2731L56-2
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2731L56-2

Course Number: ECW 2731, Fall 2009

College/University: Allan Hancock College

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ECW2731 Weeks 5 & 6 Weeks5&6 ProductionandCosts Demand analysis and estimation ECW2731 Weeks 5 & 6 Elasticity Problem I Try problems 3.1 3.13 from the text Kitty Russells Longbranch Caf recently reduced a price for Nachos Supreme appetizers from $5 to $3 and enjoyed a resulting increase in sales from 60 to 180 orders a day. Beverage sales also increased from 30 to 150 units a day. A. Calculate...

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Weeks ECW2731 5 & 6 Weeks5&6 ProductionandCosts Demand analysis and estimation ECW2731 Weeks 5 & 6 Elasticity Problem I Try problems 3.1 3.13 from the text Kitty Russells Longbranch Caf recently reduced a price for Nachos Supreme appetizers from $5 to $3 and enjoyed a resulting increase in sales from 60 to 180 orders a day. Beverage sales also increased from 30 to 150 units a day. A. Calculate the arc elasticity of demand for Nachos Supreme appetizers B. Calculate the arc cross-price elasticity of demand between beverage sales and appetizer prices C. Holding all else equal, would you expect an additional appetizer price decrease to $2.50 to cause both appetizer and revenue to rise. Demand analysis and estimation ECW2731 Weeks 5 & 6 Elasticity Problem II During the past year Ironside 15 million square yards (units) of carpeting at average price $7.75 per unit. This year GNP per capita is expected to surge from $17,250 to $18,750. Without any price change the sales are expected to rise to 25 million units. A. Calculate the income arc elasticity of demand: B. Calculate the arc cross-price elasticity of demand between beverage sales and appetizer prices C. Holding all else equal would a further increase in price result in higher or lowe rtotal revenue. Demand analysis and estimation ECW2731 Weeks 5 & 6 Elasticity Cross-Price elasticity Problem III Sales of a sporting companys garment bag declined from 10000 to 4800 units. At the same time a competitor offered a $52 discount off their regular $137 price on a competitive product. A. Calculate the arc cross-price elasticity of demand B. They recovered there sales to 6000 units following reduction in price from $140 t0 $130. Calculate the price elasticity of demand C. If the price elasticity is constant, determine the further price reduction necessary to fully recover lost sales (regain a volume of 10000 units) Demand analysis and estimation ECW2731 Weeks 5 & 6 Elasticity Price and Cross-Price elasticity Problem I Kitty Russells Longbranch Caf recently reduced a price for Nachos Supreme appetizers from $5 to $3 and enjoyed a resulting increase in sales from 60 to 180 orders a day. Beverage sales also increased from 30 to 150 units a day. A. Calculate the arc elasticity of demand for Nachos Supreme appetizers Q / Q Q P ( arc ) Q ( P + P2 ) / 2 Q2 Q1 P + P2 p = = p = 1 = 1 P (Q1 + Q2 ) / 2 P2 P Q1 + Q2 P / P P Q 1 P = 5; P2 = 3; Q1 = 60; Q2 = 180 1 p ( arc ) 180 60 3+5 = = 2 35 180 + 60 Demand analysis and estimation ECW2731 Weeks 5 & 6 Elasticity Price and Cross-Price elasticity Problem I Kitty Russells Longbranch Caf recently reduced a price for Nachos Supreme appetizers from $5 to $3 and enjoyed a resulting increase in sales from 60 to 180 orders a day. Beverage sales also increased from 30 to 150 units a day. B. Calculate the arc cross-price elasticity of demand between beverage sales and appetizer prices QY ( PX 1 + PX 2 ) / 2 QY 2 QY 1 PX 1 + PX 2 QY / QY QY PX arc (px ) = = px = = PX (QY 1 + QY 2 ) / 2 PX 2 PX 1 QY 1 + QY 2 PX / PX PX QY QY 1 = 30; QY 2 = 150; PX 1 = 5; PX 2 = 3 px ( arc ) 150 30 3+5 = = 2.67 35 150 + 30 Demand analysis and estimation ECW2731 Weeks 5 & 6 Elasticity Price and Cross-Price elasticity Problem I Kitty Russells Longbranch Caf recently reduced a price for Nachos Supreme appetizers from $5 to $3 and enjoyed a resulting increase in sales from 60 to 180 orders a day. Beverage sales also increased from 30 to 150 units a day. C. Holding all else equal, would you expect an additional appetizer price decrease to $2.50 to cause both appetizer and revenue to rise. The answer does not require further calculations. Demand analysis and estimation ECW2731 Weeks 5 & 6 Elasticity Price & income elasticity Problem II During the past year Ironside 15 million square yards (units) of carpeting at average price $7.75 per unit. This year GNP per capita is expected to surge from $17,250 to $18,750. Without any price change the sales are expected to rise to 25 million units. A. Calculate the income arc elasticity of demand: Q / Q Q I Q ( I1 + I 2 ) / 2 Q2 Q1 I1 + I 2 ( arc ) I = = I = = I (Q1 + Q2 ) / 2 I 2 I1 Q1 + Q2 I / I I Q I1 = 17, 250 I 2 = 18, 750; Q1 = 15; Q2 = 25 I ( arc ) 25 15 18750 + 17250 = =6 18750 17250 25 + 15 Demand analysis and estimation ECW2731 Weeks 5 & 6 Elasticity Price & income elasticity Problem II During the past year Ironside 15 million square yards (units) of carpeting at average price $7.75 per unit. This year GNP per capita is expected to surge from $17,250 to $18,750. Without any price change the sales are expected to rise to 25 million units. B. The marketing director believes, that current volume of 15 million units could be maintained despite an increase in price of 50c per unit. On this basis calculate the implied arc price elasticity of demand p ( arc ) Q ( P + P2 ) / 2 Q2 Q1 P + P2 = 1 = 1 P (Q1 + Q2 ) / 2 P2 P Q1 + Q2 1 Without the price increase the sales would be 25 million units. The manager is looking at increase in price and maintaining the previous year sales of 15 million units. P = 7.75; P2 = 8.25; Q1 = 25; Q2 = 15 1 p ( arc ) 15 25 8.25 + 7.75 = = 8 8.25 7.75 15 + 25 Demand analysis and estimation ECW2731 Weeks 5 & 6 Elasticity Price & income elasticity Problem II During the past year Ironside 15 million square yards (units) of carpeting at average price $7.75 per unit. This year GNP per capita is expected to surge from $17,250 to $18,750. Without any price change the sales are expected to rise to 25 million units. C. Holding all else equal would a further increase in price result in higher or lowe rtotal revenue. Lower. The product is elasic. (parc ) = 8 Demand analysis and estimation ECW2731 Weeks 5 & 6 Elasticity Cross-Price elasticity Problem III Sales of a sporting companys garment bag declined from 10000 to 4800 units. At the same time a competitor offered a $52 discount off their regular $137 price on a competitive product. A. Calculate the arc cross-price elasticity of demand QY 1 = 10000; QY 2 = 4800; PX 1 = 137; PX 2 = 85 QY 2 QY 1 PX 1 + PX 2 = = 1.5 PX 2 PX 1 QY 1 + QY 2 The goods are substitutes px ( arc ) Demand analysis and estimation ECW2731 Weeks 5 & 6 Elasticity Cross-Price elasticity Problem III Sales of a sporting companys garment bag declined from 10000 to 4800 units. At the same time a competitor offered a $52 discount off their regular $137 price on a competitive product. B. They recovered there sales to 6000 units following reduction in price from $140 t0 $130. Calculate the price elasticity of demand P = 140; P2 = 130; Q1 = 4800; Q2 = 10000 1 p ( arc ) Q2 Q1 P + P2 = 1 = 3 P2 P Q1 + Q2 1 The demand is elastic Demand analysis and estimation ECW2731 Weeks 5 & 6 Elasticity Cross-Price elasticity Problem III Sales of a sporting companys garment bag declined from 10000 to 4800 units. At the same time a competitor offered a $52 discount off their regular $137 price on a competitive product. C. If the price elasticity is constant, determine the further price reduction necessary to fully recover lost sales (regain a volume of 10000 units) P = 140; P2 = 130; Q1 = 4800; Q2 = 10000 1 Q2 Q1 P + P2 10000 6000 130 + P2 1 p = = 3 = P2 P Q1 + Q2 P2 130 10000 + 6000 1 10000 6000 130 + P2 4000 130 + P2 130 + P2 3 = = = 10000 + 600 P2 130 P2 130 1600 P2 130 4( P2 130) ( arc ) 12 P2 + 1560 = P2 + 130 13P2 = 1430 P2 = $110 ECW2731 Weeks 5 & 6 Structure Weeks 7-8 Competition, market structures and business decisions Week 9 Pricing strategies and practices Week 10 Business and Government. Weeks 5 - 6 Production and Costs Weeks 3-4 Demand analysis and estimation Week 2 Basic economics principles: demand and supply. Week1 Introduction. The nature of managerial economic decision making Managerial Economics Week 11 Capital budgeting Week. 12 Research question Business and current economic situation. ECW2731 Weeks 5 & 6 Production and Costs Production functions Factors of production Total, marginal and average product, revenue and costs Return to factors versus return to scale Firm and plant size Economies and diseconomies of scale Optimal level of single input and optimal combination of multiple inputs Fixed and variable costs Explicit and implicit costs Short run versus long run in cost analysis Production and Costs ECW2731 Weeks 5 & 6 Learning objectives This topic addresses the following questions: At given demand conditions, how does a firm determine the optimal level of output during any production period? How does a firm choose the best technology (production process) out of existing ones? How does investment in a new equipment affects employment and productivity of labour? How do costs and output are interrelated? Production and Costs ECW2731 Weeks 5 & 6 Reading Mansfield, Chapters 7, 8 & 9. Production and Costs ECW2731 Weeks 5 & 6 Production functions Descriptive statement/variable that relates Inputs to outputs. Specifies the maximum output that can be produced at a given level of input (inputs) Is determined by the level of technology. Production and Costs ECW2731 Weeks 5 & 6 Factors of production Labour Capital Labour Capital Mineral resources Land Materials Energy, Seeds Live stock Rolling stock Rail tracks Roads Plant equipment Farm machinery and equipment Production and Costs ECW2731 Weeks 5 & 6 A numerical example Total, marginal and average product Input quantity (X) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total Marginal prduct product of of input input X (Q) (MPx) 15 31 48 59 68 72 73 72 70 67 Average product of input X (APx) Q Q2 Q1 MPX = = X X 2 X 1 Q APX = X Production and Costs ECW2731 Weeks 5 & 6 A numerical example Total, marginal and average product Input quantity (X) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Marginal Average Total product of product of prduct of input X input X input (Q) (MPx) (APx) 15 15 31 16 15.5 48 17 16 59 11 14.75 68 9 13.6 72 4 12 73 1 10.42857 72 -1 9 70 -2 7.777778 67 -3 6.7 Q Q2 Q1 MPX = = X X 2 X 1 Q APX = X Production and Costs ECW2731 Weeks 5 & 6 Total, marginal and average product 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 -10 0 5 10 15 Total prduct of input (Q) Marginal product of input X (MPx) Average product of input X (APx) Production and Costs ECW2731 Weeks 5 & 6 Return to factors Totaloutput(Q) C Q* (a) A TP x B X1 X2 Input X X3 Production and Costs ECW2731 Weeks 5 & 6 Return to factors Law of diminishing returns Averageand marginaloutput Q ,Q X X Increasing returns (b) A' Diminishing returns B' AP x X1 X2 C' X3 MPx X Negative returns Input As the quantity of variable input increases the resulting rate of output increase eventually diminishes Production and Costs ECW2731 Weeks 5 & 6 Isoquants Each point on the Isoquant represents A different combination of two inputs that can be used to produce the same amount of output InputY 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 Q 122 = MRTS XY X = Y The slope of the isoquant at a particular point Q=91 5 6 7 8 9 10 InputX Production and Costs ECW2731 Weeks 5 & 6 Isoquants Perfect substitution Gas Q 3 Q2 Q 1 Oil Production and Costs ECW2731 Weeks 5 & 6 Isoquants Zero substitution Frames 5 4 3 2 1 0 2 4 Wheels Q3=3 Q2=2 Q1=1Bicycle 6 Production and Costs ECW2731 Weeks 5 & 6 Isoquants Imperfect substitution Decrease in one factor Requires more and more Of the other one for substitution Cloth C1 C2 C3 L1 L2 L3 Labor Q 3 Q2 Q1 Production and Costs ECW2731 Weeks 5 & 6 Isoquants Marginal rate of technical substitution the slope of an isoquant at a particular point InputY 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 MRTS XY Y = X Q 122 = Q = MPY Y Q = MPX X MPX X = MPY Y MPX Y = MPY X Q=91 5 6 7 8 9 10 InputX Production and Costs ECW2731 Weeks 5 & 6 Return to scale Output elasticity Percentage Change in Output (Q) Q / Q Q = = Percentage Change in All Inputs ( X ) X / X Production and Costs ECW2731 Weeks 5 & 6 Return to scale Q > 1 Increasing; Q = 1 constant; Q < 1 Decreasing; Increasing returns Q (Q=10X0.8 Y0.7 ) Constantreturns( =15X0.5 Y0.5 ) TotalproductQ Decreasing returns (Q=20X 0.4Y 0.2 ) UnitsofInputX, Y Production and Costs ECW2731 Weeks 5 & 6 Marginal Revenue product Marginal revenue product Amount of revenue generated By employing the last input unit Q TR Q TR MRPX = P = = = MPX MRX X X X Q In particular, used for the optimisation of factor usage Production and Costs ECW2731 Weeks 5 & 6 Solutions Problem 1 Marginal Rate of Technical Subsitution The following table of data is given: Estimated output per day Units of Y used 1 94 130 2 130 188 3 162 234 4 188 272 5 210 305 Units of X used 1 2 162 234 282 324 360 3 188 272 324 376 421 4 210 305 360 421 470 5 A. Do two the inputs exhibit the characteristics of constant, increasing, or decreasing marginal rate of technical substitution? Production and Costs ECW2731 Weeks 5 & 6 Solutions Problem 1 Marginal Rate of Technical Subsitution A. Do the two inputs exhibit the characteristics of constant, increasing, or decreasing marginal rate of technical substitution? X is fixed at different levels 500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 2 4 6 Series1 Series2 Series3 Series4 Series5 Estimated output per day Units of Y used 1 94 2 130 3 162 4 188 5 210 Units of X used 1 130 188 234 272 305 2 162 234 282 324 360 3 188 272 324 376 421 4 210 305 360 421 470 5 Diminishing marginal return to factor corresponds to decreasing MRTS Production and Costs ECW2731 Weeks 5 & 6 Solutions Problem 1 Marginal Rate of Technical Subsitution A. Do the two inputs exhibit the characteristics of constant, increasing, or decreasing marginal rate of technical substitution? Q=188 Estimated output per day Units of Y used 1 94 2 130 3 162 4 188 5 210 Units of X used 1 130 188 234 272 305 2 162 234 282 324 360 3 188 272 324 376 421 4 210 305 360 421 470 5 4.5 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0 1 2 4 2 1 Q=188 1 2 4 Series1 3 4 5 Production and Costs ECW2731 Weeks 5 & 6 Solutions Problem 1 Marginal Rate of Technical Subsitution B. Assuming the oputput sells for $3 per unit and that X is fixed at 2 units or That y is fixed at 3 units Complete the table Estimated output per day Units of Y used 1 94 2 130 3 162 4 188 5 210 Units of X used 1 130 188 234 272 305 2 162 234 282 324 360 3 188 272 324 376 421 4 210 305 360 421 470 5 Q APX = X Q Q2 Q1 MPX = = X X 2 X1 Q MRPX = P X y is fixed at 3 units X is fixed at 2 units Units of Y MRP(Y)= used TP(Y) MP(Y) AP(Y) MP(Y)*$3 1 130 130 130 390 2 188 58 94 174 3 234 46 78 138 4 272 38 68 114 5 305 33 61 99 Units of Y MRP(Y)= used TP(Y) MP(Y) AP(Y) MP(Y)*$3 1 162 162 162 486 2 234 72 117 216 3 282 48 94 144 4 324 42 81 126 5 360 36 72 108 Production and Costs ECW2731 Weeks 5 & 6 Solutions Problem 1 Marginal Rate of Technical Substitution C. Assume that the quantity of x is fixed at 2 units. If output sells for $3 and the cost of Y is $120 per day, how many units per day will be employed? X is fixed at 2 units Units of Y MRP(Y)= used TP(Y) MP(Y) AP(Y) MP(Y)*$3 1 130 130 130 390 2 188 58 94 174 3 234 46 78 138 4 272 38 68 114 5 305 33 61 99 Q APX = X Q Q2 Q1 MPX = = X X 2 X1 Q MRPX = P X Y=3 will be employed. The marginal revenue product of the Y=3 is 138 is greater than the marginal cost per day. At y=4 marginal revenue product is 6 units less than the marginal cost. Production and Costs ECW2731 Weeks 5 & 6 Solutions Problem 1 Marginal Rate of Technical Substitution D. Assume that the company is currently producing 162 units of output per day using 1 unit of X and 3 units of Y. The daily cost per unit X is $120 and that of Y is also $120. Would you recommend the present input combination. Why or why not? May be logically solved. We leave until one more concept is introduced. Production and Costs ECW2731 Weeks 5 & 6 Solutions Problem 1 Marginal Rate of Technical Substitution E. What the nature of return to scale for this production system if the optimal input combination requires X=Y Estimated output per day Units of Y used 1 94 2 130 3 162 4 188 5 210 Units of X used 1 130 188 234 272 305 2 162 234 282 324 360 3 188 272 324 376 421 4 210 305 360 421 470 5 470/94=5 376/94=4 282/94=3 188/94=2 Constant return to scale Production and Costs ECW2731 Weeks 5 & 6 Solutions Problem 2. Production Function concepts Indicate whether the each following statements is true or false. Explain. A. Decreasing return to scale increasing average costs are indicated when Q < 1 True. When Q <1 , the percentage change in output is less than the a given percentage change in inputs. B. If the marginal product of capital falls as capital usage grows, the returns to capital are decreasing. True. This follows from the definition of the return to factor. Returns to capital factor are decreasing when the marginal product of capitals falls as capital usage grows Production and Costs ECW2731 Weeks 5 & 6 Solutions Problem 2. Production Function concepts Indicate whether the each following statements is true or false. Explain. C and D the reflection of definitios only E. The marginal rate of technical substitution will be affected by a given percentage increase in the marginal productivity of all inputs. False. The MRTS is measured by the relative marginal productivity of input factors. The proportional change does not affect MRTS. Production and Costs ECW2731 Weeks 5 & 6 Solutions Problem 3 Factor Productivity During recent years, computer aided design (CAD) and computer aided manufacturing (CAM) have become prevalent in many industries. Holding all else equal, indicate, whether each of the following factors would be responsible for increasing or decreasing of this prevalence. A. Rising worker pension costs Increasing. Increases the cost of labour and makes CAD/CAM capital investment more attractive. B. Technical advances in computer mainframe design. Increasing. Lower the relative cost of CAD/CAM. Production and Costs ECW2731 Weeks 5 & 6 Solutions Problem 3 Factor Productivity During recent years, computer aided design (CAD) and computer aided manufacturing (CAM) have become prevalent in many industries. Holding all else equal, indicate, whether each of the following factors would be responsible for increasing or decreasing of this prevalence. C. An increase of the import share of the market. Decreasing. As imports rise, domestic output falls, holding all else equal. Thus, output demand and MR Q would fall as would CAD/CAM usage. D. Falling prices of industry output. Decreasing. As prices of industry output fall, so does MR Q and MRP of CAD/CAM. This would reduce CAD/CAM usage. Production and Costs ECW2731 Weeks 5 & 6 Solutions Problem 3 Factor Productivity During recent years, computer aided design (CAD) and computer aided manufacturing (CAM) have become prevalent in many industries. Holding all else equal, indicate, whether each of the following factors would be responsible for increasing or decreasing of this prevalence. E. Computer software that is increasingly user-friendly Increasing. The cost of CAD/CAM falls. Production and Costs ECW2731 Weeks 5 & 6 Optimal combination of multiple inputs Isocost curves. All combinations of products that can be purchased for a fixed dollar amount B = PX X + PY Y B PX Y= X PY PY Sloping downward curve. UnitsofY 12 10 8 B1 =$1,000 B2 =$2,000 B3 =$3,000 Figure 7.8 B PY PX P Y Shift 6 4 Slope 2 0 2 4 6 UnitsofX Production and Costs ECW2731 Weeks 5 & 6 Optimal combination of multiple inputs Optimal combination corresponds to the point of tangency isoquant and isocost. Unitsof Y B3 B2 B1 Expansionpath A B C Q1 Unitsof X Q3 Q2 PX MPX = P MP Y Y MP MPX Y = P PX Y Y3 Y2 Y1 X1 X2 X3 Production and Costs ECW2731 Weeks 5 & 6 Solutions Problem 1 Marginal Rate of Technical Substitution D. Assume that the company is currently producing 162 units of output per day using 1 unit of X and 3 units of Y. The daily cost per unit X is $120 and that of Y is also $120. Would you recommend the present input combination. Why or why not? y is fixed at 3 units Units of Y MRP(Y)= used TP(Y) MP(Y) AP(Y) MP(Y)*$3 1 162 162 162 486 2 234 72 117 216 3 282 48 94 144 4 324 42 81 126 5 360 36 72 108 Q Q2 Q1 MPX = = X X 2 X1 Q MRPX = P X MP MPX Y = P PX Y A change would be recommended, since the firm could produce 188 units at the same cost using two units of each input: that is, the marginal product to price ratios of the two inputs are not equal at the current input proportion. Relatively less Y and more X is needed to provide an optimal combination. Production and Costs ECW2731 Weeks 5 & 6 Costs analysis Accounting and Economic Valuations Accounting actual Economic - alternative Production and Costs ECW2731 Weeks 5 & 6 Costs analysis Historical vs Current Costs Historical for accounting purposes Current based on prevailing market conditions for decision making Replacement what is required to renew the productive capacity at the existing technology for efficiency evaluation Production and Costs ECW2731 Weeks 5 & 6 Costs analysis Opportunity cost The second best alternative forgone to allow th current use. Production and Costs ECW2731 Weeks 5 & 6 Costs analysis Explicit and implicit cost Explicit out-of-pocket Wages Utilities Materials Interest Rent Implicit Forgone earning if not explicitly spent for the chosen alternative Production and Costs ECW2731 Weeks 5 & 6 Costs analysis Incremental and Sunk Costs Incremental costs - towards increase in output/productive capacity implied by a particular managerial decision Sunk costs does not vary across decion alternatives Arise from past irreversible decisions Irrelevant to current and future decisions Production and Costs ECW2731 Weeks 5 & 6 Short run and long run costs Short and long run in managerial economics Short run operating decision are made At least one input is fixed Long run planning decision are made Complete flexibility of inputs No fixed costs Production and Costs ECW2731 Weeks 5 & 6 Short run and long run costs Short run costs TC=TFC+TVC AFC=TFC/Q AVC=TVC/Q ATC/TC/Q MC= TC/ Q= TVC/Q $pertimeperiod MC ATC AVC Q QQ 1 2 3 Outputpertimeperiod(units) )Unitcosts (b AFC Production and Costs ECW2731 Weeks 5 & 6 Short run and long run costs Short run costs $pertimeperiod Total cost Increasing returns Decreasing returns Outputpertimeperiod(units) Production and Costs ECW2731 Weeks 5 & 6 Short run and long run costs Short run costs Outputper timeperiod(units) Totalproduct Decreasing returns Increasing returns Inputpertimeperiod(units) Production and Costs ECW2731 Weeks 5 & 6 Short run and long run costs Long run costs $perunit ofoutput SRACA SRACB M SRACC SRACD Q1 Q2 Q* Q3 Outputpertimeperiod(units) Production and Costs ECW2731 Weeks 5 & 6 Short run and long run costs Long run costs $perunit ofoutput Longrun averagecost Minimum LRAC Leastcostplant Q* Outputpertimeperiod(units) Production and Costs ECW2731 Weeks 5 & 6 Short run and long run costs Long run costs, return to scale nd the optimal size of plant and firm Q*thesizeofplant QFThesizeoffirm Costperunit Costperunit Costperunit Longrun averagecost Longrun averagecost Longrun averagecost Q *=QF* Output Q* Output QF * Q* QF * Output (a) Constantcosts (b) Decliningcosts (c) Ushapedcostcurve Constantreturntoscale IncreasingreturntoscaleDecreasingreturntoscale Production and Costs ECW2731 Weeks 5 & 6 Short run and long run costs Long run costs, return to scale nd the optimal size of plant and firm $perunit 625 ofoutput 500 375 250 125 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 Unitsofoutput AC SinglePlant MCMultiplant MR MC SinglePlant 20,000 Production and Costs ECW2731 Weeks 5 & 6 Short run and long run costs Cost output profit analysis 240 210 180 150 120 90 60 30 0 Loss Fixed cost 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Unitsproducedandsoldpertimeperiod(000) ot T e R al ue n Profit ve t os C $pertime period (000) Net profit l ota T Variable cost Breakevenpoint Fixedcost Production and Costs ECW2731 Weeks 5 & 6 Short run and long run costs FirmA Incomeand costs 240 200 160 Breakeven 120 point 80 40 0 l ta To ue n ve Re Sellingprice=$2.00 Fixedcost=$20,000 Variablecost=$1.50 Units sold(Q ) 20,000 40,000 60,000 80,000 100,000 120,000 Q T l ota t os C Fixedcost 20 40 60 80 100 120 Units(Q) Sales Cost Profit $40,000 $50,000 $10,000 80,000 80,000 0 120,000 110,000 10,000 160,000 140,000 20,000 200,000 170,000 30,000 240,000 200,000 40,000 Production and Costs ECW2731 Weeks 5 & 6 Short run and long run costs FirmB Incomeand costs 240 200 160 l ta To ue n ve Re Sellingprice=$2.00 Fixedcost=$40,000 Variablecost=$1.20 Units sold(Q ) 20,000 40,000 60,000 80,000 100,000 120,000 Q t Breakeven os C 120 point tal To 80 Fixedcost 40 Sales Cost Profit $40,000 $64,000 $24,000 80,000 88,000 8,000 120,000 112,000 8,000 160,000 136,000 24,000 200,000 160,000 40,000 240,000 184,000 56,000 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Units(Q) Production and Costs ECW2731 Weeks 5 & 6 Short run and long run costs FirmC Incomeand costs 240 200 160 120 80 40 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Units(Q ) l ta R ev Sellingprice=$2.00 Fixedcost=$60,000 Variablecost=$1.00 ue en Q st Breakeven To Co l point ota T Fixedcost Units sold(Q) 20,000 40,000 60,000 80,000 100,000 120,000 Sales Cost $40,000 $80,000 80,000 100,000 120,000 120,000 160,000 140,000 200,000 160,000 240,000 180,000 Profit $40,000 20,000 0 20,000 40,000 60,000

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CPE3008 Electronic CommerceTutorial 2CPE3008 ElectronicCommerce TutorialExercise2TheaimofthistutorialistoreinforcethedefinitionofElectroniccommerceandhowitis differenttotheconventional(legacy)commerce. 1. Defineandexplainthefollowing: a. WhatisC
Allan Hancock College - FIT - 2022
Version =4IHL =5DSECNTotal Length Flags Fragment Offset Header Checksum IP headerIdentification Time to Live Protocol = 6IP DatagramSource Address Destination Address Source Port Segment Length UDP Segment Opcode TFTP Packet Destination
Lake City CC - CS - 4476
Chapter 3 Modern Block CipherModern conventional cryptosystems are very complicated. A good encryption system considers both security and efficiency1The Data Encryption Standard (DES) DES was developed at IBM and first published in the Federal R
Allan Hancock College - FIT - 2022
Bit:04816 Destination Port Sequence Number Acknowledgement Number31Source Port 20 octetsHeader Reserved length ChecksumFlagsWindow Urgent PointerOptions + Padding(a) TCP HeaderBit: 8 octets0 Source Port Segment Length16 De
Lake City CC - CS - 4476
Key Distribution The idea of a public key system is rst considered for key exchange protocol by Die and Hellman. For the security reason, a secret key cannot be used for a long time. A session key is used for limited time which enhances the security
Allan Hancock College - FIT - 2022
P1 P2 P3 P4R1 3 6 3 4R2 R3 2 2 1 3 1 4 2 2 Claim matrix CP1 P2 P3 P4R1 R2 R3 1 0 0 6 1 2 2 1 1 0 0 2 Allocation matrix A R1 R2 R3 0 1 1 Available vector V (a) Initial stateP1 P2 P3 P4R1 2 0 1 4R2 2 0 0 2 CAR3 2 1 3 0R1 R2 R3 9 3 6 R
Allan Hancock College - FIT - 2022
socket()Open communication endpoint Register well-known address with system Establish client's connection; request queue size Accept first client connection request on the queuebind()listen()accept()blocks until connection from client accep
Allan Hancock College - FIT - 2022
Table 3.6 Pentium EFLAGS Register BitsControl Bits AC (Alignment check) Set if a word or doubleword is addressed on a nonword or nondoubleword boundary. ID (Identification flag) If this bit can be set and cleared, this processor supports the CPUID i
Allan Hancock College - FIT - 2022
Table 17.1 TFTP Error CodesValue 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 File not found Access violation Disk full or allocation exceeded Illegal TFTP operation Unknown transfer ID File already exists No such user Meaning Not defined, see error message (if any)
Allan Hancock College - FIT - 2022
50000Monitor JOB 150000Monitor JOB 21000050000Monitor JOB 320000 Free 32000 (a) 25000 32000(JOB 2) 25000 32000 Free (c)Free (b)50000Monitor JOB 15000 15000 25000 32000 200000Monitor JOB 4 (JOB 1) (JOB 2) Free (e)
Allan Hancock College - FIT - 2022
1210Limit of experience8 Response Time6Actual response time42Projected response time00.00.20.4 0.6 System Load (as a fraction of capacity)0.8Figure 9.22 Projected Versus Actual Response Time
Allan Hancock College - FIT - 2022
Chapter 9: Virtual MemoryChapter 9: Virtual Memory Background Demand Paging Process Creation Page Replacement Allocation of Frames Thrashing Demand Segmentation Operating System ExamplesOperating System Concepts9.2Silberschatz, Galvin
Allan Hancock College - FIT - 2022
Monash UniversitySemester Two 2007 Examination Period Faculty of Information TechnologyEXAM CODES: CSE/FIT TITLE OF PAPER: FIT2022 Computer Systems II EXAM DURATION: 3 hours writing time READING TIME: 10 minutes THIS PAPER IS FOR STUDENTS STUDYING
Allan Hancock College - FIT - 2022
Laboratory Session 3080812 14:04MONASH UNIVERSITYINFORMATION TECHNOLOGYClayton School FIT2022 Computer Systems 2 (Moodle)Last modified: 20080812:140306/minor fixesAJH@murtoa.localAssessment | Contacts | Laboratories | Lectures | Resource
Allan Hancock College - CSE - 4213
CSE4213 Lectures John Hurst Outline Prelude Modelling: Why? and What?Why? What?CSE4213 Lecture NotesAn Introduction to ModellingSoftware ModellingSoftware Specications, . . . Example Specication Animation Renement InterfaceJohn HurstSchool
Allan Hancock College - CSE - 4213
Specication Using BProof: Discharging Proof Obligations/1Specication Using BProof: Discharging Proof ObligationsKen RobinsonSchool of Computer Science and Engineering University of New South Wales Sydney Australiac 2000, 2001 Ken Robinso
Allan Hancock College - CSE - 4213
School of Computer Science &amp; Engineering UNSWhttp:/www.cse.unsw.edu.au/An Introduction to the B Method Generalised Substitutions and Proof ObligationsRevision: 1.2, March 27, 2002c Ken Robinsonmailto:k.robinson@unsw.edu.auObjectives of this
Allan Hancock College - CSE - 4213
School of Computer Science &amp; Engineering UNSWhttp:/www.cse.unsw.edu.au/An Introduction to the B Method Set Theory15th August 2001c Ken Robinson 2000, 2001mailto:k.robinson@unsw.edu.au1/104?iPIndex Predicate Logic Set Theory Relat
Allan Hancock College - CSE - 4213
School of Computer Science &amp; Engineering UNSWhttp:/www.cse.unsw.edu.au/An Introduction to the B Method Set Theory15th August 2001c Ken Robinson 2000, 2001mailto:k.robinson@unsw.edu.au1/104?iPIndex Predicate Logic Set Theory Relat
Allan Hancock College - CSE - 4213
CSE4213-AJH-2007-22Clayton School of Information Technology CSE4213 Assignment 2 Course and Unit SpecicationDue Date: 12noon, 24 Apr 20071Objectives1. To develop robust specications, and thereby understand the dierence between preconditions a
Allan Hancock College - CSE - 4213
CSE4213 Lectures John Hurst Outline Prelude Modelling: Why? and What?Why? What?CSE4213 Lecture NotesAn Introduction to ModellingSoftware ModellingSoftware Specications, . . . Example Specication Animation Renement InterfaceJohn HurstSchool
Allan Hancock College - FIT - 3013
System Modelling and DesignRefinement Towards ImplementationRevision: 1.5, October 10, 2008Ken RobinsonSchool of Computer Science &amp; Engineering The University of New South Wales, Sydney AustraliaOctober 12, 2008c Ken Robinson 2005mailto:k.r
Allan Hancock College - FIT - 3013
An Event-B Specication of Q3R Generated Date: 22 Sep 2008 @ 01:39:55 PM MACHINE Q3R As for Q2R, but it is known that s is ordered, ie i = j = s(i) = s(j) REFINES Q3 SEES Q3 ctx VARIABLES pos sx lo hi INVARIANTS inv1 : sx 0 . n + 1 X inv2 : pp 1
Allan Hancock College - FIT - 3013
An Event-B Specification of TrafficLights ctx Generated Date: 6 Oct 2008 @ 09:37:13 AM CONTEXT TrafficLights ctx SETS LIGHT S DIRECT ION CONSTANTS Red Green Amber CON F LICT AXIOMS axm1 : LIGHT S = {Red, Green, Amber} axm2 : Red = Green axm3 : Red =
Allan Hancock College - FIT - 3013
An Event-B Specification of Q2 Generated Date: 22 Sep 2008 @ 01:38:57 PM MACHINE Q2 A simple search example SEES Q2 ctx VARIABLES pos INVARIANTS inv1 : pos 0 . n inv2 : pos = 0 s(pos) = x EVENTS Initialisation begin act1 : pos := 0 end Event Search
Allan Hancock College - FIT - 3013
Summary of Event-B Proof ObligationsJean-Raymond Abrial (ETHZ)March 2008Purpose of this Presentation1- Prerequisite: (1) Summary of Mathematical Notation (a quick review) (2) Summary of Event-B Notation Examples developed in (2) will be used
Allan Hancock College - FIT - 3013
The IssueThe hardest part of writing a formal specification is getting started. Discuss. Visit the Moodle Forum to post your thoughts.Related IssuesDon't take this topic too seriously! Feel free to inject some levity into the discussion (but keep
Allan Hancock College - FIT - 3013
Outline What is this lecture about? Semantics in Event BSystem Modelling and DesignEvent B SemanticsRevision: 1.0, March 3, 2007Ken RobinsonSchool of Computer Science &amp; Engineering The University of New South Wales, Sydney AustraliaMay 29, 2
Allan Hancock College - FIT - 3013
OutlineContents1 2 3 4 Defining Sets Operations on Sets Relations Functions 1 1 2 21Defining SetsSet Theory Sets are unordered collections of elements Elements are usually named with lower case letters Sets are usually named with capital
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Dening Sets Operations on Sets Relations Functions SummaryFIT3013 Lecture NotesRevision of Set TheoryJohn Hurst, 2007Computer Science and Software Engineering Monash University (with acknowledgement to Schneider, the b-method, chapter 2)20080
Allan Hancock College - FIT - 3013
An Introduction to Event-B Comparison with other Engineerings Advantages of the B Method Practical Uses SummaryFIT3013 Lecture NotesIntroduction to Event-BJohn Hurst, 2008Computer Science and Software Engineering Monash University (with acknowl
Allan Hancock College - FIT - 3013
CSE4213 Examination June 2007 Instructions to Candidates1. Examination time 2 hours 2. Answer all questions 3. There are 5 questions 4. Each question is worth 12 marks 5. Total marks 60 6. Calculators are not allowed 7. Use left hand page for rough
Allan Hancock College - FIT - 3013
CSE4213 Examination 2005 Instructions to Candidates1. Examination time 2 hours 2. Answer all questions 3. There are 10 questions 4. Each question is worth 8 marks 5. Total marks 80 6. Calculators are not allowed 7. Use left hand page for rough worki
Allan Hancock College - FIT - 3013
CSE4213 Examination 2004 Instructions to Candidates1. Examination time 2 hours 2. Answer all questions 3. There are 10 questions 4. Each question is worth 8 marks 5. Total marks 80 6. Calculators are not allowed 7. Use left hand page for rough worki
Allan Hancock College - FIT - 2022
Chapter 2: Operating-System StructuresChapter 2: Operating-System Structures Operating System Services User Operating System Interface System Calls Types of System Calls System Programs Operating System Design and Implementation Operating Sy
Allan Hancock College - ENGG - 7202
Journal of Network and Computer Applications (1996) 19, 4566Chaos simulator as a developing tool and a research environment for applications of chaos engineeringKaihei Kuwata, Yuji Kajitani, Masahide Watanabe and Ryu Katayama Hypermedia Research C
Allan Hancock College - CSE - 5910
CSE5910 : Multimedia Programming in Java Laboratory Session Worksheet. Week 4, Semester 2, 2007 Individual Exercises. 1. 2. 3. 4.Take as a starting point a copy of your Beast class from the earlier laboratory session. Remove from class Beast the eld
Allan Hancock College - CSE - 5910
CSE5910 : Multimedia Programming in Java Laboratory Session Worksheet. Weeks 8 &amp; 9, Semester 2, 2007 Individual Exercises. This week it is time to explore some basic graphics utilities and information. Background reading: Read up on JPEG. How does th
Allan Hancock College - CSE - 5910
CSE5910 : Multimedia Programming in Java Laboratory Session Worksheet. Week 3, Semester 2, 2007 Individual Exercises. 1. Point your web browser at images.google.com and type &quot;graph&quot; or something similar into a search. Hunt through the graphs and loca
Allan Hancock College - CSE - 5910
CSE5910 : Multimedia Programming in Java Laboratory Session Worksheet. Week 7, Semester 2, 2007 Individual Exercises. In this tutorial you can explore the java.io package in your own way. We wont be covering this in lectures but since youll need to u
Allan Hancock College - CSE - 2305
number_of_lines673snow1255 250 250 snow2238 233 233 RosyBrown1255 193 193 RosyBrown2238 180 180 snow3205 201 201 LightCoral240 128 128 IndianRed1255 106 106 RosyBrown3205 155 155 IndianRed2238 99 99 RosyBrown188 143 143 brown1
Allan Hancock College - FIT - 3084
&lt;HEAD&gt;&lt;TITLE&gt;Self-Destructing Page&lt;/TITLE&gt;&lt;SCRIPT LANGUAGE=JavaScript1.1&gt;&lt;!- hide/ Load some images for an animation.myImage = new Array(6);for(i=0; i&lt;6; i+){myImage[i] = new Image();myImage[i].src = &quot;images/lect15/bang&quot; + i + &quot;.GIF&quot;