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Lecture 20 (04/14/09): Introduction to sensation & perception Finishing up sexual orientation Introduction to sensation and perception The significance of illusions The significance of echolocation Characteristics of sensation San Francisco Study of gay, lesbian, and heterosexual adults (Bell et al., 1981): A test of Bems theory Large study: approx. 1000 men, 450 women The % who had not enjoyed sex-typical activities as child: Gay men: 63% Hetero men: 10% Lesbian: 63% Hetero women: 15% The % who had enjoyed sex-atypical activities as child: Gay men: 48% Hetero men: 11% Lesbian: 80% Hetero women: 61% % whose childhood friends were typically the opposite sex as child: Gay men: 42% Hetero men: 13% Lesbian women: 60% Hetero women: 40% Summary of motivated behavior: Behavior is typically goal oriented and energized. The mechanisms (e.g., instincts, reflex circuits, homeostasis and reward) help explain both adaptive motivated actions and non-adaptive (e.g., overeating). The literature on eating shows that for humans motivation varies as a function of cognitive factors (e.g., awareness) and differences in self-control (e.g., Schachter study). Introduction to sensation and perception What S&P is about Sensation refers to the processes that mediate initial sensory responses to the environment Perception refers to the way we interpret these sensations, including conscious experience Themes in S&P We do not directly experience environmental events; we experience their neural representation Neural representation follows rules that usually but not always provide a more valid picture of the objective world than of the initial sensory experience The retinal image, the object, perception Illusions The rules of perceptual processing are usually not susceptible to conscious manipulation, hence illusions are difficult to abandon, even when we know they are misleading Yao Ming ... View Full Document

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