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### phy232l18_4

Course: PHY 232, Fall 2008
School: Kentucky
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Word Count: 460

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Feb 22 08 Moving charges Electrical current is the rate at which charge flows through a surface. Though electrons are the actual moving charges, convention dictates that we speak in terms of the flow of positive charge (opposite the direction of electron flow). I= Units : Current, resistance, and power &quot;q dq # &quot;t dt ! 1 ampere (A) = 1 C/s. ! Comments Free electrons are in constant motion...

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Feb 22 08 Moving charges Electrical current is the rate at which charge flows through a surface. Though electrons are the actual moving charges, convention dictates that we speak in terms of the flow of positive charge (opposite the direction of electron flow). I= Units : Current, resistance, and power "q dq # "t dt ! 1 ampere (A) = 1 C/s. ! Comments Free electrons are in constant motion due to thermal energy. Current refers to the net drift of charge over time. Charges are flowing in a conductor; hence, the electric field is not zero, nor is the potential constant. Charge carriers do not flow through a conductor unimpeded (otherwise, their speed would continuously increase). Resistance If you maintain a potential difference across a conductor, an electric field will exist within the conductor resulting in the flow of charge. For many materials, the current density is proportional to the electric field. These are called ohmic materials. For such materials, we may show that the following holds: "V = IR In ohmic materials, the potential difference across a conductor is proportional to the current through it. The proportionality factor R is called the ! resistance. Units: 1 ohm () = 1 volt/ampere. 1 What factors into resistance? The type of conductor and its geometry affect the conductors resistance. R=" L A Example: Resistance of a wire Determine the resistance of a copper wire of length 1 m and cross-sectional area cm2. 1 Suppose we stretch the wire to double its length. How will the resistance of this wire change? The resistivity characterizes the type of conductor. (It is generally temperature dependent.) See Table 27.1. ! The length and cross-sectional area are geometrical factors. Schematic represenation Though wires have some resistance, in a circuit one typically uses manufactured resistors. In our circuit diagrams, we will treat wires as ideal (i.e., having no resistance). Resistors will have the schematic representation: Power in a circuit The battery delivers power to the circuit. How does the power delivered to individual circuit elements depend upon the current and potential differences? 2 Power and resistors In general, the power delivered to a circuit element is: P = IV. For a resistor, we may employ Ohms law to write: P = IV = I2R = (V)2/R. Note: Be carefu...

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Figure 5-120: Superfamily interactive key character 31, &quot;Is tergum one (true or apparent) least as long, or longer than, following terga combined?&quot;
Kentucky - UKYENTO - 2004
Figure 5-75: Proctotrupoidea interactive key character 6, &quot;Is tergum 2 (true or apparent) several times longer than tergum 3 (true or apparent)?&quot;
Kentucky - UKYENTO - 2004
Table 5-19: Symphyta Character MatrixCharacter Number (Argidae) Tenthredinoidea (Blasticotomidae) Tenthredinoidea (Cimbicidae) Tenthredinoidea (Diprionidae) Tenthredinoidea (Pergidae) Tenthredinoidea (Tenthredinidae) Tenthredinoidea (Orussidae) Orus
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5-21: Vespoidea Character ListCharacter Number Sierolomorphidae Pompilidae Rhopalosomatidae Tiphiidae Sapygidae Mutillidae Bradynobaenidae Formicidae Scoliidae Vespidae Character Number Sierolomorphidae Pompilidae Rhopalosomatidae Tiphiidae Sapygida
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Table 5-10: Evanioidea Character List1What is the shape of the metasoma? 1. metasomal segment one is long and narrow (petiolate), with the rest of the metasoma laterally flattened and disk-like 2. the entire metasoma is elongate, often with metas
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Table 5-3: Ceraphronoidea Character MatrixCharacter Number Megaspilidae Ceraphronidae 1 2 1 2 2 1/2 3 1/2 2 4 1/2 2 5 1 2 6 2 1
Kentucky - UKYENTO - 2004
Figure 5-96: Superfamily interactive key character 4, &quot;Is there a dense line of hairs (felt line) laterally on metasomal tergum two?&quot;
Kentucky - UKYENTO - 2004
Figure 5-103: Superfamily interactive key character 14, &quot;Is there a deep depression between the eye and the mandibles (malar space) for reception of the scape?&quot;
Kentucky - UKYENTO - 2004
Figure 5-107: Superfamily interactive key character 18, &quot;Is the forefemur as wide as or wider than the hind femur?&quot;
Kentucky - UKYENTO - 2004
Figure 5-121: Superfamily interactive key character 33, &quot;Is metasomal segment one constricted dorsally and ventrally so it is set off from the rest of the metasoma (node-like)?&quot;
Kentucky - UKYENTO - 2004
Figure 5-118: Superfamily interactive key character 29, &quot;Does the mesoscutum have a large, triangular axilla?&quot;
Kentucky - UKYENTO - 2004
Figure 5-125: Superfamily interactive key character 45, &quot;Are the antennal insertions close to the dorsal margin of the clypeus?&quot;
Kentucky - UKYENTO - 2004
Figure 5-123: Superfamily interactive key character 37, &quot;Are the antennal insertions facing upward and located on the dorsal surface of a ledge?&quot;
Kentucky - UKYENTO - 2004
Figure 5-94: Superfamily interactive key character 2, &quot;Are the metasomal sterna weakly sclerotized, and collapsed when dried?&quot;
Kentucky - UKYENTO - 2004
Figure 5-106: Superfamily interactive key character 17, &quot;How long is the pronotum, measured along the midline, relative to the mesoscutum?&quot;
Kentucky - UKYENTO - 2004
Figure 5-131: Superfamily interactive key character 59, &quot;Does the pronotum have a lateral lobe which extends posterior to the entire tegula?&quot;
Kentucky - UKYENTO - 2004
Figure 5-122: Superfamily interactive key character 35, &quot;Is the mouth facing forward/anteriorly (prognathous) or downward (hypognathous)?&quot;
Kentucky - UKYENTO - 2004
Kentucky - UKYENTO - 2004
Figure 5-99: Superfamily interactive key character 8, &quot;Is a stigma present on the forewing?&quot;
Kentucky - UKYENTO - 2004
Figure 5-249A: Megalyridea (Megalyroidea)Figure 5-249B: Megalyridea (Megalyroidea)
Kentucky - UKYENTO - 2004
Figure 5-252A: Trigonalyidae (Trigonalyoidea)Figure 5-252B: Trigonalyidae (Trigonalyoidea)
Kentucky - UKYENTO - 2004
Figure 5-128: Superfamily interactive key character 50, &quot;Are the antenna shorter than the head?&quot;
Kentucky - UKYENTO - 2004
Figure 5-77: Proctotrupoidea interactive key character 8, &quot;Is metasomal segment 1 (true or apparent) at least 3 times longer than wide?&quot;
Kentucky - UKYENTO - 2004
Figure 5-86: Proctotrupoidea interactive key character 19, &quot;Is metasomal segment one (true or apparent) as long as the rest of metasoma?&quot;
Kentucky - UKYENTO - 2004
Table 5-2: Apoidea Character List1Are most hairs branched? 1. yes 2. no Is the hind basitarsus cylindrical? 1. yes 2. no, it is broader than at least the 4th and 5th tarsal segments Is the labrum thin and largely retracted behind the clypeus (as
Kentucky - UKYELEN - 2006
ABSTRACT OF DISSERTATIONTimothy Ian MattoxThe Graduate SchoolUniversity of Kentucky2006EXPLOITING SPARSENESS OF COMMUNICATION PATTERNS FOR THE DESIGN OF NETWORKS IN MASSIVELY PARALLEL SUPERCOMPUTERSABSTRACT OF DISSERTATIONA dissertation