER 8 ELECTRONS IN ATOMS 8.1)Electromagnetic Radiation a) Electromagnetic Radiation: A form of energy transmission in which electric and magnetic field are propagated as waves. b) Wave: A disturbance that transmits energy through space or a mater
Cornell - CHEM - 2070
CHAPTER 4: CHEMICAL REACTIONS 4.1)Chemical Reactions and Chemical Equations a) Chemical reaction: Process where one set of substances (reactants) are converted to a new set of substances (products). b) Physical Changes for a reaction 1) Color change
Cornell - CHEM - 2070
Chapter 3: Chemical Compounds 3.1Types of Chemical Compounds and Their Formulas a) Covalent Bond: Sharing of electrons between atoms give rise to molecular compounds. b) Ionic Bonds: Transfer of electrons from one atom to another gives rise to ionic
Cornell - CHEM - 2070
Basic IonsName Lithium ion Sodium ion Potassium ion Rubidium ion Cesium ion Magnesium ion Calcium ion Strontium ion Barium ion Aluminum ion Zinc ion Silver ion Hydride ion Fluoride ion Chloride Symbol Li+ Na+ K+ Rb+ Cs+ Mg2+ Ca2+ Sr2+ Ba2+ AL3+ Zn2+
Cornell - CHEM - 2070
POLYATOMIC IONSName Ammonium ion Acetate ion Carbonate ion Hydrogen carbonate (Bicarbonate) ion Hypochlorite ion Chlorite ion Chlorate ion Perchlorate ion Chromate ion Dichromate ion Cyanide ion Hydroxide ion Nitrite ion Nitrate ion Oxalate ion Perm
Cornell - CHEM - 2070
Prefixes for Binary Compounds of Two NonMetalsMono Di Tri Tetra Penta Hexa Hepta Octa Nona Deca 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10Important AcidsChemical Formula HF(aq) HBr(aq) HCl(aq) HI(aq) H2S(aq) Name Hydrofluoric acid Hyrdrobromic acid Hydrochloric acid H
Cornell - CHEM - 2070
Rules for oxidation states, in the numerical order listed.1)The oxidation state of an individual atom in a free element is 0. 2) The total of the O.S. of all the atoms in neutral species is 0, in an ion is the charge on the ion. 3) In their compound
Cornell - CHEM - 2070
Chapter 2: Atoms and the Atomic Theory 2.1 Early Chemical Discoveries and the Atomic Theory a) LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MASS 1) The total mass of substances present after a chemical reaction is the same as the total mass of substances before the reacti
Cornell - CHEM - 2070
RULES FOR SIGNIFICANT FIGURES1.All nonzero digits are significant. 2.Zeroes preceding the decimal point or following the decimal point and preceding the first non-zero digit are not significant. 3.Result of multiplication or division may contain onl
Cornell - CHEM - 2070
Table of PrefixesMultiple 10^18 10^15 10^12 10^9 10^6 10^3 10^2 10^1 10^-1 10^-2 10^-6 10^-9 10^-12 10^-15 10^-18 Prefix Exa (E) Peta (P) Tera (T) Giga (G) Mega (M) Kilo (k) Hecto (h) Deca (da) Deci (d) Centi (c) Micro () Nano (n) Pico (p) Femto (f)