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25 Pages

### Bus-Diff

Course: EE 5223, Fall 2008
School: Mich Tech
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Word Count: 945

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Differential Bus Protection and Simulation EE 4223/5223 April 6, 2007 Andrew Kunze Based on Team ITC 2005/2006 Senior Design Project Contents Project Description Differential Protection Relays Current Transformers Settings Calculations SEL-551C SEL-587Z ATP Simulation 1 Sponsor International Transmission Company Novi, MI 2700 miles of transmission lines in 13 counties in southeastern MI...

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Differential Bus Protection and Simulation EE 4223/5223 April 6, 2007 Andrew Kunze Based on Team ITC 2005/2006 Senior Design Project Contents Project Description Differential Protection Relays Current Transformers Settings Calculations SEL-551C SEL-587Z ATP Simulation 1 Sponsor International Transmission Company Novi, MI 2700 miles of transmission lines in 13 counties in southeastern MI www.itctransco.com Dependability and Security Reliability tripping breakers to protect from a fault Security tripping only the necessary breakers Relay protection is finding a balance 2 Differential Relay Protection Relay trips by the difference between the current (measured by CTs) going into and out of the zone of protection Differential Relay Protection One-line Current Path under Normal Operation (I1=I2) 3 Differential Relay Protection One-line Current Path under Fault Conditions (I1I2) Existing Protection Scheme 4 IAC 55B General Electric electromechanical relay Instantaneous timeovercurrent relay Used by ITC to trip relay when differential current exceeds maximum value SEL Relays SEL-551C Overcurrent Relay SEL- SEL-587Z High Impedance SELDifferential Relay 5 Relay Characteristics SEL-551C Near direct replacement for existing IAC55B relays Less expensive than the SEL-587Z Can be used with auxiliary CTs Significantly slower trip time under some circumstances SEL-587Z Faster fault detection & trip time Provides greater degree of protection than overcurrent relays High Impedance generates voltages up to 2kV (MOV) Requires lock out relay protection Requires dedicated main CTs Relay Specifications Recommends lock out relay contacts in parallel with the 587Z CT inputs Allows the relay to be shorted out on the circuit after fault is detected No more then 4 cycles (67ms) of fault current through the 587Z Breakers not relied on to interrupt the fault current coming into the relay 6 Settings Calculations Information provided by ITC for Bus 102 of the Milan substation SEL-551C Instantaneous Current Setting Time-Overcurrent Pickup and Time Dial SEL-587Z Voltage setting Settings Considerations Minimum Internal Fault Single-line to ground Relay must trip for internal faults Maximum External Fault Fault outside zone of protection causes CT saturation Differential current on secondary Relay should not trip for external faults 7 CTs Mistubishi Electric Mulit-ratio 3000:5 C800 Accuracy CT Saturation Causes of CT saturation Primary winding of CT has a DC component Primary windings current is too high and core flux saturates Primary and secondary windings lose their linearity causing an error current 8 Current Transformer Saturation Currents at the faulted CT Saturation causes a large difference between induced CT current and the scaled line current Parameters IF = 17877 A (Maximum external fault current) 19959 A (Maximum internal fault current) 4168 A (Minimum internal fault current) N = 3000:5 (CT ratio) RCT = 2.0 (CT secondary winding and lead resistance) RLEAD = 0.5 (Resistance of lead from junction to CT) n = 3 (Total number of circuits) K = 150 % (ITCs factor of safety) 9 SEL-551C Saturated Circuit Calculate Instantaneous Setting The current through the relay is: IE = ( RCT I ) F RCT + R7.5 N 2.0 17877 A ) 2.0 + 7.5 600 IE = ( = 6.27A I s = K I E = 10 A I min = N I S = 600 10 = 6000 A 10 Series Resistance Placement Relay Sensitivity Due to Series Resistance 30000 25000 5 Fault Current (Amps) 20000 7.5 15000 Instantaneous Trip Region 10000 Time-Overcurrent Region 5000 0 Trip 0 2.5 5 10 15 20 30 Series Resistance Value (Ohms) Max Fault Min Fault Max Relay Sensitivity 11 TOC Curve Time-Overcurrent Pickup Using ITCs standards, time-overcurrent pickup is set at 10% of the maximum external fault PU = 10% I F PU = 10% 17877 A 1800 A 12 Time Dial Calculation t p = TD (0.00262 + 0.00342 ) M 0.02 1 TD = Time dial setting tp = Trip time at multiple of pick-up (12 cycles = 0.2 secs) M = Multiple of pick-up (3600/1800 = 2) 0.2 = TD (0.00262 + 0.00342 ) 20.02 1 TD = 0.8 SEL-587Z Saturated Circuit 13 Calculation of the Voltage Setting The relay voltage across the impedance element is: Vr = ( RCT + 2 RLEAD ) Vr = (2.0 + 2 0.5) IF N 17877A = 74.5 V 600 Vs = K Vr = 1.5 74.5 = 112 V Minimum Primary Current Find minimum primary differential current by: Imin = (nIe + Ir + Im ) N Imin = minimum current # of CTs in parallel n= Ir = I e = excitation current current through relay current through MOV Im = 14 Excitation Current Using the graph for the CT the value of the excitation current (Ie) can be found given Vs = 112 V I e = 0.015A Current Through the SEL-587Z The current through the relay (Ir) can be found by: Vs R 112V Ir = 2000 Ir = Ir = 0.056 A 15 Current Through the MOV VMOV < 1000V When Vmov < 1000 V the current through the MOV (Im) is 0 A Minimum Current Using the determined values, the minimum primary differential current (Imin) is: I min = (nI e + I r + I m ) N I min = (3 0.015 + 0.056 + 0) 600 Imin = 61 A Minimum Internal Fault = 4168 A 16 ATP Simulation Use ATP to simulate CTs Determine voltage seen by the relay for internal fault conditions Apply simulated waveforms to the relay for testing CT Simulation Ideal transformer Type 93 non-linear inductor Series resistance 17 CT Characteristics CT Non-linear Inductance E (kV) 0 0.116 0.232 0.54 0.96 1 I (A RMS) 0 0.014 0.024 0.05 10 20 I (A PK) 0 0.02 0.032 0.069 17.581 54.241 (Wb-T PK) 0 0.435 0.87 2.026 3.601 3.751 1.2 100 208.373 4.502 ATP Simulation 18 Minimum Internal Fault (4 kA) Maximum Internal Fault (20 kA) 19 Thevenin Equivale...

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