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Final Zoology Study Guide 1. Mammal evolution: A prehistoric therapsid group, the cynodonts, survived into the Mesozoic and evolved a high metabolic rate, increased jaw musculature, several skeletal changes, and secondary bony palate. 2. Significance of hair and warm-bloodedness? 3. Mammal reproduction: Monotremes- use left ovary and oviduct; layers added in oviduct and uterus; eggs held against abdomen with tail then sucklings held Marsupials- brief placental connection; gestation long as estrus cycle; neonates crawl to marsupium; 190 days=joey; next sibling in embryonic diapause; 2 nipples: neonate=high protein, low fat, joey=low protein, high fat Placental- placental connection until birth; interrupted estrus cycle 4. A hair grows from a follicle that is sunk into the dermis of the skin. It grows continuously by rapid proliferation of cells in a follicle. As a hair shaft is pushed upward, new cells are carried away from their source of nourishment and die, turning into the same dense type of fibrous protein, called keratin, that constitutes nails, claws, hooves, and feathers. 5. Claw- keratinized sheath on end of appendage; can be modified into hoof Antler- mesodermal frontal bone covered by velvet; burr at base cuts it off; in mature males (except caribou); shed and regrown; deer, elk, caribou Hollow horn- core of bone (frontal) projecting into hollow, cornified epidermis; grows continuously; in both sexes; permanent; cattle, sheep, goats Keratin fiber horn- fused fibers of keratin hardened; rhino Pronghorn- projection of frontal bone with horny epidermal sheath; epidermal sheath is shed; pronghorn antelope Tusk- tooth to manipulate objects; elephant, walrus, narwhal 6. Echolocation- ultrasound waves bounce back and tell direction, distance, speed, shape; dolphins use nasal passage (melon) to send out sound wave and jaws receive; bats send out with larynx and receive with ears 7. Monkeys, apes, and humans are all primates; they have a short rostrum, forward eyes, large braincase, opposable hallax and pollex, loose radius & ulna and fibia & tibia, pentadactyl feet, clavicle, and simple stomach. Humans do not have opposable toes, pelage all over their bodies, large canines, etc. 8. Mammal skulls: Homodont- teeth all same shape and size; Heterodont- teeth all different shapes and sizes; Edentate- no teeth 9. Ruminant stomach: Rumen- stores cud or bolus; Reticulum- received cud; Omasum- water absorbed; Abomasum- digestion 10. Order Artiodactyla- even-toed, modified stomach in many, bony core horns or antlers; hippo, giraffe, antelope, goat, warthog Carnivora- enlarged molars and premolars, carnassials; canids, felids, walrus, raccoon Cetacea- baleen or toothed; whales Chiroptera- wing modified forelimb, skin, 4 fingers; bats Insectivora- feed almost entirely on insects, small, rely on smell, hearing, touch; shrew, hedgehog, mole Lagomorpha- enamel encased incisors, testes in front of penis, wet and dry feces (coprophage); rabbits, pika, hare Perissodactyla- odd-toed, middle toe largest, dermal horn, 44+ cheek teeth, simple stomach, enlarged cecum; rhino, horse, tapir Primata- short rostrum, forward eyes, large braincase, opposable hallax and pollex, loose radius & ulna and fibia & tibia, pentadactyl feet, clavicle, and simple stomach; apes and humans Proboscidea- trunk, tusk from incisors, 6 cheek teeth; elephant, mammoth Rodentia- incisors with enamel only on front and sides and grow continuously; 40% of all mammals; mice, agouti, capybara Sirenia- vestigial pelvis, forelimb flippers, vegetarians, no canine or incisor teeth; manatee, dugong Tubulidentata- eats termites, lack incisors and canines but have molars without enamel, long tongue, gizzard-like stomach; aardvark Xenarthra- insectivorous or herbivorous, lack incisors and canines, molars are peglike, lumbrous vertebrae; armadillo, anteater, sloth 11. Exocrine glands- sweat glands/sudoriferous: eccrine (to cool body) and apocrine (secretes pheromones and part of earwax cytoplasm; (ceruminous)); holocrine: secretes whole cells; sebaceous- secrete oil everywhere but palms and soles Scent glands- a modified sweat or sebaceous gland Mammary glands- holocrine to start, then apocrine 12. Vertebrate systems 13. Taxonomy! 14. Phyla characteristics: deuterostome, tissues or organs present, multicellular, coelomate, notochords, appendages, etc. 15. Marsupials 16. Quadruped diagram: sagittal, transverse, and frontal planes; and dorsal, anterior, posterior, and ventral regions 17. International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) 1) Two names (Binomial) 2) Latin 3) Genus is a noun 4) Species is an adjective agreeing w/ gender of the noun 5) Genus is capitalized, species is lowercased 6) After name put author ex. Canis lupis L. 7) Names above genus rank are only one word, capitalized and plural ex. Hominidae 8) Common suffixes for groups superfamily -oidea family -idea subfamily -inae tribe -ini Acoelomate- no body cavity Agora hair- hair that grows continuously without stopping Bipedalism- walking on two feet Canine- pointed tooth between incisors and premolars Carnivore- any organism that eats animals Cephalization- having a head; site of major sensory organs Cladogram- branching diagram showing the pattern of sharing of evolutionarily derived characters among species or higher taxa Cloaca- posterior chamber of digestive tract in many vertebrates, receiving feces and urogenital products Coelomate- has a true body cavity Cryptobiosis- process of dehydrating into a dormant state with extremely low metabolism; can live for long periods of time and be dispersed by wind this way Deciduous teeth- baby teeth that will be replaced by permanent teeth Definitive hair- hair that grows to a particular length and then stops and is shed periodically Deuterostome- anus first Dioecious- having male and female organs in separate individuals Ecdysis- shedding of outer cuticular layer; molting Echolocation- location of objects by reflected sound Estrus- recurring period of sexual receptivity and fertility in many female mammals Eutherian- a placental mammal Herbivore- an animal that eats plants Heterodont- teeth are different shapes and sizes Homeothermy- warm-blooded Homodont- teeth are all the same size and shape Marsupium- pouch of fold of skin on the abdomen of a marsupial Mesonephros- kidney of embryonic reptiles, birds, mammals developed from a median region of nephrogenic tissue; great numbers of tubules without evidence of segmental arrangement Metamerism- segmentation; made up of repeated parts (metameres or somites); found in annelids, arthropods, and chordates Metanephros- kidney of adult reptiles, birds, mammals, developed from the most posterior region of the nephrogenic tissue with great numbers of tubules and no evidence of segmental arrangement Milk teeth- baby teeth that will be replaced by permanent teeth Monoecious- having both male and female organs in the same organism; hermaphroditic Monotreme- one of the primitive egg-laying mammals of Australia and New Guinea; platypus or echidna Omnivore- an organism that eats both animals and plants Oviparous- egg birth Ovoviviparous- eggs hatch inside mother Parthenogenesis- unisexual reproduction involving the production of young by females not fertilized by males Pelage- hair Permanent teeth- teeth that are not replaced; homodont vs. heterodont vs. edentate Piloerection- erection of hair Placenta- the vascular structure in the uterus of most mammals providing oxygen and nutrients for and transferring wastes from the developing fetus Poikilothermy- cold-blooded Protostome- mouth first Pseudocoelomate- organism with a false body cavity Taxonomy- systematic ordering and naming of organisms; study of taxation Tagmatization- organization of the arthropod body into tagmata Triploblastic- 3 cell layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm) Vermiform- wormlike Vibrissae- whiskers; stiff, bristly hairs around the mouth Viviparous- live birth Zoology- study of animals ... 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