Social Cognitive Theory of Personality
67 Pages

Social Cognitive Theory of Personality

Course Number: PSY 394, Fall 2009

College/University: University of Texas

Word Count: 1876

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Social Cognitive Views of Personality Behavior Therapy Assessment Contingencies Therapy Limitations Behavior Therapy Assesment Behaviors are thought of as a sample, not symbolic of something else Dependent measure: Frequency of target behaviors Place: relevant location Behavior Therapy Contingencies Contingencies: What is reinforcing the target behavior? Behavior Therapy Contingencies Premack principle Identifies...

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Social Cognitive Views of Personality Behavior Therapy Assessment Contingencies Therapy Limitations Behavior Therapy Assesment Behaviors are thought of as a sample, not symbolic of something else Dependent measure: Frequency of target behaviors Place: relevant location Behavior Therapy Contingencies Contingencies: What is reinforcing the target behavior? Behavior Therapy Contingencies Premack principle Identifies reinforcers What does the person do if they can choose Used for the reinforcer for therapy Relativity of reinforcers The ordering establishes a hierarchy of reinforcers Nothing is intrinsically reinforcing Behavior Therapy Contingencies The contingency is folded back into the process Ultimately, The distinction between assessment and treatment is artificial Behavior Therapy Therapy A number of applications have been developed: Systematic Desensitization Aversion therapy Extinction of cravings Flooding / Explosion therapy Behavior Therapy Therapy Systematic Desensitization Behavior Therapy Therapy Systematic Desensitization Establish a hierarchy of phobic activities Train a mutually exclusive response Usually relaxation Behavior Therapy Therapy Systematic Desensitization Transference often starts with imaginative desensitization In vivo desensitization is more effective (foreshadowing SLT: the process works even better in conjunction with a model) Behavior Therapy Therapy Aversion therapy Behavior Therapy Therapy Aversion therapy Associate the unwanted behavior with bad feelings E.g.: treatment of alcoholism with antabuse Problem: It's tough to keep the client taking antabuse Behavior Therapy Therapy Aversion therapy Joke: Behavior Therapy Therapy Aversion therapy Joke: how many therapists does it take to change a light bulb? Behavior Therapy Therapy Aversion therapy Joke: how many therapists does it take to change a light bulb? Answer: Behavior Therapy Therapy Aversion therapy Joke: how many therapists does it take to change a light bulb? Answer: only one, but the light bulb has to want to change Behavior Therapy Therapy Aversion therapy Joke: how many therapists does it take to change a light bulb? Answer: only one, but the light bulb has to want to change For this reason, AT is very unpopular with both therapists and clients Behavior Therapy Therapy Aversion therapy For this reason, AT is very unpopular with both therapists and clients What do you think, would you guys ever use AT? Behavior Therapy Therapy Extinction of cravings associated with precipitating cues Behavior Therapy Therapy Extinction of cravings associated with precipitating cues Similar to systematic desensitization Establish a hierarchy of cues that cause cravings Teach them mutually exclusive response (relaxation) Behavior Therapy Therapy Extinction of cravings associated with precipitating cues Move up the hierarchy Anecdote: Dr. Stote says this works with heroin, but not with meth Behavior Therapy Therapy Flooding / Explosion therapy Behavior Therapy Therapy Flooding / Explosion therapy Similar to extinction in some ways Establish a hierarchy of cues Lock the client in with the cues They will have an extreme sympathetic response Keep them from escaping Behavior Therapy Therapy Flooding / Explosion therapy Guthrie's Contiguity Theory: After a while the sympathetic response will diminish Then the stimuli becomes associated with lower arousal levels Behavior Therapy Therapy Flooding / Explosion therapy Move them up the hierarchy Supposedly this therapy works very fast (This sounds horrific; please don't ever do this to me) Behavior Therapy Criticisms Criticisms: Behavior Therapy Criticisms Criticisms: Symptom Substitution Not real personality change Behavior Therapy Criticisms Symptom Substitution The traditional Freudian response Is this just treating the symptoms, but not the causes? If so, another symptom will just crop up elsewhere Behavior Therapy Criticisms Symptom Substitution There is no evidence for this Treatment outcomes must be compared to controls Sometimes clients develop other neuroses, but at the same rate as controls Behavior Therapy Criticisms Another criticism: personality change Do these therapies actually change personality, or just surface behaviors? It depends on the definition of personality, but Behavior Therapy Criticisms Another criticism: personality change By any reasonable definition, YES The client's habitual behaviors change (the cause of their complaint) The client's self concept changes Behavior Therapy The Limitations of BT The Limitations of BT: The problem needs to be only behavior Behavior Therapy The Limitations of BT The problem needs to be only behavior If the problem were distorted cognitions, the traditional BT has nothing to work with E.g.: what if excessive perfectionism drives someone into depression Behavior Therapy The Limitations of BT The problem needs to be only behavior Do you think there are any problems that are truly only behavioral, with no cognitive component? Behavior Therapy The Limitations of BT The problem needs to be only behavior Do you think there are any problems that are truly only behavioral, with no cognitive component? E.g. what did you make of the fact, noted earlier, that Systematic Desensitization works better with a model? Behavior Therapy The Limitations of BT The problem needs to be only behavior One possible rejoinder to this limitation: Reinforce them to engage in more activities that they find joyous Behavior Therapy The Limitations of BT The problem needs to be only behavior One possible rejoinder to this limitation: Reinforce them to engage in more activities that they find joyous Does this sound reasonable to you? Behavior Therapy Discussion questions: What do you make of the fact that all the therapies are so similar? Is BT just a one-trick pony, OR Are these ingenious extensions of a fundamental principle? Ch. 12: Social Cognitive Conceptions (Mischel, 1974) Ch. 12: Social Cognitive Conceptions 1. 2. Observational Learning (Bandura) Cognitive Affective Person System (CAPS; Mischel) Observational Learning (Bandura, 1965) 4 Parts to Observational Learning 1. Attention 2. Retention 3. Motor Production 4. Motivation (Bandura, 1965) 4 Parts to Observational Learning 1. Attention 2. Retention 3. Motor Reproduction 4. Motivation (Bandura, 1965) 4 Parts to Observational Learning 1. Attention 2. Retention 3. Motor Production 4. Motivation (Bandura, 1965) 4 Parts to Observational Learning 1. Attention 2. Retention 3. Motor Production 4. Motivation (Bandura, 1965) 4 Parts to Observational Learning 1. Attention 2. Retention 3. Motor Production 4. Motivation (Bandura, 1965) CAPS &quot;if...then...&quot; Profiles Intra-individual patterns of behavior variability: Behavior X Conditional Probability 1.0 I 0.0 I I 0 0.2 I 0.4 I 0.6 I 0.8 I I 2 I 4 I 6 I 8 I 10 I 12 Situations (conditions) CAPS &quot;if...then...&quot; Profiles Child #9 Profile stability: r=.89 Verbal Aggression (z) Verbal Aggression (z) 2 I 2 I -2 I teased warned approached praised punished -1 I 0 I 1 I Child #28 Profile stability: r=.49 -2 I teased warned approached praised punished -1 I 0 I 1 I Social <a href="/keyword/cognitive-processes/" >cognitive processes</a> Self Schemas (Markus 1977): Traits one attributes to one's self. They guide attention and encoding. If one thinks &quot;I am needy, whiny and irritating&quot; they will remember things about events that are relevant to that specific self attribution. They organize knowledge and concepts about how one thinks one is perceived. Social <a href="/keyword/cognitive-processes/" >cognitive processes</a> The Relational Self How one represents oneself is intimately coupled with how one represents significant others and relations between self and significant other. &quot;I am truly my father's son.&quot; Social <a href="/keyword/cognitive-processes/" >cognitive processes</a> Transference: The Work of Susan Anderson. Explains traditional Freudian concepts in cognitive terminology. Something to think about while we discuss her research in some detail: Is she doing more than just changing the jargon? (I'll propose one answer a few slides down) Social <a href="/keyword/cognitive-processes/" >cognitive processes</a> The representation of significant others affects how we judge/ remember/ feel towards new people. These representations seem to work just as stereotypes do, but stereotypes are about groups of people, these representations are about single people. Social <a href="/keyword/cognitive-processes/" >cognitive processes</a> Processes that act on these representations are universal, but content is personal. Transference is the process of attributing features to a person because that person activates a SO representation (reminds you of someone important to you). Does anyone remember doing this? I do this all the time. Social <a href="/keyword/cognitive-processes/" >cognitive processes</a> How to show this? Subjects give descriptions of SO's. Weeks later, they read about descriptions of made up people, one based on the features of their SO. They have a recognition memory test for the descriptions of the made up people. False positives of SO features not mentioned in the description based on subjects' SO. Social <a href="/keyword/cognitive-processes/" >cognitive processes</a> False positives for positive and negative features. SO rep does not even need to be primed to attribute features to novel person, chronic accessibility. Transference seems to be the same processes as Source Amnesia and category based inference we have been discussing for weeks. Social <a href="/keyword/cognitive-processes/" >cognitive processes</a> Activating SO reps affect how we evaluate people You remind me of a jerk, therefore you are a jerk. Can weakly activate moods My SO makes me sad, so do you. Activates facial expressions I smile when I think of my mom, and I smile when I think of mommy-like people. Social <a href="/keyword/cognitive-processes/" >cognitive processes</a> SO rep activates expectancies of if we will be accepted or received SO rep activates working self-concept, how we view ourselves when with that SO. If someone had a relationship in which they were hurt and mistreated, they will transfer that experience to new relationships. Social <a href="/keyword/cognitive-processes/" >cognitive processes</a> All of these are chronically accessible, so someone may not share any features of your SO, but just having a similar role or relation to you can activate the SO rep and all these associations with your SO are transferred. Social <a href="/keyword/cognitive-processes/" >cognitive processes</a> What has the cognitive terminology bought us? Social <a href="/keyword/cognitive-processes/" >cognitive processes</a> The terminology activates a framework for experimentation. We transfer knowledge of research on concepts and memory to these issues to gain new insights that would not have been discovered in the lab under a 1920 view of psychology. Social ...

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University of Texas - PSY - 387
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Prototypes Claim: they have more properties common to the category than any other category member. They are the members of the category that are judged to be the best instances (or the most typical).
University of Texas - PSY - 394
University of Texas - PSY - 394
University of Texas - PSY - 394
COGNITIVEPSYCHOLOGY24, 535-585 (1992)Mental Models of the Earth: A Study of Conceptual Change in ChildhoodSTELLA VOSNIADOUUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Arisfotelian Thessaloniki, Greece University ofAND WILLIAM F. BREWERUn
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Lawrence Parsons' Work on Mental Transformations Study 1: Observers viewed a picture of a standing human figure with one arm outstretched. Task was to judge as quickly as possible whether the raised arm was the left or the right arm. The figure was p
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British Journal of Developmental Psychology (2001), 19, 413432 Printed in Great Britain # 2001 The British Psychological Society413Actions really do speak louder than wordsbut only implicitly: Young childrens understanding of false belief in acti
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Developmental Psychology 1999, Vol. 35, No. 5, 1338-1348Copyright 1999 by the American Psychological Association, Inc. 0012-1649/99/S3.00Origins of Autobiographical MemoryKeryn Harley and Elaine ReeseUniversity of OtagoThis study tested the pr
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University of Texas - PSY - 394
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University of Texas - PSY - 387
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University of Texas - PSY - 387
Experiments on Inference Bransford, Barclay, and Franks Acquisition phase: John was trying to fix the birdhouse. He was pounding a nail when his father came out to watch him and to help him do the work. Recognition phase: John was using a hammer to f
University of Texas - PSY - 387
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University of Texas - PSY - 387
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University of Texas - PSY - 387
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University of Texas - PSY - 387
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University of Texas - PSY - 387
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University of Texas - PSY - 387
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University of Texas - PSY - 387
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